Social Welfare System

Author(s): Meesook Kim
Source: Social Indicators Research, Vol. 62/63, The Quality of Life in Korea: Comparative
and Dynamic Perspectives (Apr., 2003), pp. 265-289
Published by: Springer
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/27527096
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MEESOOKKIM

SOCIAL WELFARE SYSTEM

ABSTRACT. The social welfare system in Korea has become a public issue
recently. Before the 1997 financial crisis, policy makers as well as the general
public were mainly interested in pursuing economic growth and largely down
playing welfare needs. In the wake of the crisis, however, the demand for welfare
increased significantly, and this in turn has brought changes in the welfare struc
ture, along with an expansion in welfare expenditures. This paper highlights
the features of the Korean welfare system in terms of social insurance, pubic

assistance, and social service. It examines the basic limitations and key issues
surrounding the system. It compares the size of social welfare expenditures in
Korea to other Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (here
inafter the OECD) countries. In sum, welfare coverage, expenditures, and benefit

levels are among the barriers to surmount especially in these times of high
aspirations toward national unification and globalization.

I. INTRODUCTION
As in all other civilized societies, a welfare state has been adopted
in Korea as a basic principle of its constitution. Yet, the country
failed to make any significant progress in building a welfare state
for five decades since its independence from Japan in 1945. Faced
with constant threats from the Communist North and the pressing
problem of extreme poverty, policymakers and the general public
remained preoccupied with issues of national security and economic
development. As a result, the responsibility to help the poor and
others in need was left to individual citizens, their family, and the

marketplace.
In November 1997, Korea was stricken with the worst economic
crisis since the end of the Korean War a half century ago. In the wake

of this crisis, social welfare emerged as an important and urgent
policy issue for the first time in its history. Soaring unemployment

and the increasing incidence of poverty and homelessness forced
the government to confront the vitally urgent and overriding chal

*

Social Indicators Research 62,63: 265-289,2003.

? 2003 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.

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or death. II.2 percent in 1995.1 percent in 1998. There are. and social services. there are four social insurance components: work injury compensation insurance. and the public pension program was established in 1988. enacted in 1961. In Korea.jstor. the Livelihood Protection law. public assistance. adopted in 1995. first examine the structure and programs of social insurance. Finally. disease. and both the pension system and heath insurance were reformed to extend coverage. 04 Oct 2016 02:22:11 UTC All use subject to http://about. had increased from 5. was replaced by the National Basic Liveli hood Guarantee (hereinafter the Basic Guarantee law).118.266 MEESOOKKIM lenge of reorganizing and strengthening its meager welfare system. Work injury compensation insurance. and unemployment insurance. SOCIAL INSURANCE Social insurance is a welfare system that helps the insured to get prepared of times of little or no income. Korea laid the groundwork for its social insurance with its four major compo nents over a short period of time. public pensions. introduced in 1964. and the government. is the oldest among them.10 on Tue. old age. as a percentage of the Gross Domestic Product (hereinafter the GDP). health insurance. to 11. Korea's social insurance fund is financed by contribu tions from employees. To this end. several tasks remaining to be tackled to achieve a more complete role for social insurance. Unemployment insurance. Health insurance has been widely adopted since 1977. It will then compare Korea's social welfare expenditures and programs with those of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Devel opment countries. In 1999. is the latest social insurance (Lee.24. This content downloaded from 152. The social security budget. This paper attempts to offer an overview of Korea's social security system from historical and comparative perspectives. it will discuss the current problems and future challenges facing the country's welfare system. it will. however.org/terms . as shown in Table I. 1998). disability. employers.

After the enactment of the Work Injury Compensation Law in 1964. I. employees are not required to make contributions to the fund (In. 1996). are also covered by the insurance (In. 04 Oct 2016 02:22:11 UTC All use subject to http://about. occupation-related diseases. while treating disease and injury.267 SOCIAL WELFARE SYSTEM TABLE I Types of Social Insurance of Korea. who worked at firms with more than 500 employees. were covered (Chang et al.jstor. or the relatives of those. benefit from the insurance (In. Work Injury Insurance Work injury insurance is the older insurance in Korea. 1998). disabled.24. As a result of amendments made This content downloaded from 152. which develop over time. 1998). employees at any workplace with 1 or more workers.10 on Tue. 2001 Type Recipients Number of participants MOL* 1964 Over 96% of MOHW* All workplaces 9. Now. compensates for income losses.. stick.org/terms .27 million workers 1977 MOHW 1988 MOL 1993 MOL: Ministry of Labor.118. and employees. only miners. This social insurance system provides the insured with benefits for treatment of work-caused diseases and injuries. The range of beneficiaries of work injury insurance has been expanded over time.50 million Health insurance All people population All people Unemployment insurance Almost all workplaces established workers (2002) Work injury compensation insurance National pension Ministry. In addi tion. Since the work injury insur ance is being financed exclusively by contributions from employers. 1999). who die in the course of their employment. the number of beneficiaries was expanded. 1998. 1998). In 1964. Kim. assembly workers. The government pays for the administrative cost of the system. and helps in preventing work-related injuries (In. and the injured. year 16 million (2000) 9. MOHW: Ministry of Health and Welfare.

