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A m erican ism versus C om m unism : The in stitu tion alization o f an


ideology
Horne, Jeremy, Ph.D.
University of Florida, 1988

Copyright 1988 b y H orne, Jerem y. All righ ts reserved.

UM-I

300 N. Zeeb Rd.


Ann Arbor, MI 48106

AMERI CA NIS M VERSUS COMMUNISM:


THE INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF AN IDEOLOGY

By

JEREMY HORNE

A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL


OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1988

Copyright 1988
by
Jeremy Horne

To Jackie

You brought me good luck and evidence for my contentions.


You surely remember this quote:

"You hire someone because you will earn more from


his labor than you will pay him in wages."

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

My

initial

dissertation
committee,
o ver

possible

Richard

the

t h a nk s

P.

num er ous

are

for

to

Haynes.

revisions

greatly assisted as graduate


admitted

to

the

helping

the

chairperson

this
of

Besides

patiently

of

m an usc r i p t ,

the

coordinator

department

make

and

my

going
he

in getting me

procuring

my

teaching

assistantship.
I am deeply indebted to Donald C. Hodges under
whom

I have

studied

been

invaluable

in

since

1976.

guiding me

His

deep

through

one

valuable political philosophy programs


can

experience.

know the

nature

obtaining
picking

my

up

Don

is

of

the

Ph.D.
where

In

one

of

trail

the

p a r t i c ula r,

o t her s

left

of

has

the most

I think a person

few

I have

insight

individuals

had

to

who

follow

I appreciate

off

in

s eei ng

in
his

this

dissertation through.
E l len

Haring

patiently

read

the

manuscript

and

contributed her valuable time and advice about the form


of

presentation.

Robert

D'Amico's

persistent

ab ou t o b j e c t i v i t y and p h i l o s o p h i c a l

warnings

r e l e v a n c e h e lp ed

keep the project on an

even

had many conversations

about

theory,

and

mu c h

incorporated

of

his

herein.

keel.

Norman Markel

labor politics

valuable

Sam

and

counsel

Andrews

and

social

has

be e n

contributed

many

helpful hints on sources and to him I am grateful.


Although Robert Baum did not contribute directly to
this

work,

valuable

he

gave

me

assistance

in

continued
my

moral

professional

supp or t

development

and
in

coaching me in my responsibilities as teaching assistant


in logic.

Of

course,

other

departmental

members

helped

enormously.
Here,

in

Arizona,

Perlita

Gauthier

valuable time in editing this manuscript,


typed the final draft,
me print the final

took

her

Sandi Reynolds

and my friend Dan Purcell helped

copy.

Without their a s s i s t a n c e many

last minute deadlines would not have been met.


My

companion,

grouchiness,
nu me rou s

had

Jacqueline

the

patience

w r e t c h e d moments,

motivation of all.

Olan,
to

and

put

stand

provided

up

by

w it h

me

the

my

during
biggest

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ........................................... iv
A B S T R A C T ................................................. viii
CHAPTER
ONE
TWO
A CASE

I N TR ODU CT ION .......................................1


THE STATE OF FLORIDA'S D.O.E. PROGRAM:
S T U D Y ............................................ 7

The Americanism versus Communism A c t ............. 7


The Free Enterprise and Consumer Education A c t . . . . 13
What
Social Studies Texts
T e a c h ................... 18
THREE HOW FLORIDA'S D.O.E. PROGRAM IS A D M I N I S T E R E D . .27
How the State Administers the D.O.E. P r o g r a m ...... 27
How Businesses Implement the D.O.E. P r o g r a m ....... 30
FOUR

WHY THE D.O.E.

PROGRAM IS I D E O L O G I C A L ..........37

The Issue of I d e o l o g y ................................. 37


How the D.O.E. Defines I deo l o g y ..................... 39
What Mainstream Writers Say About I d e o l o g y ........ 42

FIVE

THE D.O.E.'S DEBT TO CONSERVATIVE P H I L O S O P H Y ..49

Niemeyer's P h i l o s o p h y ................................. 49
Classical Foundations of the D.O.E. Ide o l o g y ...... 58
The Authoritarian Basis of the D.O.E. P r o g r a m ..... 65
The Role of Religion and Faith
in the D.O.E. I d e o l o g y ............................. 70
How Freedom and Liberty Shape the D.O.E. Ideology.73
Critical Thinking As A Part of the D.O.E. Pr ogram.76

SIX

THE D.O.E.

IDEOLOGY AND SOCIAL REALITY

86

How Students Are Told They Must Act


in the Workplace
..8 6
Business Values Underlying the Curriculum......... 93
What the Business Values M e a n ....................... 97

SEVEN

THE D.O.E. PROGRAM AND PHILOSOPHY............103

What Constitutes Reasoning and Critical Thinking.103


114
What Logic I s ..............
What It Means To Think Philosophically............118

EIGHT

HOW THE D.O.E. PRESENTS ITS COU RSE S......... 122

The D.O.E. System of L o g i c......................... 122


The D.O.E. 's Deductive Methodology................ 130
Other Logical Approaches........................... 137
Criteria For Analyzing Social Systems............. 141

NINE

ALTERNATIVES TO THE D.O.E. PROG RA M............144

Why Change Is N ee ded ................................ 144


Alternative Cold War Education Pr ograms...........148
What A Cold War Education Program Must A d d r e s s ... 153
The California Prog ram ..............................156

APPENDICES
A

THE AMERICANISM VERSUS COMMUNISM A C T ..........162

THE FREE ENTERPRISE AND CONSUMER


EDUCATION A C T ................................. 164

WORKS CITED................................ ...........166


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

174

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate


Sc h o o l
of t h e U n i v e r s i t y of F l o r i d a
in P a r t i a l
Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor
of Philosophy

AM ER ICA NIS M VERSUS COMMUNISM:


THE INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF A N IDEOLOGY
by

Jeremy Horne

December,

1988

Chairman: Richard P. Haynes


Major Department: Philosophy

students
dangerous,
the U.S.
most

In

order

by

law

must

learn

Florida's

that

All

high

Communism

students must

is

school
evil,

learn that

produces the highest standard of living and the

freedom

than

implement

(A.V.C.)

of

the

1961

Education Act
Th e

graduate,

and fallacious.

State universities
to

to

other

economic

in Florida

the

Free

on

earth.

are creating a curriculum

Americanism
and

system

versus

Communism

Enterprise

and

Act

Consumer

(F.E.C.E.A.) of 1975.

