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UNIVERSITI TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE


DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

UEBA2023 DESIGN AND SPATIAL BEHAVIOUR


TRIMESTER JAN 2016

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT REPORT


THEMATIC ANALYSIS OF NATIONAL ZOO OF MALAYSIA
(THEME: WORK)

NAME: CHANG HUI YI


STUDENT ID: 13UEB03218
YEAR OF STUDY: YEAR 2 TRIMESTER 3
STUDIO: 4
LECTURES NAME: DR. LIM POH IM

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 3
KEY WORDS FOR LITERATURE REVIEW ......................................................................... 3
CRITICAL RESEARCH QUESTIONS .................................................................................... 4
STRATEGIES FOR INVESTIGATION ................................................................................... 4
Observation mapping ............................................................................................................. 4
Interview................................................................................................................................. 4
LITERATURE REVIEW .......................................................................................................... 5
Function and role of a zoo ...................................................................................................... 5
Zookeeperss job of scope ...................................................................................................... 5
Zoo planning .......................................................................................................................... 6
Zoology .................................................................................................................................. 6
OBSERVATION AND ANALYSIS ......................................................................................... 7
Zookeepers and Staff .............................................................................................................. 7
Animal Habitat ..................................................................................................................... 11
Zoo Facilities and Environment ........................................................................................... 15
CREATIVE SOLUTIONS....................................................................................................... 20
Zoo planning ........................................................................................................................ 20
Animals habitat ................................................................................................................... 22
CONCLUSION ........................................................................................................................ 23
REFERENCES ........................................................................................................................ 24

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SELECTED SITE: NATIONAL ZOO OF MALAYSIA


INTRODUCTION
The location of National Zoo of Malaysia is located at Jalan Ulu Kelang, 68000 Ampang,
Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. It just takes about 20 minutes to travel from the Kuala
Lumpur city to the zoo.

It is a non-governmental organization which managed by the Malaysian Zoological Society.


This organization established is to create the first local zoo for Malaysian. It was once set in
jungle, and now stand like an oasis amidst a concrete jungle. On 14 November 1963, the zoo
was officially opened by Tunku Abdul Rahman, which is first prime minister of Malaysia and
now it has matured into a well-known zoo all around the world.

The zoo home 5137 animals from 476 different species of mammals, birds, reptiles,
amphibians and fish. Over the years, the zoo has transformed itself to an open concept zoo
with over 90% of its animals kept in spacious exhibits with landscape befitting its nature.

The administration director of zoo is Shahril Bin Shariff and the director for Zoology,
Hospital & Veterinarian Services & Giant Panda Conservation Centre is Dr. Mat Naim Bin
Haji Ramli. There are total 156 numbers of staff working under the zoo and there are 77 of
them working in the zoology department, 6 staff working in hospital and veterinary service
department.

This research paper is concentrating on how the spaces and design considerations in a zoo
that affect zookeepers and animals.

KEY WORDS FOR LITERATURE REVIEW


-

Zookeepers space and scope of job

Zoo planning

Function of zoo

Zoology

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CRITICAL RESEARCH QUESTIONS


(i)

How is the special planning of zoo in able for the zookeepers to provide the best
care for the animals?

(ii)

How are the animal habitat and the planning of zoo to ensure the wellbeing of
animals?

(iii)

How the food source and wasted are collected and distributed and discharge to
maintain the optimum hygiene of the zoo?

STRATEGIES FOR INVESTIGATION


Qualitative methods had been carried out to complete the research for this paper.

Observation mapping
Direct observation method had been applied to obtain a clear idea on the zoo planning. An
investigation on the zookeepers activities in relation with the activities of animals and also
the respond of the visitors had also been carried out during the visitation.

Interview
More in-depth information had been obtained through an interview session with the person in
charge, Mr. Junaidi Bin Omar, the key personal of education, in order to collect certain set of
information.

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LITERATURE REVIEW
Function and role of a zoo
A zoo is defined as a permanent establishment where living, wild animals are kept for
exhibition to the public for seven or more days a year, with or without charge for admission.
(Health and Safety Executive (HSE), 2012)
The great majority of modern zoos focus heavily on conservation work and education.
Education is one of the main objective of the national zoo, it strive in providing free
educational services to schools and groups visits. National zoo of Malaysia is one of the
modern zoos that provide naturalistic exhibits, striving to meet the delicate balance of
providing safe, comfortable homes for the animals with adequate opportunities for privacy,
while also providing good opportunities for visitors to see these animals in natural
surroundings.

