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BRIDGE BASICS

Anthony Sharma
Period 5
10/14/16

Beam
Truss
Arch
Suspension
DIFFERENT TYPES OF BRIDGES

The Main 4

BEAM BRIDGE
Consists of a horizontal
beam supported at
each end by piers
Weight of the beam
pushes straight down on
the piers
Rarely span more than
250 feet

TRUSS BRIDGE
consists of an assembly
of triangles
Weight dispersed to
the piers or ends
Many different types

ARCH BRIDGE
Great natural
strength
Made of steel or
concrete
Span up to 800
feet

SUSPENSION BRIDGE
Use connecting
ropes/chains to attach
piers and beam
Most have a built in
truss system

Span 2,000 to 7,000


feet, longer than any
other type of bridge.

Squeezing
Stretching
Bending
Sliding
Twisting

FORCES THAT ACT ON BRIDGES

The Main 5

SQUEEZING AND STRETCHING


Compression (squeezing) is a force that
squeezes a material together. When a
material is in compression, it tends to become
shorter.

Tension (stretching) is a force that stretches a


material apart. When a material is in
tension, it tends to become longer.

BENDING AND SLIDING


Bending is when a straight material
becomes curved, one side squeezes
together and the other side stretches
apart.

Shear (sliding) is a force that causes


parts of a material to slide past one
another in opposite directions.

TWISTING
Torsion (twisting) is an action that twists a material.

Weight of Structure
Weight of objects
Soft soil
Temperature
Earthquake
Wind
Vibration

LOADS TO WITHSTAND

The Main 7

WEIGHT OF STRUCTURE/OBJECT
The weight of the structure itself is called
the dead load. Anything permanently
attached to the structure is part of its
dead load -- including the columns,
beams, nuts, and bolts.

The weight of the stuff on the structure is


called the live load. Things that move
around in or on a structure, like people,
furniture, and cars, are all examples of
live load.

SOFT SOIL AND TEMPERATURE


When the soil beneath a structure settles
unevenly, it is called settlement load.
Structures will sink and change shape
when they experience settlement load.

When a structure expands or shrinks with


the temperature, it is experiencing
thermal load. The temperature causes
the beams and columns to change shape
and push and pull on other parts of the
structure.

EARTHQUAKE AND WIND


When the ground beneath a structure
jerks back and forth during an
earthquake, the structure is experiencing
an earthquake, or seismic load.
Earthquake loads push and pull
horizontally on a structure.

When wind blows on a structure, it is


called wind load. Wind loads push
horizontally on a structure.

VIBRATIONS
Loads that change over time are called
dynamic loads. Dynamic loads -- from
wind gusts to pounding objects -- create
vibrations that can become bigger and
more dangerous over time.

COMMONLY USED SHAPES


Square-

Adv. When braced, a very strong


shape
Dis. Without bracing, no structure

MORE SHAPES
Arch-

Adv. Sturdy, takes a lot of weight


Dis. Ends want to slip

Triangle
Adv. Strong from the top
Dis. Weaker from the side

BROOKLYN BRIDGE
Manhattan and Brooklyn

3,460 feet
John A. Roebling, Washington A. Roebling
Steel, Granite

1883
Suspension

IRON BRIDGE
Shropshire, England

100 feet
Abraham Darby III, Thomas Farnolls Pritchard
Cast Iron

1779
Arch

SUNSHINE SKYWAY BRIDGE


St. Petersburg and Bradenton, Florida, USA
24,090 feet
Figg & Muller Engineering Group
Steel and Concrete

1987
Cable Stayed (suspension)