Florida

ideology,

any

Department

noncritical

of

Education

thinking,

viii

is

s ay s

superior

that
to

critical

thinking and that

the

superiority of the

U.S.

political economy and the dignity of the individual rest


in

part

on

peoples'

being

able

to

express

themselves

freely.
Florida's
special

A.V.C.

way

of

and

F.E.C.E.A.

convincing

proponents

audiences

that

have

they

will

develop loyalty while at the same time imposing a set of


ideas not open to question.
This

work

Florida's

argues

legislature

set up an official
it.

that,

This

and

intentionally

Department

promote

philosophy
in

ideological

critical

approach

Education

words

students

description of the U.S.

system.

defeats

While

thinking,

underscoring

indoctrinating

not,
have

ideology and the mechanism to purvey

comparing systems objectively.


to

of

or

the

like

the

of

the stated aim is


D.O.E.'s

"democracy"

with

aim

special
results

questionable

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

In

order

students

by

to

law

graduate,

must

be

dangers and fallacies

Florida's

"informed

of Communism"

"the f r e e - e n t e r p r i s e - c o m p e t i t i v e
system that
living,
other

"produces

greater
system

economics

Statutes

233.064).

mandated

by

Education

freedom

law

on

This

and

(D.O.E.),

wanted
even

though

higher

standards

"present

Teachers,
Communism

says
as

the
the

see

"manipulation
Department

of

of

as

the

youth

To

Education

system

student
(D.O.E.)

of

U.S.

of
is

not

to

"free-

what

the

communism's

groups"
has

any

election

are

meet

of

answers

and

the

one

Revised

Department
U.S.

to

"challenge"
and

the

forums

economy."

than

(Florida

legislature,

preferable"

enterprise-competitive
legislators

the

liberty

giving

continually being debated in public


campaigns.

evils,

is t h e

earth"

by

the

economy"

and

means

to

school

and understand that

higher wages,

personal

of

as

high

an

Florida's
ongoing

curriculum mandated by the America nis m vs. Communism Act


(A.V.C.)
Act

and the Free Enterprise and Consumer Education

(F.E.C.E.A.)

(collectively

referred

to

herein

as

"program").

This

program,

in

which

the

answers

to

questions of relative value are dictated by the teaching


materials,

is implicitly justified by the need to combat

ideology specifically communism (233.064).


Communism,

says

the D.O.E.,

ideology is "a system of ideas

"is

an

ideology,"

. . . which its adherents

do not consider open to question or criticism"


State

19-20).

the world
the

with

34).

fallacies

of

in

thinking,

the

relationship
free speech.

the

rest

and

"evils,

of

the

is

claims

that

the

a nd

part

on

peoples'

freely

in

the

between

legislature
the dignity

the

that

of

means

that

is,

noncritical
(Florida

superiority

dignity

of

being

able

critical
have

greater

thinking

economy

in

is

a nd

teachers

and

D.O.E.,

Florida

wants

ideology,

critical

"provides

dangers

students

of

conquer

reality"

processes,"

says

The D.O.E.

of

(Florida

is to

ideology

legislature

opposite

philosophy

themselves

D.O.E.

these

minds

the

political

individual

belief

democratic

Ideology,

and

18).

U.S.

express

of

the

students

philosophy.

the

combat

aim

party's

false

Communism"

appreciation

State

To

"i ns t i l l

teaching

Party's

. . . ," and that

communist

State

to

"The Communist

and

manner.

said
the

much

of
the
to

Both
on

the

individual

and

Florida's
one

of

the

"official

legislature

guides

reports

for

of

tells

the

instructional

the

[defunct]

Un-American Activities

. . . "

pronounceable

"H.U.A.C.").

a statement
to

in

the

(Florida

D.O.E.

State

and

curriculum

65).

rights

That

by

the D.O.E.

individual

dignity

individuals

are

given

Legislators

is

free

(4,

of

Act

person's

speech

and

by averring that

possible

access

issued

to

"only

all

when

different

65).

wanted

"communism" and Marxism


to thinking.

worth

this

its more

A.V.C.

says

freedom

reinforces

and

competing viewpoints"

the

on

is referred

the

statement

include

the

H.U.A.C.

on

as

Committee

known

The

guide

take

material

House

(also

to

"Americanism D e f i n e d , " and that

inalienable
press,

acronym,

D.O.E.

the

program

to

counter

for the isms' dogmatic approach

Gerhart Niemeyer,

chief

consultant

for the

A.V.C. program, wrote several works accusing Marxists of


be in g
detest
do

ideological.

Both the

legislature

communism and Marxism,

not promote

communism,"

critical

says

the

claiming

thinking.

D.O.E.

"is

and

the

D.O.E.

that

the

"isms"

"The proper
similar

to

study

that

of

of
a

scientist who examines the poison in order to offset its


evil effect."
suggested that

In teaching the A.V.C.


a critical

analytical

curriculum,
approach

be

"it is
used"

in

teaching

State

12).

the

Students

critically
are

about

as

expected

"communist

are

urged

dignified
to believe

special

A.V.C.

way

of

and

by

the

individuals,
a

social

see it demonstrated as best


Florida's

conspiracy"
D.O.E.

to

think

even

though

they

doctrine

before

they

in comparison with others.

F. E.C.E.A.

convincing

(Florida

proponents

audiences

of

the

have

program's

benefits while at the same time imposing a set of ideas


not

open

to

co m m u n i s m ' s
youth"

question.
"false

(Statutes,

"double-talk"

The

doc t r i n e s "
233.064),

has

legislature

been

and

and

used

as

of

"manipulation

the

D.O.E.

"a prominent

deceptive device to fool non-communists"


19).

warns

says

of

that

communist

(Florida State

If students follow the guidance of legislators,

it

is argued that communism will be less able to take over


the world by deceit and force.
Programs
widespread,

simi lar

many

fu nd am e n t a l

are

to

that

established

problems

on

how

of
by

to

B e s id es

the

nationwide

F l or id a's

a t t emp t

to

su pp r e s s

the

Florida

examined

the

light

in

of

program
the

law,

and

promote

thinking.

capitalism,

Florida's

present
cr itical

implications

any

challenge

needs

continuing

promote critical thinking in the schools.

are

also

of
to

to

be

e ffo rt

to

This
Florida's

work

argues

legislature

that,

and

intentionally

Department

of

or

not,

Education

have

set up an official ideology and the mechan ism to purvey


it.

This

ideological

approach

defeats

comparing systems objectively.

While the

to

the

promote

philosophy

critical
of

thinking,

underscoring

words

the

of

stated aim is

D.O.E.'s

like

aim

special

"democracy"

results in indoctrinating students with a questionable


description of the U.S.
The

system.

ostensible

D . O. E.

objective

of

critical

thinking becomes transformed under the influence of the


philosophy

of

Gerhart

Niemeyer

and

like-minded

conservatives shaping the program.

Both the A.V.C.

