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Movement in and out of cells

Cells need to take in oxygen and nutrients for respiration. They also need to remove waste products such as CO 2 . The cell membrane controls movement of materials. Generally, this is determined by the size of the molecule.

Smaller molecules move through more easily and quickly.

Diffusion

the movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until the molecules are in equilibrium (evenly mixed)

molecule

the molecules are in equilibrium (evenly mixed) molecule High concentration Low concentration Molecules move down a
the molecules are in equilibrium (evenly mixed) molecule High concentration Low concentration Molecules move down a

High concentration

in equilibrium (evenly mixed) molecule High concentration Low concentration Molecules move down a concentration

Low concentration

(evenly mixed) molecule High concentration Low concentration Molecules move down a concentration gradient (high to low)

Molecules move down a concentration gradient (high to low) until the molecules are in equilibrium. Then, diffusion stops.

- No energy is required

- Only occurs with gases and liquids (not solids)

- Examples of materials which move in and out of cells by diffusion:

.

Oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs

.

Antibodies diffuse in the placenta

.

Glucose

.

Amino acids

.

Small molecules like solutes and gases (e.g. glucose, amino acids and oxygen moving into cell and carbon dioxide moving out).

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Osmosis

A form of diffusion but only involves water molecules. Only occurs across a partially permeable membrane.

Partially permeable membrane

only allows certain molecules to pass across it, generally it is only small molecules that can pass through.

Definition of osmosis Osmosis is the movement of water molecules from an area of high water potential to an area of low water potential (concentration) across a partially permeable membrane.

The rate of diffusion is increased across a shorter distance and if the concentration gradient is steeper.

weak sucrose solution

the concentration gradient is steeper. weak sucrose solution high water potential (many water molecules) Partially

high water potential (many water molecules)

Partially

permeable

membrane

OSMOSIS

molecules) Partially permeable membrane OSMOSIS strong sucrose solution low water potential (few water

strong sucrose solution

permeable membrane OSMOSIS strong sucrose solution low water potential (few water molecules) Osmosis in plant

low water potential (few water molecules)

Osmosis in plant and animal cells Cytoplasm contains water

Animal Cell

plant and animal cells Cytoplasm contains water Animal Cell water moves into cell by osmosis Cell

water moves into cell by osmosis

Cell placed in a very high water potential (e.g. water)

Cell placed in a very high water potential (e.g. water) Cell placed in solution with much

Cell placed in solution with much less water potential than cytoplasm

cell loses water

with much less water potential than cytoplasm cell loses water cell bursts (lysed) Page 2 of
with much less water potential than cytoplasm cell loses water cell bursts (lysed) Page 2 of

cell bursts (lysed)

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cell shrinks (crenated)

Plant Cell

vacuole

Plant Cell vacuole cell wall cell membrane Cell placed in a very high water potential (e.g.

cell wall

cell membrane

Cell placed in a very high water potential (e.g. water)

Cell placed in a very high water potential (e.g. water) Cell placed in solution with much

Cell placed in solution with much less water potential than cytoplasm

in solution with much less water potential than cytoplasm Cell swells but does not burst because
in solution with much less water potential than cytoplasm Cell swells but does not burst because

Cell swells but does not burst because the cell wall resists the increased pressure (cell wall is strong and flexible). The cell is turgid

(cell wall is strong and flexible). The cell is turgid Cytoplasm and vacuole lose water. The

Cytoplasm and vacuole lose water. The cell membrane may pull away from the cell wall as water is lost. This is called plasmolysis. The cell is called plasmolysed.

Active Transport

substance carrier molecule ATP ADP INSIDE
substance
carrier
molecule
ATP
ADP
INSIDE

OUTSIDE

cell

membrane

Substance combines with carrier molecule

Carrier transports substance across membrane using energy from ATP

Substance is released into cell

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Active transport moves molecules against the concentration gradient.

moves molecules against the concentration gradient. Low concentration against concentration gradient High

Low concentration

against the concentration gradient. Low concentration against concentration gradient High concentration NEEDS

against concentration gradient

gradient. Low concentration against concentration gradient High concentration NEEDS ENERGY – unlike diffusion, which
gradient. Low concentration against concentration gradient High concentration NEEDS ENERGY – unlike diffusion, which

High concentration

NEEDS ENERGY – unlike diffusion, which does not.

-

needs a protein carrier molecule to carry the molecules across the membrane.

-

can be used to carry into/out of a cell

ATP

-

Adenosine triphosphate

-

provides ‘free’ energy for cells to do ‘work’

-

universal energy carrier in molecules

-

e.g. Active transport and muscle contraction

-

ATP is produced by respiration – by breaking down glucose

A P P P High energy
A
P
P
P
High energy

bond

broken down
broken
down

ADP is Adenosine diphosphate.

ADP + P A P P + P
ADP + P
A
P
P
+ P

+

‘free’ energy

for ‘work’

Examples of active transport

Kidney

glucose leaves blood passes into the kidney but must be reabsorbed into the blood.

Tubule

Blood

Method

High glucose concentration

No glucose

Diffusion

Equal glucose concentration

Equal glucose concentration

No diffusion

No glucose

High glucose concentration

Active transport

Root Hair Cells

Minerals may be taken in from the soil using active transport when the concentration in the soil is lower than that of the root hair cell.

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Endocytosis / Exocytosis

Some cells can take in (endocytosis) or expel (exocytosis) solid particles or drops of fluid

through the cell membrane. Endocytosis occurs in single celled ‘animals’ such as

paramecium when they feed or in certain white blood cells when they engulf in bacteria

called phagocytosis.

Exocytosis takes place in the cells of some glands. A secretion forms vacuoles or granules

in the cytoplasm and these are expelled through the cell membrane to do their work outside

the cell.

nucleus bacterium Cell membrane Endocytis (phagocytosis) in a white blood cell vacuole Enzyme released Exocytosis
nucleus
bacterium
Cell membrane
Endocytis (phagocytosis) in a white blood cell
vacuole
Enzyme released
Exocytosis in a gland cell

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