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CONSTRUCTION

TECHNIQUE
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION
MANAS ARORA 3RD YEAR B

ROLL NO. 3

VASTU KALA ACADEMY

SHEET 1 - INTRODUCTION
SHEET 2 - OPEN CUT/COVER TECHNIQUE
SHEET 3 - BOTTOMS UP TECHNIQUE
SHEET 4 - BOTTOMS UP TECHNIQUE
SHEET 5 - TOP DOWN TECHNIQUE
SHEET 6 - TOP DOWN TECHNIQUE
SHEET 7 - TOP DOWN TECHNIQUE

SUBMISSION :

SUBMITTED TO :

D.O.A 27TH AUG 15 1. MR. PRAVESH GHAI


D.O.S 3RD SEPT 15 2. MR. SANJAY SURYA

SIGNATURE :

DEEP EXCAVATION - INTRODUCTION


A BASEMENT IS A STORY OR SEVERAL STORIES OF A BUILDING THAT
ARE EITHER COMPLETELY OR PARTIALLY BELOW THE GROUND FLOOR.
NOT ALL BUILDINGS HAVE BASEMENTS.

ATTRIBUTES THAT AFFECT THE CONSTRUCTION OF DEEP


BASEMENT:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

SIZE OF A SITE
VOLUME OF WORK
SHAPE AND TYPOGRAPHICAL CONDITIONS OF SITE
NEIGHBORHOOD CONDITIONS OF A SITE
GEOTECHNICAL CONDITIONS
INTERNAL LAYOUT OF THE BASEMENT OR OTHER RELATED
STRUCTURES
7. AVAILABILITY OF RESOURCES FOR THE PROJECT
8. AVAILABILITY OF EXPERTISE SKILL
9. APPROPRIATENESS OF THE METHODS SELECTED FOR THE
CONSTRUCTION
10. SPECIAL PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS IMPOSED

INVOLVEMENT/PROVISION WHEN CONSTRUCTING THESE


STRUCTURES :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

GROUND STABILIZATION PROVISIONS


CUT-OFF WALLING PROVISIONS
LATERAL SOIL SUPPORT PROVISIONS
EXCAVATION ARRANGEMENT
DEWATERING ARRANGEMENT
SPOIL REMOVAL ARRANGEMENT
BASEMENT CONSTRUCTION ARRANGEMENT

THERE ARE METHODS TO CONSTRUCT LARGE-SCALED AND


DEEP BASEMENT:
1. DEEP BASEMENT CAN BE CONSTRUCTED USING SOME
TRADITIONAL WAYS SUCH AS CUT & FILL OR BOTTOM UP
METHODS. THESE METHODS ARE RELATIVELY ECONOMICAL
AND EFFECTIVE WHEN DEALING WITH CERTAIN JOBS WHICH
ARE SIMPLER IN NATURE.
2. ON THE OTHER HAND WHERE BASEMENT IS GOING DEEPER
AND THE SURROUNDING ENVIRONMENT GETTING MORE
COMPLEX AND SENSITIVE, TOP-DOWN OR COMBINED
METHOD MAY BE A MORE APPROPRIATE OPTION TO
CONSTRUCT.

INVOLVEMENTS
1. GROUND STABILIZATION
USUALLY GROUTING METHOD IS USED TO
STABILIZE GROUND WEAKER IN NATURE. GROUT IS
A KIND OF FLUID FORM MATERIAL FOR INJETTING
INTO THE SUB-SOIL. THE MATERIAL CAN BE OF
CEMENT OR CHEMICAL BASE. IT CAN GET
HYDRATED INSIDE THE SOIL AND MAKE THE SUBSOIL
MUCH STRONGER TO WITHSTAND ITSELF OR TO
RESIST PENETRATION OF GROUND WATER.