Apart from that, the zoo also provided spaces for various events to be held at the compound
of zoo such as birthdays, family day, wedding at the zoo, corporate companies function or
events. The zoo has the facilities to accommodate over 3000 people at one time.

Zookeeperss job of scope


Zoo keepers are animal professionals who take responsible for maintaining the health of
animals living in the zoo as well as ensuring proper maintenance of their habitat. The duties
of a zoo keeper are including feeding, administering, medication, cleaning and maintaining
the animals enclosure, reporting unusual changes in behavior managers or veterinarians,
assisting with veterinary procedures, keeping detailed records, and educating the general
public. Education and experience are especially necessary for all of our animal positions.
They are highly competitive and require skilled individuals who usually have a background
in a related life science field such as biology, zoology, or behavioral sciences.

Zookeeper or zoo workers are labeled dangerous job positions as the activities that carry out
by a zookeeper present a level of risk when they interact with animals. Apart from that
zookeepers must be prepared to work evenings, weekends and holidays as needed. Keepers
are often required to perform physical labor in varying weather conditions. This is certainly a
job that requires hard work and dedication.

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Zoo planning
Planning and design will be essential in any viable solution by directly conserving,
protecting or managing landscape and habitats, as written in the book, Biodiversity Planning
and Design: Sustainable Practices, by Jack Ahern, landscape architects create designs that
are realized in physical form, affecting protection, change, and restoration of land and habitat.
A good layout plan of a zoo is a bold new direction for animal care and visitor experiences
for its development over the next 20 years.

Zoology
The zoology department is aim in improving the knowledge in animal welfare, consulting in
designing of new animal exhibits and meeting other requirements such as public safety and
awareness around the zoo. Zoology important to us is for humans to have an appreciation for
nature. Our nature is not just composed of the humans but of plants and animals as well.
Everything in our environment is connected in a complex cycle. We will have a better
understanding of how animals would behave and interact with us. Thus, we will be
appreciating the nature in a better way.

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OBSERVATION AND ANALYSIS


Zookeepers and Staff

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 3

The figures above show the zookeepers are checking the health and providing treatment to
the animals. Unlike humans, animals cannot use words to tell us when they are not feeling
well. Thus, regular medical checking for the animals is essential to ensure that the health of
animals is in optimum level.

Figure 4

Figure 5

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Figure 4 and Figure 5 show the zoo veterinarian and zookeepers are taking regular
inspections to giant pandas. We might not usually can observe the work of a veterinarian until
visited to the veterinary department and understand the important role of the workers behind
the scenes.

Figure6

Figure7

Figure 6 and Figure 7 shows that the sample screening from laboratory work showed by the
person in charge during the interview session. The lab technician had a systematic schedule
for the monthly faecal screening activity to carry out. There are total of 1003 samples of
faecal were screened while another 50 samples were sent out to external laboratories for
further specific disease screening. This is to ensure that the animals are in a healthy condition
without any diseases happening on them.

Figure 8
The job of a zookeeper is not only focusing on taking care of animals. In Figure 8 shows that
the zoo educator is providing an education and information service to the children during
their visitation to the zoo. A good zookeeper should able to inspire every visitor every day
with wildlife and the zoo environment. The zoo is about saving the life of every species of
flora and fauna with their habitats. It is crucial that to let the people to know how they impact
on the environment, but more importantly, the public should care and do something about it.
Visitors should able to change their values, attitudes, and behavior on the perception of the
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animals and environment after the visiting the zoo. Hence, the zoo educator must able to
engage, inspiring, and empowering the visitors through interpretation but not just giving
information without explaining.

Figure 9

Figure 10

Figure 9 and Figure 10 show that the zookeepers are distributing food to the animals. Some
of the animals can be direct in feeding such as those docile animals like cows and horses.
However, some of the animals such as lions, leopards, tigers, sometimes the zookeepers feed
them in a distance to ensure the safety of zookeepers. The zookeepers need to feed and take
care of the welfare of animals each and every day, thus, they have the closest interaction with
the animals. They will have a very good sense of smell as a unique scent and the odours of
animals are the powerful tools of identity for the olfactory sense.

