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Student Nonviolence Coordinating

Committee (SNCC) - 1965


Chair: Eva Lucy Alvarado

StudentNonviolenceCoordinatingCommittee
(SNCC)1965

Dossier

Chair:ChairmanJohnLewis
Lewishasatheologicalaswellasatraditionaleducationalbackground.He
attendedTheAmericanBaptistTheologicalSeminaryandlaterFiskUniversity,
wherehereceivedabachelorsdegreeinreligionandphilosophy.Asaresult,
LewissinvolvementintheCivilRightsMovementisdeeplymotivatedbyhis
Christianbeliefs.Heisanadamantsupporterofnonviolenttactics,despite
havingbeenarrestedmorethan20timesforhisparticipationinpeaceful
demonstrations.LewisjoinedSNCCduringthe1961FreedomRidesandbecame
thechairmanin1963.Hebelievesthatinvolvementinthepoliticalprocessisone
ofthemostimportantwaysthattheCivilRightsMovementcanmaketangible
gains.

1.ExecutiveSecretary,HeadofAtlantaOfficeJames(Jim)Forman
JamesFormanwasbornin1928inChicago,Illinois,butsoonwassenttolive
withhisgrandmotherinMississippi.Thoughhegrewupinpoverty,his
grandmother,ateacher,wasabletoeducatehim.Formanisoneoftheolder
membersofthecommittee,andisregardedasamentortotheyoungermembers.
AsExecutiveSecretaryoftheAtlantaOffice,Formanisinchargeofdirectingthe
generaloperationsthere,andactsasapressrepresentativefortheoffice.Forman
alsoprovidesgeneralorganizationalsupporttoSNCCatlarge,handlinglogistical
details,expandingstaff,andguidingyoungvolunteersinthedirectionoftheir
operations.

2.CommunicationsDirectorJulianBond
JulianBondwasborninNashville,Tennessee.Hisparentswereacademicians,
andhewasexposedtoAfricanAmericanintellectualssuchasW.E.BDuBois
duringhisfatherstenureasthefirstAfricanAmericanpresidentofLincoln
University.BondisacofounderofSNCC,andtravelsextensivelythroughoutthe
southtoorganizevoterregistrationdrivesandotherprojects.Asa
communicationsdirector,BondisresponsiblefortheWideAreaTelephone
Service,andisinchargeofhandlingpressreleasesandmediarelations.

3.AssistantDirector,CommunicationsMaryKing
MaryKingjoinedthecivilrightsmovementafterparticipatinginaneducational
touroftheSouthduringherstudiesatOhioWesleyanUniversity.Duringthis
tour,shemetJohnLewisandBernardLafayette,bothSNCCmembers,and
becameimpassionedtothecause.KingreturnedtoOhioandstartedherown
organization,TheStudentCommitteeonRaceRelations(SCORR).After
graduating,KingmovedtoAtlantaandbeganworkingonanHRprojectwith
HowardZinn,anadvisortoSNCC.ShealsobegandoingclericalworkforSNCC,
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StudentNonviolenceCoordinatingCommittee
(SNCC)1965
andbecameanassistanttoJulianBond.Asassistantcommunicationsdirector,
Kingoverseestheproductionofnewslettersandothermedia.

4.AdministrativeSecretaryRubyDorisSmithRobinson
Thoughhesitanttojoinatfirst,Robinsonbecameadeeplyinvolvedmemberof
SNCC,participatinginearlySNCCprojectssuchastheFreedomRides.After
servingasthesoutherncollegecoordinator,RobinsonbecameSNCCs
administrativesecretaryin1963.Sheisinchargeofdaytodayadministrative
workinthecentraloffice,managingfinances,andgeneraladministrativeduties.
RobinsonisablacknationalistandafirmbelieverthatSNCCshouldbe
predominantlyblack,refrainingfromrelianceonwhites,thoughshemaintains
closerelationshipswithwhitesandisnotantiwhite.

5.MississippiStateProjectDirectorBobMoses
BeforejoiningSNCCin1960,RobertBobMosesreceivedamastersdegreein
PhilosophyfromHarvardUniversity,andtaughtatTheHoraceMannSchoolin
theBronx.Mosesbeganasafieldsecretaryandhelpeddirectthe1961Mississippi
project.MosesisamajorleaderwithinSNCC,aswellasacodirectorofthe
CouncilofFederatedOrganizations(COFO).HeseesthevalueofSNCCs
leadershipstructure,butalsofeelsthatitcanbeinefficient,andcoulddowith
strongerleadershipattimes.

