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Seven principles of Quality


management as per ISO 9001:2015
Seven principles of Quality management
Introduction:
In my first post I had written about the Eight principles of quality management on
which the standard of ISO 9001:2008 was based. As we are all aware that fifth
edition of ISO 9001( ISO 9001:2015) was published in month of september 2015.
This fifth edition (ISO 9001:2015) cancels and replaces the fourth edition( ISO
9001:2008). This document was being prepared by Technical committee of ISO
ISO/TC 176/SC 2-Quality Management and Quality Assurance/ Quality
Systems also know as ISO/TC 176 in short. The process of preparing the ISO
9001:2015 went through a six stage process. Organisations have been granted a
three-year transition period after the revision has been published to migrate their
quality management system to the new edition of the standard.
The key changes in the standards are
1. There is no quality manual.
2. It emphasis on organization context and risk based thinking,
3. There is no requirement of management representative
4. The standard does not include a specific clause for Preventive Actions.
5. The terms document and records have been replaced with the term
documented information. Documented procedure in iso 9001:2008 have
been replaced by maintained documented information and Documented
record in iso 9001:2008 have been replaced by retained documented
information.
6. In 2008 version of the standard the term product was used. This term also
included services. This term has been changed to Product and Services
7. In addition to the term continual improvement another term improvement
have been introduced
8. Outsourcing is now an external provision.The term purchased product has
been replaced with externally provided products and services.The term
supplier has been replaced with External provider.Control of external
provision of goods and services address all forms of external provisions.
9. The new standard does not make any reference to the exclusions which was
for only for clause 7 in ISO 9001:2008, but in ISO 9001:2015 after proper

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justification any of the requirement of this international standards may not be


included in the scope, provided it does not affect the organizations ability or
responsibility to ensure the conformity of its product and services and the
enhancement of customer satisfaction
10. The term work environment used in ISO 9001:2008 has been replaced with
Environment for the operation of processes.
The ISO 9000:2015 and ISO 9001:2015 standard is based on the following Seven
principles of Quality management.

1 Custome r Focus
The primary focus of quality management is to meet customer requirements
and to strive to exceed customer expectations.
Rationale
Sustained success is achieved when an organization attracts and retains the
confidence of customers and other interested parties on whom it depends. Every
aspect of customer interaction provides an opportunity to create more value for the
customer. Understanding current and future needs of customers and other
interested parties contrib utes to sustained success of an organization
Key Benefits (As per ISO 9000:2015)
There is an increase in customer value;
There is an increase in customer satisfaction;

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There is an improvement in customer loyalty;


It enhances in repeat b usiness;
It enhances in reputation of the organization;
There is an expansion of customer b ase;
There is increase in revenue and market share.
Possible actions (As per ISO 9000:2015)
Some of the possib le actions that an organization can take to increase Customer
Focus can include:
1. To identify and recognize the direct and indirect customer of the organization
who receive value from the organization.
2. To understand customers current and future needs and expectations;
3. The organization must link

its ob jectives to customer needs and

expectations;
4. It must communicate customer needs and expectations throughout the
organization;
5. It must plan, design, develop, produce, deliver and support products and
services to meet customer needs and expectations;
6. It must measure and monitor customer satisfaction and take appropriate
actions;
7. It must determine and take action on relevant interested parties needs and
appropriate expectations that can affect customer satisfaction;
8. It must actively manage relationships with customers to achieve sustained
success.
Explanation:

This is the first of the Seven principles of Quality management and there is no
change in the heading of this principle. The Eight principle definition stated
Organizations depend on their customers and therefore should understand
current and future customer needs, should meet customer requirements and strive
to exceed customer expectations. The Seven principle definition states The
primary focus of quality management is to meet customer requirements and to
strive to exceed customer expectations.. First and foremost the organization must
have a clear understanding of who are its direct customer and who are its indirect
customers.
customers

Customer focused means putting your energy into satisfying


and

understanding

that

profitability

comes

from

satisfying

customers.There should be researching ,establishing and understanding current


and future customer needs and expectations. The organization should ensure that
the objectives of the organization are linked to customer needs and expectations.

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The top Management should communicate customer needs and expectations


throughout the organization. There should be measuring customer satisfaction
and acting on the results. the organization should ensure a balanced approach
between satisfying customers and other interested parties.

