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GrowingOrganicMangoesinthePhilippines

ShareThiswithFriendsINTRODUCTION
Thegrowingmarketdemandsbothdomesticandexportfororganicallygrownfruitsandvegetables
compelustolearntogrowORGANICMANGO.Thisisasimpleandbasicstudytohelpmangogrowers
producenaturallygrownmangofreefromtoxicchemicalresidue,usingbothherbalorganic
concentratesandbiotechnologywithintegratedpestmanagement.
Mango(Mangiferaindica)isthenationalfruitofthePhilippines.
Ithasawidemarketpotentialbothdomesticandinternationalexports.
ItisahighvaluecropwheremangogrowercanearnfromP100,000.00toP500,000.00perhectare
peryear,providedplantedattherightdistanceof2020m+1,withapopulationof50hillsperhectare
andproperlycared.
Itissuitableonuplandareaswithabundantsunlightandadequatemoisture.
Mangoisacentennialcropthatthreeormorefamilygenerationcanbenefit.
Itisagoodretirementinsurancecropwhereproductionincreaseastreesgrowbiggerandolder.
MangoProduction
Estimatedproduction50treesperhectare.(Plantingdistance:20x20+1)
AgeRangeof

Estimated

GrossSales

Costof

GrossProfitor

TreesinYears

Productionper

perHectareat

Productionat

Incomeper

TreesinKilos

50treesxP10

P4.00perkilo

hectarewith
50trees

1to5

Noproduction

JuvenileTrees

P50,000.00

(P50,000.00)

5to10

50

P25,000.00

P10,000.00

P15,000.00

10to15

200

100,000.00

40,000.00

60,000.00

15to20

500

250,000.00

100,000.00

150,000.00

20to25

800

400,000.00

160,000.00

240,000.00

25to30

1,000

500,000.00

200,000.00

300,000.00

30to35

1,200

600,000.00

240,000.00

360,000.00

35to40

1,500

750,000.00

300,000.00

450,000.00

40to45

1,800

900,000.00

360,000.00

540,000.00

45to50

2,000

1,000,000.00

400,000.00

600,000.00

Mangoisahighvalueandbigearnercrop,comparedtotraditionalcropslikerice,corn,coconutand
sugarcanewhereincomerangesonlyfromP15,000.00toP60,000.00perhectareperyear.Thisiswhy
mostfarmersgrowingtraditionalcropsremainpoor.MangocaneasilygiveP100,000.00toP300,000.00
perhectareperyearwithtrees10to20yearsold.
ItisveryimportanttoplantthePhilippineGoldenMango(carabaovariety)atadistanceofnolessthan
15metersapartsincebynatureitisabigtree.Itcanonlygiveitsoptimumormaximumproductivityifits
naturalenvironmentisfavorabletoitsnaturalhabitat.GENSAFCOrecommendsplantingat20x20
meters+1hillatthecenteroffourtreesorsquareformingaquincunxlayout.Thiswillhaveapopulation
of50treesperhectare.
MANGOPRODUCTS
Thefollowingareprimarycommercialmangoproducts:
Freshtablefruit,ripeandgreen.
Driedordehydratedripemangofruit.
MangoPuree,concentrate,nectarandjuices.
Secondarymangoproducts:
Mangofruitpreservesinsyrup,saltedorfermented.
Chilledfreshmangofruits.(Frozenfreshhalves)
Greenmangopickle(Burongmangga)
Powderedmango(greenandripe)
Othermangoproductsandbyproducts:
Mangoseedsfornurseryplantingmaterials.
Mangoseedsandshellforfeeds
Mangopeel.seeds,leaves,branchesfororganicfertilizer.
Mangowoodforlumberandfurnituremakingandfruitboxes..
Specializefruit,leavesandplantextractfordrugsandmedicine.
Otherproductsunderdevelopment.
CULTURALREQUIREMENTSIDEALFORMANGO
Mangoisatropicaltree.Itcangrowinmostlandmassesalongandneartheequator/Mangocanbe
growninalmostallregionsofthePhilippines,buttheyarefoundtobemoreproductiveifgrowninthe
followingenvironmentalconditions:
1.Elevationwithin600metersfromsealevelupto800metersisstilltolerable.
2.Mangoesneedadryperiodof3to5monthstoinducematurityofvegetativepartsandflower.Fruit

developmentalsoneedsplentyofsunlightupto120135daysafterflowerinduction.Mangoare
biennialbearer,fruitseverytwoyears.
3.Theidealtemperatureformangogrowingis21degreeCto27degreeC.
4.Soilspreferredaredeeploamy,richinorganicmatter,withbalancecontentofmacroandmicro
nutrientelements.
5.Waterrequirement:Thelandisslightlysloping,welldrainbutwithgoodmoistureholdingcapacity.
Optimummoistureorwatersupplyformangoisveryimportant.
6.SoilpHof6to7isidealformango.Itisatthislevel,nutrientsareavailable.
7.Topographyofthelandrangesfromflattorollingnotexceeding45degreesgradient.Stiff
mountainsidesarealsoplantedtomango,butwithdifficultyinproductionmanagement.
8.Mangoneedsplentyofsunlight.Fullygrownmangotreesshouldhaveenoughsunlightfrommorning
toevening,atthetopofitscrowntobaseoftrunk.Shadingevenpartiallywilllimititsproductivity.
Crowdedbranchandfoliagereduceyield.
9.Moderateairfloworwindisneededbymangotreestoallowaerationtopreventthebuildupofpest
anddiseaseswithinthetreecrown.Avoidstrongwindsespeciallyduringfloweringandfruitingstageby
growingwindbreakertrees.
ESTALISHMENTOFMANGOORCHARD
Afewpointersinestablishingagoodproductivemangoorchard:
1.Lookfortheidealsiteofamangofarmbaseontheculturalrequirementidealformango.Mostsunny
areaswithgoodsoilmoistureinthePhilippinesaresuitable.
2.Selectcarefullyyourplantingmaterials.Besureyougettherightvarietyandstrainthemarket
demands.Graftedseedlingsarerecommendedtohaveuniformtreeproduction.ThePhilippineGolden
(carabaoLamaoselection)varietyispreferred.
3.Thefarmshouldbeaccessiblewithgoodroadsandabundantwatersupplyforirrigationandspraying.
4.Clearfieldofalltreesandstructurethatwillshedthetreestoallowfullsunshineandfreeairflow.Set
rowsateastwestorientation.Betterplantthemontrianglelayout.
5.Layoutthefarmandtreeswithaccessinfarmroads,farmhouse,workingshed,watersystemand
otherfarmstructures.
6.Recommendedplantingdistanceis20x20+1metersquincunxwith50treespopulationperhectare.
Thecenterhillmaybeeliminatedwhentreesbecomebiggerandcrowdedat20to30yearsold.
7.Weed,cultivate,fertilizeandirrigateyourtreesregularlyevery3months.Combineorganicand
chemicalfertilizersforfasterandhealthygrowth.Usefarmcompost.
Fororchardsdevotedtogroworganicfruitsnaturalfarmingpracticesusingorganicandbiologicalfarm
practices,withoutchemicalinputsmaybeadopted.Thereisagrowingmarketdemandfororganically
grownfruitsincludingmango.
PlantPropagation
MethodsofPropagation

