Communication Systems
2011
ONE MARK
MCQ 8.1
(D) 4 bits/sec
MCQ 8.2
The Column 1 lists the attributes and the Column 2 lists the
modulation systems. Match the attribute to the modulation system
that best meets it.
Column 1
Column 2
P.
Power efficient transmission of signals
AM
1. Conventional
2. FM
R.
3. VSB
S.
4. SSBSC
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Chap 8
Communication Systems
2011
TWO MARKS
MCQ 8.3
(A) (4 2 f 2 + 1) exp ( f
2
)
2
(C) (4 f + 1) exp ( f
)
(B)
(4 2 f 2 1) exp ( f 2)
(D)
(4 2 f 2 1) exp ( f )
MCQ 8.4
modulates the
(C) RC << 1 s
Chap 8
Communication Systems
MCQ 8.5
For the constraint that the minimum distance between pairs of signal
points be d for both constellations, the radii r 1 , and r 2 of the
circles
are
(A) r 1 = 0.707d, r2 =
(B) r 1 = 0.707d, r 2 = 1.932d
2.782d
(D) r 1 = 0.707d, r 2 = 1.307d
(C) r 1 = 0.707d, r 2 =
1.545d
MCQ 8.6
Assuming high SNR and that all signals are equally probable, the
additional average transmitted signal energy required by the 8PSK
signal to achieve the same error probability as the 4PSK signal is
(A) 11.90 dB
(B) 8.73 dB
(C) 6.79 dB
(D) 5.33 dB
2010
ONE MARK
MCQ 8.7
m (t) = 2 cos
Suppose that the modulating signal is (2f t)
m
and the
carrier signal is xC (t) = AC cos (2fC t), which one of the following is
a conventional AM signal without overmodulation
(A) x (t) = AC m (t) cos (2fC t)
(B) x (t) = AC [1 + m (t)] cos (2fC t)
A
(C) x (t) =
cos (2fC t) + C m (t) cos (2fC t)
C
A
4
(D) x (t) = AC cos (2fm t) cos (2fC t) + AC sin (2fm t) sin (2fC t)
MCQ 8.8
(D) 28 W
Page 503
Page 503
MCQ 8.9
Consider the pulse shape s (t) as shown below. The impulse response
Page 504
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Chap 8
Communication Systems
2010
TWO MARKS
Chap 8
Communication Systems
MCQ 8.10
) is
(B) 107
(D) 2 # 1020
(A) 10
(C) 1.414 #
1010
MCQ 8.11
3.5
(B) 0.5# e5
(C) 0.5 # e
MCQ 8.12
(C) 1200 Hz
(B) 600 Hz
(D) 1400 Hz
MCQ 8.13
Chap 8
Communication Systems
ONE MARK
MCQ 8.14
TWO MARKS
MCQ 8.15
(D) 1
MCQ 8.16
P (X = k)
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
Chap 8
Communication Systems
message
signal
given
by
(D) 25%
MCQ 8.18
(D) 0.10 V
MCQ 8.20
If the positive values of the signal are uniformly quantized with a step
size of 0.05 V, and the negative values are uniformly quantized with
a step size of 0.1 V, the resulting signal to quantization noise ration
is approximately
(A) 46 dB
(B) 43.8 dB
(C) 42 dB
(D) 40 dB
Chap 8
Communication Systems
2008
ONE MARK
MCQ 8.21
Consider
the
amplitude
modulated
(AM)
Ac cos c t + 2 cos m t cos c t . For demodulating the
using envelope detector, the minimum value of Ac should be
(A) 2
(B) 1
(C) 0.5
2008
signal
signal
(D) 0
TWO MARKS
MCQ 8.22
MCQ 8.23
Chap 8
Communication Systems
MCQ 8.24
(B)
(D) 3
(C) kfc
MCQ 8.25
(B) p3
p) (C) (1 p3)
(D) p3 + p2 (1 p)
MCQ 8.26
(B) 3W
(D) 7W
(C) 6W
MCQ 8.27
(B) 10
(D) 5
MCQ 8.28
Page 509
(A) FM only
(B) AM only
Page 510
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Chap 8
Communication Systems
If the bits 0 and 1 are transmitted using bipolar pulses, the minimum
