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WHAT IS

DRAWING?

Drawing is

a form of visual art in which a person uses various drawing instruments to mark
paper or another two-dimensional medium. Instruments include graphite pencils,
pen and ink, inked brushes, wax color pencils, crayons, charcoal, chalk, pastels,
various kinds of erasers, markers, styluses, various metals (such as silverpoint) and
electronic drawing.
A drawing instrument releases small amount of material onto a surface, leaving a
visible mark. The most common support for drawing is paper, although other
materials, such as cardboard, plastic, leather, canvas, and board, may be used.
Temporary drawings may be made on a blackboard or whiteboard or indeed almost
anything. The medium has been a popular and fundamental means of public
expression throughout human history. It is one of the simplest and most efficient
means of communicating visual ideas. [1] The wide availability of drawing
instruments makes drawing one of the most common artistic activities.
A person drawing the Barberini Faun in Munich
In addition to its more artistic forms, drawing is frequently used in commercial
illustration, animation, architecture, engineering and technical drawing. A quick,
freehand drawing, usually not intended as a finished work, is sometimes called a
sketch. An artist who practices or works in technical drawing may be called a
drafter, draftsman or a draughtsman

HISTORY OF
DRAWING
The human being has always felt the need to represent all that surrounds him,
finding in drawing, the most interesting means to carry out this desire. The first
drawings goes back to the Superior Paleolithic, 35.000 years ago, when the Homo
sapiens represented on the cave surfaces of the caves or on the skin of the coats,
animals that he hunted. An example of this artistic manifestation can be found in
the cave paintings of the caves of Altamira, in Cantabria (Spain).

Later, the Egyptians knew how to take profit of this art to decorate the most
imposing constructions in the history; the pyramids. It had passed thousands of
years and the drawing had evolved substantially. From the single-coloured and
static composition of the prehistory, a new stride had been made to the balance,
thoroughness and coloring of the theological representations in temples and
sanctuaries. There was a need to detail the figure of gods to thank them the
splendor of the Egyptian empire

It was necessary to advance to the sixth century BC to find in the Greeks the
maximum representatives of the balance in drawing. Worried to center in the
human candid expression, they denude it from any ostentation or supernatural
connotation, they are able to achieve their target and they obtain what was
considered to be the harmonic balance.

Roman thionic drawing The Romans, 500 years later, contributed to the diversity it
was lacking. And army and a discipline was required to maintain an empire on such
an extensive territory in order to subdue so many diverse cultures under the same
authority. That facilitated, in certain part, the abandonment of the artistic and
ornamental stuff to come closer to a more practical and more useful doctrine for
that time; Solid constructions were necessary to maintain the authority from the
continuous attacks of the invaders. They obtained in the drawing the means to
reflect what the useful constructions needed to be. The first maps arose and with

them the architecture was born. The technical drawing required a bigger technique
and mathematical knowledge about what had been forged until that moment.

DRAWING
TECHNIQUES
1.) The Outline
This pencil technique is the most basic of all, and can be referred to as a light outline or a heavy outline.
You would use a light outline to create your guidelines and subject guide
outlines, and can be drawn both with a ruler and free-hand.
2.) Hatching

The Hatching pencil technique is simply marking out small lines


bunched together to create fill color from further away.
This technique is a shading technique, and like outlines can be light or heavy by reducing or adding pressure.

3.) Cross-Hatching

The same method of hatching above, except the process is repeated in the
opposite direction in a second layer on top of the first layer. This technique is a shading technique, and is a good
way of adding darker shades to your pencil portrait, as multiple layers can be added. I dont recommend this
method if you wish to blend the graphite.
4.) Stippling

The stippling pencil drawing technique uses the same principle as hatching,
but the lines are very small, similar to tiny dashes.
This technique is a shading technique, but for smaller areas such as iris of the eyes, or even designer stubble facial
hair.
This technique is great for blending if light pressure is
used.

WHAT IS PAINTING
AND MIXED MEDIA?
Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium [1] to a surface
(support base). The medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush, but other
implements, such as knives, sponges, and airbrushes, can be used.