b.Sexualpropagationwithseeds.Thetreesgrowbigandproductivein715years.However,fruitsmay
notbethesamewithgeneticvariations.
c.Asexualpropagationgrafting.Treesstartbearingasearlyas35years.Theyproducemore
uniformtruetotypefruits,comingfromthesamemothertree.
FieldPlanting
StepsinFieldPlanting:
1.Propagateandhardentheseedlingsorplantingmaterials.Exposetodirectsunlightatleastoneweek
beforefieldplanting.Sprayordrenchwithherbalpesticide.(HOC).
2.Clearthefield,plowandharrowifpossible.
3.Stakeplantingsite20x20+1mquincunxor15x15mtriangletohave50hills/ha..
4.Dig1cubicmeterholesandreplacethesoilwithrich/fertiletopsoilandfullydecomposedorganic
matterororganicfertilizer.Earthwormcastingorisidealmixtotopsoil.Fullydecomposedanimaland
plantwastewithbeneficialbacteriaandfungi.
5.Plantingprocedure:
a.Drenchtheseedlinginplasticbagandpressthesoiltoloosenitinthebag.
b.Makeaholeandpourinwatertodrenchthesoil.
c.Gentlyremoveseedlingfromplasticbagandplaceinhole,coverandpresssoil.
d.Placeastakefirmlybesidestheseedlingandifneededtietheseedlingtoit.
CAREANDMANAGEMENTOFBEARINGTREES
Thehealth,vigorandsizeofthemangotreesdetermineitsproductivity.EvenifthePhilippineGolden
mangoisbiennialinnature,itcanbemadetobearyearlyormoreofteniftherightculturalmanagement
isdone.
1.Fenceandsecuretheareafromstrayanimalsandintrudersthatmaydamagetheplants.Securityis
mostneeded30daysuptoharvest.
2.Practicecleanculture.Cultivateandweedregularly.Removealltreesandshrubsthatserveashost
toinsectpestanddiseases.
3.Thetreesshouldnotshedoneanother.Pruneoffovercrowdedbranches.Mangoisaterminalbearer,
soavoidpruningoffhealthyterminalfruitingshootbuds.
4.Irrigateandkeepthesoilmoistmostatalltimes.Lesswaterordriersoilispreferredonemonth
beforeflowerinductionandonemonthbeforeharvest.Avoidwaterloggingbyprovidingsuitable
drainage.
5.Fertilizequarterlywithabundantorganicfertilizerwithmacroandtracemineralelements.Spray
herbalorganicconcentratefertilizeronleavesandfruitswhengrowthandfruitdevelopmentneeds
supplementalnutrition.

EssentialPlantFoodElements
MACRONUTRIENTSFrom

MICRONUTRIENTSFrom

soilandfertilizers

soilandfertilizer

1.Carbon

1.Nitrogen

1.Zinc

2.Hydrogen

2.Phosphorous

2.Iron

3.Oxygen

3.Potash

3.Boron

4.Calcium

4.Molybdenum

5.Sulfur

5.Copper

6.Magnesium

6.Manganese

7.Chlorine

MACRONUTRIENTS
Fromwaterandair.

KindsofOrganicFertilizers:
a.Foliarorganicfertilizersderivedfromfermentedanimalofplantslikefishandfruitaminoacid.
b.Decomposedanimalwastemixedwithplantresidueswithbeneficialmicroorganisms.
c.Vermincompostorearthwormcastingfedwithdecomposingorganicmaterials.Oneoftherichform
oforganicfertilizerwithhumicacid,agrowthpromotingandbeneficialmicroorganisms.
d.Sludgeorliquidorganicwastematerialsrichinplantfoodnutrientwithbeneficialmicroorganisms.
e.Greenmanure.Theseareyoungplantsusuallylegumesorbeansthatareplowedunderandmixed
withthesoilduringfloweringstage.
f.Soilandseedinoculatesuchasnitrogenfixingbacteriaandothermicroorganismsthathelp
decomposeorganicmaterials.
6.Controlpestanddiseases.Sprayherbalorganicinsecticidesandfungicides.Sprayduring
a.Flushingofyoungleaves,
b.Beforeflowerinduction,
c.Atbudbreakandflowerelongation,
d.Duringfruitformationanddevelopment
e.Beforebaggingand
f.Onemonthbeforeharvest.
Spraytheentiretree,leaves,branches,stemandthegroundsurroundingthetrunk.Notethatmostpest
anddiseasescomefromthesoilsurroundingthetree.
7.Usebiologicalcontrolstocontrolinsectpestanddiseasesarepreferred.

(Birds,animals,insects,bacteria,fungiandotherlivingorganismsthathelpcontrolpests)
a.Useofinsectpredatorsandparasitesliketrichogramma,braconidsandpiratebugstocounterinsect
pests.
b.Useofmicroorganismssuchasbeneficialbacteriaandfungitocounterdiseasesandinsectpests.
c.Allowbiodiversityandbalanceecosysteminthefarmbymaintaininggreenbeltsorminiforestto
shelterandprovidebreedingandfavorableenvironmentforalltypesoflivingorganismsthatwillbalance
andpreventthebreakoutofinfestationofoneormorepests.
8.NaturalFlowerinduction:
WhilePotassiumNitrateandotherchemicalsarenowavailableinthemarkettoinducefloweringand
fruiting,stilltherearenaturalwaysofflowerinductionandfruiting.Amongthemarethefollowing:
a.Seasonalfruiting.Theseoccurwhenthetreesarehealthyandtheseasonforfloweringandfruiting
comesusuallyfromNovembertoMarchatthestartofdryseason.
b.Smokingtreefoliagewhentheyreachmaturity.
c.Rootpruningandpartialgirdlingwillalsoinducefloweringandfruitingastheseareformsofstresses.
d.ApplicationofhighdosageofPhosphorousandPotashfertilizerwithadequatemicronutrientswill
alsohastenfloweringandfruiting.
9.Careandmanagementofflowersandfruitdevelopment.
Assoonasthefruitingbudsstartbreaking(BudBreak)adultinsectpestshibernatingorjustwaitingfor
newvegetativegrowthwillbeattractedtothebudandstartlayingeggsonthemandthegrowing
inflorescence.
Somecontrolmeasures:
a.Sanitizethetreebysprayanddrenchingthewholetree(soil,trunk,branchesandleaves)withHerbal
OrganicConcentrate(HOC4n1)withfourproperties(Pestrepellant,insecticide,fungicideandfoliar
fertilizer)onaweeklyintervalstartingwithflowerinductiontofruitdevelopment.Sprayaftertherain.
b.Removealldiseaseandinfestedpartsofthetree,weedsanddebris.
IMPROVECULTURALMANAGEMENT&REJUVINATION

SANITATIONPRUNINGWEEDING&CULTIVATION
SOILFERTILIZATION(ORGANICFERTILIZER)
IRRIGATION&DRAINAGE
LEAFINDUCTIONFLUSHING(HOC+FAA)
IPM(SANITATION,HOC&BIOCON)
FLOWERMANAGEMENT

FLOWERINDUCTION(KNO3)

IRRIGATION&DRAINAGE
FOLIARFERTILIZATION(HOC4n1+FAA)
ENHANCEPOLLINATION(AttractPollinators)
FRUITMANAGEMENT

IRRIGATION&DRAINAGE
FOLIARFERTILIZATION(HOC4n1+FAA)
IPM(BIOCON+HOC+Bagging)
PROPERHARVESTING
PROPERPOSTHARVESTHANDLINF&TREATMENT
PACKAGING&MARKETING
ONSEASONMANGOPRODUCTION
TheregularseasonformangoisfloweringfromNovembertoFebruaryandharvestfromMarchtoJune.
Thisisduringthesummermonths.ThePhilippineGoldencarabaomangoisabiennialbearer.This
meansthatbyitsnatureitbearsagoodharvesteverytwoyears,butmaybeareveryyeartooif
conditionsarefavorablesuchasthegeneralhealthofthetreeandsummerintensityoftheweather
condition.
Understandingthenaturallawsgoverningthegrowthandproductionofmangowillhelpusgrowers
maintaintheirhealthandproductivitythroughtheyears.Therainyorwetseasonwillallowthetreeto
grow,rejuvenateandstorefoodnutrientsforitsfruitingstageduringthesummermonthswhere
floweringandfruitingnaturallyoccur.
OFFSEASONMANGOPRODUCTION
MangogrowerscanproducemangofruitsduringtheoffseasonespeciallyinMindanao,beingoutside
thetyphoonbelt.Otherareasofthecountrywithlessexpectedtyphoonandheavyrainsmightventure
intoproducingoffseasonfruitsasthesupplyislow,demandishighandpriceisgood.
PERIODorSCHEDULE