bandwidth required for distortion free transmission is
(A) 64 kHz
(B) 32 kHz
(C) 8 kHz
(D) 4 kHz
MCQ 8.30
(B) 32 dB
(C) 48 dB
(D) 4 kHz
MCQ 8.31
(B) 512
(C) 256
(D) 64
2007
ONE MARK
MCQ 8.32
Chap 8
Communication Systems
MCQ 8.33
(D)
3
S (f) df = 0
MCQ 8.34
(B) E [X2] + E2
2007
TWO MARKS
MCQ 8.35
A Hilbert transformer is a
(A) nonlinear system
MCQ 8.36
(C) decreasing the sampling rate (D) increasing the step size
MCQ 8.37
(D) 3
Page 511
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Chap 8
Communication Systems
MCQ 8.38
MCQ 8.39
(B) 1
1
+ (1 +
(D) 1 (1 p) n
MCQ 8.40
(B) 40
(C) 25
(D) 5
Chap 8
Communication Systems
MCQ 8.41
1.2288 # 106
MCQ 8.42
(B) 4
(C) 2
(D) 8
MCQ 8.43
Chap 8
Communication Systems
MCQ 8.44
(B) a = and b = 3
40
1
5
(D) a = 1 and b = 1
3
24
MCQ 8.45
(D) 28
2006
ONE MARK
MCQ 8.46
H (j) = A () e j ()
(B) A () = C2, () = k
1
(D) A () = C, () = k
Chap 8
Communication Systems
2006
TWO MARKS
MCQ 8.47
/( 1)
g (t)
(t 0.5 # 10  4 k)
R =3
MCQ 8.48
103
(C) 6 #
103
MCQ 8.49
6
(D) 2
4
MCQ 8.50
(C) uncorrelated
(D) orthogonal
Chap 8
Communication Systems
MCQ 8.51
MCQ 8.52
MCQ 8.53
10
Page 516
Chap 8
Communication Systems
MCQ 8.54
In the following figure the minimum value of the constant "C", which
is to be added to y1 (t) such that y1 (t) and y2 (t) are different , is
(A) 3
(B) 3
2
2
(C) 3
12
(D) 3
L
MCQ 8.55
(B) 2 # 106 Hz
(C) 2 # 109 Hz
(D) 2 # 1010 Hz
where
denotes
convolution
&
MCQ 8.56
The
impulse
response
of
filter
matched
t) (D) s (t)
to
the
signal
Chap 8
Communication Systems
MCQ 8.57
Chap 8
Communication Systems
MCQ 8.60
(B) 12.5
(C) 6.25
(D) 3.125
MCQ 8.61
25
(A) 8N
0B
(B) 4N25
0B
(C) 2N250 B
(D) 25
N0 B
2005
ONE MARK
MCQ 8.62
Group 2
W. Phase modulation
X. Frequency modulation
R. A sin {c t + km (t)}
Y. Amplitude modulation
S. A sin t + k
;
dt
# m (t)
3
Z. DSBSC modulation
(A) P Z, Q Y, R X, S W
(B) P W, Q X, R Y, S
Z (C) P X, Q W, R Z, S
Y (D) P Y, Q Z, R W, S
X
Page 519
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Chap 8
Communication Systems
MCQ 8.63
(D) AM
2005
MCQ 8.64
TWO MARKS
(D) 95 kHz
MCQ 8.65
Chap 8
Communication Systems
MCQ 8.66
MCQ 8.67
(A) 4
(B) 6
(C) 8
(D) 9
MCQ 8.68
(B) 22 kHz
(C) 42 kHz
(D) 44 kHz
Page 521
Chap 8
Communication Systems
MCQ 8.69
(D) 1
4
MCQ 8.70
(D) 2
81
2004
ONE MARK
MCQ 8.71
(D) 8
MCQ 8.72
(D) 1 sec
Chap 8
Communication Systems
MCQ 8.73
MCQ 8.74
(A) zero
(B) 0.25
(C) 0.55
(D) 0.30
2004
TWO MARKS
MCQ 8.76
Page 523
(D) 60 dB
Page 523
Chap 8
Communication Systems
MCQ 8.77
(A) 1 sec 1
2
(B) 1 sec
(C) 1 sec 1
2
(D) 1 sec 1
1
MCQ 8.78
(B) B1 = 10 kHz, B2 = 20
(D) B1 = 10 kHz, B2 = 10
MCQ 8.79
Chap 8
Communication Systems
off frequency of 100 MHz. The output of the filter is added with 100
MHz signal of 1 V amplitude and 90c phase shift as shown in the
figure. The envelope of the resultant signal is
(A) constant
(C)
(B)
5 sin (2 106
t)
4
1 + sin (2 # 106 t)
(D)
5 + cos (2 106 t)
#
4
MCQ 8.80
(D) a constant
MCQ 8.81
(B) 0.2
(C) 0.05
(D) 0.5
MCQ 8.82
xq = 0
If 0.3 < X # 1,
Page 525
Page 525
xq = 0.7
where xq is the quantized value of X.
