You are on page 1of 12

International Journal of English Language

and Translation Studies


[ISSN: 2308-5460]

Vol-01, Issue-02
[July-September, 2013]

Editor-in-Chief
Mustafa Mubarak Pathan
Department of English Language & Translation Studies
The Faculty of Arts, the University of Sebha
Sebha, Libya

Indexed in:
DOAJ
Google Scholar
Index Coper nicus International
Isla mic World Science Citation Center
Linguistics Abstracts Online
Open J-gate

www.eltsjournal.org

International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies ISSN: 2308-5460


Table of Contents
Sr.
No.
1
2

10
11
12

13

14

15

16

Title of the Paper / Name of the Author(s)/ Country


Editorial
A Socio-linguistic Perspective to the Language Change of Television News
Broadcasting in Iran
- Shahla Simin, Hosna Kasma ee, Atiye Ezzati, Freshteh Teimouri &
Arineh Minasian, Iran
EFL Learners Difficult Role Transition from Secondary School to University:
From the P erspective and Perceptions of EFL Teachers of TBLT in Western
China
- Feng Teng, China
English Language Teaching and Learning during Holiday Camps: A Case Study
from Malaysia
- Dr. Ria Hanewald, Malaysia
English Metafunction Analysis in Chemistry Text: Characterization of Scientific
Text
- Ahma d Amin Dalimunte, M.Hum, Indonesia
Investigating the Difficulties Faced in Understanding, and Strategies Used in
Processing, English Idioms by the Libyan Students
- Noura Winis Ibrahim Saleh & Dr. Moha mmed Hassan Zakaria ,
Malaysia
MALL (Mobile Assisted Language Learning): A Paradise for English Language
Learners
- Dr. Suneetha Yedla, India
Metaphors about EFL Teachers' Roles: A Case of Iranian Non-English-Major
Students
- Mohsen Akbari, Iran
Mother Tongue Influence : A Thorn in the Flesh of Technocrats in the Global
Market
- Dr. S. Mohan, India
Teaching Creative Thinking Skills
- Dr. Nagamurali Eragamreddy, Libya
The Importance of a Dystopia n Hero in Sara Gruens Water for Elephants
Bassmah Bassam Khaled AlTaher, Jordan
The Leverage of a Proposed Post Process Writing Approach Program on
Developing the EFL Al-Azhar Secondary Students' Writing Skills
- Ismail Ibrahim Elshirbini Abdel-Fattah El-Ashri, Egypt
The Translator's Agency and the Ideological Manipulation in Translation: the
Case of Political Texts in Translation Classrooms in Iran
- Katayoon Afzali , Iran
The Use of Photo-Elicitation Interview in Sociolinguistics: The Case Study of
Awareness about the Use of Borrowings in Tlemcen Speech Community Algeria
- Mrs. Rahmoun-Mrabet Razzia, Alger ia
Uncertainty and Uncertainty Management: the Metacognitive State of ProblemSolving of Professional (experienced) Translators and Students of Translation
Studies
- Zahra Amirian & Moha mad J. Baghiat, Iran
Using Native Language in ESL Classroom
- Dr. Isa SPAHIU, Macedonia

Vol-1, Issue-2

July-September, 2013

www.eltsjournal.org

CC-BY-NC

Page
Number
03
04-08

09-23

24-37

38-49

50-65

66-72

73-82

83-90

91-105
106-119
120-141

142-151

152-161

162-175

176-179

International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies ISSN: 2308-5460


The Translator's Agency and the Ideological Manipulation in Translation: the Case of
Political Texts in Translation Classrooms in Iran
Katayoon Afzali
Sheikhbahaee Universit y, Iran
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate how and to what extent Iranian translat ion students are
familiar wit h the changes that the meanings of ethics and manipulat ion have undergone in
translat ion studies. To this end, the researcher selected an editorial fro m the SpaceWar
website regarding United States claims about Irans nuclear program and gave it as a
translat ion assignment to thirty postgraduate Iranian students majoring in Translat ion studies
at Sheikhbahaee Universit y, Iran. First ly, the students were asked to merely translate the text.
In the second phase, the students were asked to translate the given text in order to be
published in Keyhan newspaper. Two sets of translat ions were analyzed Using Van Dijks
(2004) CDA Framework. Finally, frequencies and percentages of the discursive structures
were computed across two sets of translat ions and used to systemat ically find out what
proportions of the informat ion extracted from translated texts were noticeably manipulated
compared to the source text. The findings o f the study showed that there is no any significant
difference across two types o f translat ions. Furthermore, it was revealed that lexicalit y is the
most frequent discursive structure used by the students to show their ideo logy in translation.
Keywords: Ethics, translators agency, ideo logy, translator training

