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Age of Exploration(1450 1700)
Marco Polo: 14th century Age Of Exploration - was a Venetian merchant traveller whose travels are
recorded in a book that introduced Europeans to Central Asia and China.
Piracy: Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship- or boat-borne attackers upon another
ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties.
Mercantilism: 16th to 18th century - was based on the premise that national wealth and power were
best served by increasing exports and collecting precious metals in return. (wealth comes from gold
and silver)
Astrolabe: historically used by astronomers, navigators, and astrologers. Its many uses include
locating and predicting the positions of the Sun, Moon, planets, and stars, determining local time
given local latitude. It was used in classical antiquity, the Islamic Golden Age,[2] the European Middle
Ages and Renaissance for all these purposes. this tool helped sailors measure the angle of the sun
which could then be converted to find latitude.
Compass: A compass is an instrument used for navigation and orientation that shows direction
relative to the geographic. The first usage of a compass recorded in Western Europe and Persia
occurred around the early 13th century.
Mappa mundi: Earlier form of the world map, centered at Jerusalem
Ming dynasty: was the ruling dynasty of Chinathen known as the Empire of the Great Mingfor
276 years (13681644)
Land empire:
Piri Reis 16th century - was an Ottoman admiral, geographer, and cartographer. He is primarily
known today for his maps and charts collected in his Kitab- Bahriye (Book of Navigation), a book
that contains detailed information on navigation, as well as very accurate charts (for their time)
describing the important ports and cities of the Mediterranean Sea.
Smallpox: One of the diseases in Colombian exchange, native Indians died during the expeditions of
the European, due to infections diseases such as smallpox, yellow fever, plague. As a result Europeans
couldnt use natives as a labor force. Instead they enslaved people from America.
Yellow fever: One of the diseases in Colombian exchange, native Indians died during the expeditions

of the European, due to infections diseases such as smallpox, yellow fever, plague. As a result
Europeans couldnt use natives as a labor force. Instead they enslaved people from America.

Triangular trade network Age of Exploration slaves to America, sugar tobacco, cotton to
Europe, Textiles, rum and manufactured goods to Africa
Pizarro Age of Exploration 16th century was a Spanish conquistador who led an expedition that
conquered the Inca Empire. He captured and killed Incan emperor Atahualpa and claimed the lands
for Spain.
Cajamarca - Battle of Cajamarca(1532), which marked the defeat of the Inca Empire by Spanish
invaders as the Incan emperor Atahualpa was captured and murdered here.
Inca empire - The Inca Empire (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, lit. "The Four Regions"[2]), also known as
the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America,[3] and
possibly the largest empire in the world in the early 16th century.
Atahuallpa - was the last Sapa Inca (sovereign emperor) of the Inca Empire (Tawantinsuyu) before
the Spanish conquest. During the Spanish conquest, the Spaniard Francisco Pizarro captured
Atahualpa and used him to control the Inca Empire. Eventually, the Spanish executed Atahualpa,
effectively ending the empire.
Son of the Sun Nick name of the atahuallpa - was the last Sapa Inca (sovereign emperor) of the
Inca Empire (Tawantinsuyu) before the Spanish conquest. During the Spanish conquest, the Spaniard
Francisco Pizarro captured Atahualpa and used him to control the Inca Empire. Eventually, the
Spanish executed Atahualpa, effectively ending the empire.
Conquistador - is a term used to refer to the soldiers and explorers of the Spanish Empire or the
Portuguese Empire in a general sense.[1][2] During the Age of Discovery, conquistadors sailed beyond
Europe to the Americas, Oceania, Africa and Asia, conquering territory and opening trade routes.
They colonized much of the world for Spain and Portugal in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries.
Renaissance(1450 1750)
Black Death 14th century - The Black Death or Black Plague was one of the most devastating
pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 75 to 200 million people and
peaking in Europe in the years 13461353
Plague 14th century Brought from Asia through trade. 1/3 people died. Europeans blamed jews,
foreigners and beggars. This plague created 2 positive effects: efficient farming and wealth
Plague doctor