Page 526
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Chap 8
Communication Systems
(B) 0.198
(C) 2.205
(D) 0.266
MCQ 8.83
A, B, C, D after
Group 2
1. FM
P. Slope overload
2. DM
Q. law
3. PSK
R. Envelope detector
4. PCM
S. Hilbert transform
T. Hilbert transform
U. Matched filter
(A) 1  T, 2  P, 3  U, 4  S
(B) 1  S, 2  U, 3  P, 4  T
(C) 1  S, 2  P, 3  U, 4  Q
(D) 1  U, 2  R, 3  S, 4  Q
MCQ 8.84
Three analog signals, having bandwidths 1200 Hz, 600 Hz and 600
Hz, are sampled at their respective Nyquist rates, encoded with
12 bit words, and time division multiplexed. The bit rate for the
multiplexed. The bit rate for the multiplexed signal is
(A) 115.2 kbps
MCQ 8.85
Consider a system shown in the figure. Let X (f) and Y (f) and denote
the Fourier transforms of x (t) and y (t) respectively. The ideal
HPF has the cutoff frequency 10 kHz.
2003
ONE MARK
MCQ 8.86
(C) zero
MCQ 8.87
(B) flat
(C) parabolic
(D) Gaussian
MCQ 8.88
(B) 3 dB
(C) 2 dB
(D) 0 dB
Page 528
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Communication Systems
Chap 8
Page 529
Page 529
Chap 8
Communication Systems
2003
TWO MARKS
MCQ 8.89
MCQ 8.90
2
The probability that 6x # 1@
(B) Q (0.5)
is
(A) 1 Q (0.5)
x
2
(C) Q c 1 m
2 2
(D) 1
Q
1
2 2
MCQ 8.91
(D) 8.00
MCQ 8.92
(B) 48 # 10 6 V2
(A) 0.768 V
(B) 12 # 10
V2
6
(D) 3.072 V
Chap 8
Communication Systems
MCQ 8.93
with
the
MCQ 8.94
(D) 3.0
Chap 8
Communication Systems
MCQ 8.96
c (t) and
5
2
J8 (4)
MCQ 8.97
A, B, C, D after
Group 2
P. Ring modulator
1. Clock recovery
Q. VCO
2. Demodulation of FM
R. FosterSeely discriminator
3. Frequency conversion
S. Mixer
(A) P 1; Q 3; R 2;
S 4 (C) P 6; Q 1; R
3; S 2
6. Generation of DSBSc
(B) P 6; Q = 5; R 2;
S 3 (D) P 5; Q 6; R
1; S 3
MCQ 8.98
MCQ 8.99

Chap 8
Communication Systems
(B) 10 dB
(C) 20 dB
(D) 13 dB
MCQ 8.100
3 = 0.628
fm
(A) 0.3 V
8 kHz
(B) 1.5 V
4 kHz
(C) 1.5 V
2 kHz
(D) 3.0 V
1 kHz
MCQ 8.101
is not required
(C) = 0.5,
S
MCQ 8.102
Chap 8
Communication Systems
2002
ONE MARK
MCQ 8.103
MCQ 8.104
+3
/ (t nT )
s
n=3
103) t

(C) 5 # 10 1 cos (8 #
103) t
MCQ 8.105
MCQ 8.106
Chap 8
Communication Systems
2002
TWO MARKS
MCQ 8.107
MCQ 8.108
2t
In the figure m (t) = 2 sin
200t, ts (t) = cos
(A) sin
2t
t
sin 2t + sin 0.5t cos
(C)
1.5t
t
MCQ 8.109
MCQ 8.110
Page 533
(A) 0.95
(B) 0.90
(C) 0.10
(D) 0.05
Page 534
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Chap 8
Communication Systems
2001
ONE MARK
MCQ 8.111
(D) 1
4
2001
TWO MARKS
MCQ 8.113