or death. 1999). and to save health care fees.10 on Tue. the total number of beneficiaries amounted to 9..org/terms . the health insurance system was extended to cover everyone. by having all participants share in the burden. insured persons are required to make co-payments. 04 Oct 2016 02:22:11 UTC All use subject to http://about. As of 2000. 1998). 1999). when receiving medical care services (The Editing This content downloaded from 152.. including rural residents and the urban self-employed.24. (Chang et al.. When the Health Insurance Law was enacted in 1963. operations.50 million workers at 706231 workplace nationwide (Chang et al. In-kind benefits provided by health service centers include: medical consultations.118. The insurance was further extended in 1992 to cover workplaces with 5 or more employees. the insurance was extended to cover work places with 30 or more workers (Chang et al. and after the financial crisis. such as nursing care and transportation costs (The Editing Committee of White Paper on Welfare Reform. drugs and other therapeutic mate rials. To prevent unnecessary utilization of health care services/resources.. president Chung Hee Park turned his atten tion to developing a social welfare program including health insur ance (Choi et al. hospitalization. the coverage was too minimal to function as a social security system. Against this backdrop. disease. Benefits of health insurance consist of both cash payment and in-kind benefits. 2. and other services. At the same time. It was only during the 1970s that health insurance became a social issue. the national health insurance system was adopted in 1977 for firms with more than 500 employees (Choi et al. Benefit types consist of: sick leave benefits. 1999). it was extended to all work places in the country (Change et al.jstor. delivery of a baby. a sickness compens ation pension. 1998). medical assist ance for the absolute poor was adopted. while the country was in the throes of economic development. medical and surgical treatments. and a disability benefit (In. twelve years after its inception. Health Insurance Health insurance is a social security system designed to reduce the financial onus imposed by accident.. 1998).. 1999). there are two special benefits: supplementary benefits for sever disability and for survivors. In 1989. These benefits are of a case and in-kind nature.268 MEESOOKKIM to the law in 1972. In addition. 1998). Witnessing the need for health insurance.

the National Health Insurance Corporation was confronted with a serious financial imbalance due to the increasing medical insurance fees that medical service centers require. There used to be three types of health insurance programs for different target groups: (1) for government employees. 1998a). In the year 2000. 1999). and the self-employed. the patient has to pay 20 percent of the total fee (Choi et al. became eligible for public pensions. A fixed cash benefit is also paid to cover a portion of funeral expenses (Choi et al. The Korean government had to come up with a way of easing the financial burden on medical insurance.24. (2) for rural or urban self-employed individuals. and private school teachers (private school teachers pension) had pensions.SOCIAL WELFARE SYSTEM 269 Committee of White Paper on Welfare Reform. The National Pension Scheme (hereinafter the NPS). prescription services were separated from dispensing services for the first time in Korean medical history. The separation mandate was adopted to prevent overuse/misuse of drugs. As the National Pension system was adopted. military personnel (military personnel pension)..jstor. all three were incorporated into a single system under the National Health Insurance Act (Chang et al.. 3. military servicemen and their dependents. As for hospit alization. The health insurance system is financed by contributions from the insured. ineffective 1973 National Pension Law. 1998). Cash benefits are paid to reimburse for medical care and costs of delivering a baby that are paid by insured persons or by their dependents. including farmers and fishermen. 1998).10 on Tue. 04 Oct 2016 02:22:11 UTC All use subject to http://about. the first and the third health insurance programs were combined into one. 1998). employers. 1998).118. In 1998. National Pension Korea's first pension system was adopted in 1988 with the amendment of the once unworkable. only government employees (govern ment employees pension). and (3) for employees of industrial or commercial companies (Choi et al. all people.. Before 1973. Eight months after the inception of the separation mandate. and in 1999.org/terms .. as well as to reduce drug expenses by suppressing the over prescribing of drugs (The Editing Committee of White Paper on Welfare Reform. and the government. the centerpiece of public This content downloaded from 152. private school employees.

when the unemployment rate in Korea was fairly low.org/terms . The average income replacement level used to be 70 percent for those with 40 or more years of participation. Unemployment Insurance Among the four types of social insurance. are not covered by the pension scheme (Chang et al. the urban self-employed. Pension benefits are provided to insured persons for life. with the exception of those working part-time. and part-time workers were added (Chang et al.11 million regional participants in the pension scheme (Yoon.. and death. The purpose of unem ployment insurance is to secure income for workers during times of unemployment. disability. To provide for financial security of the elderly. two years after the enactment of the Unemployment Insurance Act (hereinafter the UIA).10 on Tue. provides the insured with financial security against aging. voluntarily participate in it.118. As of 2001. They can. but it was reduced to 60 percent when the law was amended (Chang et al.24.27 million workers from This content downloaded from 152. and to promote employment through job training and human development. Full-time housewives. All workers. In 1999. rural dwellers were able to parti cipate in the NPS along with the previously insured urban dwellers. Since 1994. To achieve financial stability in the pension fund. 9. is the newest. 1999). the minimum age of pension benefits will be raised from the current 60 to 65 in 2033 (Chang et al. employees at firms with 10 or more workers are eligible for participation in the NPS. there were 5. The target group of the NPS comprises those between the ages of 18 and 60. 1999). and those aged under 23.270 MEESOOKKIM pensions within Korea. those employed at work places with 5 or less employees.06 million workplace-based participants. 1998). 1999). who are not included in any one of the three insurance plans.. 04 Oct 2016 02:22:11 UTC All use subject to http://about. NPS participants are divided into two groups: workplace based participants and residential area-based participants. who are not working. 1999). 1999). Unemployment Insurance. As of 1998.. and 2.jstor.. It was launched in 1995. however. are covered by insurance. 4.. Since 1991 those employed at businesses with 5 or more workers were included in the pension scheme. As for the workplace-based group. the minimum period of insurance was reduced from 15 to 10 years (Chang et al.

