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Biology Std 10-Function and location Study notes

Plant Physiology
Organ
Lenticels
Cuticle
Mesophyll Cells

Location
On the surface of old, woody
stems
Wax like covering on
epidermis of leaves & green
stems
Between the epidermal cells
of the leaf.
Below the bark of the tree

Xylem

Veins of leaf, stem and leaves/


Innermost part of Vascular
bundles
Found in the veins of leaf,
stem and leaves /Periphery of
the Vascular Bundles
Special openings on the leaf
margin
Between the epidermal cells
of the leaf/ On either side of
stoma.
In the cytoplasm of green
plant cells
In the chloroplast
Colourless ground substance
present in the chloroplast
Minute openings(surrounded
by guard cells) occurring in
large number on the lower
surface of leaf

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Phloem

Hydathodes

Guard Cells
Chloroplast

Thylakoids/ Grana
Stroma
Stoma

Traps light energy with the


chloroplast present in them
for photosynthesis
Increases the girth of the
stem
Conducts water from the
roots to the aerial parts of
plant.
Translocates the prepared
food in the leaves to the
storage organs.
Guttation

Cambium

Function
Exchange of photosynthetic
and respiratory gases
Prevent Transpiration

Regulate the opening and


closing of the stoma
Photosynthesis
Site of Light Reaction
Site of light independent
reaction
Diffusion of photosynthetic
and respiratory gases ,
Transpiration

Circulatory System

Structure
1) Heart

Function
Pumps oxygenated blood to the
different parts of the body.

Protects the heart from


mechanical injury and shock.
Acts as a lubricant and reduces
friction for the beating of the
heart.
Keeps the tissues of the heart
moist.
3) Sino atrial node
Upper wall of right atrium.
Initiates the heart beat.
(S A node) or
Regulates the contraction of the
Pacemaker.
auricles.
4) Atrio Ventricular Bottom of the right auricle.
Regulates the contraction of the
node. (AV node)
ventricles.
5) Bundle of His
Arises from the A V node and It receives an impulse from the A V
consists of a left and right
node and transmits it to the Purkinje
branch which extends upto
fibres.
the apex of the heart.
6) Bicuspid valve or Between the left auricle and
Allows the blood to flow from the left
mitral valve.
ventricle of the heart.
auricle to the left ventricle and
prevents it from going back into the
auricle.
7) Tricuspid valve.
Between the right auricle and Allows the blood to flow from the
ventricle of the heart.
right auricle to the right ventricle and
prevents it from going back into the
auricle.
8) Chordae
Extend from the papillary
Keeps the tricuspid and bicuspid
tendinae.
muscles to the pointed ends of valves in position and prevents them
the cuspid valves.
from upturning.
9) Pulmonary
At the opening of the
Prevents backflow of deoxygenated
semilunar valve.
pulmonary artery which arises blood into the right ventricle.
from the right ventricle.
10) Aortic semilunar At the opening of the aorta
Prevents backflow of oxygenated
valve.
which arises from the left
blood into the left ventricle.
ventricle.
11) Coronary artery Arises from the aortic arch,
Supply oxygenated blood to the walls
near its base as it emerges
of the heart.
from the heart.

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2) Pericardial fluid

Location
Situated between the two
lungs in the thoracic cavity.
The apex is tilted towards the
left side.
Found in the pericardial
cavity, between the two
membranes of pericardium.

Excretory System

6) Proximal
convulated tubule

Location
Lie along the posterior
abdominal wall one on either
side of the vertebral column.
They arise from the renal
pelvis of the kidneys at the
hilum and the other end opens
into the urinary bladder.
Sac like structure situated in
the lower end of the abdomen
into which the other end of the
ureter opens.
Short, muscular tube arising
from the neck of the urinary
bladder and leading to the
outside.
Knot of capillaries present in
the cup of the Bowmans
capsule.
Lies in the cortex of the
kidney.

7) Loop of Henle

Present in the renal medulla.

8) Distal convulated
tubule.
9) Collecting duct

Present in the cortex of the


kidney.
Formed by the union of
collecting tubules passes
through the cortex , medulla
and opens into the pelvis of the
kidney.

2) Ureters

3) Urinary bladder

4) Urethra

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5) Glomerulus

Function
Excretion .
Osmoregulation.

Transports urine from the pelvis of


the kidney to the urinary bladder.
Temporary storage of urine.

Allows the passage of urine outside


the body.
Brings about ultrafiltration of urine.
Reabsorbs most water and much of
glucose and sodium and chloride
ions.
Absorption of water and sodium
ions.
Tubular secretion, Reabsorption of
remaining chlorides and some water.
Pours urine into the pelvis of the
kidney.

Structure
1) Kidney

Endocrine System

Structure
1) Adrenal gland

Adrenal
Cortex.