MCQ 8.114
The Nyquist sampling interval, for the signal sin c (700t) + sin c
(500t)
is
(B)
(A) 1 sec
sec
350
350
1
(C) 700 sec
(D)
sec
175
Chap 8
Communication Systems
MCQ 8.115
MCQ 8.116
The PSD and the power of a signal g (t) are, respectively, Sg () and
Pg . The PSD and the power of the signal ag (t) are, respectively,
(A) a2 Sg () and a2
Pg
(C) aSg () and a2 Pg
2000
ONE MARK
MCQ 8.117
(D) Ac [1 + Ka m (t)] 2
MCQ 8.118
MCQ 8.119
Page 535
Page 536
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Chap 8
Communication Systems
MCQ 8.120
(A)
Pm cos
2
P
(B) 4 m
(C)
Pm sin2
4
2
(D) Pm cos
4
MCQ 8.121
MCQ 8.123
Chap 8
Communication Systems
MCQ 8.124
A modulated signal is given by s (t) = m1 (t) cos (2fc t) + m2 (t) sin (2fc t)
where the baseband signal m1 (t) and m2 (t) have bandwidths of 10 kHz
, and 15 kHz, respectively. The bandwidth of the modulated signal,
in kHz, is
(A) 10
(B) 15
(C) 25
(D) 30
MCQ 8.125
TWO MARKS
MCQ 8.126
(D) 1000
MCQ 8.127
(D) 99.6
MCQ 8.128
Chap 8
Communication Systems
(B) 5 volts
(D) 5 millivolts
MCQ 8.129
(B) 800
(C) 400
(D) 200
1998
ONE MARK
MCQ 8.130
(C) Gaussian
MCQ 8.131
Chap 8
Communication Systems
MCQ 8.133
(D) 2
MCQ 8.134
MCQ 8.135
cos (e t +
A DSBSC signal is generated using the carrier )
and
Quadrature multiplexing is
(A) the same as FDM
(B) the same as TDM
(C) a combination of FDM and TDM
(D) quite different from FDM and TDM
MCQ 8.137
(A) volt
(B) voltsec
(C) volt/sec
(D) volt 2
MCQ 8.138
Chap 8
Communication Systems
MCQ 8.139
(D) B p = 2B 0
MCQ 8.140
(D) no symmetry
MCQ 8.141
(D) Rician
1997
ONE MARK
MCQ 8.142
The line code that has zero dc component for pulse transmission of
random binary data is
(A) Nonreturn to zero (NRZ)
(B) Return to zero (RZ)
(C) Alternate Mark Inversion (AM)
(D) None of the above
MCQ 8.143
2
2
(D) 1
(C) 1
2
2
Chap 8
Communication Systems
MCQ 8.144
(A) 1 kHz
(B) 2 kHz
(C) 3 kHz
MCQ 8.145
Page 542
Page 541
Chap 8
Communication Systems
MCQ 8.146
1996
ONE MARK
MCQ 8.147
TWO MARKS
MCQ 8.149
MCQ 8.150
Chap 8
Communication Systems
(A) no symmetry
MCQ 8.151
(B) 3
(C) 9
(D) 27
***********
Chap 8
Communication Systems
SOLUTIONS
SOL 8.1
Quantized 4 level require 2 bit representation i.e. for one sample 2 bit
are required. Since 2 sample per second are transmitted we require 4
bit to be transmitted per second.
Hence (D) is correct option.
SOL 8.2
We have
Page 544
Page 543
= ( (2f) + 1) e
f 2
or
Sy (f) = (42 f 2 + 1) e f
Hence (A) is correct option.