Vol-1, Issue-2

July-September, 2013

www.eltsjournal.org

CC-BY-NC

142

International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies ISSN: 2308-5460


1. Introduction
Wit h the emergence o f the cultural turn in translation studies, external factors affecting
translat ion have been paid attention to in this field. Therefore, macro factors, such as
translator, history, culture, polit ics in target contexts, translators agency and ideo logical
manipulat ion have beco me the main concern o f translat ion studies (Munday, 2008). In this
relat ion, Lefevere (1992), one of the representatives of the Manipulation school, believes that
translat ion is the rewrit ing of source texts which are manipulated by ideo logy, poetics,
patronage and universe of discourse in which ideology and poetics are the most important
constituents.
Recent ly, the effect of ideo logy o f the translator on the target audience and the
ideo logical presence of the translator in his/her translations have been noticed considerably
by experts of the field. In some cases, such influences are obvious and explicit. On the
contrary, in so me cases more disciplined efforts are needed to realize the boundaries o f the
influences. The ideo logies underlying a text could be found and understood through Crit ica l
Discourse Analysis (CDA). In other words, CDA as one of the main branches o f Discourse
Analys is (DA) has mainly concentrated on the links between different approaches to talking
and thinking. In other words, the focus of CDA is the idea that cultural and ideo logical cues
could be found in spoken and written texts (OHalloran, 2005).
The ideo logical presence o f the translator in the target text and the effect of ideo logical
manipulat ions of the text on the potential audience have been noticed by the experts of the
field recent ly. To this end, a variet y of strategies are applied by translators to manipulate a
text ideo logically. As a result of these variations, the borders of translat ion ethics and
visibilit y and invisibilit y o f the translator in the target text is not crystal clear for most of the
translat ion students or even translators themselves. This is due to the fact that the concept of
ethics has broadened to cover the issue o f fait hfulness to the text and fait hfulness to the
audience. In this relat ion Pym (2001) declares that the scope of ethics in translat ion has
widened and has included the translators agency and has mo ved away fro m the descript ive
paradigm towards processes of cross-cultural communicat ion. Lack of codified and
comprehensive curriculum covering the issue of text manipulat ion and the ways that a text
should be manipulated is a problem o f most of the universit ies that offer translat ion courses.
In this regard, Nord (2003) believes that almost all decisio ns in the process of translat ion are
affected by ideo logical criteria, consciously or unconsciously. Ideo logical factors play a vita l
role in defining translat ion scopes (target-text intended purpose) and choosing appropriate
strategies by translators regarding the clients expectations.
Since it is believed that translators should be object ive, fait hful and trustful, the prevailing
opinio n of most of the readers is that the ideo logy of translators is not expressed in the target
texts. On the contrary, it should be notified that the translators ideo logy is integrated in ever y
word they choose, and during the who le process of translat ion (Toury, 2000). Therefore, it is
important for translat ion students to be aware that their responsibilit y is not just limit ed to
being fait hful to the author, but according to Baker (2006), the translators and interpreters are
responsible for being fait hful to the values o f their societ y. There is a growing awareness
among translat ion scho lars that translat ion and interpreting are socially and po lit icallydirected professio ns, not simply language-related activit ies. Hence, translat ion students
should be aware of this new change of scope in the area of translation studies (Simon, 2005).
Vol-1, Issue-2

July-September, 2013

www.eltsjournal.org

CC-BY-NC

143

International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies ISSN: 2308-5460