2 Le ade rship
Leaders at all levels establish unity of purpose and direction and create
conditions in which people are engaged in achieving the quality objectives of
the organization.
Rationale
Creation of unity of purpose, direction and engagement enab le an organization to
align its strategies, policies, processes and resources to achieve its ob jectives.
Key Benefits (As per ISO 9000:2015)
It increases the effectiveness and efficiency in meeting the organizations
quality ob jectives;
There is a b etter coordination of the organizations processes;
There is improvement in communication b etween levels and functions of the
organization;
It develops and improves the capab ility of the organization and its people to
deliver desired results.
Possible actions (As per ISO 9000:2015)
Some of the possib le actions that an organization can take includes:
It can communicate the organizations mission, vision, strategy, policies and
processes throughout the organization;
It can create and sustain shared values, fairness and ethical models for
b ehaviour at all levels of the organization;
It can estab lish a culture of trust and integrity;
It can encourage an organization-wide commitment to quality;
It can ensure that leaders at all levels are positive examples to people in the
organization;
It can provide people with the required resources, training and authority to act
with accountab ility;
It can inspire, encourage and recognize the contrib ution of people.
Explanation:

This is the second of the Seven principles of Quality management and there is no

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change in the heading of this principle. The Eight principle definition stated
Leaders estab lish unity of purpose and direction of the organization. They should
create and maintain the internal environment in which people can b ecome
fully involved in achieving the organizations ob jectives. The Seven principle
definition states Leaders at all levels estab lish unity of purpose and direction and
create conditions in which people are engaged in achieving the quality ob jectives
of the organization.Leadership is providing role model behaviors consistent with
the values of the organization.

Behavior that will deliver the organizations

objectives. Internal environment includes the culture and climate, management


style, shared, trust, motivation and support. The leadership should Consider the
needs of all interested parties including customers, owners, employees,
suppliers, financier, local communities and society as whole. The leadership
should establish a clear vision of the organizations future. The leadership should
set a challenging goals and targets. The leadership should create and sustain a
shared values, fairness

and ethical role models

at all levels

of the

organization. The leadership should Establish trust and eliminate fear. The
leadership should provide people with the required resources training and
freedom to act with responsibility and accountability. The leadership should
Inspire, encourage and recognize people contributions.

3 Engage me nt of Pe ople
It is essential for the organization that all people are competent, empowered
and engaged in delivering value. Competent, empowered and engaged people
throughout the organization enhance its capability to create value.
Rationale
To manage an organization effectively and efficiently, it is important to involve all
people at all levels and to respect them as individuals. Recognition, empowerment
and enhancement of skills and knowledge facilitate the engagement of people in
achieving the ob jectives of the organization.
Key Benefits (As per ISO 9000:2015)
It improves understanding of the organizations quality ob jectives b y people
in the organization and increased motivation to achieve them;
It enhances involvement of people in improvement activities;
It enhances personal development, initiatives and creativity;
It enhances people satisfaction;
It enhances trust and collab oration throughout the organization;
It increases attention to shared values and culture throughout the

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organization.
Possible actions (As per ISO 9000:2015)
Some of the possib le actions that an organization can take includes:
It can communicate with people to promote understanding of the importance
of their individual contrib ution;
It can promote collab oration throughout the organization;
It can facilitate open discussion and sharing of knowledge and experience;
It can empower people to determine constraints to performance and to take
initiatives without fear;
It can recognize and acknowledge peoples contrib ution, learning and
improvement;
It can enab le self-evaluation of performance against personal ob jectives;
It can conduct surveys to assess peoples satisfaction, communicate the
results and take appropriate actions.
Explanation:

This is the third of the Seven principles of Quality management and the term
Involvement of People has been change to Engagement of People. The Eight
principle definition stated People at all levels are the essence of an organization
and their full involvement enab les their ab ilities to b e used for the organizations
b enefit. The Seven principle definition states It is essential for the organization
that all people are competent, empowered and engaged in delivering
value. Competent, empowered and engaged people throughout the organization
enhance its capab ility to create value. Engaging people means employees are
committed to their organisations goals and values, motivated to contribute to
organisational success, and are able at the same time to enhance their own
sense of well-being.An engaged employee experiences a blend of job satisfaction,
organisational commitment, job involvement and feelings of empowerment. When
we talk of engagement of people it means that all the employees are competent,
empowered and they are delivering value. An engaged employee will have a better
perception of job importance. An engaged employee will have better clarity of job
expectation. There will be more improvement opportunities. There will be regular
feedback and dialog with supervisors. The Quality of working relationships of an
engaged employee with peers, superiors, and subordinates is much improved.
There is effective employee communication.
4 Process Approach
Consistent and predictable results are achieved more effectively and