F.E.C.E.A.

war

are

pits the U.S.


are

products

by

of

sponsors.
a

program

cold

D . O.E .

the

Materials
reinforce

of

used

to

the

more

and

the

teaching
orient

values

of

numerous

demonstrate
interests

students
students
the

the

interests

of

those

of

to be
to

the

program's

Rather than promoting critical thinking,


serving

that

Private businesses

supporters

serves

ideal

philosophy

program,

enterprise"

program

its sponsors than

workplace

the

"free

that the D.O.E.

open-minded.

system against others.

advocates

statements

of

and

who

it is

seem

to

believe

that

the

average

individual

c ann ot

think

critically.
It will be shown why the

current curriculum does

not accomplish the D.O.E.'s stated objective of teaching


students to think critically.
critical
meet

thinking will

that

evaluates
accepted

objective.
the

D.O.E.

standards

for

help
The

Clarifying the meaning of


in

designing

second

program

part

according

critical

thinking

a program
of
to

this

to

work

generally

and

suggests

the California model curriculum as a type of alternative


program.

CHAPTER TWO
THE STATE OF FLORIDA'S D.O.E. PROGRAM:
A CASE STUDY

The Ameri can is m versus Communism Act


Am ericanism
go back to the
Connecticut
called
and

versus

debates

"Schools

Board

of

Education

and Communism."

persons

that

teaching students to be

Bolsheviks

communist
U.S.,
oath

evidenced

the

public

by

speech,

power

1 9 2 0 's

security
12

and

Florida's

the

schools

an d

Bar

in

numerous
Red

of

t he

1947

essay

"communism"
were

and children

1917,

Since
anti

times

Scare,

McCart hy

in

the

the

loyalty

late

1940s,

containment-ofperiod.

anti-communist

After

activists

the

began

(Florida State iii-vi).

As sociation

delivered

an

(Fraser 355).

Russia

act s

March

formulating their programs


Florida

in

surfaced

the

Truman's

K o r e a n War,

U.S.

schools

loyal to the U.S.,

has

internal

President
communism

took

hysteria

and

the

wrote

He deplored

would not be turned into Communists


the

in

1870s wh e n Birdsey Grant Northrop of the

State

assured

communism

members

lec t u r e ,

in
"The

1955

went

to

Meaning

of

Co m m u n i s m , " published and issued jointly by the Bar and

the Florida

State Department of

Education

(D.O.E.)*

So

popular was this tract that it received national acclaim


and

endorsement

organizations,

by

such

many
as

influential

Freedoms

conservative

Foundation.

Pressure

mounted from both the Florida public and from government


officials to create a public high school course composed
of

similar

materials,

and

in

the

ensuing

years,

the

D.O.E. proposed such a curriculum to the legislature


(Florida State iii).
The course material was taken principally from the
hearings and publications of the old House Committee on
Un-American

Activities

pronounceable

acronym,

Security
The

thrust

of

k no wn

"H.U.A.C.")

Subcommittee

major

(also

(S.I.S.C.)
the

and

and

political

by

its

Senate

their

that

name,

the

"Americanism

instructors

versus

should

rather than compare them.

orientation

Communism,"

contrast

the

manipulation

course

was

only the

to

of

youth

"instill

in

two

To meet what the

described as a challenge of the Communist


and

and
the

stud ent
minds

Internal

supporters.

proposed to the legislature was anti-communist,


course

of

more

course
and the

suggests
systems

legislators

"exploitation
g r o u p s , " the
students"

not

"evils, danger and fallacies of communism" but

"a greater appreciation of democratic processes,

freedom

under

law,

a nd

the

(Florida Statutes

will

to

preserve

that

freedom"

2 3 3 . 0 6 4 { 1 ) (b) and 3).

Cold war schooling became official when the Florida


State Legislature

acted upon

the

D.O.E.'s

proposal

and

passed the "Americanism versus Communism Act of 1961." A


program advisory committee,
private

citizens,

1961

put

to

and

together

educators
the

and by January

the

content

approved by
sinc e

it

schools

and

was
in

first

of

the

the D.O.E.

and

the

the

1962,

met

October

Communism
year,

ready

both
to

legislature.

Florida's
the

in

versus

were

state

in

legislators,

following

methods

taught

September,

first

Americanism

curriculum,
course

c o m p o s e d of

Ever

public

Americanism

high

versus

Communism course (hereinafter referred to as A.V.C.)


been

required

establishes
texts

and

the

other

course

for

guidelines
materials

graduation.
while

"as

the

provided

be

has

The

statute

D.O.E.

selects

by

state

law"

(233.064(6)).
The law says that
economy
produces
greater

of

the

higher
personal

United

In

freedom,

its

free enterprise

States"

wages,

system of economics
233.064(4)).

"The

higher
and

on earth"
Resource

is

the

economy

standards
liberty

competitive

than

of

"which
l iving,

any

other

(Florida Revised Statutes


Unit

handbook

the

D.O.E.

10

suggests students refer for a definition of Americanism


to

the

H.U.A.C.'s

Americanism,

statement

"Americanism

Defined."

says H.U.A.C., means that the "Inherent and

fundamental rights of man are derived from God and not


from any other source," as was stated in the Declaration
of

Independence.

rights

incl ude

a s semblage,

as

the
of

ri ght

As

of work,

happiness,

freedom

and

qualifications.
fruits

Second,

to

inherent
worship,

work

another right,

as

such

unalienable

speech,

press,

according

to

one

enjoy the

including property

long

or

and

activity

others from doing the same. Third,

should
the

does

one's

pursuit
not

prevent

the structure of the

U.S. government is based upon these principles.


law

and

rights.

o rde r

mu s t

Fifth,

the

be

maintained

government

of

is

to

Fourth,

preserve

the

servant

these
of

the

people, and a checks-and-balances system is necessary to


control
less

government

i mp o r t a n t

st at e m e n t

power.

than

a c cr edi ts

Declaration

of

Sixth,

minority

majority
rights.

Americanist

Independence

and

rule

is

Finally,

principles
the

to

far
the
the

Constitution

(Florida State 65).


As to teaching methods,

the statute

said that

"No

teacher or textual material assigned to the course shall


present

Communism

as

preferable

to

the

s ys tem

of

11

constitutional
competitive

government

economy

and

indigenous

the
to

free-enterprise

the

United

States"

(Florida Revised Statutes 233.064(7)). The D.O.E. course


handbook,
says

A Resource Unit,

co urse

AMERICANISM VERSUS COMMUNISM

"materials

demonstrate the evils,

sh ould

fallacies,

communism," those materials


S.I.S.C.
State

lists

68).