FLOWERINDUCTION

HARVEST

SeasonProduction

NovembertoFebruary

MarchtoJune

OffSeasonProduction

MarchtoOctober

JulytoFebruary

Producingmangoduringoffseasonhasitsownuniquechallenges.Productionfallsduringtherainy

season.Thiswillrequireaspecialcareandculturalmanagement.Bereadytosprayherbalfungicide
everyafterrainduringfloweringandearlyfruitdevelopmenttopreventfungalinfectionanddropping.
1.Followaoneyearcycleofeight(8)monthsrejuvenation(fromharvesttoflowerinduction)andfour
(4)monthsofproduction(fromflowerinductiontoharvest.)Remember,plantsalsoneedtimetoabsorb
plantnutrientsfromsoil,waterandatmosphere,carrythemtotheleavesforphotosynthesis,then
transportcookednutrienttodifferentpartsoftheplantforfoodstorageandutilizationforgrowth,
floweringandfruiting.
2.Thesecretofsuccessandproductivityliesinproperrejuvenationofthetreesimmediatelyafter
harvestuptoinductionandcareofflowersandfruitstofullmaturity.
3.Afterharvestbypruning,fertilizationwithhighnitrogenandirrigatingimmediatelytoinducenew
flushing.After4monthscultivatearoundthetrunkundercoverofcanopytopartiallyrootpruneand
fertilizewithhighpotashtoinducematuritywillmakethetreereadyforflowerinduction2to4months
hence.Thiswilleffectivelypreventnewflushing,makethetreedormantandstorenutrientsforflowering
andfruiting.
FLOWERINDUCTION
Mangotreesflowerandfruitwhenitishealthyandreadytofruit.Stresswillhelpinducefloweringduring
dryseasonforitsseasonalbearingHoweverflowercanbeinducedbysmoking,partialgirdlingbranch
stretchingorothermechanicalorchemicaltreatments.ChemicalflowerinductionbyusingPotassium
nitrate(KNO3)wasintroducedbyDr.RamonBarbaafterhissuccessfulresearchin1970atUPLB,
College,Laguna,Philippines.AnewherbalorganicflowerInducerisnowbeingformulatedbychemistin
Mindanao.
PREPARINGTHETREESFORFLOWERINGANDFRUITING.
Itiseasytoinducethetreestoflower,butifthetreeisnotwellprepared,theflowerswilljustfalloff.The
treeshouldbereallyhealthywithadequatenutrientstoragetosupportandsustainfloweringandfruit
developmentuptofullmaturityandharvest.
Hereareafewpointerstorememberandadopt:
1.Provideenoughfertilizerandnutrienttotheplantthroughthesoil.Neverrelyonlyonfoliarfertilization.
Thatisonlytoaugmentnutrientneedsduringtheproductionperiod(floweringtofruitdevelopment).To
besure,applyenoughorganicfertilizerevery6monthstoeverytreeaugmentedwithchemicalfertilizer.
2.Insurethatthereisadequatesoilmoistureatalltimes.Overwaterisnotgood.
3.Protectthetreeswithbiologicalandorganicherbalpesticidesandfungicides.
4.Inducethetreestoflushafterharvesttohavenewshootfornextseasonfruiting.

5.Twomonthsafterflushingwhentheleavesstartmaturing,applyfertilizerrichinphosphorousand
potashtokeeptreesmaturinganddormantinpreparationfornextseasonsfruiting.Useorganic
fertilizerwithguanoandburntricehullorash.
Inselectingtreesforflowerinduction,takenoteofthefollowing:
1.Thetreemusthavefullmatureleavesandbuds.Theleavesarecrispydarkgreenincolor,healthy
plumdormantbudtips.Atleast810monthsrejuvenation.
2.Thetreeandleavesshouldbedry,withnorainexpectedwithin6hoursfromspraying.
3.Treesthatfruitedthepreviousseasonbuthavenotflushedshouldnotbeinducedtoflower.Many
contractorsandgrowerswhowantfastmoneyoftenviolatethispractice.Toinducethetreetoflush,
irrigateandfertilizewithhigherdosageofnitrogen,andorspraytheleaveswithhalfdoseofPotassium
Nitrate(KNO3)mixedwithfoliarfertilizer.
4.Sprayinganddrenchingthewholeplantfromthebaseoftrunktobranchesandleaveswithfoliar
fertilizerrichinaminoacidorotherorganicweakacidandcontainingmicronutrientelementswillhelp
induceflushing.TheuseofHerbalOrganicConcentrate(HOC)andhomemadelimesulfurhavebeen
foundtoinducenewvegetativegrowth.
CONDITIONSINUSINGCHEMICALFLOWERINDUCERS
Whennottouse

UseHighDosage

UseLowDosage

1.Whenthetreeistoo

1.WhenTreesarejust

1.Whentreesarebig,old

small,youngorjuvenile.2.

startingtomature.2.

orfullymature.2.When

Whentheleavesandbuds

Leavesandbudsare

leavesandbudsarefully

areyoung.3.Whenthetree

maturing3.Thetreeis

mature.3.Thetreeis

isweakandsickly.

healthy,withvigorousbuds

healthywithdormantbuds.

andleaves.
4.Duringrainyweather.

4.Duringhostsunny
4.Duringcloudyweather.

weather.

whenthetreehasfruitsor

5.Fivetosevenmonths

5.Eighttotenmonthsafter

flushing.

afterharvestafter

harvestafter,rejuvenation

rejuvenation&mature.

&dormant.

5.Justafterharvestor

OTHERINDICATIONS
1.Checkonthefruitingbudsreadiness.Thebudsareslightlyroundedandmatureordormant,readyto
flower..
2.Ifthebudsareflatteningwithsmalldormantbudsatthesides,theyaremostlikelynewflushingbuds

forvegetativegrowthfornextseasonsfruiting.
3.Thesoilandthetreesaredry.Ifitrainedthepreviousdaysandtheatmosphereishumid,induction
mayresulttoflushingorfloweringwithflushing.
4.Choosetoinduceduringdryhotmonthsordrydays.Flowerinductionupto45daysduringtheearly
fruitformationarethemostcriticalperiodwheretheflowersandyoungfruitsaresusceptibletoinfection
andinfestations.
5.Asageneralrule,afloweringbudstickfruitsonlyonce.Itneedstoflushandproducenewbudstick
forsubsequentfruiting.Mangoesareusuallyterminalfruiting,butsuperhealthytreessometimesflower
andfruitfromdormantbudsofbigbranches.
6.Amangotreeneedsenoughtimeatleast8to10monthstoaccumulateandstorefoodnutrientsinits
systemtosupportfloweringandfruiting.
7.Toomuchfloweringasin90to100%offoliagefloweraredangerous,sincetoomuchenergyis
releasedbytheplant,andtherewillnotbeenoughleftforfruitdevelopment.Usualresultismassive
droppingandonlyafewfruitsremainoreventotalcropfall.A40to60%foliagefloweringwouldbeideal
toinsurefullfruitdevelopmentwithbiggerandbetterqualityharvest.
8.Waterormoistureisverymuchneededfrombudemergencetoonemonthbeforeharvesttoinsure
availabilityofplantfoodnutrients.Thetreeneedsdryandsunnydaysbeforeandduringfloweringand
duringfruitmaturingtoonemonthbeforeharvesttoinsurefullmaturing,wherefruitsdonotcrackor
dropduringthefinalstageuptoharvest.
PESTANDDISEASECONTROL:
Naturalfarmingmethodsofcontrollingpestanddiseasesingrowingorganicmango:IntegratedPest
Management(IPM)istheuseofdifferentpracticalyetlowcostmethods:
1.Culturalpracticesthatincludestherightplantingdistance,periodicweedingandcultivation,irrigation
anddrainage,pruning,spraying,etc.Seetoitthatthewatersourceisnotcontaminatedorcarrierof
pestanddiseases.
2.Theuseofbaitsandinsecttraps(lighttraps,sweetjuicetubatrap).
3.Sprayingwithherbalorganicpreparationswithpestrepellant,insecticideandfungicidalproperties
(HOC).
4.Theuseofbeneficialmicroorganismsthatcontrolpestanddiseases.
5.Theuseofinsectpredators,parasitesliketrichogramma,braconids,andpiratebug.
6.Croprotationorintercroppingwithplantsthatwillrepelorreduceinfestation.
7.Scheduleandtimeproductionduringleastpestinfestationanddiseaseprevalence.Thereisless
insectpestanddiseasesduringsummermonths.
8.Cultivateandfertilizethesoilaroundthebaseofthetrunkperiodicallywithorganicfertilizerderived
fromherbswithpesticideandfungicidalpropertiesaswellasbeneficialmicroorganisms.
9.Removediseasedorinfestedfruitsandvegetativepartsofthetreeanddisposeofthemproperlysuch
asremovingthemfromthefield,burning,buryorcompostingthemforfertilizer.Practicecleanculture.