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efficiently when activities are understood and managed as interrelated


processes that function as a coherent system.
Rationale
The quality management system is composed of interrelated processes.
Understanding how results are produced b y this system, including all its
processes, resources, controls and interactions, allows the organization to
optimize its performance.
Key Benefits (As per ISO 9000:2015)
It enhances ab ility to focus effort on key processes and opportunities for
improvement;
There is a consistent and predictab le outcomes through a system of aligned
processes;
It can optimize performance through effective process management, efficient
use of resources and reduced cross-functional b arriers;
It enab les the organization to provide confidence to interested parties related
to its consistency, effectiveness and efficiency.
Possible actions (As per ISO 9000:2015)
Some of the possib le actions that an organization can take includes:
It can define ob jectives of the system and processes necessary to achieve
them;
It can estab lish authority, responsib ility and accountab ility for managing
processes;
It can understand the organizations capab ilities and determine resource
constraints prior to action;
It can determine process interdependencies and analyse the effect of
modifications to individual processes on the system as a whole;
It should manage processes and their interrelations as a system to achieve
the organizations quality ob jectives effectively and efficiently;
It can ensure the necessary information is availab le to operate and improve
the processes and to monitor, analyse and evaluate the performance of the
overall system;
It should manage risks which can affect outputs of the processes and overall
outcomes of the QMS.
Explanation:

This is the fourth of the Seven principles of Quality management and there is no

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change in the heading of this principle. The Eight principle definition stated A
desired result is achieved more efficiently when activities and related resources are
managed as a process. The Seven principle definition states Consistent and
predictab le results are achieved more effectively and efficiently when activities are
understood and managed as interrelated processes that function as a coherent
system. Processes are dynamic-they cause things to happen.processes within
an organization should be structured in order to achieve a certain objective in the
most efficient and effective manner.It helps us in systematically defining the
activities necessary to achieve/obtain desired results.It helps us in establishing
clear responsibility and accountability for managing key activities.It helps us in
analyzing and measuring of the capabilities of key activities. It helps us in
identifying the interfaces of key activities within and between the functions of the
organization.It helps us in evaluating risks,consequences and impacts of activities
on customers,suppliers and other interested parties. Quality Management
System are constructed by connecting interrelated processes together to deliver
the system objectives which is the satisfaction of the interested parties. This
helps us in structuring a system to achieve the organizations objectives in the
most effective and efficient way and understanding the interdependencies
between the processes of the system. It also helps us in providing a better
understanding of the roles and responsibilities necessary for achieving common
objectives and thereby reducing cross functional barriers and

targeting and

defining how specific activities within a system should operate.

5 Improv e me nt
Successful organizations have an ongoing focus on improvement.
Rationale
Improvement is essential for an organization to maintain current levels of
performance, to react to changes in its internal and external conditions and to
create new opportunities.
Key Benefits (As per ISO 9000:2015)
There is improved process performance, organizational capab ility and
customer satisfaction;
There is enhanced focus on root cause investigation and determination,
followed b y prevention and corrective actions;
There is enhanced ab ility to anticipate and react to internal and external risks
and opportunities;
There is enhanced consideration of b oth incremental and b reakthrough

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improvement;
There is improved use of learning for improvement; There is enhanced drive
for innovation.
Possible actions (As per ISO 9000:2015)
Some of the possib le actions that an organization can take includes:
It can promote estab lishment of improvement ob jectives at all levels of the
organization;
It can educate and train people at all levels on how to apply b asic tools and
methodologies to achieve improvement ob jectives;
It can ensure people are competent to successfully promote and complete
improvement projects;
It can develop and deploy processes to implement improvement projects
throughout the organization;
It can track, review and audit the planning, implementation, completion and
results of improvement projects;
It can integrate improvement consideration into development of new or
modified products and services and processes;
It can recognize and acknowledge improvement.
Explanation:

This is the fifth of the Seven principles of Quality management and can be mapped
to the sixth of the Eight Quality principle which is Continual Improvement. The
term Continual Improvement has been change to Improvement. The fifth
principle of the Eight Quality principle System approach to management no
longer exist in the Seven principle of quality management.The Eight principle
definition

stated

Continual

improvement

of

the

organizations

overall

performance should b e a permanent ob jective of the organization. The Seven


principle definition states Successful organizations have an ongoing focus on
improvement. Improvement is the improvement in organizational efficiency and
effectiveness. The organization should Employ a consistent organization-wide
approach to

improvement of the organizations tools of

improvement. The

organization should Provide people with the training in the methods and tools of
improvement.

The

organization

should

Make

improvement

of

products,

processes,and the system an objective for every individual in the organization. The
organization should Establish the goals to guide and lead.

6 Ev ide nce -base d De cision M aking.


Decisions based on the analysis and evaluation of data and information are

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more likely to produce desired results.