Location
Cap like structure above each
kidney.
Outer region of the adrenal
gland.

Adrenal
medulla.
3

Function

Secretes corticoidsGlucocorticoids.
mineralocorticoids.
Sex corticoids.

Secretes adrenaline which

Inner region of the adrenal


gland.
2) Thyroid gland

Situated on the lateral and


ventral sides of the trachea, just
below the larynx.
3) Pancreatic gland Below the stomach, at the loop
of the duodenum.

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM


Parts of a neuron
LOCATION

2.

NAME OF
STUCTURE
Perikaryon
1
/ cyton /
cell body
Dendrites

Axon

4.

Myelin sheath

Covering /surrounding the


axon

.5.

Nodes of Ranvier

6.
7.

Neurilemma
Terminal branches
/axon terminals

Unmyelinated gaps between


the myelin sheath.
Surrounding the myelin sheath
Posterior end of the axon.

8.

Synaptic bulb

Distal end of the terminal


branches

9.

Neurotransmitters

Found in the synaptic bulb.

Proximal part of a neuron

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SL.
NO

Secretes hormones like Glucagon


and insulin.
Glucagon increases blood sugar level
by converting glycogen into glucose.
Insulin controls the blood sugar level
by converting glucose into glycogen.
Attached to the hypothalamus or Anterior lobe of pituitary secretes
below the hypothalamus.
hormones like growth hormone and
tropic hormones such as TSH,
ACTH, LH, FSH.
Posterior lobe of pituitary secretes
hormones like Oxytocin and
Vassopressin.(ADH)

4) Pituitary gland

prepares the body in an


emergency situation for fight
or flight response.
Secretes thyroxine which regulates
the basal metabolic rate of the body.

Cytoplasmic projections of
cyton/ perikaryon
Long process of the cell body

FUNCTION

Typical cellular structure.


Centrosome absent.
Receives nerve impulses and
conducts it to the cyton.
Conducts nerve impulses away
from the cyton.
Prevents the mixing of nerve
impulses.
Increases the speed of nerve
impulse conduction.
Increases the speed of nerve
impulse conduction.
Protects the axon.
Receives nerve impulses
conducted through the axon and
transmits it to the next neuron.
Contains chemicals called
neurotransmitters (eg.
acetylcholine).When the nerve
impulse reaches the terminal
branches, neurotransmitters are
released by the synaptic bulb,
Neurotransmitters are released

10.

Synapse

Is the junction between the


terminal branches of one
neuron and the dendrites of the
adjacent neuron.

into the synapse by the synaptic


bulb. Hence these chemicals are
responsible for transmission of
nerve impulses from the
terminal branches of one neuron
to the dendrites of the next
neuron.
Neurotransmitters are released
in to the synapse, which sets off
a wave of excitement in the next
neuron.

Types of neurons

2.

Motor neuron

Association neuron

Extends from receptors( sense


organs) to Central Nervous
System
Extends from the Central
Nervous System to the
effectors (muscles and glands)
Found in the spinal cord and
brain

Transmits nerve impulses of


stimuli received from the sense
organs to brain or spinal cord
Transmits nerve impulses for
response from CNS to the
muscles and glands.
Interconnect the sensory
neuron and the motor neuron.

1. Sensory neuron

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THE BRAIN
A. Protective layers of the brain

1.

Meninges

Outer protective layer of the


brain

2.

Cerebro spinal fluid


(CSF)

Found between the layers of


the meninges.

Tough layer, hence protects the


internal delicate parts of the
brain.
It contains blood vessels and
so nourishes the brain
Serves as a shock absorber
Maintains constant pressure in
and around the brain.
Helps in exchange of nutrients
and waste products between
nerve tissue and blood.

B. Parts of the brain


1.

Cerebrum

Forebrain
Part of the fore brain and is
5

It is the seat of intelligence,

the largest part of the brain.

2.

Corpus callosum

Transverse band of nerve


fibres, internally joining the
two cerebral hemispheres.

3.

Diencephalon made
up of the
Hypothalamus and
the Thalamus

Between the two cerebral


hemispheres, just superior to
the mid brain.

Mid brain.

It relays sensory impulses from


the spinal cord to the thalamus.
It relays motor impulses from
the thalamus to the Spinal
cord.

1.

Mid brain
Between the anterior and
posterior part of the brain

memory, thinking, reasoning


and emotions
Centre for perception of
stimuli for vision, smell, taste
and hearing.
All voluntary activities are
initiated in the cerebrum.
Transmits nerve impulses from
the right cerebral hemisphere
to the left hemisphere and vice
versa.
Hypothalamus: Controls
pituitary gland, sleeping and
waking patterns, hunger and
thirst. Also regulates body
temperature.
Thalamus: interprets sensory
impulses such as pain, touch
and pressure.