04 Oct 2016 02:22:11 UTC All use subject to http://about. unemployment benefits. III. Included in this group were the elderly. but lack sufficient resources for living. and burial aid were provided only to Home Care and Institutional Care recipients (Ministry of Health and Welfare. In 1999. 2000). Self-support Care recipients were those who were able to work.. educational aid. and medical aid. the disabled (demographic eligibility criteria for Home Care). burial aid. maternity aid. PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 1. There are three types of benefits of unemployment insurance: support for employ ment security. and job training and human development. Live lihood aid. including low benefit levels. The public assistance system was officially launched in 1961. To be eligible for unemployment insurance. maternity aid. and medical aid were provided to both recipient groups. unreasonably narrow selection criteria.118. The Livelihood Protection system is widely criticized because of its several limitations. Home and Institutional Care recipients were those without the ability to work. children. 1997). This Law provided the poor with six types of public assistance: livelihood aid.org/terms 271 . the insured is required to have worked at an insured company for at least 6 months. and other structural problems.24. the Livelihood Protection Act was replaced with the Basic Guar antee law due to the rising demand for public assistance after the economic crisis hit the country. Unemployment benefits amount to 50 percent of the average income before unemployment with a minimum of 250000 won per month and a maximum of 900000 won (Chang et al.SOCIAL WELFARE SYSTEM 1208000 workplaces were covered (MOL. 2001). when the Basic guarantee Law took effect. Livelihood aid. Public Assistance In Korea. educational aid. and those who were cared for at welfare institutions. the This content downloaded from 152. self-support aid.10 on Tue. During the economic crisis. The unemployed can be covered by the insurance for between 2-7 months (NSWC. 1999). the public assistance system used to be called "Livelihood Protection" until the enactment of the National Basic Livelihood Guarantee Law in 1999. for over 38 years. There used to be two types of Basic Guarantee recipients: Home and Institutional Care recipients and Self-support Care recipients.jstor.

it could not handle the drastically increasing poor population.10 on Tue. This Law is a pivotal element in Korea's social welfare system.org/terms . not the lowest class. People who fall under the following categories are eligible for benefits: (1) elderly persons. the Livelihood Protection system could cover only 60. and Korea's social safety net was too weak to protect all of the poor with proper social support. The major goals of the new law are to: (1) enhance people's rights to claim bene fits by renaming the law. or children under 18). and those who are unable to work due to disease or mental and/or physical disability. children under 18.24. The poverty rate increased twice over its pre-crisis level. who are unable to support themselves. The mass unemployment resulted in many social problems including poverty. because Korea's social safety net for poverty had not been fully established. or who have no household members.6 percent in 1997. to 6.272 MEESOOKKIM unemployment rate rose sharply from 2. and (3) those. to be eligible for the system. Under these circumstances the Basic Guarantee law was enacted. 2001). 2001).118.1 In other words. were the ones who suffered most. who have a family per capita income and a household with property with the value below a certain level (in 2000. 04 Oct 2016 02:22:11 UTC All use subject to http://about. who can support them. and (4) enhance the productivity of the welfare system by providing the unemployed with incentives and systematic self-support programs to promote motivation to work (Kim.jstor. in the sense that it was the first legal mechanism to guarantee a "National Minimum" and self-sufficiency for the poor. which the Livelihood Protection system could not provide.3 percent in 1999.8 percent in 1998. family income should be no more than 930000 won. (2) modernize the institutional framework by abolishing the demographic eligibility criteria (65 or older. and 6. (2) those who have no one to support them. expectant mothers. Self-support Care recipients and the low-income unemployed were not entitled to livelihood aid. and with household property valued at 32 million won or less for a family with four members). For example.4 percent of the absolute poor before the new poverty law was enacted (Kim. and hence. This content downloaded from 152. (3) achieve equity by introducing the concept of Estimated Household Income (household head's monthly income + monthly tariff income). they.

over million people in poverty were provided with livelihood aid in 2 whereas only 0.SOCIAL WELFARE SYSTEM 273 TABLE H Percentage of Livelihood Aid Beneficiaries Classification 1997 1998 1999 2000 Total beneficiaries 1410000 1470000 1920000 1510000 of public assistance (A) Number of persons 370 440000 540000 1510000 covered with livelihood aid (B) B/A*100 26. educational aid. having increased by as much as 210 percent (Kim. p. Workshop on Securing Social Safety Nets. This content downloaded from 152. Since the adoption of the new law.118. 04 Oct 2016 02:22:11 UTC All use subject to http://about. self-support aid. Moreover. housing aid is provided.0 percent.10 on Tue. Under the new law for the first tim in the Korean welfare system. w were not eligible for the livelihood aid according to the old law percentage has risen by as much as 40. the per capita basic livelihood budget was 639000 won. Owing to the Basic Guarantee Law.org/terms . As for Home Care recipients. As for Self-support Care recipients. housing (newly added). the percentage of recipie has risen by 9. There are seven types of protection: livelihood aid.9 28. entitled to receive livelihood aid.24. who fits the family income and property criteria. "Basic Livelihood Guarantee System as a So Safety Nets". KIHASA. The Korean government has markedly increased the budget f basic livelihood aid. per beneficiary has risen. the overall benefit level. when the new law was not yet in effect (see Table (Kim. suggest that every aspect of living is now protected. and burial aid. children under 18) have been lif and anyone. 2001). 2001. but in 2001 it was increased to 1980 won. 2001). In 1997.1 100 Source: Mee-Gon Kim. the Korean social safety n has been strengthened. According to the new law.5 million people were covered by the same progr in 1999. 2001). medical aid.2 29. the demogr eligibility criteria (65 and older. ma nity aid.9 percent (Kim. 77.jstor.

There are two kinds of medical assistance depending on the degree of the beneficiary's poverty. IV. Welfare for the Elderly Due both to the low fertility and mortality rates in Korea. Medical Assistance Medical assistance is provided to those who are eligible for public assistance. First class medical assistance.90 percent. viz. including hospitalization or outpatient services free of charge..jstor. had to stop providing the assistance due to a lack of funds.10 on Tue. reaching 5. in 1990. when the Livelihood Protection law was enacted. to 73.274 MEESOOKKIM 2. in 1960 the proportion of the elderly over 65 was only 2..118. at a time when the family experienced both structural and thus functional changes. first class and second class assistance. The government. Due to the increase in the elderly population and the decrease in family responsibility for supporting the elderly. The system is more closely linked to the health insurance system. they pay 1.500 won per visit (MOHW. increased almost twice as much. where medical assistance programs are part and parcel of public assistance. Life expectancy at birth has increased from 63. provides various medical services.24. 1995). which is given to those in the lowest-income class.2 in 1970. viz. recipients pay 20 percent of fees.13 percent of the elderly over 65. the elderly population is increasing. The medical assistance system was first adopted in 1961.5 in 1970 to 1.3 in 2000 (national Statistical Office.5 in 1995. offers medical services with minimal charge. and to 74. Second class medical assistance. As shown in Table III. 1995). unlike other countries. 04 Oct 2016 02:22:11 UTC All use subject to http://about.org/terms . 1970. SOCIAL SERVICES 1. which is provided to people from the second lowest-income class. 2000b). To be eligible for benefits one must be proven to live under the poverty line. Thereafter. but after 30 years. the medical assistance program was managed separately from the Livelihood Protection law. This content downloaded from 152. The total fertility rate has decreased from 4. Korea became an aging society in 2000 with 7. when hospitalized.12 percent.7 in 1995 (National Statistical Office. and when receiving outpatient services. Only in-kind benefits are provided to them. however.