SOL 8.4
fm = 4000/2 = 2000 Hz
Page 545
Page 543
Chap 8
Communication Systems
d2 = r 1 + r 1
Now
d2 = 2r12
r1 = d/ 2 = 0.707d
= 2 = 2 =
M
8
4
Applying Cooine law we have
d2 = r 22 + r2 2 2r2 2 cos4
or
2
= 2r22 2r
2 = (2 2 ) r22
2
1/
d
r2 =
= 1.3065d
2 2
Page 546
Page 545
Page 547
Page 545
Chap 8
Communication Systems
SOL 8.6
1.3065d
r
a r2 k = 20 log
0.707d
1
Power
= (6) = 18 W
2
P
Chap 8
Communication Systems
SOL 8.9
#
0
# 1 # 10 2 #
0
df
20
10
fo
H (f ) No df =
2 (given)
2
2
2
2 # 1020 # 106
2
=
2
2 = 1014
or
= 107
Hence (B) is correct option.
SOL 8.11
Page 547
P (0/1) =
# /2 0.5e
na
0.5e
dn =
10
Page 548
Page 548
Chap 8
Communication Systems
where a = 2 # 106 V
and
= 107 V
3
P (1/0) =# 0.5e
dn
a/2
= 0.5e10
Pe =
0.5e10
Hence (D) is correct option.
SOL 8.12
dx (t) dx (t 0.5)
+
dt
dt
f 1 = 250 Hz
Chap 8
Communication Systems
We have
Let
Y and
Y Now
p (X = 0) = p (Y = 0) = 1
2
p (X = 1) = p (Y = 1) = 1
4
p (X = 2) = p (Y = 2) = 1
4
=
2
$
A
X+
X =0$ B
P (X + Y = 2 X Y = 0)
=
P (A + B)
P (B)
P (A + B)
1/16
P (B) = 6/16 =6 1
The mean is
= xi pi (x)
X
= 1 # 0.1 + 2 # 0.2 + 3 # 0.4 + 4 # 0.2 + 5 # 0.1
= 0.1 + 0.4 + 1.2 + 0.8 + 0.5 = 3.0
2
X = xi2 pi (x)
= 1 # 0.1 + 4 # 0.2 + 9 # 0.4 + 16 # 0.2 + 25 # 0.1
= 0.1 + 0.8 + 3.6 + 3.2 + 2.5 = 10.2
2
2
Variance
x = X ^X h 2
Chap 8
Communication Systems
m
# 100% =
m +2
`
Hence (C) is correct option.
=
2 j
1 2
2
j +2
# 100% = 20%
SOL 8.18
We have
C1 = B log2 `1 +S
Nj
S
. B log2 ` j
N
S N
If we double the N
ratio then
C2 . B log2 ` 2S j
N
S
. B log2 2 + B log2
N
. B+
C1
Hence (B) is correct option.
SOL 8.19
We have
or
SNR = 1.76 + 6n
43.5 = 1.76 + 6n
6n = 43.5 +
1.76
6n = 41.74 $ n .
7
No. of quantization level is
27 = 128
Step size required is
5 ( 5)
V VL
= H
=
= 10
S
As
>> 1
128
128
128
Chap 8
Communication Systems
= .078125
. .0667
Hence (C) is correct option.
SOL 8.20
S = 43.76 dB
`N j
0
We have
Chap 8
Communication Systems
SOL 8.22
The entropy is
H =
/ p log1 p
i
i= 1
bits
p1 = p2 = ... = pn = 1
n
Since
1
log
n = log n
i= 1 n
Hence (A) is correct option.
H =
SOL 8.24
PSD of noise is
K
N0
...(1)
...(2)
N0 = c N0 m 1 = Kfc
2 2RC
4RC
At receiving end if we get two zero or three zero then its error.
Let p be the probability of 1 bit error, the probability that
transmitted bit error is
= Three zero + two zero and single one
= 3 C3 p3 + 3C2 p2 (1 p)
= p3 + p2 (1
p) Hence (D) is correct option.
SOL 8.26
Bandwidth of TDM is
Page 552
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Chap 8
Communication Systems
= 1 [2W + 2W + 4W + 6W] = 7W
2
Hence (D) is correct option.
SOL 8.27
We have
i = di =
dt 210
fm = 4 KHz
fs = 2fm = 8 kHz
Rb =
= 8 # 8 = 64 kbps
Bit Rate
nfs
The minimum transmission bandwidth is
Rb = 32 kHz
BW =
2
Hence (B) is correct option.
SOL 8.30
S0
c N m = 1.76 + 6n dB
0
= 1.76 + 6 # 8 = 49.76 dB
As
Noise \
We have n = 8
Chap 8
Communication Systems
We have
p (t) =
sin (4Wt)
4Wt (1 16W2 t2)
cos (4Wt)
1 48W2 t2
=
cos
1 3
= 0.5
Hence (C) is correct option.