6.ArkansasStateProgramDirectorBillHansen
HansenbecameinvolvedwiththecivilrightsmovementwhilestudyingatXavier
University,wherehehelpedtofoundtheXavierInterracialCouncil.In1961,he
droppedoutofcollegetojoinSNCCandbecameitssecondwhitefielddirector.
HansenisinchargeofcoordinatingoperationsinArkansas,workingonvoter
registrationandsitins.HismarriagetoRuthBuffington,ablackwoman,is
illegalinArkansas.This,coupledwithhisprominenceinthecivilrights
movementthere,hasmadehimatargettowhitelawenforcement.

7.GeorgiaStateProgramDirectorDonHarris
HarrisbecameinvolvedwithSNCCduringhistimeatRutgersUniversity,where
heplayedlacrosseandfootball.Aftergraduating,HarrismovedtoGeorgiaand
beganworkingonvoterregistrationprojectsthere.In1963,heandotherSNCC
volunteerswerebrutallyattackedbypoliceandarrested.Harriswasheldwithout
bail,butwaseventuallyreleasedafterpublicoutcrybroughthiscasetotheUS
Senate.HebelievesthatmuchoftheUSGovernmentisorientedagainstblack
Americans,butheseesthevalueofparticipatinginthepoliticalprocessasa
meanstoimproveit.AstheprogramdirectorforthestateofGeorgia,Harrisis
mainlyfocusedonthesouthwesternareaofthestate,organizingvoter
registrationoperationsinthearea.

StudentNonviolenceCoordinatingCommittee
(SNCC)1965
8.AdvisorEllaBaker
EllaBakerwasanoriginalmemberoftheSCLC,andparticipatedintheirfirst
voterregistrationoperation,theCrusadeforCitizenship.Bakerisafounding
memberofSNCC,andhermainroleisasamentortoyoungvolunteers,andis
oftencalledtheGodmotherofSNCC.Ratherthanfocusingonleadershipasthe
dutyofafewpowerfulindividuals,Bakerisaproponentofgroupleadershipand
participatorydemocracy.

9.PoliticalActionDirectorStokelyCarmichael
StokelyCarmichaelisoneofthecivilrightsmovementsmostcharismaticand
conflictedleaders.OnceastudentofphilosophyatHowardUniversity,
Carmichaelisaneloquentspeaker,asmuchanintellectualleaderasan
organizationalone.ThoughheisdeeplyinvolvedinSNCCoperationsasafield
organizerinAlabama,theviolenceofwhiteresistancehasleftCarmichael
somewhatdisillusionedwiththesingularuseofnonviolence.Asthedirectorof
politicalaction,CarmichaelisanorganizeroftheMississippiFreedom
DemocraticParty,andischargedwithattendingpoliticalconventionsto
representSNCCscause.

10.MarionBarry
BarrybeganparticipatinginsitinswhilestudyingchemistryatFiskUniversity.
HewassoondeeplyinvolvedinthemovementandbecameSNCCsfirstchairman
in1960.Heisverypoliticallyactive,workingfortheMississippiFreedom
DemocraticParty,aswellaslobbyingattheMississippiandNewJerseyState
Legislaturesforthecivilrightscause.HenowrunstheSNCCofficeinDC,
organizingpeacefulprotestsandboycotts.BarryunderstandsthattheUS
governmenthasoftenfailedblackAmericans,butseesthepoliticalprocessasa
powerfulwaytofightforrightsandrecognition,anddoesnotseeBlackPoweras
aviableideologyforlongtermsuccess.

11.FreedomSchoolsDirectorCharlesE.Cobb,Jr.
Thesonofpoliticallyactiveparents,CobbattendedHowardUniversity,wherehe
becameactiveintheCivilRightsMovement.Cobbrecognizedthatthe
educationalsysteminMississippiwaslacking,especiallyforblackstudents.His
mainproject,freedomschools,providesupplementaryeducationinpolitics,
culture,film,andliterature,aswellasbasicslikegrammarandmath.Theschools
alsoserveasawaytoorganizeyoungvolunteersfortheSNCCcause,including
leadershipdevelopmentprograms.