Takenote:Whensprayingtreeswithherbalorganicconcentrate(HOC)startwiththesoilsurrounding
thetrunk,upwardaroundthetrunk,branchesthentheundersideoftheleavesorfoliageandlastthetop
ofleavesandcrown.Insectpestanddiseasescomesfromthesoilandstayintrunkandbranchwhere
theyhibernateandwaitthenwakeorbecomeactivewhennewgrowthappearssuchasflushingand
floweringtofruiting.
RememberthatwhenGodcreatedtheuniverse,theearthandnature,itwascompleteandbalanced.
Maninterferedwiththisbalanceintheenvironmentandecosystemforthedesiretoproducemoreof
theirselectedandpreferredcrops,intheprocessdestroyingtheequilibriumanddisruptingnaturallaws
andlife.Itsilleffectsoftoxicsyntheticchemicalsarenowbeingmanifestedinmakingthelandless
productiveandthelifespanofmanisshortening.Otherlifeformsaredisappearing.Itistimeforusto
learnnaturallawsandadoptNaturalFarmingSystem.
Before1950evenupto1970whenpotassiumnitratewasdiscoveredbyDr.RamonBarbaasan
effectiveflowerInducerformango,thetreeswereleftalonetonatureandbearfruitsduringseason.
Mangoownersjustharvestedmangofruitswithoutcaringforthetrees,justlikecoconutfarmers.Today,
asthepricesofchemicalinputsgettoohigh,mangogrowersarestartingtoleavethemangotreesto
thecareofnature.Addedtothisisthegrowingdemandforchemicalfreemangoornaturallygrown
fruits.
Wearenowintroducingtheuseofherbalorganicpestanddiseasecontrolandbiologicalmeasures.Our
latestexperienceingrowingorganicmangoshowthatnaturalfarmingsystemiseasiertolearnby
farmersandcostlower.
ONEYEARCYCLEOFMANGOPRODUCTION,FLOWERINGANDFRUITDEVELOPMENT
OneYear

StageofGrowth

Activity/Operation

7DBFI

Treeisreadyforflowerinduction

SanitizetreePrune&SprayHOC

0FI

Maturebuds&leaves

SprayflowerInducer+HOC3n1

710DAFI

Budemergence

SprayHOC4n1

14DAFI

Postemergence

Monitor&sprayHOC4n1+FAA

21DAFI

Preemergence/bloom

Monitor&SprayHOCifneeded

24DAFI

Anthesis/blooming

Donotspray

28DAFI

Fullanthesis/bloom

Donotspray

Prod.Cycle

3032DAFI

Postanthesis/bloom

Monitor

35DAFI

Fruitset

Monitor/sprayHOC4n1+FAA

42DAFI

Postfruitset

Monitor/sprayHOC4n1+FAA

6070DAFI

Fruitenlargement

SprayHOC4n1&fruitbagging

90DAFI

Startofmaturation

Monitor/sprayHOC4n1+FAA

120130DAFI

Fullmaturity

Harvesting,HWTandPackaging

130140DAFI

Naturalripening

ProcessingandMarketing

140360DAFI

Rejuvenation.Flushing,nutrient

Culturalmanagement:Pruning,

absorption,photosynthesis,food

Weeding,Cultivation,Fertilizing,

&energystorageDormancy

IrrigationandSpraying,

Matureflowerbudsforbearing.

SanitationandFlowerInduction

361365

FLOWERANDFRUITPROTECTION
Thecrucialstageofmangoproductionistheattackofinsectpestsanddiseasesatfloweringandfruit
developmentstages.Insecticidesandfungicidesarecommonlyused,buttoobtaingoodresults,the
recommendedusageanddosagemustbefollowedandcontrolmustbedirectedduringthevulnerable
stageofinsectanddiseasedevelopment(notduringtheheightofdestructiveinfestationandinfection).
Preventionisbetterthancure.Itisalsolessexpensiveandhence,moreprofitable.
Continuesrainingduringfloweringandearlyfruitdevelopmentisthemostcriticalconditionas
Anthracnosefungusdiseaseisprevalent.Itwillrottheflowersandyoungfruitsandtheyturndarkand
falloff.Everytimetherainstopsorlightdrizzle,sprayimmediatelyHOCherbalfungicidetowashoffthe
fungusfromtheflowersandfruitpanicles.Donotpostponeordelayasthefunguscandodamage
withinafewhours.Shakingthebranchestoremovewaterdropletsfromflowersandyoungfruitswill
helpforfewsmalltrees.
BESTTIMEFORPROTECTIVECONTROL
(1)PriortoInduction(2weeks)
(2)FlowerInduction(Day1)
(3)BudBreak(812days)
(4)Priortobloom(21days)
(5)Afterflowerset(cornsize40days)
(6)Beforebagging(6070days)
(7)Startofmaturation(90100days).

WRAPPINGANDBAGGINGFRUITS
Wrappingtheindividualfruitwithnewspapershouldbedoneatabout53to60daysafterinductionor
justafternaturalthinningordroppingwhenthemangoesareaboutthesizeofapulletegg.New
observationfinds7080DAFIismorepracticalperiodtobag,astherewillbelessfruitdropsafter
baggingandonlyqualityfruitsmaybebagged.
ADVANTAGESOFFRUITBAGGING:
1.BaggingcanreduceoreliminatestheincidenceoffruitflyandCapsidbugdamage,sunburnand
fungalinfections.
2.Reducedincidenceofmechanicaldamagewhilethefruitstillhungonthetreeandduringharvesting
andhandlingoperations.Itprotectsfruitsfromwindscars.
3.Thepaperservesasabsorbentoflatexflowduringharvest.
4.Thefruitskiniscleanerandmoreattractivelightgreencolor.
5.Baggingprovidesmoreorlessanaccurateestimateonthenumberoffruitspertree.Thisisimportant
incaseswheremarketingisdoneoncontractbasis,orestimatedonthetotalvolumeandweightof
harvest.
PREHARVESTPROTECTION
Sprayingfoliarfertilizerhighinpotashwithtracemineralelementsduringfruitdevelopmentwillmakethe
fruitssweeter.Itwillmakethepeelmoreflexibleandwilllessencrackingoffruitsduringthefinalstageof
maturity,evenwhenhumidityrisesandrains.
SprayingwithherbalorganicconcentrateorHOC4n1willdothis.Itwillalsoprotectthefruitsfrominsect
pestsandfungaldiseases.
Letusnotforgetthatfriendlyinsects,birdsandmicroorganismsareveryhelpfulinreducingthe
populationandincidenceofinsectpests.Providingfavorablenaturalenvironmentintheorchardfor
friendlybiologicalorganismswillgreatlyreducecostofproductionandgoodqualityfruits.
HARVESTINGMANGO
Itisveryimportanttokeepinmindthatthepreservationofthesuperiorqualityfruit,especiallyifitis
intendedforthefreshtableusethatiscriticalduringtheharvestandpostharvestperiod.Harvestingand
handlingoffruitsshouldbeentrustedonlytoproperlytrained,preferablyexperiencedworkers.Itisalso
advisableforbeginnerstofirstobserveprofessionalharvestersduringharvestoperations.
Theoutmostcareinharvestingandhandlingofmangoshouldbeemphasized.Workersandharvesters
shouldfirstbegivenabriefingbeforereleasingthemtothefield.Ittakesaoneyearcycleofcareand
culturetobringthefruitsreadyforharvest.Ittakeslessthanasecondtodropthefruitsdoesandbreak
orbruisedoes.
Usetherightharvestingpoleswithsoftnetstoavoidbruising.Usewoodenorplasticharvestingcrates
withcleansoftpadding.Avoidusingbananaleavesorothermaterialsthatmayhavefungusdiseases

