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Communication Receiver

equipment capable of receiving RF

signal , bandlimitng and tuning in the
desired signal and performing


process of recovering the information

signal from the composite modulated

Basic Types of Receiver

1. Coherent of Synchronous - The
frequency generated in the receiver used
for demodulation used is synchronized to
oscillator frequency in the transmitter.
2. Non-coherent or Asynchronous demodulation is completely independent
from the transmitter carrier frequency.
Standard AM Receiver Types
1. Tuned Radio Frequency Receiver
(TRF) - consists of a number of amplifier
stages which are tuned to resonance at the
carrier frequency of the desired signal by a
gaged capacitor. The amplifier signal at the
original carrier frequency are fed directly
into the detector for demodulation and the
resulting signals are amplifier and
reproduce by a loudspeaker.
1. RF Amplifier - amplifies the weak signal.
It has a variable RF stage to controls RF
gain and sensitivity.
2. Detector - provides rectification and
detection for the modulated signal recovers
the RF signal.
3. AF Amplifier - raises the power level of
the audio signal to drive the loudspeaker.
Advantages of TRF Receivers
1. Simple to design and align at lower
frequency application.
2. High sensitivity at single frequency
1. Selectivity varies when it is tuned over a
wide range of input frequencies.
2. Instability due to large numbers of RF
amplifiers all tuned to the same center

3. Non-uniform gain over a very wide
frequency range.
4. Requires multistage tuning.
Sensitivity- ability to pick up weak signals
Selectivity - ability to select the desired
signal in the presence of other signals.
2. Super heterodyne Receiver- a
receiver in which all incoming modulated
RF carrier signals are converted as a
common IF carrier value for additional
amplification and selectivity prior to
demodulation, using heterodyne action.
Heterodyne - to mix two frequencies in a
non-linear device and translate one
frequency into another frequency by use of
non-linear mixing.
1. RF section - RF amplifiers increases the
level of weak RF signal received from the
2. Local oscillator a stable crystal
oscillator whose frequency beats with
the incoming signal to reproduce the
correct intermediate frequency.
3. Mixer
- it combines the incoming RF signal and
the LO signal and produces at its output.
The sum and difference signals and various
4. 1st and 2nd IF amplifier - tuned to 455 KHz
amplifies the 455 KHz output of the mixer
and rejects the remaining output
frequencies; provides further selectivity
and amplifications.
5. 2nd Detector - demodulates the 455 KHz
signal and extracts the audio signal.
Advantages of Using RF Amplifier
1. Provides higher gain and sensitivity.
2. Improve-image frequency rejection.
3. Enhanced S/N.
4. Better selectivity
Tracking - process of tuning the local
oscillator to a pre-determined frequency for
each station. Throughout the AM band.
a). High tracking of hide side injection .
flo = fRF + fIF
b). Low tracking or low side injection
flo = fRF fIF

flo = local oscillator frequency
fRF = input signal frequency
fIF = intermediate frequency (455 KHz)
* Note: high tracking is preferred because
it is easier to filter the undesired frequency.
Image frequency, fs:
- any frequency other than the selected RF
carrier, that if allowed the receiver and mix
with the LO signal will produce a crossproduct frequency. That is equal to IF.
fs = flo + fIf
fs = fRF + 2fIF
fo = fRF + IF (for high tracking)
rejection of the image frequency

1+Q 2 2


fs f RF

f RF fs in dB;

IFFR (dB) = 20logIFRR

fsi = 20 MHz
f52 = 22MHz

21 20 = 1
22 21 = 1

1 MHz

f0= 21 Mhz
Note: Image and frequency rejection
depends on the front and selectivity of the
receiver and must be achieved before the
IF stage.
In a broadcast superheterodyne receiving
having an RF amplifier. The loaded Q of the
antenna coupling circuit is 100. If IF is 455
Khz. Calculate:
a.) Image and frequency and its rejection at
100 KHz.
b.) Image frequency and its rejection at 25
Example Problem:

Q = 100
IF = 455 MHz

Superheteroby dyne Tracking

The signal is received by the first stage RF
amplifier (which is wideband class A
amplifier) whose resonant frequency
response curve can be tuned from 540 KHz
to 1650 KHz (The standard Broadcast
Band). The modulated signal is amplified
and fed to the mixer stage (a class C circuit
capable of producing the sum, difference
and original frequencies), which is receiving
signals from two sources RF amplifier and
the local oscillator). The unmodulated
signal from the local oscillator is fed to the
mixer simultaneously with the modulated
signal from the RF amplifier. (These two
circuits are mechanically linked). The local
oscillator (LO) is a tunable circuit with a
tuning range that extends from 995 KHz to
2,105 KHz.
The output from the mixer circuit is
connected to the intermediate frequency
amplifier (IF amp) with amplifies a
narrowband of select frequencies (455 KHz

3 KHz). In some receivers this class A

circuit acts not only as an amplifier but also

as a filter for unwanted frequencies which
would interfere with the selected one. This
new IF frequency contains the same
modulated information as that transmitted
from the source but a frequency range
lower than the standard broadcast band.
This conversion process helps reduce
unwanted interference from outside
sources. The signals is rectified and filtered
to eliminate one sideband and the carrier
(conversion from RF to AF) and is finally
amplified for listening.
Choice of IF
1. If the intermediate frequency is too high
poor selectivity and poor adjacent
channel rejection unless sharp cut-off filters
are used in the IF stages.
2. A high value of intermediate frequency
increased tracking difficulties.
3. As the intermediate frequency is
lowered, image frequency rejection become

4. A very low intermediate frequency can
make the selectivity too sharp cutting off
the sidebands.
5. If the IF is very low, the frequency
stability of the local oscillator must be
made corresponding higher because any
frequency drift is now a large proportion of

the low IF than of a high IF.

6. The intermediate frequency must not fall
within the tuning range of the receiver or
else instability will occur and heterodyne
whistles will be heard, making it is
impossible to tune the frequency bond
immediately adjacent to the intermediate