12.DirectActionWingDianeNash
Nashispracticallyaveteranatthispoint,havingbeendeeplyinvolvedinefforts
tointegratelunchcounters,theFreedomRides,andthepassingoftheVoting
RightsActof1965.Nashhasbeenattheforefrontofseveralsuccessfulvoter
registrationdrives,workingwithbothSNCCandtheSCLC.Nashhasproblems
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StudentNonviolenceCoordinatingCommittee
(SNCC)1965
withthemaledominatedSCLCstructure,preferringthefreedomthatSNCCs
organizationprovides.

13.FieldSecretaryBobZellner
BobZellnerisoneofthefirstsouthernwhitestojointheCivilRightsMovement.
Zellnersfather,James,andseveralotherfamilymemberswereKKKmembers,
butdespitehisproximity,hewasnotraisedundertheirinfluence.Facedwiththe
realitiesoftheHolocaustwhilehelpingJewsabroad,JamesZellnerhadhada
changeofheartuponmeetingablackgospelchoirduringthewar.Bobbecame
involvedwiththeCivilRightsMovementwhileincollegeandbecameSNCCs
firstwhitefieldsecretary.HehasgoneontohelporganizeseveralSNCCefforts
acrosstheSouth,despitebeingthreatenedandattackedonmultipleoccasions.

14.CommunicationsandResearchNancyStearns
NancyStearnsattendedandearneddegreesfromWellesleyCollegeandthe
UniversityofCalifornia,Berkeley.BeforejoiningSNCCsAtlantaoffice,she
workedasateachingassistantatBerkeley,andplanstopursueacareerinlaw.
Thoughsheiswhite,sheisdeeplypassionateaboutcivilrights,notonlyforblack
Americans,butalsoforwomeningeneralespeciallyreproductiverights.Asa
researchassistant,StearnshelpstooperatetheWATSline,andhelpsoutthe
researchdepartmentbycollectingnewsclippingsoncurrentevents.

15.ProgramDirectorClevelandSellers
Likemany,SellersbecameinvolvedwithSNCCduringhistimeatHoward
University.DuringtheFreedomSummerof1964,hewasthedirectoroftheHolly
SpringsCOFOoffice.Heisclosetoseveralprominentleaders,suchasMartin
LutherKing,Jr.,andStokelyCarmichael,andthoughhecurrentlysupportsa
completelynonviolentstrategy,heisoftentornbetweenthedifferentideologies
thattheysupport,especiallyaftertheattemptedmurderofJamesMeredith.Asa
leadingprogramdirector,heknowsthatthestancesleadersintheorganization
takewillaffecttheideologicaldirectionthatSNCCwilltakeinthefuture.
Ultimately,hebelievesthatasprogramdirector,avoidinganideologicalsplit
withintheorganizationisasimportantthanhisownideologicalstance.

16.HeadofSelma,AlabamaOfficeFayBellamyPowell
OriginallyamemberoftheUnitedStatesAirForce,Powellistheheadofthe
Selma,Alabamaoffice,working,assheputsit,astheentireofficestaff:the
manager,thesecretary,receptionist,andtypist,aswellasmediaspecialist.She
alsoworkedextensivelyinthefield,andwasontheorganizingcommitteeforthe
marchfromSelmatoMontgomery.Bellamyisakeyvoiceofwomeninthe
movement,standingupforherrightsasablackwomanintheCivilRights
Movement.

StudentNonviolenceCoordinatingCommittee
(SNCC)1965
17.ProgramDirectorH.RapBrown
BrownisveryinvolvedinSNCC,andthoughhiscurrentpositionissomewhat
undefined,hegenerallyworksasaprogramdirector,fillinginwherehecan.He
isagoodspeakerandwriter,andcouldverywellgoontobecomealeaderinthe
organization.DespitehisinvolvementwiththenonviolenteffortsofSNCC,heis
veryinterestedintheBlackPowermovement,andisntsosurethatnonviolence
isthemosteffectivestrategy.Violence,hesays,isasAmericanascherrypie.