As zookeepers, they need to prepare appropriate food for a wide range of species in
accordance with established diets, feeding schedules and procedures. People often have the
image of a keeper only holding and cuddling an adorable animal baby. However, animals are
not just cute, cuddly things, there is much more things to the job that zookeepers need to be
aware off. Working with animals can be dangerous, and there is injury potential to keepers
and animals. Thus, zookeepers need always keep up with latest safety precautions and
training on zoonotic disease prevention. The work can be hard, dirty, and tedious.

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Figure 11

Figure 12

In Figure 11, it shows that the zookeeper is watering the plants and flowers in order to ensure
that the plantations are growing in a flourish condition. Another zookeeper in Figure 12 is
cleaning the surrounding by picking up rubbishes in order to keep the hygiene of the zoo
environment in an optimum level. They not only need to keep the animal exhibits and zoo
surrounding environment in clean and safe, they also play a role in assisting in refurbishing
and landscaping.

Figure 13

Figure 14

The zoo also provided face and hand painting session for the visitors. This will not only able
to attract more visitors and also might able to create new job opportunity for those
zookeepers who are talented in art and painting.

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Animal Habitat

Figure 15
The animal habitat had been zoned into few different zoning areas. There are total 16 exhibits
in this zoo, which are butterfly garden, milky stork exhibit, bird aviary, lions and tigers,
amphibian world, reptile house, mammal kingdom, ape centre, hippopotamus, giant panda
conservation, savannah walk, bear complex, bee museum, hornbill centre, childrens world
and aquarium. Different zoning and areas in the zoo are being managed and administered by
different number of zookeepers. This is to ensure that they can focus on the general care and
welfare of the assigned exhibit animals.

Figure 16

Figure 17

The Giant pandas, which are Xing Xing and Liang Liang in Figure 17 (which their original
names was Fu Wa and Feng Yi respectively) are being homed in a special conservation
centre. The arrival of the pandas is representing the peace and a symbol diplomatic
relationship between China and Malaysia for 40 years.

As in Figure 16, it shows that the Giant Panda Conservation Centre, which is located near the
Ape Centre was being built just for the giant pandas which will live in Malaysia for the next
10 years since year 2008. There was a one month quarantine period, the bears are given the
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time to know the zoo keepers of Malaysia before they ready for their debut to the public. This
is also to ensure that the bears are settling well in their new exhibit environment and also to
train the selected zoo workers on the animals husbandry and the plan for the next decade.
This kind of animal zoning method has bringing the ease for those local zookeepers and
particular veterinarians to concentrate in taking care of the welfare of those endangered
animal species.

Figure 18
Figure 18 shows is the habitat lion. There is a small stream and plantation to separate and
increase the distance between the public and the animal. This is to ensure that the safety of
public.

Figure 19

Figure 20

Green environment of the zoo is also one of the elements in zoo planning. As observed, the
zoo also preserves different species of trees and shrubs in landscaping the exhibits within the
zoo and as part of the habitat of animals. For the plantation maintenance, the zookeepers
pruned the trees to improve the shape and remove damaged branches to control the size and
growth of the plant. Despite that, the most importantly is to remove any potential hazards to
the plant to ensure the security of animals and, zookeepers and visitors safety.
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Figure 21
Each species of animal has its own habitat requirements. It seems obvious that wild animals
need adequate habitat to survive. It is essential for the zookeepers to understand the vital role
of habitat. Without protecting habitat, protecting individual animals becomes meaningless.
Animals must suitable habitats; they have access to food, water, cover, space and live in their
suitable temperature to ensure the welfare of animal. For instance, in Figure 21 shows that
they had built the shelter for the giraffes and there is a large space for the giraffes to carry out
their activities. The water provided by the zookeepers is being stored at the shelter, and their
food resources are from the tree in the environment. If one of these components is removed
from the habitat, the animal cannot survive and they will die eventually.

Figure 22

Figure 23

Figure 22 and Figure 23 showing that the zone of homing different species of cats. The
animals can be homed in same genus but different species. The animals are being zoned into
different areas is to ensure that they will not fighting for survival. This is to make the
arrangement of zoo be more systematic and create ease of the zookeepers in maintaining and
ensure the hygiene and the needs of same species of animals.

