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Introduction

Magnetism arises from the Magnetic Moment or Magnetic


dipole of Magnetic Materials.
When the electrons revolves around the nucleus Orbital
magnetic moment arises, similarly when the electron spins,
spin Magnetic moment arises.
The permanent Magnetic Moments can arise due to the
1.The orbital magnetic moment of the electrons
2.The spin magnetic moment of the electrons, and
3.The spin magnetic moment of the nucleus.

Magnetization
The magnetization of a material is expressed in
terms of density of net magnetic dipole
moments m in the material.
We define a vector quantity called the
magnetization M = total/Volume.
The total magnetic field B in the material is
given by B = B0 + 0M
where 0 is the magnetic permeability of space
and B0 is the externally applied magnetic field.

Magnetization
Another way to view the magnetic fields which
arise from magnetization of materials is to
introduce a quantity called magnetic field
strength H .
It can be defined by the relationship
H = B0/0 = B/0 M
The intensity of Magnetization is directly related
to the applied field H.

M
magnetic susceptibility m
H

Magnetization
H and M have the same units, amperes/meter.
The relationship for B and H above can be
written in the equivalent form
B = 0 (H + M) = r 0 H, where r = (1 + M/H)
The relative permeability mr can be viewed as
the amplification factor for the internal field B
due to an external field H.

Magnetic Properties of Solids


Materials may be classified by their response
to externally applied magnetic fields as
diamagnetic, paramagnetic, or ferromagnetic.
These magnetic responses differ greatly in
strength.
Diamagnetism is a property of all materials
and opposes applied magnetic fields, but is
very weak.

Magnetic Properties of Solids


Paramagnetism is stronger than diamagnetism
and produces magnetization in the direction of
the applied field, and proportional to the
applied field.
Ferromagnetic effects are very large, producing
magnetizations sometimes orders of magnitude
greater than the applied field and as such are
much larger than either diamagnetic or
paramagnetic effects.

Diamagnetism
The orbital motion of electrons creates tiny
atomic current loops, which produce magnetic
fields.
When an external magnetic field is applied to a
material, these current loops will tend to align in
such a way as to oppose the applied field.
This may be viewed as an atomic version of
Lenz's law: induced magnetic fields tend to
oppose the change which created them.
Materials in which this effect is the only
magnetic response are called diamagnetic.

Diamagnetism
All materials are inherently diamagnetic, but if
the atoms have some net magnetic moment
as in paramagnetic materials or in
ferromagnetic materials, these stronger
effects are always dominant.
Diamagnetism is the residual magnetic
behavior when materials are neither
paramagnetic nor ferromagnetic.

Diamagnetism

Paramagnetism
Some materials exhibit a magnetization which
is proportional to the applied magnetic field in
which the material is placed.
These materials are said to be paramagnetic
and follow Curie's law:

Paramagnetism
All atoms have inherent sources of magnetism
because electron spin contributes a magnetic
moment and electron orbits act as current
loops which produce a magnetic field.
In most materials the magnetic moments of
the electrons cancel, but in materials which
are classified as paramagnetic, the cancelation
is incomplete.

paramagnetism

Ferromagnetism
Iron, nickel, cobalt and some of the rare earths
(gadolinium, dysprosium) exhibit a unique
magnetic behavior which is called
ferromagnetism because iron (ferrum in Latin)
is the most common and most dramatic
example.
Samarium and neodymium in alloys with
cobalt have been used to fabricate very strong
rare-earth magnets.

Ferromagnetism
Ferromagnetic materials exhibit a long-range
ordering phenomenon at the atomic level
which causes the unpaired electron spins to
line up parallel with each other in a region
called a domain.
Within the domain, the magnetic field is
intense, but in a bulk sample the material will
usually be unmagnetized because the many
domains will themselves be randomly
oriented with respect to one another.

Ferromagnetism

Ferromagnetism
Ferromagnetism manifests itself in the fact
that a small externally imposed magnetic field,
say from a solenoid, can cause the magnetic
domains to line up with each other and the
material is said to be magnetized.

Ferromagnetism

Ferromagnetism
All ferromagnets have a maximum temperature
where the ferromagnetic property disappears as
a result of thermal agitation.
This temperature is called the Curie temperature.

Ferromagnetism

Ferromagnetism
There are many applications of ferromagnetic
materials, such as the electromagnet.
Ferromagnets will tend to stay magnetized to
some extent after being subjected to an external
magnetic field.
This tendency to "remember their magnetic
history" is called hysteresis.
The fraction of the saturation magnetization
which is retained when the driving field is
removed is called the remanence of the material,
and is an important factor in permanent magnets.

Ferromagnetism
Hysteresis