18.OrganizerCourtlandCox
CoxisacloseassociateofStokelyCarmichael,workingsomeofSNCCsmost
dangerousoperations.Heisinterestedingoingbeyondvoterregistrationand
localelections,totrytoelectrepresentativesthatwillbeabletorepresentblacks
onalargerscale.HeisalsoskepticalofSNCCsstrategicfocusonvoting,seeingit
asonlyonesteptoactuallyhavingpower.Hewantstofocusoneconomic
freedom,andiswaryoftheinvolvementofwhitesintheCivilRightsMovement.

19.MississippiStateProgramDirectorFannieLouHamer
HamerisoneofSNCCsearliervolunteers,andhasparticipatedinseveralvoter
registrationdrivesandprotests.Sheisadeepbelieverthatthefightforcivil
rightsisaspiritualone,andisinclinedtousegospelhymnstoencourageand
motivatevolunteers.In1963,shewasnearlybeatentodeathbypolice,buthas
continuedherroleinSNCC,andisseenassomewhatofamotherfiguretomany
volunteers.

20.NashvilleNonviolentMovementLesterMcKinnie
McKinniehasservedasafieldsecretaryandrodeinthe1961FreedomRides.He
isoneofSNCCscontactsinTennessee,andhasparticipatedinseveraleffortsin
Nashville.McKinnieisatalentedorganizer,andcouldverywellrisetogreater
prominenceintheorganization.

21.CNACRepresentativeGloriaRichardson
RichardsoniscollaboratingwithSNCCtoruntheCambridgeNonviolentAction
Committee,outofCambridge,Maryland.ShedoesnotfullyagreewithSNCCs
strictnonviolencepolicy,andin1963,protestsinCambridgebecameriots.
Thoughsheiswhite,shehasbeenveryvocalinhereffortstoradicalizeSNCC.

22.DirectorofFreedomSummerOperationsRobertParrisMoses
MoseshasamastersdegreefromHarvardUniversityandextensiveexperience
withSNCCsnonviolentefforts.Heledthe1961MississippiProject,andisthe
codirectoroftheCouncilofFederatedOrganizations,orCOFO.Hewasalsoone
ofthemaindirectorsoftheFreedomSummerOperationsin1964,anddespite
hisexperienceswithbrutalviolenceinthemovement,(evenwitnessingthe
murderofanotheractivist)heremainscommittedtoanonviolentstrategy.

StudentNonviolenceCoordinatingCommittee
(SNCC)1965
23.NorthernCoordinatorBettyGarman(BettyGarmanRobinson)
AsoneofSNCCsnortherncoordinators,Garmanisinchargeofoperationsinthe
north,recruitingcollegestudentsatnorthernuniversities,connectingvarious
civilrightsgroups,andfacilitatingprotestsandeducationalefforts.Garmanis
white,andsheisalsointerestedinlaborrightsandpublichealth.Shebelieves
thattheseissuesarekeytocreatinganequalpoliticallandscape.

24.StaffCoordinatorWorthWestinghouseLong
LongstudiedmathematicsatPhilanderSmithCollege,ahistoricallyblackcollege
inLittleRock,Arkansas.HeisinvolvedinthecivilrightsmovementinLittle
Rock,andduringhistimeatPhilanderSmith,hefoundedandbecamethe
chairmanoftheStudentFreedomMovementthere.In1962,hewaschosentobe
therepresentativeofTheStudentFreedomMovementofLittleRocktotheSNCC
ExecutiveCommittee.AfterbecomingastaffcoordinatorforSNCCin1963,he
workedonprojectsinSelma,beforereturningtotheAtlantaoffice.Asastaff
coordinator,Longworkswithvolunteerstoorganizeprotestsandeventssuchas
voterregistrationdrives.

25.ExecutiveCommitteeMemberJoanTrumpauer(Joan
TrumpauerMullholland)
ThoughTrumpaueriswhite,shehasriskedherlifeinmanywaysfortheCivil
RightsMovement.SheattendedDukeUniversityforayear,beforebeingforced
todropoutbytheadministration,duetoheractivistactivities.Shethenjoined
StokelyCarmichaelandotherSNCCmembersontheFreedomRidesof1961,
whichresultedinherarrest,andlaterbeingheldondeathrowintheParchman
Penitentiaryfortwomonths.Afterherrelease,shebecamethefirstwhiteperson
toattendTougalooCollegeinJackson,Mississippi,andthefirstwhitewomanin
theDeltaSigmaThetasorority.Trumpauerhasparticipatedinseverallandmark
CivilRightsprotestsandevents,suchastheFreedomSummerof1964,the
JacksonWoolworthsSitInsandtheMarchonWashingtonforJobsand
Freedom.Shehasoftenfacedbrutalviolence,andhasevenbeenhunteddownby
theKluKluxKlan.