Considering the emergence of the concept of text manipulat ion in the field of translat ion, and
the new meanings that ethics has adopted in translat ion studies, the current study aims to
investigate the extent that Iranian translat ion students ideo logically manipulate translat ing
polit ical texts, and the strategies they apply to do so consciously or unconsciously. To this
end, the fo llowing research quest ions were addressed:
1. To what extent translat ion students may consciously manipulate a polit ical text based on
their ideo logy?
2. To what extent translation students ideo logy may affect his/her translat ion unconsciously?
3. What are the co mmo n strategies used by the translation students in order to manipulate a
polit ical text ideo logically according to the purpose of the translation?
2. Background
A mult itude number of studies focused on the way the translators manipulate a text
ideo logically some of which were concerned with ideo logical manipulat ion o f childrens
literature. In this regard, Sertekan (2007), has scrutinized the ideo logical aspects in five
different abridged Turkish versio ns o f Charles Dickens Oliver Twist (1838) published by
Timas, Damla, Nehir, Karanfil, and Tomurcuk Publishing Houses in terms o f the lexical
cho ices made in the translat ion process. The findings indicated that the five Turkish versio ns
were governed by ideologically-based manipulat ions aimed at direct ing the target readers,
i. e., childrens attention to a particular worldview and shaping their percept ion accordingly.
He also, through crit ical analys is o f the examples in the Turkish versio ns, showed that certain
lexical items were added, omitted, and distorted, which points to the fact that such
manipulations were carried out in accordance with the so-called religious-conservat ive
ideo logy.
Another study conducted in the realm o f childrens literature is Khwiras (2010) study. He
investigated the translat ions of Defoe's Robinson Crusoe and highlighted the mistranslat ions
and breakdowns caused by cultural and ideo logical differences among Arab and foreign
cultures. The findings o f his study revealed that translators had emplo yed various translat ion
strategies including modificat ions, o missio ns, and, somet imes, addit io ns, to avoid cultural
and ideo logical misunderstandings.
Khajeh and Khanmo hammad (2009) co mpared two Persian translat ions o f the book written
by Noam Cho msky ent it led Media Control. The findings confirmed that the differences
between the two translat ions and the original text are due to ideo logical biases.
Bnhegyi (2009) examined whether the ideo logy of the translator affects the reproduction of
superstructure in translated polit ical argumentative newspaper articles. The superstructure of
a Hungarian argumentative newspaper art icle and its two English translations by two
translators with opposing ideologies were co mpared emplo ying Hoeys (2001) Superstructure
Model. Banhegyi found that ideo logy does not affect the reproduction of superstructures in
target texts. It was proposed that translators ideologies might interfere in the translat ion
process and affect the macrostructure of target texts.
Another category o f studies has focused on the way translators manipulate po lit ical texts.
For instance, Hirv (2011) focuses on the coverage of the so called Bronze Night in the
English-language online reports by the Brit ish Broadcasting Co mpany (the BBC), German
public broadcaster Deutsche Welle (DW), and the Estonian-language reports by Estonian
public broadcaster Eesti Rahvusringhling (ERR) with the aim to find out whether the
Vol-1, Issue-2

July-September, 2013

www.eltsjournal.org

CC-BY-NC

144

International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies ISSN: 2308-5460


transfer o f news about the events in Estonia invo lved a change in the po int of view and, if so,
how these changes were produced by linguist ic means and which implications they may have.
He found that the translat ional procedure invo lved reframing, omissio n and generalizat ion,
furthermore the translators had used addit io n and explicit ation strategies for translat ing
culturally specific informat ion, which for the Estonian reader was socially shared knowledge.
In the same vein, Bilal et al. (2012), through the analysis o f two episodes o f a very
popular talk show of a private televisio n channel of Pakistan, intended to reveal how the
ideo logies were represented in these shows, and found out that these talk shows myst ify the
agency o f processes by using various strategies. Their crit ical text analyses revealed that how
speakers cho ices enable them to manipulate the realizations o f agency and power in the
representation o f act ion to produce particular meanings which are not always explic it for all
readers.
As ment ioned above, a mult itude number of studies were conducted regarding text
manipulat ion in translation, and each have focused on this pheno menon fro m a different
perspective. However, as the background of these studies indicate, scarce practical studies
have been done regarding the ro le o f ideo logical manipulation in translat ion training.
Therefore, the current study using a crit ical discourse analys is approach aims to find out how
and to what extent translat ion students consciously or unconsciously manipulate a po lit ica l
text based on their ideo logy in the process o f translation and what are the co mmo n strategies
used by them to manipulate a polit ical ideo logical text.
3. Method
3.1. Participants
The part icipants of the study were 30 students majoring in MA Program o f Translat ion at
Sheikhbahaee Universit y, Iran. Having enrolled in the same program, the participants formed
a ho mogeneous group. They all had been exposed to concepts such as dynamic equivalence
and translator visibilit y in several courses in previo us semesters.
3.2. Material
The editorial regarding United States claims about Irans nuclear program study was
downloaded fro m SpaceWar website. SpaceWar.com is owned and operated by Space.TV
Corp., a Delaware registered co mpany (Delaware is a US state) that publishes a range o f
space, science and techno logy Website . In operation since the mid 1990s, the Space TV
network enjo ys a mo nthly audience o f more than 1 millio n visitors to its sites - wit h more
than 100,000 monthly visitors to SPACEWAR.COM.
The rationale behind focusing on
polit ical texts stemmed fro m the circumstance that
polit ical texts are instances o f texts where ideo logy in its purest or crudest form could be
manifested as the core of the translat ion process. Since the aim of the study was to detect
translators ideo logical manipulat ion, a po lit ical editorial about Irans nuclear program was
selected. The select ion o f this text was due to the fact that first ly, the subject of the text was
controversial so it could challenge translators ideologically; secondly, the text was not very
lo ng so that it did not make the students bored.
3.3. Procedures
The polit ical text on United States claims about Irans nuclear program was assigned to 30
senior students majoring in translat ion to be translated. These students were categorized into
two groups: The first group was asked to merely translate the text, but the second group was
Vol-1, Issue-2