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Figure 24

Figure 25

Marine animals are homed in the aquarium centre and the aquarium centre is created in a long
and indoor pathway. The temperature of an indoor area and volume of the space allows the
visitors to create a sense of visual and lead to the sense of touching on the glass to experience
through the tactile sense.

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Zoo Facilities and Environment

Figure 26
Figure 26 shows the view of the lake and some of the plantation inside the zoo compound.
The sky is clear in view, this it enrich the sense of visual to the animals, visitors and the
workers inside the zoo. They can enjoy the changing of the clouds and blowing of wind felt
on their skin, which stimulate the sense of touch. Besides that, it will create a sound when
wind breeze through the tree leaves and branches and bushes around, thus, the sense of
hearing also included. Animals and human will feel more comfortable in this kind of natural
and green environment.

Figure 27
The small stream also created the natural sound of water flowing in the zoo area which shown
in Figure 27. This natural element is able to enhance the auditory sense of the animals.

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Figure 28
In Figure 28 shows is the animal show amphitheater which still under construction to upgrade
the space. This is one of the developments and planning of the zoo to meet the satisfaction of
the visitors. Besides that, it also provides a brand new exciting environment for the trainers to
teach the animals and train them to respond to commands; and it will be a new platform for
workers and animals to perform. All the materials for the construction are being sent from the
entrance B will mainly for loading and unloading purposes, while entrance A is the main door
for visitors and staff to enter the zoo compound. (The image of the entrance can refer to
Figure)

Figure 29

Figure 30

Figure 29 and Figure 30 is the working space for veterinarians and animal keepers. Hospital
and Veterinary Services Department (HVS) inside the zoo area is one of the designs of zoo
planning. It is essential as it able to deliver first class diagnostic services and comprehensive
health, welfare and general well-being for a wide range of animals in the zoo.

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Figure 31
Figure 31 is showing is the education, zoology, public affairs and customer service office is
the working place of some of the staff. The function for this department is for the public for
any inquiries and data collection regarding the zoo.

Figure 32
Figure 32 shows storage area for the zookeepers to store the cleaning tools. It is centralized in
an area so that is more convenience and systematic for the zookeepers to store or obtain their
tools needed. Many trees which located around the compound are functioned as shading to
the environment.

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Figure 33
In Figure 33 shows is the entrance of to the food preparation area for animals before
distributing to them and classify the food wasted by the animals into different category. The
foods wasted are used for fertilizer for plantation in the compound of the zoo to reuse the
waste efficiently and in a cost-saving and environmental friendly way.

Figure 34
Figure 34 shows is the starting point of tram ride. Tram facility is provided by the zoo to
ease the visitors to travel from a point to another place. It is also for them to enjoy the scenery
in the zoo by travelling through the entire route in zoo. The tram ride is creating the sense of
experience for the public.

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Figure 35

Figure 36

The zoo provided large area of space for the public or zookeepers to carry out activities. This
is also as a shelter for the visitors or workers during raining days.

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CREATIVE SOLUTIONS
Zoo planning

Figure 37

Figure 38

In Figure 37, the map of national zoo of Malaysia is showing that the route to guide the
visitors to walk around in the compound of zoo from the entrance until the exit. However,
after visiting the zoo, noticed that the sign boards are unclear and there is no specific route for
the tram to show in the map.

The Figure 38 shows that the more systematic zoo planning and map for the zoo operated in
Singapore. There is a clear direction in order to guide the visitors to fully enjoy the animals
exhibits and the experience in the zoo. Besides that, it also clearly presented the tram route
and also horse carriage route so that the visitors can fully utilize the facilities provided. Thus,
the circulation and path pattern of the zoo in Malaysia can be improved with the reference
and precedent study from zoos in other countries all over the world. As a good circulation not
only will enhance the visual sense and experience of the visitors, however, it also brings
consequences and working efficiency for the zookeepers such as travel distance and time for
the zookeepers to send foods to the animals.

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Figure 39
There are a number of zoo huts around the zoo for the visitors to have a break. It is essential
to have workers resting area to let the zookeepers to take a break.

Figure 40
This figure shows is the staff quarters which is a private house that contain the domestic
offices and for staff accommodation. A zoo should able to provide a beautiful and inspiring
work environment for the employees. Thus, the staff quarters can be upgraded to match the
needs of the staff so that they are working under a comfortable environment.