SOL 8.38
Here
M1 (f) = Mt
(f)
j2B
j2B
+e
2
Y1 (f) = M (f) c
e
j2B
2
1
e
Y (f) = M (f)
c
Y (f) = Y1 (f) + Y2
(f) All waveform is shown below
j2B
e m
2
Chap 8
Communication Systems
Chap 8
Communication Systems
Chip Rate
Data Rate
RC
Since the processing gain G must be at least 100, thus for Gmin we get
= 12.288 #
bps
Rb max = RC = 1.2288 #
3
6
Gmin 10
10
100
Hence (A) is correct option.
SOL 8.42
Energy of constellation 1 is
2 a) 2 +
Eg1 = (0) 2 + (
(
2 a) 2 +
(
2 a) 2 + ( 2 2 a) 2
Page 556
Energy of constellation 2 is
Eg2 = a2 + a2 + a2 + a2 = 4a2
Page 557
Page 557
Chap 8
Communication Systems
Ratio =
2
Eg1
= 16a =
Eg2
4
4a2
N
Noise Power is same for both which is 0 .
2
Thus probability of error will be lower for the constellation 1 as it has
higher signal energy.
Hence (A) is correct option.
SOL 8.44
2a + 4a + 4b =
1
...(1)
2a + 8b =
1
For maximum entropy three region must by equivaprobable thus
2a = 4b =
4b
...(2)
A LPF will not produce phase distortion if phase varies linearly with
frequency.
() \
i.e.
() = k
Let m (t) is a low pass signal, whose frequency spectra is shown below
Chap 8
Communication Systems
Now when m (t) is sampled with above signal the spectrum of sampled
signal will look like.
Chap 8
Communication Systems
SOL 8.49
We have
x (t) = 125t [u (t) u (t 1)] + (250 125t) [u (t 1) u (t 2)]
The slope of expression x (t) is 125 and sampling frequency fs is
32 # 1000 samples/sec.
Let 3 be the step size, then to avoid slope overload
3 $ slope x (t)
Ts
3 f $ slope x (t)
c
3# 32000 $ 125
3 $ 125
32000

3 =2 8
Hence (B) is correct option.
SOL 8.50
= 33 kHz
0.03m
We have
1
/ p log
1
i= 1
bits/symbol
2
1
1
0.25
+ 0.25 log2
1
0.25
+ 0.5 log2
1
0.5
Page 559
Page 560
Page 560
Chap 8
Communication Systems
SOL 8.52
1
W sin Wt
RC $ 1 + cos
Wt
i.e.
We have
p (t) = u (t) u (t 1)
g (t) = p (t)* p (t)
s (t) = g (t) (t 2)* g (t) = g (t) g (t 2)
All signal are shown in figure below :
Chap 8
Communication Systems
We have
where
and
We know that
16
and SXX () = 1 white noise
16 + 2
H () 2
16
2=
16 +
Now SYY () =
Thus
4
2
16 +
or
H (s) = 4
4+s
which is a first order low pass RL filter.
Hence (A) is correct option.
or
SOL 8.59
We have
H () =
R
R + sL
R
4
4+s
4
or
=
L
4+s
+s
Comparing we get L = 1 H and R = 4
Hence (A) is correct option.
Chap 8
Communication Systems
SOL 8.60
We have
=
Side band power Ps mPc
2
= (0.5)
2
(50)
= 6.25
VSB $ fm + fc
DSB  SC $
2fm SSB
$ fm AM
$ 2fm
Thus SSB has minimum bandwidth and it require minimum power.
Hence (C) is correct option.
Chap 8
Communication Systems
SOL 8.64
We have
H (f) = 2e
H (f) = 2
 jtd
Chap 8
Communication Systems
+3
3
4 2
v2 p (v) dv
as p (v) = 1 v
8
v
` 8 j dv
3
c v m dv = 8
8
= 10 = 10
1
As the area under pdf curve must be unity and all three region are
equivaprobable. Thus are under each region must be 3 1 .
2a # 1 = 1 $ a = 2
4
3
3
Hence (B) is correct option.
