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27732090

Assignment-1

Balajee Rajendran

1.6) what are the internal customers of a business? Why are they important from a quality
perspective?
The internal customers are the internal part of an organization or business, they usually work for the
organization like stakeholders, employees etc. For example an employee from a RDC (Reginal
Distribution center) ordering a product from CDC (central Distribution center).
In terms of quality perspective for example the customer care representative taking complaints from a
customer didnt take the complaint properly or inefficient will affect the job of a technical person who is
going to handle the issue. This result in the loss of a customer or quality of the service provided.

1.7) what are the three primary technical tools used for quality control and improvement?
SPC Statistical process control tool also known as control charts
DOE Design of experiments
Acceptance sampling - To determine whether to accept or reject a lot based on the defective items
from the samples in a lot
1.14) Are internal failure costs more or less important than external failure costs?
No, internal failure costs are less important than the external failure cots. In terms of quality external
costs will results in the loss of customers and loss of the brand name. But the internal failure costs
results in rework, scrap, and downtime.
3.7) the data shown in Table 3E.2 are chemical process yield readings on successive days (read down,
then across). Construct a histogram for these data. Comment on the shape of the histogram. Does it
resemble any of the distributions that we have discussed in this chapter?

27732090

Assignment-1

Balajee Rajendran

Histogram of C7
Normal
Mean 89.48
StDev 4.158
N
90

9
8

Frequency

7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

81

84

87

90

93

96

99

C7

The histogram shape looks more like a positive skewed distribution as shown in the below image.

Ref: http://www.psychstat.missouristate.edu/introbook/sbgraph/skew6.gif

3.8) an article in Quality Engineering (Vol. 4, 1992, pp. 487495) presents viscosity data from a batch
chemical process. A sample of these data is presented in Table 3E.3 (read down, then across).

27732090

Assignment-1

Balajee Rajendran

(a) Construct a stem-and-leaf display for the viscosity data.

Stem-and-Leaf Display: C1
Stem-and-leaf of C1
Leaf Unit = 0.10
2
12
(31)
37
12
1

12
13
14
15
16
17

N = 80

68
1334677789
0011122333333444555566688889999
1122222222333344566667889
01114456899
0

(b) Construct a frequency distribution and histogram.

Chart Title
9
8
7

5
4
3
2
1

Viscosity

17

16.9

16.6

16.4

16.1

16.1

15.9

15.8

15.6

15.6

15.5

15.4

15.3

15.3

15.2

15.1

14.9

14.6

14.4

14.2

14

13.9

13.7

13.3

13.1

12.6

Frequency

27732090

Assignment-1

Balajee Rajendran

(c) Convert the stem-and-leaf plot in part (a) into an ordered stem-and-leaf plot. Use this graph to
assist in locating the median and the upper and lower quartiles of the viscosity data.

Stem-and-Leaf Display: C1
Stem-and-leaf of C1
Leaf Unit = 0.10
2
6
12
28
(15)
37
21
12
6
1

12
13
13
14
14
15
15
16
16
17

= 80

68
1334
677789
0011122333333444
555566688889999
1122222222333344
566667889
011144
56899
0

MEDIAN = Fiftieth percentile of the data =Average of (n/2, n+1/2)


= Average of (80/2, 81/2)
= average of (40th term, 41st term)
= Average of (14.9, 14.9)
=14.9
Upper quartile= .25*80+0.5 = 20.5 = 20th term + 21st term /2 = (14.3 + 14.3)/2=14.3
Lower quartile= .75*80+.5=60.5 = (15.5+15.6)/2 =15.5
(d) What are the ninetieth and tenth percentiles of viscosity?
Ninetieth percentile: (.90*80+.5) =72.5th term = average of (72th term, 73rd term)
= (16.4+16.4) / 2=16.4
Tenth percentile: (.10*80+.5) =8.5th term = average of (8th term, 9th term)
= (12.7+12.7) / 2=12.7

27732090

Assignment-1

Balajee Rajendran

3.12) construct a normal probability plot of the chemical process yield data in Exercise 3.7. Does the
assumption that process yield is well modeled by a normal distribution seem reasonable?

Here the P-value is 0.015 which is less than significance level.


H0: Data follow normal distribution
H1: Data do not follow normal distribution
P-value <significance level. So reject null hypothesis. Data doesnt follow normal distribution

27732090

Assignment-1

Balajee Rajendran

3.13) consider the viscosity data in Exercise 3.8. Construct a normal probability plot, a lognormal
probability plot, and a Weibull probability plot for these data. Based on the plots, which distribution
seems to be the best model for the viscosity data?

H0: Data follow normal distribution


H1: Data do not follow normal distribution
Here P-value > significance level.so fail to reject null hypothesis

H0: Data follow log normal distribution


H1: Data do not follow log normal distribution
Here P-value > significance level.so fail to reject null hypothesis

27732090

Assignment-1

Balajee Rajendran

H0: Data follow Weibull distribution


H1: Data do not follow Weibull distribution
Here P-value < significance level.so reject null hypothesis.
And also by fat pencil test some points on Weibull distribution test are far enough from the fitted line,
unlike normal and lognormal in which the all the points are covered within the edges of a fat pencil.
So Normal and log normal seems to be the best model for the viscosity data.

27732090

Assignment-1

Balajee Rajendran

3.35) An electronic component for a medical X-ray unit is produced in lots of size N = 25. An acceptance
testing procedure is used by the purchaser to protect against lots that contain too many nonconforming
components. The procedure consists of selecting five components at random from the lot (without
replacement) and testing them. If none of the components is nonconforming, the lot is accepted.
(a) If the lot contains two nonconforming components, what is the probability of lot acceptance?

(b) Calculate the desired probability in (a) using the binomial approximation. Is this approximation
satisfactory? Why or why not?

27732090

Assignment-1

Balajee Rajendran

(c) Suppose the lot size was N = 150. Would the binomial approximation be satisfactory in this case?

3.40) The billing department of a major credit card company attempts to control errors (clerical, data
transmission,etc.) on customers bills. Suppose that errors occur according to a Poisson distribution with
parameter Lamda 0.01. What is the probability that acustomers bill selected at random will contain
one error?

27732090

Assignment-1

Balajee Rajendran

3.46) If x is normally distributed with mean and standard deviation four, and given that the probability
that x is less than 32 is 0.0228, find the value of .