Zoo design and planning looks very simple and many people think about it is just homed the
animals in different zoning. However, without the proper exhibits, holding facilities, and back
of house support for the animals, zoos cannot exist as zoos. People would not support them
and not visit them. The zoo zoning shall be more specific and clear and keep animals in
similar social groups. For instance, the butterfly garden and bee museum can be relocated as
they are under the category of insects. Hence, this will ensure that the zookeepers able to take
care of the insects more efficiently in a same zone instead of travel and work in two different
zones.

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Animals habitat
One of the most important goals of zoo is conservation. The conservation of species is best
accomplished through habitat preservation. To make this be successful, people must
understand the relationship between habitat and species.

The artificial environment of a zoo can sometimes lead to an animal feeling bored, frustrated
and stressed. Since all living organisms exist in communities made up of different plants and
animals, therefore, the zoo can strive to increasingly create habitats and combine species to
create a more realistic, natural experience for their animals and bring more exciting one for
zoo visitors. The animals need to have enough shade, food, water, enrichment, and especially
their habitats. There are many references can be found to create a more sensation habitat for
the animals. Living in naturalistic exhibits full of trees, mounds and foliage allows the
animals to interact with visitors or each other on their own terms. This helps assure their
physical, psychological and social well-being.

The zoo can use some nature sounds around the animal habitat to create a sense of calm to the
animals and let them feel like there are in their natural habitat. This is to enhance the sensory
enrichment which involving the sound at the surrounding of zoo and aimed to increase the
positive response of animals and reducing abnormal behavior (Hill.S.P, Broom. D.M., 2009).

In contrast to music, the effects of ambient habitat sounds have not been commonly explored
(Lutz and Novak, 2005). Three studies have investigated the effect of African rainforest
sounds on western lowland gorillas (Ogden et al., 1994; Robbins and Margulis, 2014; Wells
et al., 2006). Ogden et al. (1994) observed increased activity in adult gorillas when exposed
to the audio playback of rainforest sounds recorded in Cameroon. As the level was greater
than expected from studies of wild gorillas, the authors interpreted this response as being
indicative of agitation. Surprisingly, infants demonstrated lower levels of clinging, suggesting
that they may have been calmed by the rainforest sounds.

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CONCLUSION
In conclusion, zookeeper is a profession and not an easy job as they need to look after all
types of animals, from animals in zoos, safari parks, aquariums and sometimes they need to
work in the wild. A zookeeper needs to have confidence and patience when working with
animals, they need to be observant and attend training to gain the skills and knowledge.

Apart from that, a good zoo planning is essential as it will be able to let the zookeepers to
provide the best care for animals. Besides that, a good zoo design and good zoo environment
will able to enhance the experience of visitors during their trip to the zoo and providing
comfortable animal habitats also able to ensure the wellbeing of animals. Therefore, the
relationship of zoo planning, zookeepers and animals are interrelation in order to create a
world class of zoo with high standard.

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REFERENCES
Wildlife Reserve Singapore. (2015). Retrieved March 2, 2015, from Singapore Zoo: Visitor's
Infromation: http://www.zoo.com.sg/visitor-info/park-map.html
Wildlife Reserve Singapore. (2015). Retrieved March 4, 2015, from Singfapore Zoo: Visitor's
Information: http://www.zoo.com.sg/visitor-info/park-map.html
Ahern, J. (2006). Biodiversity Planning and Design: Sustainable Practices. New York City:
Island Press.
Health and Safety Executive (HSE). (2012). Managing Health and Safety in Zoos. London:
HSE Books.
Zoo Negara Malaysia. (n.d.). Retrieved March 3, 2016, from Visitor Info:
http://www.zoonegaramalaysia.my/zoo.html
Lutz CK, Novak MA. 2005. Environmental enrichment for nonhuman primates: Theory and
application. ILAR Journal 46(2):178-191.
Ogden JJ, Lindburg DG, Maple TL. 1994. A preliminary study of the effects of
ecologically relevant sounds on the behaviour of captive lowland gorillas.
Applied Animal Behaviour Science 39(2):163-176.
Hill.S.P, Broom.D.M (2009) Measuring Zoo animal Welfare: theory and practice.
Zoo Biology 28: 1 14
Hosey.G, Melfi.V, Pankhurst.S (2009) Zoo animals: behaviour, management and welfare.
Oxford University Press.

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