SOL 8.70
+a
Nq =
a
1
x p (x) dx = 2 # x $
0
1 x3
4
dx =
a3
0 =
2;3E
6
Substituting a = 2 we have
3
Nq = 4
81
Hence (A) is correct option.
SOL 8.71
=8
S
16
2
=2
Now
2#8
=2
Chap 8
Communication Systems
16
N=8
^ NS hN =
12
= 2 = 16
Carrier frequency fc
= 1 # 106 Hz
Modulating frequency
fm = 2 # 103 Hz
For an envelope detector
> 2fm
2fc > 1
Rc
1 < RC < 1
2fc
2fm
1 < RC < 1
2fc
2fm
1 < RC <
1
6
210
2 # 103
1.59 # 10 7 < RC < 7.96 #

Chap 8
Communication Systems
SOL 8.74
10 3
9
 20
6= 10
10 # 100 # 10
In dB
Cable Loss
Chap 8
Communication Systems
From graph it may be easily seen that slope between 3 < t < 4 is
1. Hence (B) is correct option.
SOL 8.78
M = 2 = 2n $ n = 1
B1 =
= 2 # 10 = 20 kHz
1
For QPSK,M = 4 = 2n $ n = 2
= 10 kHz
Thus
B2 =
2Rb
2
Hence (C) is correct option.
SOL 8.79
We have
fc
t] + sin (2108 ) t
6 t sin 210
8
= 1 cos (2106 t) cos 2108 t + `1 1 sin 210
t
j
2
2
A 2 + B2
Chap 8
Communication Systems
=
=
=
=
2
2
6
6
` 12 cos (210 t)j + `1 12 sin (210 t j
2
6
1
cos (210 t) + 1 + 1 sin2 (2106 t) sin (2106 t)
4
4
1 + 1 sin (2106 t)
4
5 sin (2106
t)
Here
and
Probability of error of 1
P (0 # X # 0.2) = 0.2
Probability of error of 0 :
P (0.2 # X # 0.25) = 0.05 # 2 = 0.1
P (0 # X # 0.2) + P (0.2 # X # 0.25)
2
= 0.2+ 0.1= 0.15
0
Average error =
Chap 8
Communication Systems
SOL 8.82
3
(x xq) 2 f (x) dx
# (x x )
q
0.3
=
2
f (x) dx
(x 0) f (x) dx +
0.1
(x
0.7)
2
f (x) dx
0.3
3 0.3
2 1
= ; x E + ; x + 0. 49x 14 x E
2 0.3
3 0
3
or
2 = 0.039
RMS = 2 =
0.039 = 0.198
FM $ Capture effect
DM $ Slope over load
PSK $ Matched filter
PCM $ law
Hence (C) is correct option.
SOL 8.84
Chap 8
Communication Systems
We have
erfc
Pe = 1
Ed
2 m
3
2
Z
3
#f
(z) dz
= Area [z #
2]
1
= 12 # 16 # 1 = 12
Chap 8
Communication Systems
We have
RXX () = 4 (e
 0.2
+ 1)
 0.2 0
or
mean
RXX (0) = 4 (e
2
=2 2
=0
Now
P (x # 1) = Fx (1)
+ 1) = 8 =
= 1 Q cX m
= 1
1
= 1 Q c1 0 m Q
c
m
2 2
2 2
Hence (D) is correct option.
SOL 8.91
We have
W =YZ
E [W2] = E [Y Z] 2
= E [Y2] + E [Z2] 2E [YZ]
= w2
E [X2 (t)] = Rx (10)
= 4 [e 0.2 0 + 1] = 4 [1 + 1] = 8
E [Y2] = E [X2 (2)] = 8
Given
at x = 1
Chap 8
Communication Systems
= 1.536 = 0.012 V
Step size =
128
2mp
L
2
(0.012)2
Quantization Noise power = =
12
12
= 12 # 106
V2
Hence (C) is correct option.
SOL 8.93
= T1
To /6
o To /6
j t
Ae
dt
o
e
A
[
T o( j o)
/ o
o T
/6
]t
To 6
o o
A
j t
e j
e(
=
( j2n)
j n
j/3
j/3
A
= 2 (e
e
)
or
/6
Cn = A sin ` n j
n
3
Chap 8
Communication Systems
SOL 8.95
or
P T = P c c1 + m
2
P 2
Psb = c
2
=
Psb
= 1
Pc
8
Pc (0.5)
2
/J
() cos (c nn) t
n=3
c +
= 2 (1008 # 10 3)
nm
6
210 + n4 # 103 = 2 (1008 # 103), n = 4
Thus coefficient = 5J4 (6)
Hence (D) is correct option.