26.ConferenceCoordinatorRobertaYancey
YanceyattendedBarnardCollegeinNewYorkandbeganworkingforSNCCin
1963asaSoutherncampuscoordinator,aswellasaconferencecoordinatorfor
theLeadershipInstituteinWashington.Yanceyisatalentedwriterwhohopesto
onedaywriteaboutherexperiencesinSNCCandtodocumenttheCivilRights
Movementasawhole.However,sometimesshefindsherselfatoddswiththe
movement,especiallywhenitcomestosomeofthemoreoverbearingmale
leadership,whichshesometimesfindstobestifling,andevenhypocriticalat
times.SheappreciatesSNCCbecauseoftheleadershipopportunitiesitprovides
toeveryone,butseesroomforimprovement.

StudentNonviolenceCoordinatingCommittee
(SNCC)1965
27.CommunicationsSecretaryandJournalistMichaelSayer
SayergraduatedfromHarvardandhasexperienceasajournalist.Hehasworked
forUnitedPressInternational(UPI),TheAtlantaJournal,andtheNational
StudentAssociation.Heiswhite,andhisasthmapreventshimfromparticipating
inhighstresssituationssuchasprotests,butheiseagertohelpoutwiththe
movementinanyway,includingresearchandreporting.

28.CommitteeonAppealforHumanRights(COAHR)LarryFox
FoxworkedwithJulianBondandotherCOAHRmemberstodraftandpublishan
appealforhumanrightsin1960.Hehasparticipatedinprotestsandvoter
registrationdrives,butheisdeeplyinterestedinthedifferentideologiesthat
peopleholdintheCivilRightsMovement,andiswellversedinbothNonViolent
andBlackPowerideologies.Heislessconcernedwithchoosingasidethan
findingawayforpeoplewhoholddifferentbeliefstoworktogetherinorderto
sustainthestrengthofthemovement.Heisveryconcernedthatasplitwilllead
tothedownfallofthemovement.

29.NorrisMcNamara
McNamaraissomewhatofafreespirit.Todate,hehasattended3institutions:
theUniversityofChicago,NorthwesternUniversity,andtheIllinoisInstituteof
TechnologySchoolofDesign.Hedidnotgraduatefromanyofthem.Instead,
McNamaraownsacoffeehouseandworksasafreelancephotographer.Heworks
inSNCCscommunicationsdepartment,documentingtheactivitiesofthe
organizationandworkingonpublicityefforts.Thoughheiswhite,he
understandsargumentsformilitancyandisinclinedtosupportthem.

30.SecretarytoExecutiveSecretaryFormanJudithRichardson
(JudyRichardson)
RichardsonbecameinvolvedwiththeCivilRightsMovementwhileattending
SwarthmoreCollegeinPennsylvania,whereshewasontheSwarthmorePolitical
ActionCommittee.SheassistedGloriaRichardsoninhereffortsinCambridge,
Maryland,andbeganofficiallyworkingwithSNCCduringthe1964Freedom
Summer.ShehasalsohelpedtofoundaFreedomSchoolinthenorth.
Richardsonisinterestedinmediaofallkinds,especiallybooksandfilm.Sheis
awarethatmanybooksandfilmsareusedtoperpetuateracism,butalsosees
themasanopportunitytofightagainstracism.Shehopestohelpdocument
SNCCsstory.

31.CommunicationsSecretaryEdmundNakawatse(Edmund
Nakawatase)
NakawatseisJapanese,butisnostrangertotheCivilRightsmovement.Growing
upwiththeknowledgethathisparentswerekeptininternmentcampsduring
WorldWarII,Nakawatseisapassionateadvocateforracialjusticeandequality.
HeattendedRutgersUniversityforoneyear,butisbestsuitedforhandson
work,andenjoysbeinginthefield.
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StudentNonviolenceCoordinatingCommittee
(SNCC)1965
32.AccountantandHeadBookkeeperMrs.BettyMiles
Mrs.MilesgraduatedfromMorganStateCollegeinBaltimorewithadegreein
economics,andwentontoearnherMastersDegreeinEconomicsfromAtlanta
University.ShealsostudiedattheLondonSchoolofEconomicsinLondon,
England.Mrs.Milesisatalentedaccountant,workingtomake(oftentight)
budgetsworkforbigprojects.Sheisalsoinvolvedinonthegroundwork,and
wasinthemarchfromSelmatoMontgomery,Alabama.