2. CUT OFF WALL


CUT-OFF WALL CAN BE CONSTRUCTED
USING THE BELOW METHODS
SHEET PILE
SOLDIER PILE
HAND-DUG CAISSON
BORE PILE
MINI-PILE OR PIPE PILE
DIAPHRAGM WALL

3. LATERAL SOIL SUPPORT

4. EXCAVATION ARRANGEMENT

A CUT-OFF WALL CANNOT STAND ALONE STABLY


WITHOUT A LATERAL SUPPORT SYSTEM. THIS
LATERAL SUPPORT CAN BE PROVIDED IN THE FORM
OF GROUND ANCHOR, USING A STEEL STUD FRAME
OR ROWS OF STEEL TUBES.

TO PLAN HOW TO CARRY OUT THE EXCAVATION


USING CAREFULLY SECTIONING, PHASING AND
SCHEDULING OF WORKS

5. DEWATERING

6. SOIL REMOVAL ARRANGEMENT

A PROCESS TO REMOVE THE OVER-SATURATED


WATER IN GROUND AND KEEP THE SUBSOIL WITHIN
A NON-SATURATED CONDITION.

REMOVING THE EXCAVATED MATERIAL FROM THE


BASEMENT PIT IS NOT AN EASY JOY BECAUSE OF THE
QUANTITY AND MASS OF SOIL TO BE REMOVED.

7. BASEMENT CONSTRUCTION
BASEMENT OR SIMILAR UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES CAN BE CONSTRUCTED USING THE FOLLOWING APPROACHES:
1. OPEN CUT ARRANGEMENT
2. BOTTOM-UP ARRANGEMENT
3. TOP-DOWN ARRANGEMENT

OPEN CUT

BOTTOM UP

TOP-DOWN

SIZE OF SITE
SITE ENVIRONMENT

VERY LARGE OPEN SITE

SMALL SIZED SITE

LARGE SIZED SITE

UNOBSTRUCTED

ADAPTABLE TO MOST
ENVIRONMENT

ADAPTABLE TP MOST
COMPLEX ENVIRONMENT

PROTECTION

SIMPLEST PROTECTION

COMPLEX LATERAL SUPPORT


REQUIRED

LIMITED SHORING SUPPORT


WHERE REQUIRED

SPECIAL PROVISION

NOT MUCH

NOT MUCH

TEMPORARY VERTICAL
SUPPORT REQUIRED

MACHINE SUITABLE
SPOIL REMOVAL

LARGE MACHINE

SMALL MACHINE

LARGE MACHINE

USING RAMP

STAGED PLATFORM OR
BUCKET

RAMP, VERTICAL SHAFT OR


BUCKET

CONSTRUCTION METHODS

BUILDING
CONSTRUCTION

SHEET NO.

MANAS ARORA
3RD YEAR - B
VASTU KALA ACADEMY

SIGNATURE :

OPEN CUT/COVER METHOD


THIS IS THE SIMPLEST AND MOST STRAIGHT FORWARD
TECHNIQUE OF PROVIDING AN EXCAVATION TO THE
REQUIRED DEPTH.
THE SIDES OF THE EXCAVATION ARE SLOPED TO
PROVIDE STABILITY, WITH POSSIBLE SLOPE PROTECTION
TO MAXIMISE THE ANGLE OF THE SLOPE. UPON
EXCAVATING TO THE REQIRED DEPTH, THE BASEMENT
IS CONSTRUCTED FROM BOTTOM UPWARDS.
AFTER THE COMPLETION OF THE BASEMENT, THE
REMAINING EXCAVATED AREAS BETWEEN THE
BASEMENT AND THE SIDE SLOPE ARE BACKFILLED.

APPLICATION:
LIMITED CONSTRAINT OF SITE.
SITE MUST LARGE ENOUGH TO APPLY THIS TECHNIQUE.
SUITABLE FOR CLAY TO SAND SOIL LOW SOIL
SETTLEMENT.
ALLOW WORKING SPACE PROVIDE STABILITY TO SOIL.
SPEED OF CONSTRUCTION LOWEST PERFORMANCE
BOTTOM UPWARDS.
CONSTRUCTION AND CONSIDER BACKFILL WORK
DEPTH NOT EXCEED TWO STOREY HEIGHT.
LOW COST METHOD NOT HAVE COMPLICATED ACTION.