Page 573
Page 573
Chap 8
Communication Systems
SOL 8.97
Eb = 10 6 wattsec
No = 10 5 W/Hz
6
E
(SNR) matched filler = No = 10  5= .05
2 # 10
2
(SNR)dB = 10 log 10 (0.05) = 13 dB
Hence (D) is correct option.
o
SOL 8.100
3 fs
2fm
If
Chap 8
Communication Systems
SOL 8.102
We have
+3
y (t) = 5 # 10 x (t)
/ (t nT )
s
n=3
6
SOL 8.105
Page 575
Chap 8
Communication Systems
SOL 8.106
We have
Chap 8
Communication Systems
d (n) = x (n) x (n
1)
E [d (n)] 2 = E [x (n) x (n
1)] 2
or
or
as k = 1
2Rxx (1) = 19 2x
10
19
Rxx = 20 = 0.95
2x
Page 577
SOL 8.111
Page 578
Page 578
Chap 8
Communication Systems
SOL 8.112
We have
sin c (700t) + sin c (500t) =
sin (700t)
sin (500t)
+
700t
500t
Probability of error = p
Probability of no error = q = (1
p) Probability for at most one bit error
= Probability of no bit error
+ probability of 1 bit error
= (1 p) n + np (1 p) n 1
Hence (D) is correct option.
SOL 8.116
If
g (t)
FT
G ()
Sg () = G () 2
Chap 8
Communication Systems
Pg = 1
2
Now
PSD of ag (t) is
ag (t)
FT
#S
3
3
() d
aG ()
Sag () = a (G ()) 2
= a2 G () 2
or
Sag () = a2 Sg ()
Similarly
Pag = a2 Pg
Hence (A) is correct option.
SOL 8.117
We have
Pm
The input to LPF is
= m2 (t)
Chap 8
Communication Systems
m (t) cos
2
P cos
Py = y (t) = 1 m2 (t) cos2 = m
4
4
2
Chap 8
Communication Systems
SOL 8.125
Given function
g (t) = 6 # 10 4 sin c2 (400t) ) 106 sin c 3 (100t)
Let
g1 (t) = 6 # 10 4 sin c2 (400t)
g2 (t) = (106) sin c3 (100t)
We know that g1 (t) ) g2 (t) ? G1 () G2 occupies minimum of
()
Bandwidth of G1 () or G2 ()
or = 400 Hz
Band width of G1 () = 2 # 400 = 800 rad/
or 150 Hz
sec
Band width of G2 () = 3 # 100 = 300 rad/
sec
Sampling frequency
= 2 # 150 = 300 Hz
Hence (B) is correct option.
SOL 8.127
n is no. of bits
# g () g (T
t+
) d at t = T0
0
Chap 8
Communication Systems
g (t)
@max
=
=
=
# g () g () d #
3
#
0
g (t) dt
1 # 104
= 5 mV
Chap 8
Communication Systems
1
A2 dt
#
2
T
T
Rxx () =
T +
2
A2 T
=
D
T :2
A2 T T
= : + D
T 2
2
Chap 8
Communication Systems
SOL 8.133
In PCM, SNR
22n
Chap 8
Communication Systems
SOL 8.139
Chap 8
Communication Systems
SOL 8.144
Sg ()
Chap 8
Communication Systems
The difference between incoming signal frequency (fc) and its image
frequency (fc) is 2I f (which is large enough). The RF filter may
provide poor selectivity against adjacent channels separated by a
small frequency differences but it can provide reasonable selectivity
against a station separated by 2I f . So it provides adequate
suppression of image channel.
Hence (C) is correct option.
SOL 8.149
Chap 8
Communication Systems
R () =
put
R ( ) =
# x (t) x (t + ) dt
3
3
# x (t) x (t ) dt
Let
t =
dt = d
3
R ( ) =
# x ( + ) x () d
3
R ( ) =
# x (t) x (t + ) dt = R ()
3
R ( ) = R () even function
Hence (D) is correct option.
SOL 8.151