thatwillinfectthefruits.
Donotremovefruitbagsinthefield,astheywillserveascushionandabsorbentoflatex.Theymaybe
removedduringgradingandclassificationbeforewashingandhotwatertreatment.
GUIDETOHARVESTINGMANGO
Maturityofmangofruitsreadyforharvest.
1.Themangostartmaturingat90daysandreachfullmaturityin120to135daysafterflowerinduction
(DAFI).Note:Earlierfruitripeningontreeanddroppingmayoccurinhotaridareas.Delayedmaturity
occursincoolhumidareas.
2.Inhotanddryareas,thefruitstendtoripenearlier,(110115days).Itdoesnotmeanthattheyhave
reachfullphysiologicalmaturity(lesserweightandsugarcontent).Incooler,humidandshadyareas,
thefruittakemoretime(135days)fromflowerinductiontoreachfullmaturityassunlightmaybeless.
Whennewflushingcomestogetherwithflowering,thefruitslikewisetakemoretimetomature(130
DAFI).
3.Ifthetreeflowersnaturally,count85to95daysfromflowerbloomtodeterminetheapproximatedate
offullmaturity.Bloomingiswhenflowersopen,releaseodorthatattractinsectpollinators.
4.Onesuretestistogetsamplesrandomlypickedfromthetreeandslicethefruitsattheapexportion.
Ifthefleshisstillwhite,itisimmature,whileifitisturningyellowitisreadyforharvest.
5.Floatationchecks.Dipthefruitin1%saltsolution.Seawatermaybeused.Thefloatersareimmature
whilethosethatsinkaremature,andreadyforharvest.90%sinkersarereadyforharvest.
6.Thepresenceofbloom,orpowderydepositonthesurfaceoftheskinisanindicationoffull
physiologicalmaturity.
7.Maturecarabaomangofruitshaveflattenedshouldersatthestemend.whileimmaturefruitshave
slopeshoulderswithfullcheeks.
8.Thepedicelofmaturefruitsturnsyellowgreenincolor.
9.Laboratorytestmaynotbepracticalforfieldoperations.TheTitrableAcidoffullymaturefruitsisless
than45miliequivalentsper100gramsandthetotalsolublesolidsattableripeis15%orhigher.
HARVESTINGMETHODS
1.Handpickingisstillthebestmethod,butitisdifficultandtimeconsumingforlargeorchards.Using
pickingpolesandladderisacommonpractice,especiallywithcommercialmangoproductionandbig
plantationswithbigtalltrees.Avoidbruisingthefruitswiththepickingpole.
2.Toavoidbruisesanddamage,inhandlingandtransport,trimoffthepedicelbeforepackingwhen
latexflowhasdried.Itisdoneeasilybypullingoffhorizontallythepedicelanditwilljustsnapattheneck
ofthepedicel.
3.Thebesttimeofthedaytoharvestisbetween9:00a.m.to3:00p.m.whenthetreeandfruitsaredry
andlatexflowisminimal.Latexcauseacidburningandbrownishdiscolorationoftheskin,whichalso
makeit,opentofungalinfection.Howeverforlargeorchardandbigharvest,thiscannotbefollowed,as
timewillbelimitedtomeetscheduledshipments.Fullymaturefruitshavelesslatexflow.

4.Toreduceorminimizelatexflow,leavetwotothreecentimeterspedicelonthefruitwhenharvesting.
Placethefruitinaninvertedpositionwiththepediceldownonabsorbentpapermaterials,whicharefree
fromdiseasecontamination.
5.Keepthefruitbagsuntilsorting,washing,HWT,dryingandpacking.
POSTHARVESTOPERATIONS
CLASSIFYING
Sortingandclassifyingoccuratthefollowingstages:
1.Duringharvest
2.Duringfieldpacking.
3.Beforeandduringwashing
4.AfterHWTjustbeforefinalpackagingforshipment.
Fruitsareclassifiedaccordingtosize,weightandthegeneralappearance.
KINDOFFRUITDEFECTS:
1.DeformityAbnormalityinshapeaffectingfruitappearance.
2.WindScarDarkstreaksslightlyelevatedareattributedtoabrasionduetowind.
3.LatexBurnBrownishblackstreaksthatmaybesunkenareattributedtoagedlatexstains.
4.UgatNettedappearanceatthepeelduetotheprominentvascularbundles.
5.InsectDamageLesions(freshorhealed)duetoinsectattack.
6.ScabPatchesoffissuredcorkytissueonthepeel.
7.SootyMoldBlackpowderydeposit(mold)concentratedontheshoulders.
8.BalatKawayanUnusually,thedeepgreencolorofthepeel.Theaffectedfruitfailstochangecolor
whenripe.
9.MottlingBlotchyunevengreencolor,someofitremainsevenwhenthefruitisfullyripe.
PROCEDURESINPRAPARINGFRESHFRUITSFORSHIPMENT:
1.Gradeandclassifyfruitsaccordingtosize,weightandpealappearance.
2.Washfruitswithcleanwarmwaterwithdetergentorchlorine.
3.HotWaterTreatment.Dipfruitsin52to55degreecentigradewaterfor10minutes.Thereisnew
innovationtoHWTassprayingordippingfruitsforoneminutein60degreesheatedwater.
4.Airdrythefruitstoremoveallmoistureonthepeelandallowthemtocooloff.
5.Packincleanpaperandboxesforshipmentorripening.
Seetoitthatthefruitsremaindryincoolventilatedplace.Avoidrecontaminationofdiseasesor
exposuretopestswhileinstorageortransit.
SORTING
Priortopackingforexport,meticulousgradingandsortingofmangoesaredonebasedonthedegreeof
cleanlinessoftheskin,size,weightofthefruit,assmall,medium,large,andextralarge.Mangoexports

aregradedaseitherFancyorStandarddependingontheextentofsuperficialskinmarkings.All
exportsmustcomplywiththestrictrequirementofsweetness(fullmaturityof120to135DAFI1518
brix),firmnessandabsenceofinfestationandinfections.
GRADINGOFPHILIPPINEMANGOFOREXPORT

(BasedonthedraftrevisionofStandardsforMangooftheBureauofProductStandard)

SIZE

WEIGHTIN

No.of2.5

No.of5.0

GRAMS

kilobox

kilobox

No.of10

No.of12

Kilobox

Kilobox

XL

357up

67

1214

2428

3032

Large

290356

16

31

4143

Medium

241289

10

20

40

4450

Small

190240

12

21

48

5163

SuperSmall

160189

1416

2832

5664

6575

Bioco

85159

SOMEQUALITYCRITERIAOFIMPORTERS:
1.Physiologicallymature.(120135DAFI)Sugarcontentof15%to18%brix.
2.Beginningtoripen,with30to50%yellowcoloringforPhilippinegoldenMangoorthecarabaovariety.
3.SignificantareaofredcoloronthefruitshoulderforvarietieswithreddishshinelikeFloridaandsome
Indianmangoes.
4.Freefromdisease,decay,sunburn,cracks,bruises,latexstains,insectandmechanicaldamage.
Relativelyfirm.
5.Conformtotheweightandsizespecification
6.Containedinpreferredorspecifiedpacking.
7.Underwentpythosanitarytreatmentandquarantineinspectionwithapprovalcertification.
POSTHARVESTTREATMENT
Thereareseveralpostharvesttreatmentbeingemployed:
1.Plainwarmwaterwashingwith1%saltsolutionordetergentandchlorine.Dryfruitsafterwashingas
reinfectionoccurwhenfruitsaremoist.
2.HotWaterTreatment(HWT)wherefruitsaredippedin5255degreeswaterfor10minutes.Anew