ADVANTAGES:

EXCAVATE

CONSTRUCT BOTTOM UP

A SLOPE WITH SHEET PILES AND AN INCLINOMENTER


WHICH MEASURE DEFLECTION OF SHEET PILES AND
SOIL MOVEMENTS BELOW THE SHEET PILES.

RODS ARE INSERTED INTO THE SOIL ALONGSIDE THE SLOPE AND CONRETE ARE SPRAYED ONTO THEM, TO
PREVENT THE SOIL FROM ERODING OR SLIDING DURING RAINY DAYS. IN SOME CASES, PILE SHEETING MAY BE
PROVIDED TO REDUCE DIFFERENTIAL SETTLEMENT TO THE ADJACENT BUILDINGS.
IN BUILT UP URBAN AREA, SUCH A TECHNIQUE IS OFTEN IMPRATICAL IN VIEW OF SITE CONSTRAINTS AND THE
NEED TO RESTRICT GROUND MOVEMENTS ADJACENT TO THE EXCAVATION. THE MAIN CRITERIA TO CONSIDER
FOR AN OPEN CUT TECHNIQUE IS THE GEOLOGICAL CONDITION OF THE SITE, AS THIS HAS A DIRECT EFFECT
OON THE EARTH SLOPE.

TYPES OF OPEN CUT METHOD

BACKFILL
CONTRCUTION SEQUENCE OF
OPEN CUT TECHNIQUE

SIMPLEST AND MOST STRAIGHT FORWARD METHOD OF ARRANGEMENT.


ALLOW WORKING SPACE TO EASY THE CONSTRUCTION WORK.
LOW RISK FROM AVOIDING THE CONSTRUCTION COLLAPSE.
THE MOST SAFE METHOD FOR THE WORKERS TO CARRY OUT THE
CONSTRUCTION.
THE LIGHT CONDITION ON SITE IS BRIGHT.
SIMPLEST PROTECTION FOR THE SLOPE OF EXCAVATION.
ECONOMIC METHOD AS IT CONSTRUCT FROM BOTTOM TO UPWARDS.
NO NEED STRUTTING FOR THIS METHOD.

1. SLOPE FULL OPEN CUT METHOD

DISADVANTAGES
.

AN OVERALL VIEW OF A TYPICAL EXCAVATION


USING THE OPEN CUT TECHNIQUE.

AMOUNT OF FREE SITE SPACE REQUIRED.


COST INCREASE FOR TRANSPORT AND BACKFILLING.
EASY TO FLOOD OCCUR ON SITE.
NEED ANOTHER COST FOR DISPOSAL OF WATER DURING FLOOD ON SITE.
CANNOT CONSTRUCTED IN CONGESTED AND URBAN AREA.
BEYOND 6M DEEP, ALLOW FOR TEMPORARY SUPPORT AND MAKE IT
UNECONOMICAL.

2. CANTILEVER FULL OPEN CUT METHOD

THE SLOPE METHOD DOES NOT USE RETAINING WALLS OR


STRUTS. INSTEAD, THE CONSTRUCTION SITE IS EXCAVATED
WITH SLOPED SIDES.
THE COST IS THEREBY QUITE CHEAP IF THE EXCAVATION IS NOT
TOO DEEP.
HOWEVER, IN DEEP EXCAVATION OR IF THE SLOPES ARE VERY
GENTLE, THE AMOUNT OF EXCAVATED SOIL IS TREMENDOUS
AND A GREAT AMOUNT OF SOIL WILL BE NEEDED TO BACKFILL
AFTER THE CONSTRUCTION IS FINSIHESD.

CONSTRUCTION METHODS

BUILDING
CONSTRUCTION

SHEET NO.