Painting is a mode of creative expression, and the forms are numerous. Drawing, gesture
(as in gestural painting), composition, narration (as in narrative art), or abstraction (as in
abstract art), among other aesthetic modes, may serve to manifest the expressive and
conceptual intention of the practitioner. [2] Paintings can be naturalistic and
representational (as in a still life or landscape painting), photographic, abstract, narrative,
symbolistic (as in Symbolist art), emotive (as in Expressionism), or political in nature (as in
Activism).

A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Western art is dominated by
spiritual motifs and ideas. Examples of this kind of painting range from artwork depicting
mythological figures on pottery, to Biblical scenes rendered on the interior walls and
ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, to scenes from the life of Buddha or other images of Eastern
religious origin.

In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result of the action. The support
for paintings includes such surfaces as walls, paper, canvas, wood, glass, lacquer, clay, leaf,
copper and concrete, and the painting may incorporate multiple other materials including
sand, clay, paper, plaster, gold leaf, as well as objects. The term painting is also used
outside of art as a common trade among craftsmen and builders.

HISTORY OF PAINTING
AND MIXED MEDIA
The history of painting reaches back in time to artifacts from pre-historic humans, and
spans all cultures. It represents a continuous, though periodically disrupted, tradition from
Antiquity. Across cultures, and spanning continents and millennia, the history of painting is
an ongoing river of creativity, that continues into the 21st century.[1] Until the early 20th
century it relied primarily on representational, religious and classical motifs, after which
time more purely abstract and conceptual approaches gained favor.

Developments in Eastern painting historically parallel those in Western painting, in


general, a few centuries earlier.[2] African art, Jewish art, Islamic art, Indian art,[3]
Chinese art, and Japanese art[4] each had significant influence on Western art, and vice
versa.[5]

Initially serving utilitarian purpose, followed by imperial, private, civic, and religious
patronage, Eastern and Western painting later found audiences in the aristocracy and the
middle class. From the Modern era, the Middle Ages through the Renaissance painters
worked for the church and a wealthy aristocracy.[6] Beginning with the Baroque era artists
received private commissions from a more educated and prosperous middle class.[7]
Finally in the West the idea of "art for art's sake"[8] began to find expression in the work of
the Romantic painters like Francisco de Goya, John Constable, and J.M.W. Turner.[9] The
19th century saw the rise of the commercial art gallery, which provided patronage in the
20th century.[10]

By definition, mixed media art is any form of art that combines two or more mediums in
one work. Use of the term began circa 1912 with Cubist collages and the art of Pablo
Picasso and Georges Braque, but these men weren't the first to create mixed media art.
Assemblages and collages are forms of mixed media that are popular in the 21st century

PAINTING
TECHNIQUES
Washing
You can treat acrylic somewhat like watercolor when you dilute the paint with enough
water. You can use the watered down paint to apply translucent washes on your
surface. However, unlike watercolor, the acrylic paint will set permanently. Mixing wash
and dry brush methods can be very effective in creating a variety of textures in a single
piece.

Autumn woods via Craftsy member christine6622173


Flicking
Using a fairly wet brush, you can flick paint onto a work surface for an uneven splatter
effect. Its fantastic for creating an abstract landscape or a starry night or for just adding
texture to a piece.

Fall tree scape via Craftsy member tricia.415425570

Dabbing
Using a corner of a sponge or even a piece of paper towel, you can dab on accents of color.
Think of it like very artistic sponge painting. Dabbing adds a lot of texture and movement
to a piece. For instance, on the painting above, dabbing with a sponge perfectly captured
the texture and movement of trees swaying in a light breeze.

Photo via Craftsy blogger Sara Barnes


Underpainting
Start your painting by creating a sketch of the image in paint. Often this is done in a
color that contrasts with the palette you have in mind for the finished piece. You can paint
over the underpainting entirely using opaque acrylic to cover any evidence of the paint
below, or you can let parts of it shine through for a dimensional effect.

Layering
Layering, which can be combined with either of the two above methods, is simply to paint
in layers. This means that youll build the painting from the bottom up. Youll start by
painting big blocks of color, often as washes, and then adding more and more refinement
as you add layers. The technique is detailed in this post about how to paint a self portrait,
but the method could be applied to paint other subject matter.

Flower painting via Craftsy member tricia.415425570

DIFFERENT ART
TOOLS

BRUSHES

PENCILS