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Biology 203

Evolution & Ecology

MOCK EXAM #4
Spring 2015

Name:
TA:

1) Which of the following is a true statement about the figure to the right
a. When kangaroo rats were excluded from the
study areas, the densities of deer mice increased
dramatically.
b. While the entire site demonstrated an increase
in rodent density in 1988-1990, the plots with
kangaroo rats excluded demonstrated the
greatest effect.
c. This figure demonstrates that kangaroo rats are
likely a keystone species in this community.
d. The pattern depicted in this figure is likely due
to competitive interactions, although it is not
clear exactly how the presence of kangaroo rats depresses the density of deer mice.
e. All of these are true statements about this figure.
1. In the Lotka-Volterra models of predator-prey interactions, will be larger for
a. Antelopes eaten by a lion
b. Mosquitoes eaten by a bat
2. Which would be the best way to directly test the hypothesis that C. stellatus (a species of barnacle)
is competitively excluded from the lower intertidal zone by B. balanoides (another species of
barnacle)?
a. Place individuals of each species in a jar and see which species survives.
b. Remove all B. balanoides from the lower intertidal zone.
c. Transplant B. balanoides to the upper intertidal zone.
d. Clear rocks in an entire area and document recolonization events.
e. Remove all C. stellatus from the upper tidal zone.
3. If two species are close competitors, and one species is experimentally removed from the
community, the remaining species would be expected to _____.
a. Eventually become competitively superior to the other species
b. Change its fundamental niche
c. Decline in abundance
d. Become the target of specialized parasites
e. Expand its realized niche
4. Which of the following statements about zero population growth isoclines of two competing
species is true?
a. Species coexistence requires that the two isoclines cross.
b. The crossing of the two isoclines is a sufficient condition for species coexistence.
c. If the species coexist, they will each do so at a lower density than either would if placed
alone.
d. Both a and b
e. Both a and c
5. The final theoretical stage of succession is called the _______ stage.
a. Omega
b. Ultimate
c. Penultimate
d. Climax
e. Pioneer

Biology 203
Evolution & Ecology

MOCK EXAM #4
Spring 2015

Name:
TA:

6. Based on the LotkaVolterra equations, which of the following statements about carrying capacity
and species coexistence is most likely true?
a. Species with similar resource use but very different carrying capacities are more likely to
coexist than species with similar resource use and similar carrying capacities.
b. Species with similar carrying capacities are more likely to coexist than species with
different carrying capacities.
c. Doubling the carrying capacities of two competing species should increase the likelihood
that the species will coexist.
d. Both a and c
e. Both b and c
7. Which of the following types of succession involves colonization of habitats devoid of life?
a. Primary
b. Secondary
c. Pristine
d. Facilitation
e. Abiotic
8. Why is terrestrial productivity higher in equatorial climates?
a. Productivity increases with temperature.
b. Productivity increases with water availability.
c. Productivity increases with available sunlight.
d. The answer is most likely a combination of the other responses.
9. If the GPP of an aquatic ecosystem is 180 units per year, and the NPP is 100 units, what is the
respiration rate of the primary producers?
a. 80 units per year
b. 100 units per year
c. 180 units per year
d. 260 units per year
e. There is insufficient information to answer this question.
10. Which of the following consume other living organisms?
(I) Primary producers
(II) Herbivores
(III) Carnivores
(IV) Decomposers
a. Only II and III
b. Only I and IV
c. Only I, II, and IV
d. Only II, III, and IV
e. Only I, II, and II
11. In a food chain, secondary consumers are _______ primary producers.
a. One level above
b. Two levels above
c. Three levels above
d. One level below
e. Two levels below

Biology 203
Evolution & Ecology

MOCK EXAM #4
Spring 2015

Name:
TA:

12. During a year, plants never use 100% of the incoming solar radiation for photosynthesis. What is a
reasonable explanation for this?
(I) Plants cannot photosynthesize as well during winter (in cold winter climates).
(II) Plants cannot photosynthesize as well on cloudy days.
(III) The pigments that drive photosynthesis respond to only a fraction of the wavelengths that are
available.
a. Only I
b. Only II
c. Only III
d. Only II and III
e. I, II, and III
13. Given what you know about energy transfer efficiencies, approximately how many kilograms (kg)
of carnivore (secondary consumer) biomass can be supported by a field plot containing 1000 kg of
plant material?
a. 10,000
b. 1000
c. 100
d. 10
e. 1
14. Food chains are sometimes short because _____.
a. Only a single species of herbivore feeds on each plant species
b. Local extinction of a species causes extinction of the other species in its food chain
c. Most of the energy in a trophic level is lost as it passes to the next higher level
d. Predator species tend to be less diverse and less abundant than prey species
e. Most producers are inedible
15. The total amount of photosynthesis is referred to as
a. Net primary production (NPP).
b. Gross primary production (GPP).
c. Net photosynthetic production (NPP).
d. Gross photosynthetic production (GPP).
e. Carbon fixation production (CFP).
16. As big as it is, the ocean is nutrient-limited. If you wanted to investigate this phenomenon, one
reasonable approach would be to _____.
a. Follow whale migrations in order to determine where most nutrients are located
b. Observe Antarctic Ocean productivity from year to year to see if it changes
c. Experimentally enrich some areas of the ocean and compare their productivity to that of
untreated areas.
d. Compare nutrient concentrations between the photic zone and the benthic zone in various
marine locations.
e. Contrast nutrient uptake by autotrophs in marine locations that are different temperatures
17. A three-hectare lake in the American Midwest suddenly has succumbed to an algal bloom. What is
the likely cause of eutrophication in freshwater ecosystems, such as this one?
a. Increased solar radiation
b. Introduction of non-native tertiary consumer fish
c. Nutrient runoff
d. Accidental introduction of a prolific culture of algae
e. Iron dust blowing into the lake