July-September, 2013

www.eltsjournal.org

CC-BY-NC

145

International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies ISSN: 2308-5460


asked to translate the given text in order to be published in Keyhan newspaper, a news paper
with certain polit ical orientation in Iran. The students were given two weeks to do this
assignment.
The texts translated by students were analysed on the basis o f Van Dijks (2004) mode l
to determine if the discursive structures are ideologically-loaded. Among the elements
proposed by Van Dijk, lexicalization, passivizat ion, modalit y, o missio n and addit ion were
focused in this study. Lexicalizat ion refers to choosing one word rather than another.
Passivizat ion refers to changing an act ive sentence to a passive one or vice versa. Modalit y
can show the likelihood of the occurrence of an act ion. Furthermore, it can show the
underlying attitude of the speaker/writer toward that action. Omissio n (deletion) refers to
omitting a sequence o f words wit hout influencing the grammar o f the sentence. Addit io n
refers to adding a sequence of words without influencing the grammar of a sentence.
To analyze the translat ions , primarily the text was explored to spot syntactic aspects such as
grammar, vocabulary and modalit y. Moreover, special lexical, syntact ic and grammat ical
select ions were detected to see if they represented certain ideo logical significance. Then, the
contents of the texts were analyzed wit h respect to the semant ic features of the lexicons and
the ideo logically-loaded expressio ns emplo yed.
To analyze the collected data first, source text and its two sets of translat ions (translat ion of
the group 1 who had translated the text and the translat ions o f group 2 who had translated the
text for Keyhan) were analyzed through a careful sentence-by-sentence
comparat ive/contrastive reading and the elements of Van Dijks(2004) framework surveyed.
At the same t ime, on the basis of Van Dijks framework the students strategies used in order
to manipulate the source text were analyzed. In this regard, first of all, the source text was
crit ically analyzed in order to find the structures and the words where the author has loaded
his ideo logy. Then two sets of translat ions were compared with the source text separately. To
increase the reliabilit y o f the conclusio ns and to make the interpretations as object ive as
possible, frequencies and percentages o f the discursive structures were computed and used to
systemat ically find out what proportions o f the information extracted from translated texts are
noticeably foregrounded or back grounded against the source text.
To examine if the difference between the discoursal features used by the two groups of
translators is significant, Chi-square test has been applied.
4. Data analysis
As it was ment ioned previously, init ially the texts the students were supposed to translate
was analyzed crit ically. CDA (crit ical discourse analysis) revealed that the selected texts
included 12 sentences wit h 40 key words and structures that induced ideo logical
connotations. The results of the analys is o f the text have been appended in appendix I. The
translat ion o f these 40 structures were put in to the spotlight in two sets of translations
ment ioned in method section in order to determine the degree of conscious and unconscious
ideo logical manipulation by students.
Using Van Dijks (2004) CDA framework, the frequency and percentage of the five major
discursive structures of manipulat ion; namely, addit ion, delet ion, passivizat ion, lexicalit y,
and modalit y in First and Second translat ions were presented in table 1.
Table: 1 The frequency and percentage of discursive structures in the first and second
structures
Vol-1, Issue-2