THE STIFFNESS OF THE RETANING WALLS IS THE SOLE


SOURCE TO KEEP THEM STABLE WITHOUT THE
TEMPORARY INSTALLMENT OF STRUTS, WHICH WILL
OBSTRUCT EXCAVATION ACTIVITIES.
THOUGH REQUIRING THE CONTRUCTION OF RETAINING
WALLS, IT DOES NOT NECESSITATE DIGGING THE SLOPE
AND BACKFILLING. THEREFORE, THE COST MAY NOT BE
NECESAARILY HIGHER THAN THAT OF THE SLOPE METHOD

MANAS ARORA
3RD YEAR - B
VASTU KALA ACADEMY

SIGNATURE :

BOTTOMS UP METHOD

UNDER THIS METHOD, AFTER THE CONSTRUCTION OF PILE AND


DIAPHRAGM WALL, SLURRY PILE OR SHEETPILE SURROUNDING THE
CONSTRUCTION WORKS, THE CONTRACTOR WILL CONDUCT OPEN-CUT
EXCAVATIONTO CERTAIN DEPTH AND THEN PRECEDE INSTALLATION OF
THE STRUTTING SYSTEM (BRACING SYSTEM) TO SUPPORT THE BASEMENT
WALLS DURING EXCAVATION AND CONSTRUCTION OF THE BASEMENT.
DEPENDING ON THE DEPTH OF FOUNDATION MAT, STRUCTURE DESIGN
MAY REQUIRE ONE OR MORE DIFFERENT LAYERS OF STRUTS TO ENSURE
SUFFICIENT RESISTANCE AGAINST PRESSURE OF SOIL + GROUNDWATER
OUTSIDE THE PROJECT IMPACT ON THE BASEMENT WALLS.
AFTER INSTALLATION OF STRUTTING SYSTEM IS COMPLETED AND
GROUND IS EXCAVATED TO BOTTOM LEVEL OF FOUNDATION, THE
CONTRACTOR
WILL
CONSTRUCT
FOUNDATION,
BASEMENT,
SUPERSTRUCTURE OF THE BUILDING UPWARD FROM THE BOTTOM
IN ACCORDANCE WITH NORMAL PROCEDURES.
STRUTTING SYSTEM CAN BE USED AS HARD CORE FOR STRUCTURAL
BEAMS / FLOOR OF THE BASEMENT OR WILL BE REMOVED AFTER
THE BASEMENT FLOOR SHALL AFFORD ALL THE PRESSURE EXERTED ON
THE BASEMENT WALLS.

CONSTRUCTION OF BASEMENT USING BOTTOM-UP APPROACH


- REDEVELOPMENT OF TST HYATT HOTEL
THE 6TH MONTH

THE 9TH MONTH

THE 12TH MONTH

ADVANTAGES:
.

IT IS A CONVENTIONAL CONSTRUCTION METHOD WELL UNDERSTOOD BY


CONTRACTORS.
WATERPROOFING CAN BE APPLIED TO THE OUTSIDE SURFACE OF THE
STRUCTURE.
THE INSIDE OF THE EXCAVATION IS EASILY ACCESSIBLE FOR THE
CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND THEDELIVERY, STORAGE AND
PLACEMENT OF MATERIALS.
DRAINAGE SYSTEMS CAN BE INSTALLED OUTSIDE THE STRUCTURE TO
CHANNEL WATER OR DIVERT IT AWAYFROM THE

THE 15TH MONTH

THE 18TH MONTH

THE 22ND MONTH

DISADVANTAGES:

SOMEWHAT LARGER FOOTPRINT REQUIRED FOR CONSTRUCTION THAN


FOR TOP-DOWN CONSTRUCTION.
THE GROUND SURFACE CAN NOT BE RESTORED TO ITS FINAL CONDITION
UNTIL CONSTRUCTION IS COMPLETE.
REQUIRES TEMPORARY SUPPORT OR RELOCATION OF UTILITIES.
MAY REQUIRE DEWATERING THAT COULD HAVE ADVERSE AFFECTS ON
SURROUNDING INFRASTRUCTURE.