33.WillieLawrenceMcCray(WillieMcCray)
McCrayhasvocationaltrainingasamechanicandbeganworkingforSNCCin
1963.UnderRubyDorisSmithsdirection,hehelpstogatherfundstobailSNCC
organizersoutofjail.HealsorepairsandoutfitscarsforSNCCorganizers,and
helpsshuttlebooksandothermaterials,inadditiontoparticipatinginSNCC
demonstrationsanddrives.Onceexcitedbythemovement,McCrayhasbecome
disillusionedafterexperiencingsomuchviolenceandresistanceinthefightfor
civilrights,andisbecominginterestedintheBlackPowermovement.

34.ResearchandCommunicationsSecretaryWalterTillow
TillowwasborninBrooklyn,NY.Inthe1920s,hisparentswereradical
communists,andthoughthisfervorhaddieddownbythetimeTillowwasa
child,itstillinformedhisworldview.Hebecameinvolvedwithstudentactivism
whileatHarpurCollege,whichlaterledtohisinvolvementwithSNCCwhenhe
andafewotheractivistsfromHarpurdecidedtoattendaSNCCconference.After
meetingJamesForeman,heparticipatedintheMarchonWashington.Helater
attendedCornellUniversityforGraduateSchool,andnowassistswithresearch
andcommunications,facilitatingdialoguebetweenothernorthernstudent
groupsfightingforcivilandlaborrights.

35.NonviolentAgitationAssociationofCollegePupilsJoyceLadner
LadnerrecentlygraduatedfromTougalooCollegeinMississippiwithadegreein
sociology.SheisarepresentativetoSNCCfromtheNonviolentAgitation
AssociationofCollegePupils,andhelpstocoordinatewithbothgroupstorecruit
forandorganizedemonstrationsandotherprojects.Shehasexperiencedalotof
brutalityduringhertimeasaprotester,andstruggleswithhowdifficultithas
beentomakeprogress,butshefirmlybelievesthatitisimperativetouse
nonviolentstrategies.

36.CivicInterestGroup(CIG),BaltimoreCurtisSmothers
SmothersattendedMorganStateUniversityinBaltimore,andisveryinvolvedin
thecommunityinBaltimore.AsaliaisonforCIGtoSNCC,hebelievesthat
studentsandyoungpeopleareoneofthemostpowerfulandimportantpartsof
themovement,buthealsobelievesthatentirecommunitiesmustbeinvolvedin
orderfortheCivilRightsMovementtotrulymakeprogress.Heisanadamant
supporterofnonviolence,andbelievesthatappealstoconscienceandmorality
arepowerfulwaystochangepeopleandtofightforequality.
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StudentNonviolenceCoordinatingCommittee
(SNCC)1965
37.BayAreaCoordinatorMikeMiller
MillerisoneofSNCCsfewcontactsontheWestCoast.Heworksongeneral
publicityfortheorganization,makingspeechesaboutSNCCsvaluesandgoals,
whichisespeciallynecessaryinpartsofthecountrywhereSNCCactivitiesare
onlyknownthroughmediareports.Thoughheiswhite,heisinterestedinBlack
Power,andbelievesthatitishisdutytosupportSNCCinitsendeavors.

38.StudentMovementforHumanDignity,HamptonInstituteEd
Rodman
RodmanbeganhisinvolvementinthefightforCivilRightsattheHampton
Institute(alsoknownasHamptonUniversity),ahistoricallyblackcollegein
Hampton,Virginia.HeparticipatedintheHamptonSitInsandBoycotts.His
experiencewassomewhatunusualcomparedtomanyofhiscolleaguesthe
protestsremainedpeacefultheentiretime.Rodmanknowsthathisexperience
wasoutoftheordinary,butfirmlybelievesthatnonviolentstrategiesprovidethe
meanstomakerealchange.