"unless
those

teachers

informed
te ac h e r s

about
feeling

used

"should

not

were
the

anti-communists
not

to

nature

teach

of

attempt

to

teach

A.V.C.

example,

number

of

or

(Florida

the

course

communism,"

inadequately

obtaining additional preparation"


For

to

and contradictions of

informed

communism, or unfamiliar with the course,


content

only

coming from the H.U.A.C.

or from avowed

The

be

and

about

its goals and

it without

first

(Florida State vi).

attempts

to

law have failed. On 4 June 1982, B.

program manager of the prestigious

Charles

repeal

the

Frank Brown,
S. Kettering

Foundation and chairman of the Governor's Commission on


Secondary

Schools,

sent

report

to

Governor

Robert

Graham recommending "the repeal of the requirement of a


30-hour course in Americanism vs. Communism."
five

members

of

the

Florida

legislature,

superintendent of the Monroe County Schools,


the

State

Board

of

Education,

and

Brown and

four

the

a member of
o the rs

from

12

educational

establishments

said that the A.V.C.


legislative
academic

sat

course

requirements
subjects"

on

was

should

has

implement,

pertain

only

XIII ).

failures
enough

suggest

support

to

home of many Cuban exiles,


anti-Communist

to

and

"major

The

1983

and by an 89 to 26 vote,

that

the

keep

it

1961

graduate,

comparative

(Skene).
law was
high

study

who

A.V.C.
alive.

recent stronghold of backing has been

original

to

They

law was sustained.

These
still

commission.

hard to

(Governor's

legislature ignored the report,


the A.V.C.

the

as of Spring

students

the

most

southern Florida,

still on the books,

of

The

generally are militantly

However,

school

program

the

and in order

need

history,

1988,

to

take

doctrines,

"a
and

objectives of all major political systems in fulfillment


of the requirements of 233.064," the original A.V.C. Act
(Florida Statutes 2 3 2 . 2 4 6 ( 1 ) ( b) (5)). Teachers still have
to

use

an

materials
"evils"

antiquated
to

and

academic
declining.

bibliography

instill

in

"fallacies"

interest

in

of

the

from

minds

communism,

composing

new

which

of

to

draw

students

indicating

the
that

bibliography

is

13

The Free Enterprise and Consumer Education Act

Another
1975.
the

indoctrination

Originally
Free

Enterprise

(F.E.C.E.A.)
economics
1963,

intended

now

program

as

and

instituted

replacement

Consumer

complements

the

for

Education

A.V.C.

by

in

A.V.C.,
A ct

emphasizing

(Florida Statutes 233.0641). As early as March

the social studies consultant for the D.O.E.

that

new

accreditation

standards

responsibility for economic


and

was

sc hoo ls .

Such

noted

placed

the

education upon the teachers

program

would

involve

"The

curriculum from K-12," and it assumed that students did


not understand the p hi losophy and structure of the
enterprise"

economy

to

which

the

A.V.C.

"free

referred

(Kastner 33).
The

law

competitive
economic

states

economic

system

public schools
consumer

that

day-by-day
advertising,

"The

system

the

free

exists

United

enterprise

as

States

the
.

program

(Florida
the

in which

Statutes

course

consumer
insurance,

must

."

and

student

233.0641(2)).

include

activities,
and

each

"The

"an

as

orientation

and

shall

The

information
su c h

or

prevailing

shall each conduct a free enterprise

education

participate"
states

in

law

about

banking,
in

other

14

economic

systems."

individuals,
suitable
grade

students

economic

level.

before

With

respect

learn

behavior

Students

graduation,

what

is

through

are

and

to what

and

expected of
what

is

instruction

instilled

an

is

with

at

organizational

not
each

doctrine
apparatus

exists to carry out the indoctrination program.


According
personnel
involves

in

other

to

the

the

statute,

the

F.E.C.E.A.'s

academic

D.O.E.

instructs

administration

disciplines

as well

as private

governmental

organizations

related

to

education.

Commissioner

Education

makes

to

the

ways

legislature

of

gives

The

gauging

reports

about

the

"as

the

program

curriculum's

to

the

performance-based tests,
resources"

of

(Florida

with

efficiency,

Statutes

consumer
reports

recommended

success.

effectiveness

and

The
as

D.O.E.

shown

by

and utilization

of

233.0641(5)).

Some

89

objectives are to be accomplished b y the Free Enterprise


course.
the

For example,

American

opportunity,
They

must

such

as

services"

students

economic

justice,

remember

system

efficiency,
a

"production
(Goddard,

"will identify elements of

number
[is]

Carr,

of

the
and

to

include:

growth,

a n d security."

specific
creation

Randall,

freedom,

definitions,
of

goods

CH-310,

or

72-73).

15

Students graduating from high school mus t have

attained

these objectives.
For

assistance

curriculum,
on

the

Economic

government

in

assembling

D.O.E.

called upon

Education
and

representative.

the
the

large

Florida

(F.C.E.E.),

business
In turn,

personnel

the

F.C.E.E.

F.E.C.E.A.
Council

consisting
and

one

board

of

union

affiliated

with university centers for economic education to create


the curriculum (Florida Council, Annual Report).
A

description

obtained

from

Economic

of

the

materials

Education

course

content

prepared

(C. E . E . ) ,

by

an

can

t he

best

Center

be
for

organization

co

sponsored by the College of Business Administration and


the College
Although

of

Education

at the University of

seven other u n i v e r s i t i e s

materials,

the

University

of

prepare

Florida

Florida.

F.E.C.E.A.

is

the

only

university creating a comprehensive economic orientation


program
parts

(C.E.E.

of

the

flier).

free

University Centers may emphasize

enterprise

program

differently,

but

all 89 objectives have to be met by the schools.


The
headings.
economic
behavior.

C.E.E.

groups

the

89

objectives

under

22

Subjects include comparative economic systems,


principles,
Other

topics

organizations,
are public

and

and

consumer

private

property

16

distribution,
such

as

basic economic laws,

banks,

labor unions,
energy,

and

governments,

and ethics.

C.E.E.

consumer

represent

economic institutions

habits.

More

topics

private entities,

are

technology,

Four text/workbooks prepared by the

the

kinds

of material

being taught

at

all grade levels.