CONSTRUCTION METHODS

BUILDING
CONSTRUCTION

SHEET NO.

MANAS ARORA
3RD YEAR - B
VASTU KALA ACADEMY

SIGNATURE :

BOTTOMS UP METHOD
CONSTRUCTION OF BASEMENT USING BOTTOM-UP APPROACH
-A MUCH COMPLICATED CASE (LANGHAM PLACE)

PROVISION OF A WORK PLATFORM FOR THE STATIONING OF EQUIPMENT AND HANDLING OF SPOIL TO FACILITATE THE EXCAVATION PROCESS

DETAIL SEEING THE SHEET PILE WALL AND THE TYPICAL STRUTS/KING POSTS/SHORES/ BRACINGS LATERAL SUPPORT SYSTEM
ARRANGEMENT FOR THIS KIND OF BOTTOM-UP APPROACH CONSTRUCTION METHOD.
BASEMENT FLOOR
SUPPORT BY
TRADITIONAL
PROP SYSTEM

OBSTRUCTION CAUSED BY THE


LATERAL SUPPORTING SHORE
WORK NEED CAREFUL
PLANNING FOR THE PHASING
AND SECTIONING OF THE
FORMWORK LAYOUT

INSIDE THE PROPERLY SUPPORTED BASEMENT PIT BEFORE THE


CONSTRUCTION OF THE MAIN BASEMENT STRUCTURE
BASEMENT WALL
BEFORE ERECTING
FORMWORK

WORK PLATFORM ABOVE

BASEMENT WALL AFTER


ERECTING FORMWORK

CONSTRUCTION METHODS

BUILDING
CONSTRUCTION

SHEET NO.

MANAS ARORA
3RD YEAR - B
VASTU KALA ACADEMY

SIGNATURE :

THE USE OF A
MATERIAL HOIST FOR
THE REMOVAL OF
SPOIL FROM THE
BASEMENT INTERIOR

TOP DOWN METHOD


TOP DOWN CONSTRUCTION ARE COMMONLY USED IN CONGESTED
AREAS.
THESE CAN BE INSTALLED IN CLOSE PROXIMITY TO EXISTING
STRUCTURE WITH MINIMAL LOSS OF SUPPORT TO EXISTING
FOUNDATIONS.
IN ADDITION, CONSTRUCTION DEWATERING IS NOT REQUIRED, SO
THERE IS NO ASSOCIATED SUBSIDENCE.
TOP DOWN CONSTRUCTION ARE PRACTICALLY SUITED IN THE
CONSTRUCTION OF DEEP BASEMENTS , METRO RAILWAY PROJECTS.
THE TOP DOWN METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION IS DESIGNATED TO
ENABLE ABOVE GROUND CONSTRUCTION WORK TO BE CARRIED
OUT SIMULTANEOUSLY WITH THE EXCAVATION OF THE BASEMENT
RESULTING IN SIGNIFICANT SAVING OF TIME ON A PROJECT.

1.

FLOOR SLAB
EXCAVATION SURFACE

RETAINING
WALL

2.

STEEL COLUMN
FINAL EXCAVATION SURFACE
PILE

BEARING STRATUM

3.