innovationdipsin59to60degreewaterfor30secondstooneminute.Thetemperaturerangeshould
bestrictlymaintainedandmonitoredtoavoidscaldingifitrises,andifitdrops,maynotcontrolthepest
anddiseasesofthefruits.Airdryimmediatelyafterdipping.Addingchlorinetothewaterhelpscontrol
diseases
TheauthordesignedandfabricatedasimpleHWTtankmadeoutofonesheetstainlesssteelplate
heatedbyLPG.Dimensionis20x30inchesand18incheshigh.Ithasacapacityof2cratesof20kilos
percrateperloading.Theunitcaneasilybetransportedtothesiteofharvest.ItcostP8,000toP10,
000percompleteunitwithstand,gasstoveburner,LPGtankwithhose,regulatorandthermometer.A
biggerstainlesssteeltankwith6cratecapacitycostP20,000.00fabricatedbyamachineshopinGen.
SantosCity.
3.ExtendedHotWaterTreatment(EHWT)Dippingthefruitin4648degreesCentigradefor90
minutes.ThistreatmentispracticedinMexicoformangoexportedtotheUSA.
4.VaporHeatTreatment(VHT)wherefruitsaresubjectedtoheatedvaporuntiltheinnerfleshofthe
fruitreaches46degreesfor10minutes.ThistreatmentisrequiredformangoesexportedtoJapan,and
Korea.Itisnontoxicandnonchemicaldisinfectant.
5.ChemicalTreatmentUsingfungicidetocontrolfruitrot.Fungicidesaredissolvedinwaterwherethe
fruitsaredipped.Benomyl(5001000PPM)andothersuitablefungicidesareused.
6.FumigationwithEthylenedibromide(EDB)attherateof16gramspercubicmeterfor2hoursat
25oCisdoneformangoesexportedtoAustraliaandNewZealand.Thiswillcontrolanddestroythe
insecteggsinthefruit.TheAustraliangovernmenthasnowbannedtheuseofEDB.ThePhilippine
governmentisnegotiatingtoreplaceitwithVHTtocontrolfruitfly.Irradiationseemstobemorefavored
byAustralia.Thisprocedureisnolongeracceptable.
7.IrradiationThisisanewintroductiontoaccessfruitsandfoodpreparationtoUSAandother
countriesrequiringsuchquarantineprocedure.Manyconsumersarecriticalwiththisprocedure
ThesetreatmentstendtocontrolfruitborndiseaseslikeAnthracnoseandStemEndRotaswellaskill
insecteggslikeFruitFly.Besuretofullydrythefruitsaftertreatment,beforepackingbecausewetand
moistfruitsareeasilyreinfectedbyfungalrotdiseases.
STEPSINHOTWATERTREATMENT
1.Heatwaterupto55*Candmaintainthetemperaturerangeat5255*Cduringoperations.A5960
degreesforfasttreatment.
2.Placemangoinperforatedplasticcrateorbasketthatfitsintothehotwatertanktomaximizethe
numberoffruitsthatcanbetreatedinonedipping.Intheabsenceofplasticcrate,anyothersuitable
containersthatwillnotcausebruisesonthefruitsmaybeused.Thiswillalsoavoiddirectcontactofthe
fruitswiththehotmetalbottomofthetankthatcancauseheatinjuriesorscalding.

3.Dipthemangointothehotwatersubmergedfor5to10minutes,checkingthetemperatureis
between5255*C.Afasterprocedureis30to60secondsdippingin59to60degreeswater.Itis
advisabletomovethecratesnowandthentoequalizetheheatandhelpremovethedirtfromthefruits.
4.Useelectricfantohastenfruitdrying.Whenfullydried,sortthemandpackcarefullyintofruitboxesor
cratesforstorageorshipmenttothemarket.
5.Somebuyersdonotwantchemicallytreatedfruits,soHWTorVHTaredonewithoutusingfungicide
ofchemicals.
Theaboveoperationsshouldbedonewithin4to8hoursafterharvest.Itisevenpreferableforsmall
quantityharvesttodothewholeoperationrightinthefieldorfarm.Thebesttimeistreatfruitswithin4
hourofpickingwhilelatexisstillwet.
Harvestedmangoesshouldneverbeexposedtodirectsunlight,wind,rainandothercontaminants,
eitherinthefarmorduringtransporttotheprocessingplantandpackagingsite.Ifthiscannotbe
avoided,thoroughwashingandhotwatertreatmentshouldbedoneandcompletelydriedandpacked
avoidingrecontamination.
PACKAGINGOPERATIONS
Packagingconsistsofthreestages.
1.Packingfromfieldharvesttoprocessingorpackaginghouse.
2.Packingoffreshfruitsfordomesticandexportmarket.
3.Packingofprocessedfruitproducts.
PACKINGHOUSEFACITILTIESANDEQUIPMENT
Apackinghouseisbasicallyabuildingwithshedandopensides,preferablyhighroofingandelevated
cementflooringwithgooddrainage,aerationandlighting.Itshouldhaveadequatefloorareato
accommodatetheequipment,workingspaceandstoragespace.Thereshouldalsobeaprovisionto
shedvehiclesloadingandunloadingfruitsduringrainsandinclementweather.Theperimeterareaof
thepackinghouseshouldbewellsecuredfromstrayanimalsandvandals.
FACILITIESANDEQUIPMENTNEEDED
PlasticFruitcratesforfieldhowling.6.Drippingstand
1.Sortingareaortables.7.Airdrierorblower(fans)
2.Washingtanksorbasin.8.Gradingandpackingtables
3.PlasticFruitcratesforHWT9.Weighingscales
4.Hotwatertank:10.PackStrappingequipment
a.Stainlesssteelwatertank.11.Fruitcartoonsand/orboxes
b.Electricwaterheater12.Handcarts
c.Thermostatandthermometer13.Storagearea
d.Gasstovewithregulatorandgastank.14.Loadingarea
5.Boilerandwaterpumpwithpiping.15.Conveyorsystem

FRUITCONTAINERS

Assumingonehectareproduces50,000kilosperseasonandpackedin10kilocratesorboxes,thiswill
require5,000boxesperhectareeveryyear.
1.BAMBOOANDRATTANBASKETSKaingorBukagwithaloadcapacityof30to70kilosare
commonlyusedbyfarmersandmangotraders.Bruisingandmechanicalinjuriescanbeminimizedwith
theuseofliners,woodensupportplanksonvehiclesduringtransport.
2.HardPlasticorFiberboardCartoonsThesecartonshaveacapacityof1220kilos.Theyareused
fortransportingmangofromthefieldtothepackinghouse.
3.ContainersofUtilitySometradersandmangoexportersprovidecontractorsandfarmerswith
returnableplasticcrates.Othersprovidecartonsthatareusetopackfruitsfordirectmarketdelivery.
4.WoodencratesCommercialmangogrowersarealsoadvisedtogrowfastgrowingtreeslike
Gmelina,Neem,Bagrass,Falcataandevenbigbamboovarietyforfruitcratesandboxmanufactureto
providepackagingmaterials.
GRADINGOFPHILIPPINEMANGOFOREXPORT
SIZE

WEIGHTin

NUMBER

NUMBER

NUMBER

NUMBER

grams

per2.5kilos

per5kilos

per10kilos

per12kilos

XL

357UP

67

1214

2428

3032

LARGE

290356

16

31

4143

MEDIUM

241289

10

20

40

4450

SMALL

190240

12

21

48

5163

Supersmall

160189

1416

2832

5664

6575

BIOCO

085159

1820

3440

6570

7680

STORAGE
Newlyharvested,washedandHotWaterTreatedmangoesmaybestoredfor7daysat15*C.Donot
storemangoesbelow12.5*C,asthiswillcausechillinginjuries.Ripeningmangoescanhaveanother14
daysshelflife.Mangoesforprocessingmaybestoredfor21daysintemperaturerangingfrom1*Cto
5*C.Buyersandcontractorsprefertoharvestgreenmangoes100to110daysfromflowerinductionas
thesehavelongershelflifethanthoseharvestedat115to120DAFI.Howevermangoesharvested
before120dayshavenotreachfullmaturity,andtheirsugarcontentmuchlower,affectingqualityof
fruitswhenripe.Mangoesharvestedwhentheyarefullymaturearesweeterwithsuperioreatingquality
buthaveashortershelflife.