Among
children

the

must

first
learn

owned

while
and

by

an

"public

which

(Goddard,

school

distinction

between

public

"Private property"

is that

"which

the

individual

property"

should
Carr,

impression

grade

is

and private property.


is

principles

be

or

is

used

private

a group

property

CE-102,

property

of

individuals,"

"owned

according

and Randall,

that

that

to

everyone

certain

2).

is

by

rules

In giving the

sacrosanct,

second

graders are not taught that private property might


to

be

heavily

regulated

and

that

productive

have

property

should be used according to what is deemed desirable for


society

as

ownership

of

whole.
the

Private

means

of

preferred institutions,
primarily

center

about

property

production

are

while governmental
protecting

police.

robbed

of

their

property

and

private

treated

the

as

functions

property.

workbook on property tells a story about


being

and

The

several people
need

for

the

17

For the second grader,


pay

the

police,

whose

private property.

the

major

The first

excuse

function

of

collective

and

taxes

is

to

is

to

preserve

impression that these very

young children have of what a society


that

for

should be

cooperative

is

entit y,

not

but

collection of individuals who use a strong-arm agency to


protect their selfish
booklet

later

the students

interests.

describes

other

society revolve

work

School
with

have

the

and

competition,
c a pit al,

profit,

"the

model

with

for

problems,

as

of

results

inventiveness.

principal

taking

risk

small

pre

is on an equal
actions

of

hard

will
work,

Land,

management
the

students

labor,

enables
reward
in

being

business"

21).

students

sophisticated
such

and

CM-202,

school

to

9)

calculated

gainful

thrive,

reward

(Goddard et al.,
High

and

combined
to

through

relevant

ra ti onally

thrift,

businessperson

and

1).

Everyone presumably

one's

desired

(grades

concepts

industrial economy.
footing,

functions,

around w hi ch governments

(Goddard et al., CE-102,

Middle

continue

governmental

initially are taught that private property

is the primary institution

In

Although the grade two

encounter
the

unemployment

U.S.
and

somewhat

more

economy.

Social

monopolies,

temper

18

the ideal economy presented in grammar school,


students are still taught that the U.S.

although

economy is "free

enterprise" and that it is the va stly superior political


economy

(Goddard et al.,

students

arguments

mechanisms

to

remind them
choice

is

Enterprise

solve

that
the

constantly
a

t he
major

that

central

System"

CH-310,

33).
system

(Goddard

has

problems,

the

element

The D.O.E.

corrective

and

"individual
of
et

offers

materials
freedom of

the

American

Fr e e

al.,

C H - 310 ,

13).

Individuals theoretically may choose the goods they buy,


the

place

and

type

of

work

they

business they want to operate.


as

fraud,

conditions
mechanisms

harmful
are

and

the

type

Attendant problems,

products,

remedied

do,

by

and

unsafe

adequate

like g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s

and

of

such

working

regulatory
competition.

Students are told that "we do not believe that any group
of

experts

or

legislators

can

better

make

decisions

about what will enhance the quality of our life as well


as we can"

(Goddard et al.,

CH-310,

34).

What Social Studies Texts Teach

Two often
Government

used

and

social

studies

Political

texts,

System

by

Our American
Wit

a nd

D i o n i s o p o l o u s , a n d M c C l e n a g h a n 's M a g r u d e r 's A m e r i c a n

19

Government, reflect the curricular content specified by


the A.V.C.
the

and Free

American

Smart

Free

typifies

the

primary

Acts.

Enterprise

political system,

Enterprise

high

System

school

Fundamentals
by

of

e c ono mic

of

ele me nts

systems

political

and

course.

The

economics

social

control

and

action in the society in which it exists


n u mber

Hodgetts

says Wit and Dionisopolous is

source

comprising

are

1)

popular

decision-making

2) majority

minority

3)

the

rule

rather

(20).

Among a

political

sovereignty,
rests

with

"rational

change through persuasion

"...

collective

U.S.

ultimately

whole population,
rights,

the

where

with

the

respect

for

m a n , 11 who

than

of

force,

effects

4)

rights

as outlined in the Bill of Rights and related documents,


and

5)

the

need to

keep

the

political/economic

system

intact (54-70).
Wit
ideology
given

to

and

Dionisopolous

shape the
humanity

"moral" principles

system.
by

God

(609).

say

that

Law

is a code

(80).

natural

Ideology

and

of behavior

is

These two writers

law

"good"

or

compare and

contrast democracy with the Fascist, Nazi, and Communist


"dictatorships."
must struggle.
that

democracy

Against

the

latter

three,

the

U.S.

While Wit and Dionisopolous do maintain


has

problems,

th e y

say

co r r e c t i v e

20

processes,
effect

such as checks and balances,

change.

Dictatorships

do

not

allow people to
tolerate

popular

decision-making (562).
Both

Wit

Enterprise,"
of

term

"free

Three

and

and

Whenever

system
authors

limi ted

ec onomic

Wit

and

to

"free"

own

and

are

and

the

profit

deal

with

system

business.

motive,

to

they

free
(566).

others,
say

the

problems,

the

provides

economic

indicate

the

property

harmful

Though

U.S.

principles

intervention

alleviates

Dionisopolous

the

saying

Two

becomes

to

by

operate

regulates.
enough

in

are p r i v a t e

government

whether

se cu r i t y

system

b u s i n ess es.

activity

flexible

question

qualify

features

government

is

economic

e n t e r pr is e"

freedom

economic

the

but

"free

add i t i o n a l

market,

(592).

(562).

regu lat es

undergirding

then

freedom desired by most Americans


prevailing

".

"Free
degree

enterprise"

go v e r n m e n t

describe
. . high

the

ownership

Dionisopolous

as a system having the

individual

They

and

that

adequate
suffering
the

U.S.

"free-market system" is impressive, most compatible with


democratic values,

and is much better than what workers

encounter in "a communist nation"


In M a g r u d e r ' s

American

(571).

Government, McClenaghan

recognizes the greater sophistication of his post-Viet-

21

Nam

audience,

within

the

and

system

resolution.
rhetoric,

none

seriously.

of

make

techniques

the

the

resolving

absence

basic

about

such

of

as

the

system

supports

his

views

that

are

with

conflict

1950s'

suppositions

the

problems

style

Wit

and

challenged
such as Wit,

more

emotional

such as nationalism and religion.

He

starts

outlining
systems.

much

the

make

enforcing

human

concept

equality

of

minority

rights,

freedom

as

political

survival

and

possible

"Democracy"

power

The
of

Dionisopolous

in

economic

by

is

making

the

form

and
of

"supreme political authority rests with

and

(11).

and

of which the State is a major

(6).

government where

consent

Wit
of

systems,

la w s

people,"

like

purposes

Social

element,

the

through

in

Compared to other text writers,

McClenaghan

the

interested

Despite

Dionisopolous

means,

is

is

chief

basic

persons

listed

characteristics of a

features

of

individual

before

a need

maintained

the

for

in

the

only

Bi l l

"democracy"

and

majority

compromise,
of

popular

"democracy"

worth

law,

by

and

are

dignity,
rule

and

individual

Rights.

These

define the U.S.

social

system and it is a primary function of our government to


keep it intact.

Therefore,

a "non-democratic"

our government must not allow

system to predominate.

22

McClenaghan
exists
in

continues

on

to

in this country because,

the

concepts

upon

which

say

that

democracy

as a people,

it

is

we believe

based.