THIS TECHNIQUE SIMILAR TO THE CUT AND COVER


TECHNIQUE, PERMANENT PERIMETER WALLS ARE FIRST
CONSTRUCTED.
EXCAVATION PROCEEDS WITHOUT THE NEED FOR
STRUTTING TO SUPPORT THE EXCAVATION AS THE SLABS
ACT AS THE PERMANENT HORIZONTAL SUPPORTS.
PREFOUNDED
COLUMNS
ARE
THEN
CONSTRUCTED,FOLLOWED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF
THE GROUND FLOOR SLAB.
STEEL STANCHION ARE INSERTED AND
CONCRETE
CAST
GROUND
FLOOR
SLAB
INSTALL PERIMETER SECANT WALL PILES
INSTALL BEARING PILES WITH PLUNGE COLUMNS
PUMPED IN TO SLIGHTLY OVER THE LOWEST BASEMENT
SLAB LEVEL.
4.
5.
6.
THE HOLES ARE THEN BACKFILLED WITH SOIL.
EXCAVATION THEN PROCEEDS DOWNWARD AND
BASEMENT
SLAB
ARE
CONSTRUCTED
WHILE
CONSTRUCTION OF THE SUPERSTRUCTURE PROCEEDS
SIMULTANEOUSLY.
TEMPORARY OPENING ARE PROVIDED AT VARIOUS
STRATEGIC LOCATIONS ON THE BASEMENT FLOORS TO
PROVIDE ACCESS FOR REMOVAL OF EXCAVATED EARTH AS
WELL AS DELIVERY OF EXCAVATION MACHINERY AND
MATERIALS FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE
SUBSTRUCTURE..
EXTEND COLUMNS AND CASTUPPER FLOOR SLABS WHEN THE FORMATION LEVEL IS REACHED, PILE CAPS
COLUMNS AND CAST SECOND FLOOR SLAB
EXCAVATE AND CAST UPPER BASEMENT FLOOR SLAB
AND GROUND BEAMS ARE CONSTRUCTED.

SEQUENCE OF TOP DOWN METHOD

CONSTRUCTION METHODS

BUILDING
CONSTRUCTION

SHEET NO.

MANAS ARORA
3RD YEAR - B
VASTU KALA ACADEMY

SIGNATURE :

TOP DOWN METHOD


SUITABLE FOR BASEMENT OF VERY LARGE SIZE,
DEEP AND WITH COMPLEX ENVIRONMENT

PREFFERED METHOD :

ADVANTAGES:

SPEED COST GROUND STABILITY

SUITABLE FOR BASEMENT OF LARGE SIZE WITH COMPLEX


ENVIRONMENT.
THE SUPERSTRUCTURE CAN PROCEED UPWARDS FROM GROUND
LEVEL.
SIMULTANEOUSLY WITH THE EXCAVATION DOWNWARDS
STRUTTING IS NOT NECESSARY.
IT ALLOWS EARLY ENCLOSURE OF THE EXCAVATION WHICH WOULD
PERMIT.
WORK TO BE CARRIED OUT EVEN IN ADVERSE WEATHER
CONDITION.
GROUND MOVEMENT TO THE ADJACENT AREA IS MINIMIZED AS
EXCAVATION IS ALWAYS STRUTTED DURING CONSTRUCTION.
DUST LEVELS KEPT TO A MINIMUM. MUCH REDUCED VOLUME
OF CONCRETE USED, REALISING COST AND CARBON OUTPUT
SAVINGS. MINIMUM AMOUNT OF TRAFFIC DISRUPTION TO
SURROUNDING ROADS. IDEAL FOR

TYPICAL TOP-DOWN ARRANGEMENT AS IN PIONEER CENTER AND CHEUNG KONG CENTER PROJECTS.

DISADVANTAGES:

LIMITED HEADROOM FOR EXCAVATION.


RESTRICTED ACCESS FOR MATERIAL HANDLING.
DUST AND NOISE PROBLEM.
HIGH RISK TO WORKERS.
COST OF CONSTRUCTION IS HIGH AS IT INVOLVES INSTALLATION OF
MORE SOPHISTICATED TEMPORARY SUPPORT SUCH AS
PROFOUNDER COLUMN.
PROVISION OF MECHANICAL VENTILATION AND ARTIFICIAL IS
NECESSARY DURING CONSTRUCTION.