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Hind brain
Located under the cerebrum

1.

Cerebellum

2.

Pons

Between the two lobes of the


cerebellum on the ventral
side.

3.

Medulla oblongata

Below the cerebellum

1. Tear glands

EYE
Under the upper eyelids, at the
upper, outer corner of the orbit
of the eye.
6

Maintains the body balance.


Coordinates the movements of
the skeletal muscles.
Transmits nerve impulses
across the two lobes of the
cerebellum, thus ensuring a
coordination of muscular
movements on both sides of
the body.
Controls the involuntary
activities such as breathing and
heart beat.
Also controls peristaltic
movements of the alimentary
canal.

Secretes tears- cleanses the eye


by washing away foreign
substances that may enter the
eye.

Contains lysozymes- this


protects the eye from infections.
Protects the surface of the eye.

Conjunctiva

Covering of the entire front


surface of the eye, continuous
with the inner eyelids.

3.

Sclera

4.

Cornea

Outermost white layer of the


eyeball.
Anterior, bulging and
transparent part of sclera.

Provides and maintains the


shape of eyeball.
Refracts the light rays as they
pass through it.

5.

Choroid

Middle layer of the eye, inner


to the sclera.

As it is pigmented, it absorbs
light rays and prevents total
internal reflection of the light
rays.
Blood vessels present here,
nourish the eye.

6.

Iris

Located between the lens and


the cornea.

It regulates the amount of light


entering the eyeball, by
increasing or decreasing the
diameter of the pupil.
It gives colour to the eye.

7.

Pupil

Opening seen in the center of


the iris.

8.

Ciliary body

Swollen portion of the choroid, Ciliary processes secrete


at the junction of the choroid
aqueous humour.
Ciliary muscles alter the shape
and iris.
of the eye lens for
accommodation.

9.

Suspensory ligaments

Extends from the ciliary


muscles to the eye lens.

Holds the eye lens in position.


Along with ciliary muscles alter
the shape of the eye lens for
accommodation.

10..

Retina

Innermost layer of the eyeball,


adhering to the choroid and
ending at the edge of the ciliary
body.

It is the photosensitive layer of


the eye.
Provides the screen for image
formation.

Rods
(contain a pigment
called Rhodopsin)

Present at the periphery of the


retina.

Respond to low light intensity


and so enable vision in dim
light.

Cones
(contain a pigment

Present mainly at the yellow


spot.

Are specialized for colour vision


and for vision in bright light.

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2.

It admits light rays into the


eyeball.

11.

called Iodopsin)
Optic nerve

12.

Lens

Located behind the iris and


pupil, supported by the
suspensory ligaments.

Refracts and focuses the light


rays on the retina.
Clear vision of both far and near
objects is obtained due to its
ability to change its focal length
with the help of the ciliary
muscles and suspensory
ligaments.

13.

Aqueous humour

In the anterior chamber,


between the lens and the
cornea

Keeps the cornea moist.


Protects the lens from
mechanical shocks
Helps in refraction of light rays.

14.

Vitreous humour

In the vitreous chamber,


Maintains the shape of the
between the lens and the retina. eyeball.
It refracts the light rays before it
reaches the retina.
It protects the retina.

15.

Yellow spot

On the retina, in line with the


horizontal axis of the eyeball.

It is the region of brightest and


sharpest vision as it contains the
highest concentration of cones.

16.

Blind spot

Opening lateral to the yellow


spot, where the optic nerve
leaves the eyeball.

This is an area of no vision,


since rods and cones are absent
here.

1.

JN

Leaves the eye at the blind spot Transmits nerve impulses from
and reaches the occipital centre the sensory cells (rods and
of the brain.
cones) of the retina to the visual
area (occipital region) of the
cerebrum for interpretation.

Ear pinna

2.

Auditory canal

3.

Tympanum / ear
drum

1.

Ear Ossicles

EAR
External ear
Either sides of the head.
Extends from pinna to the
tympanum.
Stretched tightly between the
external and middle ear.

Collects sound waves and


directs it into the auditory
canal.
Directs sound waves to the ear
drum / tympanum.
When sound waves strike its
surface, it vibrates. These
sound vibrations are then
transmitted to the middle ear.

Middle ear
Made up of three small bones. The 3 ossicles form a leverage
system. They amplify the
a. Malleus is hammer
8

shaped. Its handle rests on the


tympanum and the head rests
on the incus.
b. Incus- is the central small
bone and is anvil shaped.
c. Stapes- is stirrup shaped
and its base is attached to the
oval window.
Extends from the pharynx to
the cavity of the middle ear.

sound waves received from the


external ear and transmit these
sound vibrations to the internal
ear.