"It

continue to exist, and be improved in practice,


so long as we

continue

those concepts"
lifestyle

(12).

that

life

to--and practice--

In other words,

people must live a

what

they

system is not

includes

only for

subscribe

incorporating

democracy if the U.S.


of

to

will

combating

believe

to

to

collapse.

external

be
Part

threats.

He

states that external threats to the system exist and are


mainly

posed

by

the

U.S.S.R.,

but

he

solvable

and

less

internal

problems

are

External

threats

exist,

Union.

Problems

do

within

the

mainly

occur within

McClenaghan says that,


solvable

posed

suggests

the

threatening.

by

the

U.S.

using

Soviet

system,

unlike in the U.S.S.R.,

system

that

democratic

but

they are
processes

(14).
He
private

concedes
economy

actuality

is

governmental
and

"curb

"...

that

"free

subsists
a

mixed

only

as

(694-695).

as

a model

economy,

intervention to

abuses"

enterprise"

one

basically
system.
with

smooth out business


Because

free

The
major
cycles

enterprise

provides a large segment of the population of the

United States with one of the world's

highest

standards

23

of living,." McClenaghan says,

"Most of the people of the

United States believe that a well-regulated capitalistic


system--one

of

free

choi ce,

individual

incentive,

private enterprise is the best guarantee of the better


life

for

belief

everyone,"

sustains

and

the

accentuates

system,

m aking

that

it

the

people's

democratic

(695,

17).
Hodgetts and Smart,
Free Enterprise

in Fundamentals of the American

System,

says

characterized

by

private

and

of

cho ice .

freedom

cherished

the

It

and

. .is

institutions,
civilization
maintaining

enterprise"

private

rests
mainly

upon
".

the

the

of

the

and

"it
o ur

are

is
way

basic

of

popular

life"

ideals

. democratic
respect

individual."

based upon American customs,

and

it

dignity

part

is

enterprise,

personal freedom and responsibility,

law,

system ".

"free

property,

by many Americans,

government,
for

that

of

(6).

The

laws,

and

American
Processes

subscription

and

goal

oriented behavior in the form of production and growth.


Hodgetts

and

Smart

echo

the

claim

made

by

other

texts

and the D.O.E. material that capitalism has its problems


but

still

problems.

provides

the

best

means

of

solving

economic

24

Few

of

the

foregoing

writers are exceptional.


advocated
elements

indirectly

are

to

be

points

the D.O.E.

to

statement

the

by

the

found.

D.O.E.

While

Publi c

suggests
on

ownership

production

should

organizations

and/or

should

so when

text

promote

"free

disturbing

writers

it refers

(Florida
of

encouraged.

not

alter or replace the

the

do

not

god is the author of

cont rol

be

that

text

Americanism

not

by

It is in the implicit doctrines

stress that only a transcendental


rights,

made

students

State

the

65).

mea ns

of

Individuals

actions

enterprise"

and

designed

system.

to

Private

nonproductive property must be preserved, as well as the


private

ownership

like McClenaghan
guarantee

of

the A.V.C.

of

the

say,

"private

the better

Act

says

means

life

that

of

enterprise

for

free

production.
is

everyone

Writers
the

" (19),

enterprise

is

the

best
and
best

system on earth.
Both text writers
"free
and

enterprise"

protection

r e l a ted

law.

minority

rights,

right

to

and the

individuals

enumerated
This

ch oose

in

inc lu d e s

"dignity
when

of

and

D.O.E.

agree that under

are

afforded

the

the

Bill

Rights

the
the

where

of

right

to

individual,"
to

work

rights
and

dissent,
and
(Wit

the
and

25

Dionisopolous 32, Mc Clenaghan 12-16, Goddard et al., CH310,

13, Florida Statutes 233.064).


Because

standard

of

free

living

enterprise
in the

produces

world,

other

the

highest

systems

(those

not promoting the above elements)

are to be discouraged

from

flourishing

both

and worldwide.

like

McClenaghan

say

nationally
it,

and

the

legislature

People
agrees

(McClenaghan 19, Florida Statutes 233.064).


The
U.S.

"dignity

system's

McClenaghan

of

the

individual"

viability.

argue this,

hinges

Writers

like

and the D.O.E.

upon

the

Wit

a nd

concurs

(Wit and

Dionisopolous 54-70, McClenaghan 12, Florida State 3-4).


Both the D.O.E.

curricular material

studies texts claim that the U.S.


communism because in the former,
to

criticize

are

told

country,

the

what

to

where

lifestyle,

government,
do.

one

can

and

The

U.S.

live

Yet,

et

al.,

Florida

CH-310,
students

discourages

th e

favorable

capitalistic

systems

and

the

is encouraged
latter

reputedly

people

13-14,
must

in

relatively

but in the U.S.S.R.

social

system is superior to
a person

grim life filled with trepidation


Goddard

and the

is

supposedly have a

Florida
a

State

702-709,
passim).

program

consideration

non-Western

free

unrestricted

(McClenaghan

take

people

of

religious

which
nonviews.

26

(Florida
current

Statutes
D.O.E.

233.09,

233.064).

program does

and critical thinking,

then

not

If m aintaining

foster

free

the

expression

whose interests are served?

The next chapter answers this question.

CHAPTER THREE
HOW FLORIDA'S D.O.E. PROGRAM IS ADMINISTERED
How The State Administers the D.O.E.

Program

Public
elaborate
course

and

private

structural

program.

apparatus

Included

D.O .E. ,

the

private

organizations.

individual

Communism

(A.V.C.)

Education

(F.E.C.E.)

government,
F.E.C.E.

Some

to

are

Both

implement

the

county
t he

comprise

Acts

are

school

that

The Florida state


through the budget,
the

D.O.E.

program.

and

versus

through

the

also help run the

233.0641

number

private organizations form a corporate elite,


F l o r i d a (Mills 147-170,

t he

and Consumer

administered

(Florida Revised Statutes


argue

an

D.O.E.

s ys te m s ,

Americanism

organizations

critics

the

legislature,

and the Free Enterprise

but private

program

2 3 2.2 46) .

institutions

of

and
the

"corporate

and Butcher passim).

legislature passes

ultimate
From

laws and has,

supervisory authority over

the

time

the

A.V.C.

law

was

passed in 1961 to the present,

the Florida

legislature

has

of

employers,

been

composed

mainly

attorneys, and "educators."

private

The majority of the workers

in Florida and the families of students receiving the

27

28

the economic instruction of the A.V.C.


these

groups

nor

bureaucracy.

There

to

the

is

no

belong neither to

formal

civil

mechanism

service

provided

for

evaluation of the program nor for inviting discussion by


those

persons

teacher,
on

most

directly

affected.