SOCIAL WELFARE SYSTEM 275 TABLE m Elderly Population by Year Year 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2001 2025 % 2. which prov financial security. Problems that t Korean elderly are facing .cannot be treated solely within t family. people livin below the poverty line are eligible for public assistance benefits. as shown in Table IV (Suk. Public assistance is available to the low-income elderly. and old age pensions. and were not able to depend upon their adult children.10 on Tue. Furthermore after the economic crisis the financial situation of the elderly on worsened. 1999.5 percent of the aged population received public assistance (Suk. the Militar Personnel Pension in 1963. 7. ill health early retirement. 2000).21 3. Governmental policies are mainly geare toward protecting low-income elderly. the life the elderly became harder. 04 Oct 2016 02:22:11 UTC All use subject to http://about. The main public pension program in Korea is the NPS which covers all citizens regardless of their occupations. The Future Estimated Population. Societal involvement is absolutely necessary.24.1 percent of the elderly aged 65 and older. wh were also struggling with financial difficulties. Most of the elderly lost one or more of their sources o income. Since its recent implementation the NPS covers only 1.90 3.12 7.including financial insecurity. and the Private School Teachers Pension in 1975.82 5. As a result. Public policies for financial security of the elderly include pensions. 2000). The public assistance system in Korea has been changed from the Live lihood Protection to the Basic Guarantee in 2000. 1996. unli the other three pension schemes.43 14.org/terms .118. This content downloaded from 152. Even the other pension scheme does not cover much of the ag population. as mention earlier. and loneliness . According to the new public assistance system. elderly care became an important social issue.jstor. There are several types of programs provided by the government for the elderly. the Government Employees Pension in 1960. public assistance.33 Source: National Statistical Office.13 7. health protection and housing. Public pensio involve four separate programs: the national pension launched 1988.

the low-income elderly receive 30000 won a couple is eligible for public assistance.1 Source: Suk. is to protect the aged not particip (Suk. 150. 2000) 53. The recent health care policies for the elderly primarily deal with health insurance. With health insurance. but are not covered by a pension of an old age allowance. those over 80 r a month. Analysis of Income Sources and Inco Schemes for the Elderly in Korea. were covered by it (Suk. In other words.2 percent of the elderly were covered by the insurance. 04 Oct 2016 02:22:11 UTC All use subject to http://about. 2000b). the elderly need to pay only 20 percent of all hospitaliza This content downloaded from 152.13 0.118. 2000). p. 2000).2 percent are public assistance recipients. and the rest were covered by medical assistance (Chung.jstor. and th percent are low-income elderly (Suk. one membe receives only 22500 won a month.3 per aged population. free health examinations.84 0.276 MEESOOKKIM TABLE IV The Elderly Covered by Public Income Security Scheme (1999) Type Public pension Old age Public Total National Government Private Military pension assistance pension employee school personnel pension teachers pension pension % 1. treat ment for dementia. 584976 elderly. An old age allowance is provided to those who public assistance. medical assistance.50 20. 2000b).53 23. With the implementation of National Health Insurance in 1977.24. the benefi age allowance is too low to serve as a social safety n years.6 7.org/terms .10 on Tue. 1999). 2000. 96.06 0. As of 2000. and chronic disease and health care services for the home-ridden elderly (MOHW. The benefit level of the old age allowance v different ages and financial situations of the elder between the ages of 65 and 79 receive public amount of 40000 won a month. while the other amount (MOHW. 17. serving as a supplemen utory pension.

to cover various geriatric diseases. the government has promoted home care services for the elderly with mental and physical disabilities. such as helping with eating. 2000b). such as cancer. 1999). A further expansion.SOCIAL WELFARE SYSTEM 277 tion fees. 2000b). day care services through which the elderly are cared for during the day time. 8.33661 elderly received free health examinations (MOHW. Due to the well-established health security system in Korea. occurred in 1996 (Editing Committee of White Paper on Welfare Reform. there will be a total of 60 (MOHW. The elderly. and the insur ance covers a limited number of them. and short-term care services by which the elderly are protected while away from home for several days (2-3 days or 10-40 days). 1998a).10 on Tue. the Korean government has been providing free health examinations to the low-income elderly since 1983. The government established comprehensive long term health and welfare policies. who need housing. and this number is expected to increase over time (MOHW. There are three types of home care service in Korea: home help services. Currently. bathing.org/terms . there were 21 hospitals for the elderly.118. 1999). free nursing homes. the elderly are able to utilize hospitals more often. By 2003. and by the year 2001.24.jstor. including general examinations including blood tests and X-ray examinations to special geriatric diseases. from more than one chronic disease. 2000b). To improve the health of the elderly by diagnosing geriatric diseases at an early stage. in 1992. and built consulting offices for the treatment of dementia nationwide. In 1999. at least one additional hospital will be built to treat it (MOHW. Since many of the elderly suffer. being escorted to a hospital. 04 Oct 2016 02:22:11 UTC All use subject to http://about. the elderly are burdened by high medical costs. This content downloaded from 152.3 percent (280000 persons) of the elderly suffer from dementia. 15 hospitals that treat dementia are now open. however. For the elderly with dementia. including diabetes and cataracts. The free health examinations were extended. low-cost elderly homes. and 30-55 percent of all medical fees (Chung. As of 1999. 2000b). in every city and province. There was seven types of welfare facility for the elderly in Korea: free elderly homes. Since one-third of the elderly are not able to conduct daily living activities without help from other (KIHASA. can live in welfare facilities.