Rationale
Decision-making can b e a complex process, and it always involves some
uncertainty. It often involves multiple types and sources of inputs, as well as their
interpretation, which can b e sub jective. It is important to understand cause and
effect relationships and potential unintended consequences. Facts, evidence and
data analysis lead to greater ob jectivity and confidence in decisions made.
Key Benefits (As per ISO 9000:2015)
1. There is an improvement in decision making processes;
2. There is an improvement in assessment of process performance and ab ility
to achieve ob jectives;
3. There is an improvement in operational effectiveness and efficiency;
4. There is an increased ab ility to review, challenge and change opinions and
decisions;
5. There is an increased ab ility to demonstrate the effectiveness of past
decisions.
Possible actions (As per ISO 9000:2015)
Some of the possib le actions that an organization can take includes:
It should determine, measure and monitor key indicators to demonstrate the
organizations performance;
It can make all data needed availab le to the relevant people;
It should ensure that data and information are sufficiently accurate, reliab le
and secure;
It can analyse and evaluate data and information using suitab le methods;
It should ensure people are competent to analyse and evaluate data as
needed;
It can make decisions and take actions b ased on evidence, b alanced with
experience and intuition.
Explanation:

This is the sixth of the Seven principles of Quality management and can be
mapped to the seventh of the Eight Quality principle which is Factual approach
to decision making . The term Factual approach to decision making has
been change to Evidence-based Decision Making. The fifth principle of the Eight
Quality principle System approach to management no longer exist in the Seven
principle of quality management.The Eight principle definition stated Effective

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decisions are b ased on the analysis of data


and information. The Seven principle definition states Decisions b ased on the
analysis and evaluation of data and information are more likely to produce desired
results. Evidence is information that shows or proves that something exists or is
true. Evidence can be collected by performing observations, measurements, tests,
or by using any other suitable method. Any decision making should away be
based on evidences. The organization should ensuring that data/information is
sufficiently accurate and reliable. The organization should make data accessible to
those who need them. The organization should analyze data using appropriate
tools.The organization should make decision and take actions based on analysis
of data,balanced with experience and intuition.

7 Re lationship M anage me nt
For sustained success, organizations manage their relationships with
interested parties, such as suppliers.
Rationale
Interested parties influence the performance of an organization. Sustained
success is more likely to b e achieved when an organization manages
relationships with its interested parties to optimize their impact on its performance.
Relationship management with its supplier and partner network is often of
particular importance
Key Benefits (As per ISO 9000:2015)
There is an enhanced performance of the organization and its relevant
interested parties through responding to the opportunities and constraints
related to each interested party;
There is a common understanding of ob jectives and values among interested
parties;
There is an increased capab ility to create value for interested parties b y
sharing resources and competence and managing quality related risks;
There is a a well-managed supply chain that provides a stab le flow of
products and services.
Possible actions (As per ISO 9000:2015)
Some of the possib le actions that an organization can take includes:
It can determine relevant interested parties (such as providers, partners,
customers, investors, employees or society as a whole) and their relationship
with the organization;

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It can determine and prioritize interested party relationships that need to b e


managed;
It can estab lish relationships that b alance short-term gains with long-term
considerations;
It can gather and share information, expertise and resources with relevant
interested parties;
It can measure performance and provide performance feedb ack to interested
parties, as appropriate, to enhance improvement initiatives; It can estab lish
collab orative development and improvement activities with providers,
partners and other interested parties;
It can encourage and recognize improvements and achievements b y
providers and partners.
Explanation:

This is the seventh of the Seven principles of Quality management and can be
mapped to the eighth of the Eight Quality principle which is Mutually beneficial
supplier relationships . The term Mutually beneficial supplier relationships
has been change to Relationship Management. The fifth principle of the Eight
Quality principle System approach to management no longer exist in the Seven
principle of quality management.The Eight principle definition stated
organization

and

its

suppliers

are

interdependent

and

An

mutually

b eneficial relationship enhances the ab ility of b oth to create value The Seven
principle definition states For sustained success, organizations manage their
relationships with interested parties, such as suppliers.An interested party is a
person or group that has a stake in the success or performance of an
organization. Interested parties may be directly affected by the organization or
actively concerned about its performance. Interested parties can come from inside
or outside of the organization. Examples of interested parties include customers,
suppliers, owners, partners, employees, unions, bankers, or members of the
general public. Interested parties are also referred to as stakeholders. Relation
management with interested parties meaning sharing knowledge,vision,values,
understanding and suppliers are not treated as adversaries.The organization
establishes a relationships that balance short-term gains with long term
considerations. There is pooling of expertise and resources with partners. The
Organization identifying and selecting key suppliers. There is clear and open
communication with the stake holders. There is sharing of information and future
plans. The organization establishes a

joint development and improvement

activities. The organization inspiring,encourages and recognize improvements and


achievement by suppliers.

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