The

classroom

normally the source of variable points of view

questions

of

value,

is

provided

curriculum

by

D.O.E. which has little latitude for the introduction of


teacher

commentary.

(Morris

19

et

seg.,

Bowles

and

Gintis 90, Florida Statistical Abstract 260 and 265).


The
what

the

measures,

school

system bureaucracy

legislature
suc h

as

wants.

teacher

enacted to carry out the


231.09).

Advisory

merely

Specific
contract

laws

implements

administrative

enforcement,

are

(Florida Revised Statutes

committees

and

t he

Secretary

of

Education oversee the details of how the program will be


effected.

The D.O.E.

oversees the implementation of the

policies by the school districts.

School districts may

create

the

their

auditors

every

intent of the
take

own

curriculum,
fiv e

years

but
to

law is being met.

examinations

F.E.C.E. material

to

assess

D.O.E.

determine

whether

In addition,

mastery

of

sends

the

in
the

students

A.V.C.

and

(Florida Revised Statutes 232.246(2)).

29

There

is

section

in

the

1983

Raise

act

called

" C o o r d i n a t i o n of V o c a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n "

assuring that

vocational

education would

th e

orientation

(Florida R e v is ed Statutes

bureaucratic

apparatus

coordinating
vocational
stipulates

councils
training

that
will

business

organizations,"
of

of

232.246(14)).

councils

of

of

only

is

coordinate
the

law

coordinating

fide

trade

and

over

the

control

the

regional

to

the

"bona

the

economic

Although

members

composed

the

of

established

programs.

councils

composition

part

consisting

is

"outside"
be

be

guarantee

that

at

least one member shall be drawn from a "private industry


co u n c i l "
Nothing

(F l o r i d a
is

Revised

Statutes

mentioned about

any

2 3 2 . 2 4 6 ( 14)( 3)) .

member

of

councils

are

labor

organization having to be on the council.


The

goals

of

the

coordinating

"maximize effective student articulation"


educational programs;
with

business

and

labor market;

3)

the

Council

Revised

State
and

Statutes

maintain

industry

to

coordinate

vocational education;
effective.

2)

connections

needs

governmental

of

the

efforts

at

4) make vocational education cost-

resources
state

the

1)

in vocational

effective

meet

to

are

to be mad e

cooperation

232.246(15)).

No

is

available

expected

objective

to

(Florida

deals

with

30

any attempt

to meet

demands

by

students

for particular

training.

How Businesses Implement the D.O.E. Program

Chapter

Two

mentioned

formed a part of a total


program
D.O.E.

involving

all

influence

on

the

political

students.

courses extensively,

outside

that

D.O.E.

economic

Businesses

courses

orientation
promote

the

an unusual example of strong

classroom

instruction,

especially

when the private aims of business can be affected by the


result of the educational program.
In

1948,

the

national

on Economic Education was


disseminate

information

office of

formed by business

about

the U.S.

supposed to present a

"non-partisan"

e c ono my.

various

In

established,
organization.

turn,

philosophically
A

private

the Joint

Council,

leaders

economy.

to

It was

explanation of the

state
akin

branches
to

the

organization,

were

national

the

Florida

Council on Economic Education

(F.C.E.E.) was established

to

the

work

in

conjunction

with

D.O.E.

to

create

the

l eve l

of

curriculum for the free enterprise program.


Its
economic

objectives

are

"increasing

literacy in Florida as well

for our American

Economic

System."

th e

as an appreciation
The

F.C.E.E.

claims

31

that it wants to teach students


to

think"

while

providing

"how to think,

economic

reasoning

concerning

"fundamental

institutions,

and major concepts needed for the

economic
as

knowledge

citizen,

worker,

Economic System"
An F.C.E.E.
Development

issues

a p e rs on
and

and

problems,

in order

consumer

in

skills

"kind of

to

function

the

American

(F.C.E.E. Annual Report 3).


publication,

F u n d , " tempers

objective

by

saying

introduced

in

all

of

that

disciplines

"WHY?
this

free

Florida's

"not as a separate subject,


basic

needs

NOT what

ranging

The Free Enterprise


ostensibly

enterprise
schools

but as an

from

at

neutral
is

all

being
levels,

integral part of

reading and math

to

art

and h i s t o r y , " with the pro gra m being made

"available to

adults

uses

in

every

community."

approach

that

every aspect

touched,

from

economics

is,

impact of

"the

This
of a

to

the Free

program
student's

history

and

Enterprise

System

is

Enterprise

not

theory,

System"

is

it

is

way

capitalized

t e x t )(Florida Council, Why?).

art.

American

"the American

total

life will

even

our state will continue in our educational


Florida Council says that

be

That

Way

system."

in
The

Free Enterprise
of

in

life"
t he

("Free

original

32

Persons

and

unconnected
unusual

with

control

organizations
the

school

of the

curriculum.

grants,

project,"

giving

districts
Such

has

the D e v e l o p m e n t a l
is,

for

includes

achieved

this

power was

not change the power they

done

development,

(D.E.E.P.)

a nd

gives mini-grants to school districts

the University of Florida


program

have

That

to help develop the free enterprise

course

elected

districts

given rather than sought does


hold. The F.C.E.E.

not

in

and

course pla nn ing

materials,

and consultant time

1981-1982,

6).
of

the

"a K-12

resources
the

(F.C.E.E.

Florida's

with

curriculum
to

school
Act.

library

Annual

case,

the

Program

F.E.C.E.

programs,

but

overall

Education

around

tr ai nin g

of

conjunction

words,

materials

In the University

most

Economic

in F.C.E.E.'s

teacher

act curriculum,

the

of

Report,

F.C.E.E.

received a $250,000 grant from the state in 1982 to help


the

university

(F.C.E.E.
i tself,

Annual
there

University

prepare
Report,
exist

Centers

the
13).

under
for

curriculum
Aside
its

Economic

from
aegis

for the

act.

Florida's

is

the

University

of

provides the most complete and

the

F.C.E.E.

some

Education,

developing curriculum materials


It

materials

free

each

enterprise

program

representative

eight

that

sample of

33

the

type

D.O.E.

of

curriculum

program

course program,
representing
positions

in

one

(Ann u a l

will

Report,

as seen above,

economy

emerging

1981-1982

from

the

7-8).

The

is established by forces

organizations
the

see

which

and which

occupy

dominant

would be

threatened

by a major change in the system.