July-September, 2013

www.eltsjournal.org

CC-BY-NC

146

International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies ISSN: 2308-5460


Strategy of manipulation
Addition
Deletion
Passivization
Lexicality
Modality

First translation
Frequency
18
33
14
102
7

percentage
10. 3%
19. 0%
8. 0%
58. 4%
4. 0%

Second translation
Frequency
percentage
6
3. 6%
40
23. 8%
10
6. 0%
104
61. 9%
8
4. 8%

As Table 1 indicates, in the first translation the highest frequency and percentage is related
to Lexicalit y, deletion, addit ion and passivizat ion respect ively. In the case of the second
translat ion, the highest frequency and percentage is related to lexicalit y, delet ion,
passivizat ion, modalit y and delet ion respectively. Table 1 also shows that lexicalit y has the
highest frequency in both sets of translat ions. After lexicalit y delet ion has the highest
frequency in both conscious and unconscious translat ions.
In order to facilitate the co mparison o f discursive structures in two sets of translat ions,
figure 1 shows the frequency of these discursive structures in the form of a bar graph.
Figure1. The frequency and percentage of discursive structures across two types of
translations

At the last stage, in order to find out if the difference between the differences o f the two
types of the translat ions is significant a Chi Square test was run. Table 2 shows the results o f
chi-square test at p>0.05.
Table: 2 the results of the Pearson chi-square test for comparison of the two types of
translation
Value
Df
Chi- square
7. 321
4
0. 120
As Table 2 indicates, there is no significant difference between two types o f translat ion at
p < 0.05. Thus, there is no significant difference between two sets of translat ions. In other
words, students have done no conscious attempt in order to manipulate the target text
regarding the skopos of translat ion.
5. Discussion and Conclusion
As Table 2 indicates, the findings showed no significant difference across two sets of
translat ions conducted by the students. In other words, the conscious ideo logical
manipulat ion (text translated for Keyhan) is not significantly different fro m unconscious
ideo logical manipulat ion in the performance sample of the study. This indicates that the
students are unaware of the concept of manipulat ion in translat ion. Perhaps the most
Vol-1, Issue-2

July-September, 2013

www.eltsjournal.org

CC-BY-NC

147

International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies ISSN: 2308-5460


important reason for this issue is that the students do not know how to manipulate the text
regarding the Skopos of the translat ion which can be traced back to the inadequacy o f
translator training program.
It seems that the approach of the students taking part in this study is linguist ic and not
cultural or ideo logical and this can be due to the lack o f a co mprehensive curriculum for
translat ion courses in Iranian universit ies. In other words, translation students are not trained
properly to manipulate the texts based on their contexts of translat ion. Its worth ment ioning
that, the level o f ideo logical manipulat ion that have been detected in the current study is the
consequence o f unconscious process o f ideo logical manipulat ion or weak process of
conscious manipulat ion since the difference between the frequency o f the elements of Van
Dijk model across two groups of participants did not vary significant ly.
As Maier (2007) states an increased focus on translation ethics can guide translators to guide
responsibly , and to take their vis ibilit y seriously. Since the debate of ethics has shifted awa y
fro m impartialit y and fait hfulness to questions of just ice and the need to decide and to
remain as fixed as possible on the instrumental and utopian social and polit ical goals that
translat ion and interpreting can help to adjudicate (Innghilleri, 2011; p. 103).
In translat ion studies courses, realizing the strengths and weaknesses is the first and most
important step to be taken. This study indicated that translat ion curriculum has not kept
abreast of the most recent theories of translat ion.
The findings o f this study indicate a number of reco mmendat ions for pract ice. The
findings are expected to be beneficial for news translators to use it as a guideline to solve
problems they co me across when translat ing, or to improve their translat ion and for
newsreaders to understand better when reading foreign news. Furthermore instructors of
translat ion can use this study to explain translation strategies or suggest which strategy
should be used for each kind o f text. This study also can be useful for students of translation,
journalis m and other related fields to make use of the analys is o f the findings, by adapting or
applying the strategies for their assignment as well as their work. Above all, the findings o f
this study can be conducive to expanding students' crit ical t hinking abilit ies in
comprehension and production o f language and also in revitalizing the neglected construct of
language proficiency.
There are several changes that could make replicat ion o f this study more precise and
informat ive. First ly, the demographic features of the sample of study are not clearly defined.
Secondly, the number of students that had been selected to participate in the study was
confined to 30 undergraduate students of translation, a further study can invo lve more
participants. Thirdly, ,different methods of data collect ion may be used in similar studies. In
the current study, the data was collected only via a class assignment and there was no time
limitation. In subsequent studies, other methods of data collect ion such as monitoring during
the process of translat ion can be used. Also other types of texts like childrens literature,
scientific, etc texts can be considered in order to survey students performance.
In conclusio n, this study points to certain directions of further research. The current study
is a co mparat ive analys is o f conscious and unconscious ideo logical manipulat ion. Conscious
ideo logical manipulat ion and unconscious ideo logical manipulat ion may be invest igated
separately in subsequent studies. Furthermore, further research regarding ideo logical
Vol-1, Issue-2