Patronage: Renaissance- arts patronage refers to the support that kings, popes, and the wealthy have
provided to artists such as musicians, painters, and sculptors.
Lorenzo di Medici 15th century Renaissance one of the most powerful and enthusiastic patrons of
the Renaissance. He is well known for his contribution to the art world by sponsoring artists such as
Botticelli and Michelangelo
The Medicis Renaissance- 14-17 century Italian banking family, political dynasty and later royal
house, has huge effects in Italian Renaissance
Renaissance man - a cultured man of the Renaissance who was knowledgeable, educated, or
proficient in a wide range of fields. <A man can do all things if he will> Alberti. Related with
Bellini 15th century , was an Italian painter of the school of Venice. In 1479 he was sent to
Constantinople by the Venetian government when the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II requested an artist.
His portrait of the Sultan was also copied in paintings and prints and became known all over Europe
Reformation(1320 1540)
Lay movements Reformation - Lay movements supporting peoples needs on their way to
salvation: they became very popular; these were not necessarily established or even praised or
recommended by the Church authorities. This growth was in essence an effort to give everyone access
to forms of faith that hitherto had been restricted to a spiritual elite. (especially women and poor
people because they were more equal there). Especially women found satisfaction in lay movements
because they were (more) euqal with men there.
John Wycliffe reformation 14th century - Claimed that church doctrines have to be simplified; the
church had become too remote from the people. Denounced the annual tax to the papacy. Denounced
then the papacy itself and the clergy. Early advocate for translation of the Bible into different
Jan Hus reformation 14th century - Did not recognize the clergy as a privileged group; (the
priests were not a holy and privileged group set apart from lay persons; the Church is made up of all
the faithfull) Offended the pope; Was called to a Church Council at Constance, condemned and
Jean Calvin reformation 16th century - He was a principal figure in the development of the system
of Christian theology later called Calvinism
Calvinism - Idea of Gods predestination, prior determination of who would be saved and who would
go to hell. If people are damned they should praise Gods justice; if people are saved they should
praise Gods mercy. Either way, the outcome is predestined and nothing can be done to affect an
individuals fate.

Printing press Reformation 15th century - The printing press was invented in the Holy Roman
Empire by the German Johannes Gutenberg around 1440. In Renaissance Europe, the arrival of
mechanical movable type printing introduced the era of mass communication which permanently
altered the structure of society: The relatively unrestricted circulation of information and
(revolutionary) ideas transcended borders, captured the masses in the Reformation and threatened the
power of political and religious authorities; the sharp increase in literacy broke the monopoly of the
literate elite on education and learning and bolstered the emerging middle class.
Erasmus of Rotterdam reformation - The life of Jesus and his teachings should be models for
Christian piety and morality. By simply following the percepts of Jesus, a Christian could lead a life
guided by sincere faith. Against excessive wealth and secular interests of the Church
95 Theses - The 95 Theses, a document written by Martin Luther in 1517, challenged the teachings of
the Catholic Church on the nature of penance, the authority of the pope and the usefulness of
Scriptura sola Reformation - The Bible as the only authority - Protestant belief that truth lay in
scriptura sola (the Bible alone). The individual (not the priest) is the only guide to spiritual truth.
Henry VIII Reformation - Henry wanted to divorce his wife Catherine of Aragon because
Catherine could not give birth to a male heir and because Henry wanted to get married to someone
else. In coordination with the parliament, he declared himself the head of the Anglican Church in
England in 1534.
Anglican Church 16th century Founded by Henry 8 upon a issue of divorcing. He declared
himself as the head of Anglican Church. The public followed his movement. Supported the equality
for women.
The Council of Trent: (The Counter Reformation) 16th century - The Catholic church was not
caught unawares by the Reformation. It had been steadily battling opposition, resistance, and heresy
for over four hundred years; much of the opposition against the church throughout the fifteenth
century involved issues that closely paralleled those splitting the church in half during the early
Reformation. In answer to the growth of the Protestant movement, the Catholic Church instituted its
own series of reforms that balanced real reform with a strident and conservative reaction to
Protestantism. This movement was called the Counter-Reformation. The council of Trent is
considered to be one of the Church's most important councils. The council issued condemnations on
what it defined as Protestant heresies and defined Church teachings in the areas of Scripture and
Tradition, Original Sin, Justification, Sacraments, the Eucharist in Holy Mass and the veneration of
saints. It issued numerous reform decrees.
The Council of Trent (1545-63): Called for moral reform of clergy, Strengthening Church structures,
Proclamation of dogmas, Affirmation of both Faith and Works, Transubstantiation
Witch craft Counter Reformation 16th century - Particullarly young or divorced women are threat