2 percent.24. 6 resort centers. Accordingly. and nursing homes. 04 Oct 2016 02:22:11 UTC All use subject to http://about. It is expected that the number of the elderly. The government of Korea encourages the elderly to participate in volunteer as well as leisure activities for active aging.jstor.org/terms . who want to live separately from their adult children. Also. 2O00b). there were 229 elderly welfare facilities. Welfare for the Disabled There are 1449500 disabled persons as of 2001.. In addition. 0. Post-retirement leisure and social activities are becoming an increasingly important social issue as life expectancy after 65 rises. 1999). 2001). 2001). 2000b). In 1997. will increase due to the rise in nuclear family households and the changing attitude of the elderly towards living arrangements. there are 527 elderly schools.118. due to various accidents. is increasing. who need housing. The number of elderly people with resources. and social activities. The government provides each of them with 44000 won a month for managing them.. the elderly are encour aged to have a vital life through volunteer activities in the fields of traffic control. whether free or at cost. and 250000 won a year for heating costs (MOHW. who have become disabled due to age related diseases. protecting 12751 elderly (MOHW. all of which are built for the active aging (MOHW. lived in welfare facilities (MOHW. but the percentage increased to 89. the government plans to expand various types of welfare facilities.278 MEESOOKKIM low-cost nursing homes. whereas the number of people with a disability after birth. including car or industrial accidents. the Welfare Act for the Elderly was amended to appoint the elderly to serve as community volunteer leaders.10 on Tue. In the year 2000. is increasing at an accelerating rate. resource conservation. and 118 multi-purpose senior centers.4 percent in 2000 (Byun et al. In 1985.09 percent of the total population (Byun et al. is increasing as well. The number of the elderly. As of 1999.4 percent of the elderly (337000 persons). comprising 3. 2. and facilities for those with dementia. The number of people with a disability at birth is gradually decreasing. the rate of acquired disabil ities was 81. 2000c). general elderly homes. As for leisure facilities. This content downloaded from 152. 2000b). there were 38452 elderly activity centers in 1999 (MOHW. to meet such demand.

15 percent of the disabled total. 2001). The main objective of welfare for the disabled in Korea is to achieve their complete social integration by activating their social participation. tax and other fee exemptions. who have financial difficulties (viz. when the Para-Olympic Games were held in Seoul. when the Welfare Act for the Mentally and Physically Disabled was enacted.2 who are not capable of working. receive disability allowances in addition to livelihood aid. to those who could work. so that they might participate in social activities including work (MOHW. amounting to 12 million won per household (MOHW. Policies for the disabled include income support. Welfare for the disabled started in 1981. and in 1989. which in turn served as a basis for understanding the disabled and living closely with them (Editing Committee of White Paper on Welfare Reform. 42000 disabled persons. 1998b). and mental disabilities (Korea Welfare Committee for the Disabled. education support. In 1999. and the providing of easy access to relevant facilities.. 1998). as well as by creating the necessary social conditions. the rate of the disabled in Korea is much lower than that in developed countries. 2001). welfare for the disabled under went dramatic development with the instituting of other measures. This is because the range of disabilities in Korean is far narrower than in other OECD countries.SOCIAL WELFARE SYSTEM 279 Still.25% yearly interest rat. 04 Oct 2016 02:22:11 UTC All use subject to http://about. welfare facilities. To This content downloaded from 152. In the year 2000. received an allowance of 45000 won per person (Park and Kim. In 1997. class 1 and class 2 types. Those disabled. the govern ment provided loans with a low interest rate (8. medical support. a technical devices provision. 1998a).jstor. occupational rehabilitation.org/terms . 1999).24. chronic intestinal disorders. Basic Liveli hood Aid recipients).10 on Tue. the category of legal disabilities was expanded to include serious.118. welfare for the disabled has focused on creating a social environment in which the disabled can mix with other people. and providing them with equal opportunities (Editing Committee of White Paper on Welfare Reform. 1998a). when the act was amended and called the "Welfare Act for the Disabled" (Editing Committee of White Paper on Welfare Reform. Accord ingly. The Act further matured in 1988. From that point on. where more types of disabilities are included. repayment within five-years with a five-year grace period).

1998a).280 MEESOOKKIM promote the financial independence of the disabled.org/terms . 04 Oct 2016 02:22:11 UTC All use subject to http://about.4 and only 20 percent to the secondary or tertiary medical service providers (MOHW. The Employment Promotion Act for the Disabled requires companies with over 300 workers to hire disabled persons amounting to not less than 2 percent of their employee pool. To support the financial independence of the disabled.jstor. the registered3 disabled could receive medical care service throughout the year (Editing Committee of White Paper on Welfare Reform. the disabled need to pay only 50 percent of their medical fee due the primary medical service providers. For other disabled individuals. the low-income disabled can receive a solidly built wristwatch and a TV caption box (MOHW. This was done to break the cycle of poverty with younger generations of disabled families (MOHW.54 percent of the employee pool. and vehicle related taxes (MOHW. including the exemption of public facility fees. Disreg arding or not complying with this mandate is subject to a fine. 2000). the government runs 150 workplaces and 12 work facilities for them as of the year 2000 (MOHW. 2000a). This content downloaded from 152. the number of days of medical insurance covering the disabled was extended to one year. To alleviate the financial burden of the disabled and to support them with income.10 on Tue. The government provides technical devices free of charge to the low-income disabled. 2000b). Since 1996. customs. the government gives priority approval to the disabled. constituted only 0. In addition. In 1992. and therefore. telephone and television bills.24. 1999a). In conjunction with this it should be noted that the employment rate for the disabled in the public sector has increased to 1. various fees and tax example programs are available. educational support was extended to school-age students from lower class disabled families. when they apply for work in retail stores or running vending machines in public facilities.118. 2001). In 1998. rail road and subways fees. Junior high and high school students of low income disabled families had their entrance fees and tuition covered.23 percent (Byun et al. disabled persons employed at businesses within the private sector. 2001).. health insurance covers about 80 percent of their cost (MOHW. 2000b). and income inheritance. with more than 300 workers.