Biology 203
Evolution & Ecology

MOCK EXAM #4
Spring 2015

Name:
TA:

18. Considering the global carbon cycle, where are humans having the greatest impact?
(I) Terrestrial ecosystems
(II) Oceans
(III) Atmosphere
a. Only I
b. Only II
c. Only III
d. Only I and III
e. I, II, and III
19. Which of the following locations are reservoirs for carbon for the carbon cycle?
(I) Atmosphere
(II) Sediments and sedimentary rocks
(III) Fossilized plant and animal remains (coal, oil, and natural gas)
(IV) Plant and animal biomass
a. Only I and III
b. Only II and IV
c. Only I, II, and IV
d. Only II, III, and IV
e. I, II, III, and IV
20. In the nitrogen cycle, the bacteria that replenish the atmosphere with nitrogen are _____.
a. Rhizobium bacteria
b. Nitrifying bacteria
c. Denitrifying bacteria
d. Methanogenic protozoans
e. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria
21. Consider the global nitrogen cycle in the figure below. How are humans altering this cycle?
a. Industrial nitrogen fixation
b. Nitrogen lost to the atmosphere
c. Reduction of nitrogen available to terrestrial ecosystems
d. Reduction of nitrogen fixation by bacteria
e. Permanent burial of nitrogen in coastal environments through runoff

22. Approximately what percentage of global water resources is available in usable, liquid forms?
a. 0.5%
b. 1%
c. 2.5%
d. 5%
e. 25%

Biology 203
Evolution & Ecology

MOCK EXAM #4
Spring 2015

Name:
TA:

23. After looking at the figure below, what can be said about productivity in this ecosystem?
a. Nothing can be said based on this information.
b. Between 80% and 90% of the energy is lost between most trophic levels.
c. Between 10% and 20% of the energy is lost between most trophic levels.
d. Productivity increases with each trophic level.

24. Trophic levels are numbered starting from the bottom to the top of the pyramid. Which trophic
level generates the most dead organic material in most ecosystems?
a. The first
b. The second
c. The third
d. The fourth
e. All trophic levels generate about the same amount of organic material.
25. Which of the following factors best explains why NPP is highest in the wet tropics?
a. The tropics have smaller land mass than temperate/polar regions
b. The tropics have higher rates of speciation than temperate/polar regions
c. The climate is warmer and wetter in the tropics
d. The tropics have more complex food webs than temperate/polar regions
e. None of the above
26. Which of the following has the greatest effect on the rate of biogeochemical cycling in an
ecosystem?
a. The ecosystem's rate of primary production
b. The production efficiency of the ecosystem's consumers
c. The rate of decomposition in the ecosystem
d. The trophic efficiency of the ecosystem
e. The location of the nutrient reservoirs in the ecosystem
27. Before the industrial revolution, the flux of carbon from the terrestrial to the atmospheric pools
_______ the flux in the opposite direction. Today, the flux of carbon from the terrestrial to
atmospheric pools _______ the flux in the opposite direction.
a. Exceeded; exceeds
b. Exceeded; is about equal to
c. Was about equal to; exceeds
d. Was about equal to; is less than
e. Was less than; is about equal to

Biology 203
Evolution & Ecology

MOCK EXAM #4
Spring 2015

Name:
TA:

28. In the Lotka-Volterra model for Predator-Victim interactions, which of the graphs below shows
the response of the predator population in the absence of prey?
a. Graph A
b. Graph B
c. Graph C
d. Graph D
e. None of the above.

29. Recall that Clements's view of biological communities was that of a highly predictable and
interrelated structure, while Gleason's view of biological communities was that individual species
operate independently. If we set up many identical sterilized ponds in the same area and allowed
them to be colonized, what should we predict if we wished to test Gleason's hypothesis?
a. Identical plankton communities will develop in all ponds.
b. Similar plankton communities will develop in all ponds.
c. Different plankton communities will develop in all ponds.
d. Limited plankton communities will develop in all ponds.
e. Initially the number of species in each pond will be greater than the number normally
found in similar environments.
30. Which of the following statements about zero population growth isoclines of two competing
species is true?
a. Species coexistence requires that the two isoclines cross.
b. The crossing of the two isoclines is the only condition required for species coexistence.
c. If the species coexist, they will each do so at a lower density than either would if placed
alone.
d. Both A and C
e. A, B, and C
31. A keystone species has little interaction with other species in an environment.
a. Removing a keystone species from the community drastically reduces diversity.
b. Adding a keystone species to the community will make it more diverse.
c. Removing a keystone species from the community will eventually allow for the invasion of
a new species.
d. None of the above