for society and they are witches. After an examination they were usually sentenced to death
Inquisition Tribunals Counter Reformation 16th century - Inquisition was a system of tribunals
developed during the second half of the 16th century, responsible for prosecuting individuals accused
of a wide array of crimes related to heresy, including sorcery, immorality, blasphemy, Judaism and
witchcraft, as well for censorship of printed literature. By the end of the thirteenth century most areas
of continental Europe had been assigned inquisitors. In the mid of the 16th century, the Papal
Inquisition was reconstituted to fight the Protestants.
The Jesuits Counter reformation 16th century emphasized role of education, established
missionary schools all over the Europe
Protestant ethic reformation protestant movement - working hard is referred as a form of praying
Scientific Revoulution(1473 Geocentric model of universe scientific revolution centers the earth in the universe. It supposes
stars and planets turn around earth. It involves an outmost sphere, which represents God. It had a
simple explanation for the place of God. It emphasizes the importance of the Earth in Gods plan.
Heliocentric model of universe - sun at the center of the universe, demonstrated that the observed
motions of celestial objects can be explained without putting the Earth at rest in the center of the
universe. The gradual transformation into heloicentric model challenged what the religious
authorities, Aristotle and Ptolemy. It means it challenged the existing conventions.
Ptolemy owner of the The Ptolemaic Universe idea: Ideas about uniform circular motion and
epicycles were catalogued by Ptolemy in 150 A.D. in his book the Almagest.
Copernicus: (1473- 1543) (Poland - Renaissance) - a Renaissance mathematician, astronomer
and priest who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the
center of the universe, possibly independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated such
a model before Copernicus. The publication of this model in his book De revolutionibus orbium
coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres) just before his death in 1543 was a
major event in the history of science, triggering the Copernican Revolution and making an
important contribution to the Scientific Revolution.
Telescope: (1600s in Netherlands) - A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the
observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation. They found use in both
terrestrial applications and astronomy.
The Starry Messenger: (1610 Galileo Galilei) - A short astronomical treatise. It was the first
published scientific work based on observations made through a telescope, and it contains the
results of Galileo's early observations of the imperfect and mountainous Moon, the hundreds of
stars that were unable to be seen in either the Milky Way or certain constellations with the naked
eye, and the Medicean Stars that appeared to be circling Jupiter.

The Law of Gravity: (Newton 1687) - states that a particle attracts every other particle in the
universe using a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely
proportional to the square of the distance between them. This is a general physical law derived
from empirical observations by what Isaac Newton called induction.
Francis Bacon: (1561-1626) (England) (English Renaissance- The Scientific Revolution) was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, lawyer, jurist and author. empiricism:
knowledge arising from evidence gathered via senses. According to him, by a process of gradual
induction, this information will lead to universal laws that in turn will enable people to improve
their lot on earth.
I think, therefore I am: (Descartes) (Western Philosophy 1637) - His philosophy was built on
the idea of radical doubt, in which nothing that is perceived or sensed is necessarily true. The
only thing that remains true that there is a mind or consciousness doing the doubting and
believing its perceptions, hence the famous formulation, I think therefore I am,
Descartes: (1596-1650) (France) (17th century philosophy) - a French philosopher,
mathematician, and scientist. the father of modern western philosophy He saw the thinking
ability as the only thing that proves ones existence. He still believed in God because he supposed
the rational mind is god given. I think therefore I am.
Natural religion: natural religion most frequently means the "religion of nature", in which God,
the soul, spirits, and all objects of the supernatural are considered as part of nature and not
separate from it. Conversely, it is also used in philosophy, specifically Roman Catholic
philosophy, to describe some aspects of religion that are knowable apart from divine revelation
Principia Mathematica (1687) (Isaac Newton) - Newton was able to explain gravity
mathematically in his book Principia Mathematica. The Principia states Newton's laws of motion,
forming the foundation of classical mechanics; Newton's law of universal gravitation; and a
derivation of Kepler's laws of planetary motion (which Kepler first obtained empirically). The
Principia is "justly regarded as one of the most important works in the history of science"
Main arguments of the book:
1. universe can be explained through mathematics
2. universe operates in rational and predictable way mechanistic universe
3. no need for religion to explain physical phenomena
4. all objects in universe move according to mutual attraction (= gravity)
Not magic or god, but it is physics that explains the world
William Harvey (1578 1657) (England) - an English physician who made seminal
contributions in anatomy and physiology. He was the first known to describe completely and in
detail the systemic circulation and properties of blood being pumped to the brain and body by the
heart, though earlier writers, such as Realdo Colombo, Miguel Servet (aka Michael Servetus,
Michel de Villeneuve) in: Christianismi Restitutio, Paris, 1546, and Jacques Dubois, had provided
precursors of the theory.
Vesalius: (1514-1564) - was an anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential
books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body).