org/terms . Current policies are being made increasingly sens itive to the needs of disabled persons living at home.9 billion The Low class Disabled (class 1 and class 2) Medical 93251 Primary care: 50% 9. 04 Oct 2016 02:22:11 UTC All use subject to http://about. Now.281 SOCIAL WELFARE SYSTEM TABLE V Social Assistance for the Low-Income Disabled (2000) Item Number of Contents Budget Recipients recipients Income 76899 Support 45000 40. Until recently.10 on Tue. Source: The Ministry of Health and Welfare: 2000a. This content downloaded from 152. 2000b). occupational rehabilitation programs and lifelong education.3 billion Low Income Support Secondary Care: 80% Disabled Education 6894 Entrance fees and Al Support tuition 4 billion Junior Middle and High-school students from low income disabled family 1500 12 million Loan 18 billion Technical Devices1 Low income Household households 3000 Prosthesis and brace 630 thousand Low income Disabled JThe figures of the technical devices are from 1999.jstor. that is changing. 'Guide to Welfare for the Disabled'.24. There are two types of welfare facilities for the disabled: welfare centers that provide those living at home with medical treatments.118. most welfare policies for the disabled have been geared toward institutionalized disabled persons. have been increased since 1997. and welfare institutions that provide them with housing and medical treatment. however. such as day care and short-term care services. Various types of home care arrangements. 1999a. There are 184 welfare centers and 188 welfare institutions for the disabled in Korea as of 2000 (MOHW. who constitute only 2 percent of the total number of disabled persons in the country.

jstor. The death rate of men.9%. in their 40s. the "Conveni ence Facility Installation Law for the Disabled. First.24. (a rate calculated on the basis of the number of divorces per 1000 population). because there has been continuing social prejudice against a mother being remarried (Kim et al. 1998). divorce or separation. 1995). police stations. women have a longer life expectancy than men.a household led by a male without a wife being present or by a female without a husband being present . in 1995).4 percent in 1995 (National Statistical Office. This content downloaded from 152.10 on Tue. 04 Oct 2016 02:22:11 UTC All use subject to http://about. In 1997. Despite the increase in the number of lone parent families. their lower participa tion is social activities means.org/terms .1%) of the lone parent families.6.8%.118. 1998). The divorce rate is on the rise in Korea. Second. In 1980. In addition. brought about a marked increase in the number of fatherless families (National Statistical Office.5%.with one or more children under 18 years of age. Welfare for the Lone Parent Family A lone parent family is defined as a single parent household . 1998).9 percent in 1985. was only 0. the crude divorce rate. 1998). compared to single female household heads. Elderly and Pregnant Woman" was enacted. father less families constitute most (82. the government has been making access to a wide range of facilities convenient. post offices. the high death rate among men. The main causes of a lone parent family are death of a spouse 54. The lone parent family group is divided into two subgroups: the fatherless family and the motherless family. The disproportionately large number of fatherless families is trace able to several factors. the proportion of this group. In recent years. 3. and having children outside of marriage (12. and department stores (Editing Committee of White Paper on Welfare Reform. single male household heads have a higher tendency to remarry. in their 40s. that they are less exposed to risks of accidents that may result in death. has decreased from 8. to the total number of house holds in the country.282 MEESOOKKIM Since 1991. 1995) (National Statistical Office. is double that of women (National Statistical Office. and easier to facilities began to be provided. This results from the fact that the number of total households including single member households has been increasing at a higher rate. 2000).. or abandonment (22. to 7. including government offices. 1998a). In Korea.

Veteran Protection. 04 Oct 2016 02:22:11 UTC All use subject to http://about. and medical fees. the number of low-income lone parent families covered by government protection measures is 68815. most social policies are directed toward low income families. when they are unemployed (MOHW. Whenever lone parents have problems associated with work.0 in 1997 (National Statistical Office. This content downloaded from 152. family. Another service that a lone parent family can receive is counseling. as long as they want. education fees for junior high and high school. or children. 1999b). They are also entitled to rent dwelling units (for example. lone parents can receive job training. and 2.24. an apartment). 2000b). Low-income lone parent families living above the poverty line are protected under the Fatherless Family Act (enacted in 1989).10 on Tue. 1.org/terms . job training. Lone parent families living below the poverty line are eligible for the Basic Guarantee and medical assistance. Due to the rise in the divorce rate within Korea. Lone parent families are also eligible to get welfare loans from the govern ment.6%. the highest among the OECD countries. Policies for lone parent families in Korea consist of social insur ance and public assistance.5 in 1990. To ease the financial burden of lone families. 1999b). Currently.118. with a low-income interest rate of 8.9 in 1985. The amount is 12 million won for 5 years. the government has provided for the reimbursement of educational fees (tuition and entrance fees) for 14989 students. Additionally. most of whom are families without a father (81. While they are receiving job training. housing. (MOHW. and public assistance consists of the Basic Guarantee. 1999b).SOCIAL WELFARE SYSTEM 283 but it increased to 0. The latest statistics show that the current crude divorce rate in Korea is behind the rate in Great Britain (3. but also motherless families are covered by the Act. 1999b). living expenses are provided for them. 1. and low-income lone parent family protection. 1998). loans.0). Although there are some policy provisions in place for middle/upper income lone parent families.0 in 1990. and has provided child allowances (525 won per day) to 6202 children under 6 years of age. As of 1999.75 percent (MOHW. in 1999) (MOHW. Bene fits include a child allowance. Social insurance includes a pension.jstor. a total of 742 families were living in permanent rental apartments (MOHW. Not only fatherless families. the number of lone parent families is expected to increase in the years to come.