39.BoyFridayJamesEarlHowardBolton
BoltonisenrolledinGoddardCollege,andhasworkingexperienceatLenvinSign
CompanyandAdamsPhotoStudio.Heishardworkingandgoodathandson
tasksaswellasresearch,makinghimtheperfectgotoforanyonewhoneedsa
helpinghandplanningorexecutingaproject.Heispassionateaboutthe
movement,andstruggleswiththefactthatsomanyofthepeopleinthefightfor
civilrightsaretreatedlikecriminals.Heseestheadvantagesofnonviolent
resistance,butiswillingtocontemplateothertacticsaswell.

40.HeadofProductionDepartment,CommunicationsMarkSuckle
SuckleattendedLehighUniversity,andbeganhisinvolvementintheCivilRights
Movementin1963,beginningwiththeCambridgeProtests.Likeseveralofhis
whitecolleaguesattheprotest,includingGloriaRichardson,Sucklehasmore
militantbeliefs,andsupportsselfdefensestrategiesasalastresortwhen
demonstrationsturnviolent.Heunderstandstheplaceofnonviolence,but
believesthatrevolutionarynonviolencemaynotbetheonlywaytomake
change.HeistheheadofproductionforSNCCsStudentVoicenewsletter,and
workscloselywithJerryDemuth.

41.JournalistandPhotographerJerryDemuth
DemuthattendedNorthwesternUniversityforatime,butlatergraduatedfrom
SouthernIllinoisUniversity,withadegreeinjournalism.Heworkscloselywith
MarkSuckletoproduceSNCCsStudentVoicenewsletter,butoftenfindshimself
atoddswithSucklesideologicalstances.Headamantlysupportsthecivilrights
movementandbelievesthatwhitesmustbeinvolved,butheseeshisplaceas
moresecondarytothatoftheblackactivistsatthefrontofthemovement.He
believesthatitisnothisplacetospecificallysupportnonviolenceormilitancy,
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StudentNonviolenceCoordinatingCommittee
(SNCC)1965
butratherbelievesthatheandhiswhitecolleaguesshouldbefacilitatingprojects
createdbyandforblackAmericans.

42.Representative,UniversityofChicagoCOREChapterBernie
Sanders
SandersbecameinvolvedwithCOREaftertransferringtotheUniversityof
Chicagoin1961.HebecameinvolvedwithSNCCaftertheCOREandSNCC
chaptersatUChicagomergedin1963.HehasparticipatedinmajorCivilRights
eventssuchastheMarchonWashington,buthismainfocusisoneconomic
equality.Astaunchsocialist,hebelievesthatthefightforCivilRightsisprimarily
aneconomicstruggle,andthatclassisastrongerfactorininequalitythanrace.
ThoughheisanimportantallyintheNorth,somebelievethathedoesnotgrasp
thefullcomplexitiesofhowracialdiscriminationoperatesoutsideofapurely
economiccontext.

43.Chairman,YouthDivisionoftheChathamCountyCrusadefor
VotersBenVanClark
VanClarkisdeeplyinvolvedintheSavannah,Georgiacommunity,andisthe
headoftheyouthdivisionoftheChathamCountyCrusadeforVoters.Hebelieves
thattheblackvotehasalotofpotentialformakingchange,bothonalocaland
nationallevel.Healsobelievesthatgood,equaleducationandeconomic
prospectsforbothblacksandwhitesisfundamentaltomakingandsustaining
progress.Inhisview,policebrutalityisoneofthegreatestobstaclestoprogress,
butbelievesthatpoliticalinvolvementandgoodcommunityleadershiparethe
beststrategy,andthatviolentresistanceisnotanoption.

44.LosAngelesCoordinatorJamesGarrett
LikeMikeMiller,GarrettisoneofSNCCsfewcontactsontheWestCoast.He
feelsthattheCivilRightsmovementhasgivenhimanewwaytodirecthis
energies,andiscompletelydevotedtothecause.Hebelievesinbuildingstrong
communitiesasapathtosuccess,aswellaseducatingoneselfaboutcivilrights
andmethodsofgoodleadership.Heseesslowprogressasabetteralternative
thannoprogressatall,andiswillingtoworktobuildtherelationshipshefeels
arenecessarytocreateastrongmovement.

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