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CIRCULATION AND EXCRETION ( UNIT 2)

1-THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM


It takes oxygen and nutrients to all the tissues of the body
It picks up waste products like carbon dioxide to takes them to organs that eliminate them
It includes: the heart, the blood vessels and the blood

The heart
Its a natural pump that pushes blood through the blood vessels
The heart contains four open spaces called chambers: the two upper chambers are the atriums, the two lower ones are the ventricles
The septum divides the heart into two sides
When the blood enters the heart, it enters the right atrium or the left atrium. Then it goes to the ventricles.When the ventricles contract, they push
the blood out the heart.

Blood vessels
They are special tubes that carry blood all around the body.
3 types:

Arteries: carry blood from the heart to other tissues

Veins: carry the blood back to the heart again

Capillaries: are tiny blood vessels that connect the smallest arteries to the smallest veins. They are very thin, so gases, nutrients
and waste products can go through them

Blood
It contains liquid plasma and solid blood cells.
There are 3 types of blood cells:

Red blood cells: carry oxygen and also some carbon dioxide

White blood cells: fight infections in the body

Platelets: help to form a solid clot when theres a cut in a blood vessel

2-HOW DOES BLOOD CIRCULATE?


Blood flows around the body in two different circuits:

Pulmonary circulation: blood flows from the heart to the lungs. In the lungs the blood releases carbon dioxide and picks up oxygen.
Then the blood flows back to the heart. The oxygenated blood is a bright red colour

General circulation: oxygenated blood flows from the heart to the rest of the body. The oxygen goes to the tissues and the blood
picks up carbon dioxide. Then the blood flows back to the heart. The deoxygenated blood is a dark red colour.

Good habits for your circulatory system


Healthy habits can help to prevent cardiovascular diseases:
-

we can do exercise
eat a balanced diet
stay away from harmful substances
3- THE EXCRETORY SYSTEM

It eliminates waste products and harmful substances from the body


Parts:
-

Sweat glands: weve got millions of them in the skin. They produce sweat ( liquid with water, waste products and mineral salts)

The urinary tract: the main parts are:


o The kidneys: are two bean-shaped organs next to the spinal column. They filter the blood to remove waste. Then they mix the
waste with water to produce urine
o The ureters: are two thin tubes that carry urine to the bladder
o The bladder: is a bag-shaped organ with muscular walls. It store the urine
o The urethra: carries the urine out of the body

The urinary tract filters the blood to remove waste products and harmful substances