RIPENINGOFFRUITS
Mangofruitsmayberipeninginthefollowingmanner:
1.Thenaturalway.Afterthehotwatertreatmentandairdrying,placefruitsincleanplasticorwooden
cratesandstoretheminaripeningroomwellsealedsoasnottoallowentryofmoistureandinfection.
Wellmaturefruitsripenin4to6days.Theshelflifemayextendfrom5to12days.
2.Useofcarbide.Placeatablespoonofcarbidewrapinpaperatthebottomoftheripeningbasketor
crate.Thecontaineriswellpaddedwithpapertobeairtight.Placethefruitsuntilfilledandcoverto
securethefruitsistotallysealed.Afterfour(4)daystheymaybeopenforaerationanddisplay.Note
thattheshelflifeofthismethodofripeningisonly3to4days.
3.Useofethylene.Fruitsaresprayedordipinethylenesolution,airdriedandstoredintheripening
room.Fruitsripenin3to4days.
4.Ripeningmangowithmadredecacaoleaves.Packthefruitincontainerwithfreshsemidriedleaves
andcloseairtight.After4to5daysfruitscanbetakenoutandexposedtoairandcontinueripening.
MANGOTRADING
Mangotradingisthelaststepinthemangoindustry.Thisiswherethemoneyis.Mostgrowersgivelittle
attentiontothisstageofthemangoindustry,andthetraderswhocometothemmakethemostprofit.It
issuggestedthatmangogrowersformtheirownmarketinggroupevenonlyattheircommunitylevel,
consolidatingthefruitsanddealwithregulartradersandexportersonamorestableandlongrange
agreements.
MARKETINGCHANNELS:
1.Fromthefarmtradersandconsolidatorsbuydirectlyfromgrowers.Otherbuyersevendothe
harvesting.Harvestingistheresponsibilityofthegrowers.
2.Wheretherearebuyingstations,farmersordomestictradersdeliverthefruitstothestationwith
packagingfacility.
3.Localtradersandconsolidatorsalsodeliverfruitstoprocessorstoshippingportsbyboatorplaneto
wholesalersorexporters.
Wholesalersdistributetoretailers,selltoexportersandfruitprocessors.
STAGESOFTRADING:
1.Productionofmangofruits.
2.Contractgrowing.
3.Consolidationoffruits
4.Packagingfordomesticandexportmarkets.
5.Processing
a.Freshfruitprocessingandtreatment
b.Fruitprocessingtootherproductformswithvalueadded.
6.Wholeselling,Distribution
7.Retailingordoortodoorsales.

a.Ripening
b.Displayordirectdeliverytocustomers.
HARVESTANDPOSTHARVESTFACILITIES:
1.Harvestingtools,equipmentfromfarmtoPackagingHouse
2.BuyingStationwithPackagingHouse
a.Packagingequipmentforfreshfruits
b.Boxes,containersandaccessories
3.ProcessingPlant
a.Processingfacilities(Dehydrated,puree,juices,frozenhalves,etc).
b.Packingmaterialsandequipment
4.Storagefacilities(dryorcold)
5.Transportanddeliveryvans
PACKAGINGFACILITIESANDEQUIPMENTNEEDED
1.PlasticFruitcratesforfieldhowling.11.Drippingstand
2.Sortingareaortables.12.Airdrierorblower(fans)
3.Washingtanksorbasin.13.Gradingandpackingtables
4.PlasticFruitcratesforHWT14.Weighingscales
5.Hotwatertank:15.PackStrappingequipment
6.Stainlesssteelwatertank.16.Fruitcartoonsand/orboxes
7.Electricwaterheater17.Handcarts
8.Thermostatandthermometer18.Storagearea
9.Gasstovewithregulatorandgastank.19.Loadingarea
10.Boilerandwaterpumpwithpiping.20.Conveyorsystem
PHILIPPINEMANGOEXPORTERS
COMPANY

BRAND(S)

EXPORTMARKETS

DiamondStar

Diamond,Blue,Ruby

HongKong,Japan

FlyingHorse(Eden)

FlyingHorse

HongKong

Fruitful

GoldenHarvestFortune

HongKong

GHLMarketing,Inc.

GoldenLeon

HongKong

InnertownEnterprises

CalFruits

HongKong

Jovin

Jovin

HongKong

KSNewRegency

NewLegend,FortuneView

HongKong

Sally

Sally

HongKong

Succrex

GoldenSwallow

HongKong

Tadyason

Tadyason

HongKong

Tricon

Tricon,FlyingTiger

HongKong

VenvieInternational

Prime,BountifulMangoKing,

HongKong

GoldLeaf
Cindy

HongKong

ABC

Fiesta

HongKong

MarsmanDrysdale

LaNuvia,Luna,Sampaguita

SouthKorea,Japan

PelicanAgroProducts

LaNuvia,Luna,Sampaguita

SouthKorea,Japan

DHMandDoleTropifresh

Dole

Japan

HiLasMarketing,Inc.

TropicalStar

SouthKorea,Japan

DelMonte

DelMonte

Japan

OtherCompanies

HongKong,Japan

RETURNONINVESTMENT(ROI)
Thecostofproduction,productivityandprofitvaryfromfarmtofarmasthesituationandfactors
affectingthetreesandthemarketchangefromtimetotime.Producingmangoduringoffseasonis
moreexpensivesincemoreprotectivesprayingduringrainydaysisrequiredtosuppresspestand
diseases.However,therearebasicfixedcostsofproductionandoperationalactivitiesthatcanbefairly
estimatedonprevailingconditions.
Itisveryimportantformangogrowerstohaveandkeeprecordofeveryfarmactivity.Everyyearthere
shouldbepreparedafarmplanandbudget.
Anaccuraterecordingofallexpensesandrevenuearenecessarytodeterminetheprofitorlossper
seasonoryearoffarming.Thiswillguidethefarmerastohisnextyearsoperationsandactivities.To
improveorchangesomeofthepracticessuchastheuseofindigenousorganicandrenewablefarm
inputsasagainsttheconventionalfarmingusingimportedfertilizersandchemicals.
NURSERY(SeedlingProduction)

NURSERY(Productioncostofoneseedling)

a.Seeds

P0.50

b.Plasticbag

1.00

c.Gardensoilandbagging

1.50

d.Watering

3.00

e.Scionmaterial

2.00

f.Graftingwork

5.00

g.FertilizerandChemicals

3.00

Totalcostforgraftedseedling

16.00

Priceincreaseperaddedflushingandmaturing

5.00

Sellingpriceafter3flushingandmaturing

35.00

PriceofLargePlantingMaterial(LPM)

100.00

Readyforplantingafter22monthsnurseryand

hardeningperiod.
FIELDPLANTINGOFTREES
FIELDPLANTING(PerTree)

a.LandPreparation

P30.00

b.Staking

5.00

c.Diggingandsoilrefilling

20.00

d.Labor(Planting,fertilizing,watering,mulching)

15.00

e.PlantingMaterial(LPM)

100.00

Treeguardorfencing

30.00

TotalPlantingCost

200.00

Laborcostmayvarydependingonsoilcondition

(HardclayorSandyloam)

COSTOFFIELDCAREOFJUVENILETREES
PERYEARUPTOBEARINGAGE(16YEARS)
MAINTENANCECOSTOFCARINGJUVENILTREES(1

Costperyr.of

6yearsold)

maintenance

a.Laborandmaintenancecostforcultivation,irrigation

P60.00

spraying,pruning,weeding,etc.
b.Fertilizerandsoilconditioners(organiccompost)

30.00

c.Chemicals:Insecticide,fungicideandgrowthregulators

50.00

d.Watersupply

20,00

e.Toolsandequipment

20.00

f.Miscellaneous

20.00

Averageyearlycostofmaintenance(1to6yr.)