STEEL COLUMN ERECTED IN


ADVANCE AND REST ON BORE
PILE BELOW AS SUPPORT TO
TOP-DOWN BASEMENT

SELECTION:
USED FOR DEEP EXCAVATION PROJECTS WHERE TIE BACK
INSTALLATION WAS NOT FEASIBLE AND SOIL MOVEMENTS HAD TO
BE MINIMIZED.
COMMONLY USED IN HILLY AREAS AND SUITABLE FOR BASEMENT
OF LARGE SIZE.
CONSTRUCT USING PERMANENT PERIMETER WALLS.
USING SMALL EXCAVATION AT CERTAIN PLACE.
GROUND FLOOR SLAB AS A SUPPORTING.
PRE FOUNDED COLUMNS ARE STRUCTURAL COLUMNS/ PILES
FORMED BEFORE BASEMENT EXCAVATION.

CONSTRUCTION METHODS

BUILDING
CONSTRUCTION

SHEET NO.

MANAS ARORA
3RD YEAR - B
VASTU KALA ACADEMY

SIGNATURE :

TOP DOWN METHOD


STRUCTURAL MEMBERS REQUIRED FOR TOP-DOWN CONSTRUCTION
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION PRINCIPLES FOR TOP-DOWN METHOD PRIMARILY CALL FOR TWO MAJOR
STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS.
1. COLUMNS WITH SUFFICIENT CAPACITY MUST BE PRE-FOUNDED IN BORED PILES OR BARRETTES
TO SUSTAIN THE CONSTRUCTION LOAD AND TO UTILIZE AS PART OF BRACING SYSTEM.
2. EXCAVATION FOR BASEMENT MUST BE CARRIED OUT WITH THE SUPPORT OF PERMANENT
RETAINING WALL SO THAT BASEMENT FLOOR SLABS CAN BE UTILIZED AS LATERAL BRACING.
DIAPHRAGM WALL OF 0.8M TO 1.2M IN THICKNESS WITH SUFFICIENT EMBEDMENT IN FIRM SOIL LAYERS
IS COMMONLY USED AS A RETAINING WALL WHEREAS PREFABRICATED STEEL COLUMNS KNOWN AS
STANCHIONS EMBEDDED IN EITHER LARGE DIAMETER DEEP-SEATED BORED PILES OR BARRETTES ARE
UTILIZED AS STRUCTURAL COLUMNS. FIGURE 1 ILLUSTRATES THE TOP-DOWN CONSTRUCTION METHOD
WITH UTILIZATION OF STANCHIONS AND DIAPHRAGM WALL.

STANCHION INSTALLATION METHODS

STANCHION INSTALLATION METHOD IS USUALLY


SELECTED BY THE PILING CONTRACTOR WHO TAKES INTO
CONSIDERATION THREE MAIN FACTORS SUCH AS
INSTALLATION DEPTH, SIZE OF STANCHION AND SIZE OF
BORED OR BARRETTE PILES..
STANCHION INSTALLATION CAN BE CATEGORIZED UNDER
TWO MAIN METHODS,
1. POST-CONCRETING OR PLUNGING INSTALLATION STANCHION IS INSTALLED IMMEDIATELY AFTER
COMPLETION OF BORED PILE CONCRETING PROCESS.
2. PRE-CONCRETING INSTALLATION - STANCHION IS
INSTALLED IMMEDIATELY AFTER COMPLETION OF
DRILLING AND REINFORCEMENT LOWERING PRIOR TO
CONCRETING PROCESS.

STEEL STANCHION PLACED ON TOP OF THE BORE PILE AS SUPPORT FOR


TOP-DOWN BASEMNET AS WELL AS PERMANENT COLUMN FOR
FUTURE STRUCTURE

CONSTRUCTION METHODS

OTHER WORK REALITY IN TOP-DOWN BASEMENT CONGESTED WORK ENVIRONMENT,


COMPLICATED LAYOUT, DIFFICULT PHASING OF WORK AS PART OF THE CONSTRUCTION PLANNING.

BASEMENT STEEL STANCHION FINALLY ENCASED WITH REINFORCED CONCRETE TO BECOME


PERMANENT COLUMN

BUILDING
CONSTRUCTION

SHEET NO.

MANAS ARORA
3RD YEAR - B
VASTU KALA ACADEMY

SIGNATURE :