Eustachian tube

It equalizes the air pressure on


either sides of the ear drum.

3.

Oval window

On the inner boundary of the


middle ear and inner ear

The sound vibrations from the


stapes (middle ear) is
transmitted through the oval
window to the cochlea of the
inner ear.(this in turn sets the
fluid in the cochlea to vibrate)

4.

Round window

Below and a little behind the


oval window.

When the stapes transmits


vibrations to the oval window,
the round window moves
outwards. This enables the
fluid in the cochlea to move
freely.

2.

Inner ear (Membranous


labyrinth)
Bony canal made of two and
half spirals in the inner ear.
Found in the lower portion of
the labyrinth.
In the middle canal / median
canal/cochlear canal of the
cochlea.

Cochlea

2.

Organ of Corti

3.

Semi circular canals

Set of three fluid filled canals


arranged at right angles to
each other. Found in the
upper portion of the labyrinth.

4.

Vestibule

5.

Auditory nerve

Forms the central portion of


the labyrinth. It is made up of
two sacs called the Utriculus
and the Sacculus
Extends from the inner ear to
the temporal lobe of the
cerebrum.

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1.

Contains the Organ of Corti


which is responsible for
hearing.
Contains receptor cells which
transform sound vibrations
into nerve impulses. (It has
different areas suited to
interpret sounds of different
frequencies.)
Contains sensory cells
responsible for dynamic
balance.
Contains sensory cells
responsible for static balance.
Transmits nerve impulses from
the Organ of Corti to the
cerebrum.

Male Reproductive System

Organ

Location

Function

Contained in the thin walled


scrotum

Produces sperms & Hormone


Testosterone.

Seminiferous Tubules

Present in the lobules of the


testes

Spermatogenesis (Produces
sperms)

Interstitial Cells / Leydig Cells

Present as packing tissue in the


lobules of the testes, between
the seminiferous tubules.

Produces the male hormone


Testosterone

Epididymis

Fitting like a cap on the upper


pole of each+ testis.

Stores the sperms till they


mature & become motile

Vas Deferens

Connects the epididymis to the


urethra

Transports sperms from the


epididymis to the urethra.

Penis

Lies in front of the scrotum

Serves for passing out of both


semen and urine.

Seminal Vesicles

Between posterior surface of


urinary bladder & rectum.

To produce a sugary secretion


which provides energy to the
sperms.

Prostate Gland

Surrounds the Urethra, at the


base of the Urinary Bladder.

To produce an alkaline secretion


to neutralises the acidic vagina.

Bulbo urethral Gland or


Cowpers gland

Located beneath the prostrate


gland on either side of the
urethra.

Its secretion lubricates the end


of the penis during coitus.

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Testes

Female Reproductive System


Organ
Ovaries

Location
Upper pelvic cavity, one on
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Function
Oogenesis, Ovulation &

each side of uterus

Secretion of Hormone
Progesterone & Oestrogen.

Extends laterally on each side of Site of fertilization /Picks up &


the uterus
transports the released ovum
into the uterus.

Oviducal Funnel

Mouth of oviduct, with finger


like projections called fimbriae
& just above the ovary.

Receives the released ovum and


pushes it into the oviduct.

Uterus

Pear shaped , hollow ,


muscular organ situated
between urinary bladder and
rectum.

Protects & nourishes the


developing embryo.

Endometrium

Innermost vascular layer of the


uterus

Thickens to receive the


fertilized egg and gets
discharged during the Menstrual
Phase.

Cervix

A small lower constricted part


of the uterus.

Enlarges during parturition

Vagina

A muscular tube starting from


lower end of the uterus to the
outside

Receives the penis during


coitus (intercourse)

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Oviduct / Fallopian Tube/


Uterine Tube

Corpus Luteum

Yellow remnants of the Graafian Produces hormones after


follicle after ovulation.
releasing the ovum.

Amnion

Surrounds the embryo except at


the thick umbilical cord.

Contains the foetus and the


amniotic fluid.

Amniotic Fluid

A fluid within the amnion ,


surrounding the foetus

Protects the embryo against


mechanical jerks, Keeps even
pressure around the embryo,
Prevents sticking of the foetus
to the amnion.

Chorion

Second layer of the foetal


membranes.

Supports the amnion

Allantois

Forms the Villi of the placenta


from the foetal side.

Helps in diffusion of substances


from the mother to the foetus &
foetus to mother .

Placenta

A disc like structure attached


to the uterine wall

Diffusion of substances from the


mother to the foetus & foetus to
mother /Also acts as an

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endocrine gland
Umbilical Cord

A cord containing blood vessels


connecting the placenta to the
foetus.

The only blood vascular


connection between foetus and
uterine wall. Hence transports
substances from mother to
foetus and vice versa.

JN

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