July-September, 2013

www.eltsjournal.org

CC-BY-NC

148

International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies ISSN: 2308-5460


manipulat ion can invest igate the role o f gender, age, education, academic posit ion, field o f
study, on ideo logical manipulat ion of subjects.
About the Author:
Dr. Katayoon Afzali ho lds a PhD in teaching English as a foreign language and is an
assistant professor at Sheikhbahaee Universit y/Iran. She has published research papers in
various journals and has participated in a number of conferences. Her major areas o f research
interest include: translat ion, contrastive rhetoric, genre analysis, reading literature,
pragmat ics, and discourse analysis.
References:
Baker, M. (2006). Translation and Conflict: A Narrative Account, London: Routledge.
Bilal, A. et al. (2012). Crit ical discourse analys is of po lit ical TV talk shows of Pakestani
Media. International Journal of Linguistics. 4(1), pp. 203-219.
Bnhegyi, M. (2009). The translators ideo logy and the reproduction of superstructures.
WoPaLP Vol. 3, 2009.
Hirv, J. ( 2011). Ideology in translation transfer: Media coverage on the Bronze Night
in EESTI
Rahvusringhaaling , BBC and Deutsche Welle. Unpublished M. A. thesis. Finland:
Universit y o f Tartu.
Inghilleri, M. (2011). Ethics. In Routledge Encycloppedia o f Translat ion Studies (Eds. Baker
& Saldanha). London & New York: Routledge. pp. 100-104.
Khajeh, Z, & Khanmohammad, H. (2009). Transmissio n of ideo logy through
translation: A crit ical discourse analysis o f Cho mskys Media Control
and its persian translat ions. Iranian Journal of Applied Language
Studies; 2009; 1(1); 24-42.
Lefevere, A. (1992). Translation / History / Culture. London and New York: Routledge
Maier, C. (2007). The Translators Visibilit y: The Rights and Responsibilit ies Thereo f, in
Myriam Salama-Carr (ed.). Translating and Interpreting Conflict,
Amsterdam: Rodopi, 255-66.
Munday, J. (2008). Introducing transaltion studies: theroies and applications. London
and New York: Routledge. Amesterdam: John Benjamins Publishing
Company.
Nord, C. (2003). Funct ion and lo yalt y in Bible translation. In M. Calzada-Prez (Ed.)
Apropos of ideology (pp. 89-112). Manchester: St. Jerome.
Pym, A. (2001). The Return to Ethics, Special Issue of The Translator 7(2): 139-54.
Sertekan, K. (2007). The ideology of lexical choices in the Turkish translations of Oliver
Twist. Dokuz Eyll Universit y. Turkey.
Simo n, S (2005). Translat ion and Social Act ivism. Special Issue of TTR 18 (2).
Toury, G. (2000). The nature and role of norms in translat ion. In L. Venut i (Ed.) The
translation studies reader (pp. 198-211). London: Routledge.
Van Dijk, T.A. (2004). Politics, ideology & discourse. Retrieved December 24, 2005,
fro m http://www. Discourse. Org/download/articles.