2000).118.09 percent of the GDP (KIHASA. 436-37.65 percent (30 trillion won) (Choi and Ko. 2000. pp. public assist ance.284 MEESOOKKIM TABLE VI Social Security Expenditure as a Percentage of GDP (1990-1998) Year 1990 1991 1992 1993 1995 1996 1997 Rate 4. but also provide them with information on child-rearing methods. as a percentage of the GDP. was spent for social security.65 1998 11. they can visit counseling offices with no charge for the service. The continuous increases in social expenditures came from growth in the budgets This content downloaded from 152. Professional counselors not only counsel them. V WELFARE EXPENDITURES Until the recent economic crisis.10 on Tue.28 4.52 4.23 5. or only 4. was increased in 1997 to 6. As shown in Table VI. 2000). Social security expenditures. In 1998. and link them to community resource persons and organizations.09 Source: Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs.47 6. according to the OECD estimate of social security expenditures on social insurance.71 5. social welfare benefits in Korea were low. Note: This is based on OECD Estimation of Social Security Expenditures.jstor. Health and Welfare Indicators in Korea. and social services (expenditures from the voluntary sector are excluded) (KIHASA. 2000b). a total of 8 trillion won.63 4. right after the financial crisis. as compared to the other OECD countries.24. 04 Oct 2016 02:22:11 UTC All use subject to http://about. in 1990. social security expenditures under went a drastic increase to 11.org/terms .52 percent of the GDP.

where the social security expenditures as a percentage of GDP is comparatively lower than other developed countries.jstor. Even for some of the OECD countries like Japan and the United States.0%). Choi and Ko (2000) claim that the This content downloaded from 152.23%) among the OECD countries.SOCIAL WELFARE SYSTEM devoted to social assistance and unemployment insurance (Choi and Ko. the elderly and family a more important social issue in the years to come. In the near future. One of these has been the fact that women are increasingly entering the labor force.7%). 2000).118. Meeting the increasing demand for social welfare would require the Korean government to raise social security expenditures over time in a prudent manner. in comparison with some of the OECD countries. The elderly and children are bearing the brunt of the changing social mores that weaken the sense of familial respon sibility. Korea's social expenditures. were lower in every social security category with the exception of work injuries. constituted the largest share (37.24. followed by Mexico (3. almost three times as high as Korea (Choi and Ko. Social welfare areas that are in need of urgent expansion include public assistance and healthcare. All of these factors will make welfare for children. and public assistance (2.0%) of total social security expenditures.org/terms 285 . Current social security expenditures for Korea. work injuries (3.9%). which includes expenditures for health insurance and medical assistance. 2000). social services (3.7%). followed by unem ployment (34. expendit ures on health and pensions are projected to reach the level of the developed countries (Choi and Ko. however. pensions (18. Expenditures on health. The underprivileged and the elderly will call for more protection from the government as the country's economy grows. areas whose budget allotments are strikingly insufficient when compared to the other OECD countries. have still not reached an adequate level. 2000).10 on Tue. and the increasing demand for social welfare. 04 Oct 2016 02:22:11 UTC All use subject to http://about.67%).7%) (Choi and Ko. 2000). in comparison to the other OECD countries. Korea's social security expenditures in 1995 were the second lowest (5. Social security expenditures in Korea will inevitably rise due to the ever-accelerating process of population aging. the ratio of the social security budget to the GDP was over 14 percent. This has led to further dissolution of the family and an increase in the number of divorces.

the buck of protecting the elderly has been passed on to society as a whole. because the poverty level in North Korea is very high. Over 90 percent of the elderly in Korea suffer from chronic disease. FUTURE CHALLENGES TO THE KOREAN WELFARE SYSTEM Korea has undergone a bewildering array of social changes the aging of the population.jstor. Korean society will have to meet the welfare and health needs of the elderly. As a result of the diminishing role of the family as an informal elderly care mechanism. along with the increasing participation of women in the labor force. Korea would require a welfare system buttressed by This content downloaded from 152. Now. VI. All of this has called attention to the necessity of strengthening social security and the country's social safety net.286 MEESOOKKIM proper ratio of gross expenditures on social security to the GDP should be 15 percent. and their financial situation is much worse than that of the younger generation (Chung et al.0 percent. Before the crisis.org/terms . and its GNP is much lower than that of South Korea. and the high expectation of unification between the two Koreas.24. Korea is likely to face yet higher unemployment rate with its advancing economy. 2000). Korea was approaching full employment with an unemployment rate of 2. The economic crisis occasioned an unemployment rate that is still lower than the OECD average. the 1997 economic crisis with its adverse impacts.. In the event of unification. 04 Oct 2016 02:22:11 UTC All use subject to http://about. but much higher than the pre-crisis level. and Korea will need to establish a social safety net with broad coverage to protect them in the aftermath of the crisis. as a result of trace instances of unemployment in many of the developed coun tries. Due to the rapid aging of its population. because they are the ones who suffer most from poor health and financial difficulties. social protection for the unemployed will become an increasingly important issues. 1998). Also.118. Thus. Korea should be prepared for raising the living standard of people in North Korea before taking further steps towards unific ation.10 on Tue. To achieve this level would require the Korean government to reserve welfare funds by drawing on the financial resources of both the public and voluntary sectors (Choi and Ko.