Vesalius is often referred to as the founder of modern human anatomy Vesalius's Fabrica
contained many intricately detailed drawings of human dissections, often in allegorical poses.
Vesalius was forced to take the bodies of executed prisoners in secret.
Deism: (Age of Enlightenment) - Deists believed in God but rejected organized religion,
Morality could be achieved by following reason rather than the teachings of the church. Even
though deism affirmed the existence of God, it discarded virtually all Church traditions and
practices as irrational and unnecessary, a fact which led many to criticize deists as anti-Christian,
or even to portray them as atheists.
God as a watchmaker: Deists viewed God as the great watchmaker whose creationthe
universeoperated as smoothly as a fine Swiss watch. The task, as Enlightenment thinkers
envisioned it, was to try to discover the principles that governed the functioning of this watch.
Deism thus centered around a belief in a God who operated according to reason and whose
existence could be seen in the natural order and logic of all that He had created.
Academy of Experiments: (1657 Florence) An early scientific society founded by students
of Galileo, Giovanni Alfonso Borelli and Vincenzo Viviani and ceased to exist about a decade
later. The foundation of Academy was funded by Prince Leopoldo and Grand Duke Ferdinando II
de' Medici. The tenets of the society included: Experimentation (about everything, in this early
period of science), Avoidance of speculation, Creation of laboratory instruments, Standards of
Universalism reason is not a social class, race, is valid for all is universal...
Universalism is a theological and philosophical concept with universal application or
applicability. Universalist doctrines consider all people in their formation. In terms of religion, in
a broad sense, universalism claims that religion is a universal human quality.
Progress - the task for change or transform the world , to make more rational worldto
determine change
Empiricism: (John Locke) - knowledge about the world by testing and observing the
world...everyone sees the same!! - Empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only
or primarily from sensory experience. One of the epistemological tenets is that sensory
experience creates knowledge. For example, John Locke held that some knowledge (e.g.
knowledge of God's existence) could be arrived at through intuition and reasoning alone. The
notion of tabula rasa ("clean slate" or "blank tablet") connotes a view of mind as an originally
blank or empty recorder (Locke used the words "white paper") on which experience leaves
marks. This denies that humans have innate ideas.
Anti-clericalism - no religious authority - refers to historical movements that oppose the clergy
for reasons including their actual or alleged power and influence in all aspects of public and
political life and their involvement in the everyday life of the citizen, their privileges, or their
enforcement of orthodoxy.[1]
Not all anti-clericals are irreligious or anti-religious, some have been religious and have opposed
clergy on the basis of institutional issues and/or disagreements in religious interpretation, such as
during the Protestant Reformation.

Enlightenment(17th and 18th centuries)

Dare to know: (Age of Enlightenment) (17th and 18th centuries) Urges people to use their
own logic and understanding. It means they should not depend on any authority.
British Museum: (1753) ( Sir Hans Sloane) First museum - Sir Hans Sloane was a
Physician; Fellow and President of Royal Society. He travelled to Jamaica 1688 and in
1707 and 1725 he published a Natural History of the island.(remember the age of explorations
and increasing interconnectedness between different parts of the world) He created collections:
collections of birds, butterflies, bugs, bones, fruits......He had a desire of exhibiting them, so that
other people could satisfy their curiosity. He paved the first step and the British Museum was
founded with the support of Royal family.-(production of scientific knowledge with royal support
so, science was something prestigious) Museum=classification of knowledge..., categorization
and display of everything. So, knowledge is power!
Cofeehouses - Formation of public opinion and public space: the collective effect
on political and social life of views discussed in the home, workplace and
places of leisure such as coffeehouses and salons.
Saloons - Formation of public opinion and public space: the collective effect on
political and social life of views discussed in the home, workplace and places
of leisure such as coffeehouses and salons.
School of Surgery, Paris: (1769) (Jacques Gondouin) The building was designed after after
surgery came to be recognized as a specialized discipline in the medical sciences. This was due to
the respect that King Louis XV had for his Premier Chirurgien (surgeon), Germain Pichault de la
Martinire. Previously, surgeons had been confused with barbers.
Sherlock Holmes: detective story - It mentioned about scientific developments such as
distinction between human and animal blood. It reflected the rational and scientific approach of
the period by the emphasis on evidences.
Mozart: (1756-1791) (Classical era) He carried classical music out of the church. He inserted
math into music to in order to capture excellence. He create pieces that criticizes the religious
morality. He created 650 works, including symphonies, operas (Don Giovanni
lack of emotions, a symbol of rationality, against Christian morality)
Don Giovanni: (Mozart Da Ponte) (1787) - an opera in two acts with music by Wolfgang
Amadeus Mozart. His only concern is his sexual benefit and does not care about traditional
Versailles Palace: (1661) Math and geometry is used - Versailles was built bu Louis xiv
between 1671-1682. Shows how out of touch and insincere King Louis xiv was
towards his subjects. Gardens of Versailles: A desire for geometric shapes, orderly repetition in
mathematical patterns. Nature tamed by man.