Vol-1, Issue-2

July-September, 2013

www.eltsjournal.org

CC-BY-NC

149

International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies ISSN: 2308-5460


Appendix I
US says Iran lying about nuclear weapons program
The United States charged Tuesday t hat Iran is lying about developing a nuclear weapons
program, and said the UN watchdog will eventually have to bring the issue before the
Securit y Council.
In another salvo in the US campaign to press the Islamic regime in Tehran over its alleged
nuclear plans, Under Secretary o f State John Bo lton said there was a crisis o f nonco mpliance
with the nuclear non-proliferat ion treaty (NPT).
"If we permit Iran's deception to go on much lo nger, it will be too late," Bo lton said at a
meet ing to prepare for a conference next year to review the NPT. "Iran will have nuclear
weapons."
Iran, dubbed part of US President George W. Bush's "axis of evil" alo ng with North Korea
and the former Baghdad regime, has repeatedly denied trying to develop such weapons and
claims its nuclear program is for peaceful civilian purposes.
But the United States has been skept ical about Tehran's pledges to improve cooperation and
transparency wit h the UN's Internat ional Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), saying Iran has
reneged on similar vows.
Last week, Bush said any development of an atomic weapon by Tehran would be
"intolerable."
The IAEA reprimanded Iran last year for failing to make a full account ing o f it s nuclear
activit ies, but bowed to internat ional pressure and signed the NPT's addit io nal protocol
allowing tougher probes by the watchdog agency.
"Iran's o il-rich environment, grudging cooperation wit h the IAEA, its deception, and its 18
year record of clandestine act ivit y leads us to the inevitable conclusio n that Iran is lying,"
Bolton said.
Bolton said that while the United States had not pressed the IAEA to report Tehran to the
Securit y Council yet, he expected that the agency would "at some po int" need to do so.
"If Iran continues its unwillingness to comply wit h the NPT, the council can then take up this
issue as a threat to internat ional peace and securit y," Bolton said.
"If the council is unable to do so, it will not only be a blow to our efforts to hold Iran
accountable, but also a blow to the effect iveness of the council it self and to the credibilit y of
the ent ire NPT regime."
Unless Iranians "come clean on their nuclear program, end the suppression o f their people
and stop supporting terrorist activit ies, they will face deepening internat ional isolation and
even greater economic and diplo mat ic pressure," said Bo lton.
The overall topic of the text is about United States charges against Irans nuclear program.
At the first glance and just reading the t itle o f the text, it gets clear that the author has a harsh
attitude against Iran. The author has opted the term lying to refer to Iran and not any other
euphemist ic or less derogatory counterpart such as doesnt say the truth or is not truthful.
On the other hand to use say and not other counterparts such as claim or believe wants
to show the certaint y o f this issue, while that in the first paragraph o f the text the author uses
the word charge that shows the uncertaint y of this claim. Again in the t it le lying about
nuclear weapon program implicates that Iran certainly has a nuclear weapon program and
its program is not a peaceful one ,and is lying about it.
Vol-1, Issue-2

July-September, 2013

www.eltsjournal.org

CC-BY-NC

150

International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies ISSN: 2308-5460


The t it le o f this article reads US says Iran lying about nuclear weapons program. Here the
applicat ion o f US says is neutral. Saying is a neutral verb that conveys nothing about the
US. However, Iran lying has negative connotation about Iran. Moreover, the applicat ion of
nuclear weapons program instead of nuclear program indicates discursive strategies of
presupposition by the writer. The writer wanted to show that there is a nuclear weapon
program.
In the first paragraph of the text, we have The United States charged Emplo ying
charge as a verb has been purposeful by the writer. When we charge so meone we put
ourselves in higher level so that we can charge someone else. The applicat ion of lying
explicit ly and negat ively conveys negat ive feelings about Iran. In the same vein, the
applicat ion o f developing indicates that the nuclear program aims to produce weapons and
Iran is developing the program. The use of have to implies that writer thinks that Iran
should be referred to Securit y Council.
In the second paragraph, the term the Islamic regime in Tehran is a negat ive term that
indicates the tyranny nature of Tehrans regime. Emplo ying alleged as the verb shows that
the writer does not believe in the safe nature of Irans nuclear program.
In the third paragraph, the term Iran's decept ion has highly negat ive connotation. The use
of modalit y discursive strategy is obvious in Iran will have nuclear weapons" at the end o f
paragraph. The writer wants to say that it would be late and there is no doubt about it.
In the fourth paragraph, the use o f axis o f evil referring to Iran, exaggeratedly conveys
negat ive feelings about Iran. Also the use o f claims regarding to Iran indicates the authors
doubts on Iran peaceful civilian purposes.

Vol-1, Issue-2

July-September, 2013

www.eltsjournal.org

CC-BY-NC

151