2 In Korea. In Canada 112 percent of the absolute poor are covered by social assistance. 04 Oct 2016 02:22:11 UTC All use subject to http://about. However.118. This content downloaded from 152. Social Welfare (Seoul National University. The lower the number of classes. Kwon and H. in Germany 89 percent. the more serious is their handicap. the registration rate was only 62. and Sweden: 4. Meanwhile. then a secondary one. S. Einerhand: 1998. he/she needs to first go to a primary medical service provider or clinic. Lee and J. the United States: 3. to a tertiary one. 'The growing role of private social benefits'. Young-Chan.SOCIAL WELFARE SYSTEM 287 increased expenditures. S. and coverage. J. In sum. Kim. a large hospital. and in Australia 82 percent. D. Germany: 4. and an appropriate combination of social safety measures to protect all the needy people in North Korea.6 percent in 2000 (Byun et al. W. H. 2001).10 on Tue. Lobour Market and Social Policy: Occasional Papers. 32. NOTES 1 In developed countries the coverage of the social safety net is much higher. 3 The disabled should register to get covered by various policies. No. 1998). and M.6%. 1998. in France 98 percent. and public sector participation in financing welfare funds needs to be strengthened. the private sector should continue to be involved in strengthening the social welfare system through volunteer activities and dona tions.5 percent in 1996 (Ademan and Einerhand. Lee. The current contribution rate for the private sector in Korea is much higher than that for the other OECD countries (the United Kingdom: 1. a medium size hospital. if one is sick. In-Hyup. REFERENCES Ademan.24. S. 2001). the Korean welfare system should adopt new strategies to increase budget allocations to enhance programs.. Oh: 1999.0%.5% as of 1993). in New Zealand 92 percent.jstor. A 2000 Survey on the Disabled (KIHASA. in the midst of globalization and torrential social changes. the disabled are categorized into several classes according to the degree of their handicap.0%. benefit levels. Seoul). In addition. Byun. Suh. 4 In the Koran medical system. KIHASA. Kye: 2000. welfare expenditures need to be increased. Hwang. Change.org/terms . in Finland 112 percent. constituting 26.

M. 'Basic livelihood guarantee system as a social safety nets'.): 1999. Park. Method of Expanding the Range of the Disabled and Classifying the Disabled Level. Byun and H. Guide to Welfare for the Disabled. Health and Welfare: 2001. Editing Committee of White Paper on Welfare Reform: 1998b. Choi. B. White Paper on Health and Welfare. J.118. Kim. Seoul). lee. S. Ministry of Health and Welfare: 1997. Mee-Gon: 2001. Health and Welfare: 2000c. Seoul). Seoul). Kim and W. Presented at the Workshop on Securing Social Safety Nets (KIHASA. Editing Committee of White Paper on Welfare Reform: 1998a. 'Evaluation on social welfare policies and tasks'. Moon: 1998. Ko: 2000. Labor: 2001.24. Health and Welfare Indicators in Korea. Living Profiles of Older Persons and Social Policies on Aging in Korea (KIHASA). Annual Report on Welfare Facilities for the Elderly. In. Lee: 1998.10 on Tue. Seoul). Oh. A National Survey on the Elderly Life and Their Welfare Need (KIHASA). Meesook. Cho. Health and Welfare Policy Forum 49. Guide to Welfare for the Disabled Ministry of Health and Welfare: 1999a. in Chang-Young Park (eds. The Life of Low Class Lone Parent Family and Policy Issues (KIHASA. Ministry of Health and Welfare and KIHASA: 1999b. Cho and Y. This content downloaded from 152. Seoul). Eunyoung. Byun. Lee.org/terms . White Paper on Labor.): 1999. Chung. Y. in Korea Social Science Research Council (eds. 'Social security expenditure in korea and ways to improve its level'. Annual Report on Welfare Facilities. Welfare Reform in Korea Toward the 21st Century: To Enhance the Quality of Life in the Globalization Era (Ministry of Health and Welfare. Estimation of Korean Social Security Expenditures: 1990-1997. Chung. White Paper on Health and Welfare. Hong. Y. 48-58.. Korea Welfare Committee for the Disabled: 1999. Ka-Ok (eds. Ministry of Health and Welfare: 1999a. Health Care System in Korea (Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs. Ministry Ministry Ministry Ministry Ministry of of of of of Health and Welfare: 2000a.). Won: 2000.288 MEESOOKKIM Choi. Kyung-Hee (ed. Kyung-Suk. Seoul). Seoul).). J. Byug-Ho and K. Survey on Low Income Lone Parent Family.jstor. 04 Oct 2016 02:22:11 UTC All use subject to http://about. Current Welfare for the Elderly and Tasks (Nanam Publisher. Reality of Social Welfare In Korea and Policy Issues (Human and Welfare Publish. Lee. Seoul). Ministry of Health and Welfare: 1990b. Kwon. Kim. Y. Health and Welfare: 2000b. S. National Welfare: Opening a New Horizon (Ministry of Health and Welfare. pp. In-Jae: 1998. Kyung-Hee. Establishing Long-term Social Welfare Plan and Policy Issues (KIHASA Seoul). A Survey on Lone Parent Family (Unpublished Paper). Sun-Jin: 1998 'Welfare for the disabled'. Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs: 2000. 1998: The Korea Welfare State: Ideals and Realities (Nanam Publishing Corp.

kr This content downloaded from 152.SOCIAL WELFARE SYSTEM 289 National Statistical Office: 1996.118. Jae-Eun and T. 187-209. pp. Social Expenditure Database. OECD: 1999.10 on Tue.re. Park.24. The Future Estimated Population.jstor. 1998: 'National Pension' Goal Set-up for Social Security Development and Current Issues (Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs. Shin Dong-Myeon: 2000. Yoon. Suk-Myung. Suk. 04 Oct 2016 02:22:11 UTC All use subject to http://about. National Statistical Office: 1996. Seoul). Kim: 2000. Seoul). Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs E-mail: Mskim@kihasa. 1995 (National Statistical Office. Chang-Young and M. 1980-1996. Current Poverty Issues and Counter Policies in Korea (KIHASA and UNDP. 'The Recent Development of Welfare System in Korea: Transition to a Welfare State from a Welfare Society?' Social Security Research 16. Daejun). Analysis of Income Sources and Income Maintenance Schemes for the Elderly in Korea (KIHASA. Seoul).org/terms . Kim: 1998. Population and Housing Census.

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