Denis Diderot: (1713-1784) (Age of Enlightenment) - French philosopher, art critic, and
writer. He was a prominent figure during the Enlightenment and is best known for serving as cofounder, chief editor, and contributor to the Encyclopdia along with Jean le Rond d'Alembert.
Diderot's literary reputation during his lifetime rested primarily on his plays and his contributions
to the Encyclopdia;
Encyclopedia: Categorizing the knowledge contains most up-to-date knowledge on
the sciences, arts, and crafts. To this end, he enlisted several of the best
thinkers of the eramany of whom were well-known philosophesto write
new articles for the Encyclopdie. He also wanted to make the work
accessible to a wide audience rather than just for scholars. it praised science
while also questioning religion, social institutions, the legal system, and
more. As a result, the Catholic Church viewed it as undermining its authority
and placed the Encyclopdie on its index of forbidden works. Nevertheless, it
was widely read, with people often obtaining cheaper reprint editions
published in Switzerland. It is a type of reference work or compendium holding a
comprehensive summary of information from either all branches of knowledge or a particular
branch of knowledge. Encyclopedias are divided into articles or entries, which are usually
accessed alphabetically by article name. Encyclopedia entries are longer and more detailed than
those in most dictionaries.
Tabula rasa: (John Locke)- 1690 the epistemological idea that individuals are born without
built-in mental content and that therefore all knowledge comes from experience or perception. He
rejects religious explanations. He argued that the mind of a newborn baby was a
tabula rasaa blank slate upon which environment and sensory
experience would transcribe ideas and beliefs. Locke saw human nature as
something that was externally determined rather than internally determined;
correspondingly, he stressed the importance of education.
Tabula rasa is a reformist view rejecting the Christian concept of original sin
Voltaire: (1694-1778) (French Enlightenment) - a French Enlightenment writer, historian, and
philosopher famous for his attacks on the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of
freedom of religion, freedom of speech, and separation of church and state..
much of his work either satirized or attacked what he called the relics of the medieval social
orderin particular, the church and the aristocracy. Despiteor perhaps because ofhis
controversial ideas, he was in high demand at salons not just in France but throughout Europe as
well. He lived in the court of Frederick the Great for a time, and he was friends with Catherine
the Great.
-Above all, Voltaire attacked intolerance in society, politics, and religion. A famous quote usually
attributed to Voltaire states, I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your
right to say it. He felt that all governments were susceptible to tyranny, but he greatly admired
the British model.
crush infamy Voltaire idealized a constitutional monarchy where crush infamy is not
allowed, which means he didnt allow conservatism in politics.

Glorious Revolution: (English revolution of 1688) Voltaire After the Aristocrat and
Bourgeouis collobration in Glorious Revolution, Voltaire emerged as an admirer of British
system. was the overthrow of King James II of England by a union of English Parliamentarians
with the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau. William's successful invasion of
England with a Dutch fleet and army led to his ascending of the English throne as William III of
England jointly with his wife Mary II of England, James's daughter, in conjunction with the
documentation of the Bill of Rights 1689.
Montesquieu: (1689-1755) (Age of Enlightenment) - Visited several European
counties, carefully observing the workings of each nations government.He
made a comparative study of all. Admired British system. Separate and balanced
powers-executive, legislative and judicial. is famous for his articulation of the theory
of separation of powers.
The Spirit of Laws: (1748-Montesquieu) - The Spirit of Laws was the most influential
of Enlightenment. He admired British system and its separate and balanced
powers-executive, legisative and judicialcriticized French despotism. if one
person or group of people held any two or all three of these powers, it would
result in tyrannical laws executed in a tyrannical manner. (zorbalk)
The Wealth of Nations: (1776) - Adam Smith - a limited role of the government in
the economy --free market, Against mercantilism, supported free trade and
reduced tariffs According to him, real wealth comes from productive land
free trade not from gold and silver. He supported free trade and reduced
Adam Smith: (1723 1790) - a limited role of the government in the economy
--free market, Against mercantilism, supported free trade and reduced tariffs
According to him, real wealth comes from productive land free trade not
from gold and silver. He supported free trade and reduced tariffs.
Laissez faire Adam Smith idea - a limited role of the government in the economy -free market
- an economic system in which transactions between private parties are free from government
interference such as regulations, privileges, tariffs, and subsidies.
Emile Rousseau text - The text is divided into five "books"; the first three are
dedicated to the child Emile, the fourth to an exploration of the adolescent
Emile and the final book outlines the education of his female counterpart,
Sophie, and Emiles domestic and civic life. felt women should be subordinate
to men. Womens right are largely ignored.
Enlightened Despotism - Enlightened absolutism (also known as benevolent
despotism or enlightened despotism) is a form of absolute monarchy or
despotism in which rulers were influenced by the Enlightenment. Enlightened