P200.00

Totalcostofmaintenancefor6yearstobearing

P1,200.00

MAINTENANCEANDPRODUCTIONCOSTOFBEARINGTREES.
Productionandmaintenancecostofbearingtrees

withaverageestimatedproductionof2,000fruits/4=
500kilograms.
GrossSales(500kgs.xP15.00=P7.500.00)

P7,500.00

Costofproductionandmaintenanceoftree

a.Labor:Weedingandcultivation

20.00

PruningandSanitation

20.00

FertilizationandSoilConditioning

20.00

IrrigationandDrainage

20.00

Spraying

50.00

Wrapping(2,000xP0.20)

400.00

Harvesting(2,000xP0.05)

200.00

ProcessingandPackaging(500kgsxP2.00)

1,000.00

b.FertilizerandSoilConditioner

200.00

c.Chemicals:Insecticides,Fungicide,Inducer

300.00

d.PackagingMaterials(50xP30.00)

1,500.00

TotalCostofProduction

P3,730.00

Profitbeforetaxes

P3,770.00

Pricesandexfarmgatefluctuates.Webaseon

averageprevailingpricesinyear20032004
ExFarmGatePrices(Allin)

P15.00

Costofproductionperkilo

7.46

Netincomeperkilo

5.54

ReturnonInvestment

74.26%

50TreesperHectare(20x20+1meters)CostP3,730x

P186,500.00P188,500.00

50=P186,500andProfitP3,770x50=P188,500
MANGOPRODUCTIONPERTREE
AGE

PRODUCTION

GROSSSALES

PRODUCTION

PROFIT

RANGE

INKILOS

atP10perKilo

COSTatP4per

BEFORE

Kilo

TAX

YEARS
1to5

Noproduction

Juveniletrees

P1,000.00

(P1,000.00)

6to7

50

P500.00

200.00

300.00

8to9

100

1,000.00

400.00

600.00

10to11

200

2,000.00

800.00

1,200.00

12to13

300

3,000.00

1,200.00

1,800.00

14to15

400

4,000.00

1,600.00

2,400.00

16to17

500

5,000.00

2,000.00

3,000.00

18to19

600

6,000.00

2,400.00

3,600.00

20to21

700

7.000.00

2,800.00

4,200.00

22to23

800

8,000.00

3.200.00

4,800.00

24to25

1,000

10,000.00

4,000.00

6,000.00

26to30

1,500

15,000.00

6,000.00

9,000.00

31to40

2,000

20,000.00

8,000.00

12,000.00

Note:Theaboveproductionestimatesarepreconditioned,thattheplantingdistanceis15to20meters
apartandthetreeisallowedtogrowtoitsnaturalsizewithminimalpruninggrowthrestrictions.The
biggerthetreecrownsupportedbyhealthyrootsystempenetratingdeepandwide,themoreproduction
capacityithas.Thebiggerthemaintrunkandbranches,themoreplantfoodstoragecapacitythetree
hastosustainitsyearlyproduction.Themorehealthyleavestocookthenutrientsabsorbedbytheroots
throughtheprocessofphotosynthesis,themorefoodnutrientsarestoredforvegetativegrowth,
floweringandfruiting.
MARKETINGCOSTPERKILO
PARTICULARS

AMOUNT

Harvestingandhandling

P2.00

Transporttopackinghouse

0.50

Sorting,washing,treatment&packing

3.00

Costofpackagingmaterials

3.50

Transporttomarketorshippingpoint

1.00

SUBTOTALCostuptopackaging

P10.00

Seatransport(boat)GensantoManila

5.00

Airtransport(plane)GensantoManila

18.00

PriceBuildupQuality

Standard

GROWERS

CostofproductionP8.00

P5.00

Profitbasemargin8.00

5.00

Farmgateprice16.00

P10.00

CONSOLIDATOR/WHOLESALER
ExfarmgatepriceP16.00

P10.00

Marketingcost10.00

10.00

Shippingcost5.00

5.00

Markup(profitmargin)9.00

5.00

WholesalepriceP40.00

P30.00

RETAILERS
WholesalepriceP40.00

P30.00

Marketingcost5.00

5.00

Markup(Profitmargin)15.00

10.00

RetailpriceP60.00

P45.00

MANGOFARMREQUIREMENTS
Tohaveasuccessfulandproductivemangoorchard,thefarmshouldbeprovidedwiththenecessary
facilitiesasfarmstructures,equipmentandtools,suchasthefollowing:
FARMSATRUCTURES:
1.Farmhouseforfarmsupervisorandworkersquarters.
2.Bodega,storageroom,toolroomandequipmentinputsuppliesandfarmproduce.
3.Workingshedandpackinghousetobeusedformultipleactivitiesespeciallyduringharvest.
4.Watersystem,withwaterpump,storagetanksandwaterdistributionlines.
5.Infarmroadnetworktofacilitatefieldoperationsandaccess.
6.Fenceandothersecuritystructurestokeepoutanimalsandintruders.
7.Powersource(electricity)andcommunicationfacilities.
8.Nurseryfacilitiesincludingagreenhouse.
9.OrganicfertilizercompostingfacilitiesandBiomicroorganismrearinghouse.

FARMEQUIPMENT
1.Serviceandtransportvehicle.
2.Farmtractorwithimplementattachments(plow,harrow,trailer,douse,etc.)Forsmallfarms,carabao
drawnimplementswillsuffice.
3.Mowerandcultivator.
4.Generator,waterpumpsandreservoir.
5.Powersprayerwithaccessories(drums,pressurehose,sprayerlanceandnuzzle,etc.
6.Cartorwheelborrows.
7.Raingage,thermometer,soiltester.
8.Weighingscales,(1,10,60kilocapacity)
9.Packinghousewithtanks,airblower,andpackagingequipment.
FARMTOOLS
1.Bolo,knivesandpruningsheers.
2.Shovel,rakeandothergardentools.
3.Hammer,sawandothercarpentrytools.
4.Harvestingpoles,ropecratesetc.
5.Hoe,cultivatingtools,rake,etc.
6.Othertoolsthatmaycomeforneed.
MATERIALS:
1.Fertilizers:Chemical,organic,foliarandsoilconditioner.
2.AgriculturalChemicals(Insecticides,fungicides,herbicides,growthregulators,rodenticides,etc.)
Chemicalscanbereplacedwithherbalandorganicfertilizersandpesticides.
3.Packagingmaterials,(Plasticcratesboxes,cartoon,paper,fruitcaps,etc.)
4.Protectiveclothinganddisposablegadgets,gloves,rubberboots,etc.
FINALRECOMMENDATIONS
Agricultureisalivingscience.Wefindchangesandtheneedforinnovationasweprogressonour
farmingventure.
WeencourageeverymangogrowertojoinMangoAssociationsinyourarea,andifpossibleformyour
ownmarketingfirm(cooperative,associationorcorporations)toinsureagoodmarketlinkagewith
processorsandreputabletraders.Attending,seminars,gatheringandreadingprintedmango
technology,visitingfarms,andconductingyourowntrialsandresearcheswillbeveryhelpful.
Keepafarmrecord.
Wealsoencouragegrowertocompleteandimprovetheirfarmfacilities.

Givespecialattentionandtimeinharvesting.Itisduringthiscriticalstagewhereyougainorloseyour
investments.
Ifyourplantationisbiggerthanten(10)hectares,startlearningandprocessingleftover(LO)fruitsand
fruitdrops.Ifyouareobservant,about20%to30%ofthedevelopingfruitsdropoff,andyoucan
processtheseintomangopickleandpreserves.10to20%ofmatureharvestedfruitsareconsidered
leafover(LO)orrejectsbyfruitbuyers.Youcanprocessthemtodried,puree,concentrates,powder,
candies,preservedandothers.
TheDepartmentofScienceandTechnologywillbegladtotraininterestedgrowershowtoprocesstheir
fruitsintodriedmango,puree,concentrates,chilledhalves,candies,preserves,powder,etc.Through
yourMangoAssociationDAandDOSTincludingDTIcanbeinvitedtohelpyouinyourprocessing,
packagingandmarketingrequirements.
Nooneismoreinterestedandconcernthantheowner.Sofarmownersshouldtakemoretimeincaring,
supervising,monitoringandbeinginthefarm.Thebestfertilizersarethefootprintsoftheowneraround
histreesandfarm.
THEPHILIPPINEGOLDENMANGOISAGIFTOFGODTOTHEFILIPINOS.ITISTRULYATREEOF
LIFE.THOSETHATGROWANDCAREFORITSHALLBEREWARDEDWITHECONOMIC
PROSPERITYINTHEIRLIFETIMEANDTHEGENERATIONSTHATCOMEAFTERTHEM.
Writtenby:Mr.RexRivera