monarchs embraced the principles of the Enlightenment, especially its

emphasis upon rationality, and applied them to their territories. They tended
to allow religious toleration, freedom of speech and the press, and the right
to hold private property. Most fostered the arts, sciences, and education.
Enlightened absolutists beliefs about royal power were often similar to those of absolute
monarchs, in that many believed that they had the right to govern by birth and generally refused
to grant constitutions, seeing even the most pro-monarchy ones as being an inherent check on
their power. The difference between an absolutist and an enlightened absolutist is based on a
broad analysis of how far they embraced Enlightenment. For example, although Empress
Catherine II of Russia entirely rejected the concept of the social contract, she took up many ideas
of the Enlightenment, being a great patron of the arts in Imperial Russia and incorporating many
ideas of enlightened philosophers, especially Montesquieu, in her Nakaz, which was meant to
revise Russian law.
In effect, the monarchs ruled with the intent of improving the lives of their subjects in order to
strengthen or reinforce their authority. In the spirit of enlightened absolutism, Emperor Joseph II
said, "Everything for the people, nothing by the people."
Voltaire was a prominent Enlightenment philosopher who felt enlightened monarchy was the only
real way for society to advance.
However, historians debate the actual implementation of enlightened absolutism. They
distinguish between the "enlightenment" of the ruler personally, versus that of his or her regime.
For example, Frederick II, "The Great," of Prussia was tutored in the ideas of the French
Enlightenment in his youth, and maintained those ideas in his private life as an adult, but in many
ways was unable or unwilling to effect enlightened reforms in practice.
Ottoman Sultans such as Selim III and Mahmud II can be considered as enlightened despots since
they engaged in political and military reforms to increase Ottomans power against rising
european power. They aimed to strengthen their political power.
Everything for the people, nothing by the people
Legitimate political authority, he suggests, comes only from a social contract agreed upon by all
citizens for their mutual preservation.
While each individual has a particular will that aims for his own best interest, the sovereign
expresses the general will that aims for the common good. The sovereign=all citizen only has
authority over matters that are of public concern, but in this domain its authority is absolute:
Rousseau recommends the death penalty for those who violate the social contract. All laws must
ensure liberty and equality: beyond that, they may vary depending on local circumstances.

Letter to The Grand Duchess Christina

Galileo decided to address Christina because of her desire to learn more about astronomy. Galileo
argued that the Copernican theory was not just a mathematical calculating tool, but a physical reality.
The letter includes a direct paragraph in which Galileo wrote.
The Letter to The Grand Duchess Christina is an essay written in 1615 by Galileo Galilei. The

intention of this letter was to accommodate Copernicanism with the doctrines of the Catholic Church.
Galileo tried to use the ideas of Church Fathers and Doctors to show that the condemnation of
Copernicanism would be inappropriate.
He tried to portray himself as a man of good will who seeks only to disclose the truth.
Since The Grand Duchess was a person of high authority but did not have much knowledge in the
field of astronomy he was able to write the letter in a way the common person is able to understand.
He attempted to manipulate the Duchess by attempting to attain her sympathy by mentioning the
unfair attacks made against his honor.
Alberti, Book of the Family.

Machiavelli, the Prince.

The Prince is an extended analysis of how to acquire and

maintain political power.
Jared Diamond, Collision at Cajamarca, in Guns, Germs and Steel.

Leviathon - Hobbes