Persons serving on the various boards and councils,
like the organizations from which they are drawn, are an
elite minority with a vested interest in the status quo.
There is.no pretense that these people are the agents of
democratic interest in the schools
representative.
of

Trustees

eight

one
four

of

woman,

1981-1982

system

corporations.
president

As for the F.C.E.E.

in

school

Only
the

and

Report

structure

one

consisted

union

Florida

the

was made

9-12).

were

of

North

entrenched

American

Domhoff, Mills 292-297,

form

Butcher).

attorneys,
officers
by

only

Except

for

only

larger

and

on

the

was

list

corporations
a

of

There

published

and state

Congress

two

represented,

the

major

34 member Board

23

blacks.

of

Corporations

maintaining

and

was

no

rest
up

of

A.F.L.-C.I.O.

wealth at both the national


Greever,

the

bureaucrats,

there

individuals,

contributors

because they are not

(Annual
economic

greatly

levels
Latin

of

skewed

(Petersen,
America,

34

The Florida Council


econ om ic

power

enterprise"

s tr u c t u r e

through

Since the mid-1970s,


major

input

on

governmental

represents

both

only a part of the

s e e kin g
public

to

and

nu mer ous

members

state

governmental

policy-makers

corporation

of

the

bureaucrats.
Neither

Board

policy.

frequently

secretary,

heads,

and

agencies.

of

women.

numerous

The

state

c o n s ult

the

This body consist

Regents,

a tt orneys,

and

high

level

are r e p r ese nte d.

chairman,

other

High

prominent

No labor o r g a n i z a t i o n s

are any

private

"free

the Florida Council of 100 has had

Council before arriving at decisions.


of

preserve

members

vice-chairman,
of

the

Florida

Council on Economic Education are members of the Council


of 100 (F.C.E.E. Annual Report).
Of immediate significance to the D.O.E.

program is

how much influence business has over the course content


in the public schools.

It is not necessary to prove any

recommendation any business group makes is biased or the


result of collusion. Business's interests are so clearly
associated with the status quo that their supervision of
the

educational

and evolve)

process

(which must

necessarily

change

is suspect before it takes place.

One could expect that the businessperson benefiting


from

the

present

political

economy

would

promote

and

35

support the D.O.E.


program

is

"fallacies"

courses.

needed
of

to

teach

communism.

criticisms with

It is said that the A.V.C.


student s

Yet,

failing

the many serious

to

about

the

balance

the

contradictions

in the

U.S. system does not mean that the F.C.E..E. is teaching


students

"how

to

think,

NOT

Annual R e p o r t ). Combating
"free enterprise"

what

to

"communism"

think

(F.C.E.E.

and teaching that

is the best in the world suggest that

students accept the regime in power.


From
the

the

D .O. E . ' s

viewpoint

of

curriculum

keeping

the

requirement

is

system

stable,

a calculated

action and not an unusual one insofar as a public school


social studies program goes. Students have the potential
for

becoming

sophisticated

balanced fashion.
risk

of

Florida's

developing

indoctrinates

students

the established

order.

by

comparing

D.O.E.

critical
with

an

wants

systems
to

avoid

population

unflinching

in

that

when

it

loyalty

to

Unquestioning approval

and

love

do not necessarily imply each other. Teaching a love for


one's country also means teaching civic responsibility,
and that emerges only by teaching that the citizenry can
and

s h ou ld

institutions.

f r eel y

criticize

country's

social

36

The

ideals

democratic

espoused

decision-making

economy strongly linked.


D.O.E.

curriculum

in

undemocratic

an

benefit

by

from

af f e c t e d .

is

and

manner,

t he

in

the

and

key

critical

well-formed

answer

on

D.O.E.

"right" answers

are

exam.

That

suggests that

chapter.

equally

so,

h av e

enterprise

decisions

are

persons

who

thinking

the

would

outside

not
a

is i m p l e m e n t i n g a

students

the A.V.C.
examined

"right"

must

while the D.O.E.

question

made

are

students only to put the

communism for being ideological,


acts

free

apparatus

democratically elected legislature


curriculum that allows

legislature

In this instance of the way the

assembled,

programs

the

give

attacks

and F.E.C.E.
in

the

next

CHAPTER FOUR
WHY THE D.O.E. PROGRAM IS IDEOLOGICAL

The Issue of Ideology


D.O.E.'s

Americanism

v ers us

Communism

and

Free

Enterprise courses constitute an indoctrination program.


Students cannot
c o n t en t

without

inflexible;
best

that

risking

teachers

system of

course

seriously challenge the intent and

content
schools

must

that

is

when

raised

the

"evils"

understand

that

the

any

A.V.C.

"instill
of

U.S.

other

in

system

administered

nonelective

through

boards

and

the

minds
and

This

a d vi ce

councils

of

who

on

of

says
the
them

economy

economics

is
the

of

m ak e

enterprise"
of

has

legislation

the

(Florida Revised Statutes 233.064).


is

U.S.

The problem

communism

"free

curriculum

the

in the world.

should

"than

show

The

economics

students"

better

failure.

is

earth"

indoctrination
a

network

have

of

vested

interest in resistance to change.


A

D.O.E.

handbook,

Resource

Unit:

Americanism

versus Communism, says that in the Soviet Union a small


group of communist party members
and that

"all

individual

"does all the thinking"

opinions

37

must

conform

to

the

38

'Party
doing

Line'"
the

doing,
major

(Florida

same

thing

State

it

is

35).

accusing

force-feeding a political
reason

for

creating

Yet,

the

the

the

D.O.E.

is

Communists

of

economic doctrine.
A.V.C.

course

was

One
that

legislators feared young people would not recognize that


communist beliefs were faulty,
tell

students

so

drawn between

(Florida

and their solution was to

State

18) .

the denunciation

of

Parallels

capitalism

can be

in

Soviet

classrooms and lectures on the evils of communism in the


D.O.E.

program.

program,

In

there

similarities

the

must

so

formulation

have

that

it

been
was

Yet, while the

the

Florida

recognition

felt

differentiation by saying that


to "ideology."

of

necessary

"philosophy"
framers

to

of

the

prove

is superior

of the curriculum

set out with the best of intent to encourage students to


think critically,

they

ended with

program

consisting

of elements they said they feared.


The
developed

D.O.E.
in

says,
a

"Ideology

logical

order

is

on

set
the

of

ideas

basis

of

preconceived notions which its adherents do not consider


open to criticism or even question."
is

philosophy,

"an

attempt

to

Ideology's opposite

approach

the

truth

in

which basic assumptions may be questioned and critically


examined."

(Florida

State

18)

Whether

an

idea

can

be

39

criticized--that

is,

subjected

to

critical

separates ideology from philosophy.

thinking--

Teaching students to

prefer philosophy over ideology,

so the D.O.E.

goes,

reject

will

help

the

student

to

thinking

communism.

The

D.O.E. wants the young to learn that the ideology of the


Communist
belief

Party

about

through

"provides

reality and

rigid

school

the
that

communist

with

it advances

the

programs

not

open

to

false

ideology
question"

(Florida State 34).


The

D.O.E.

"philosophy"
understand

makes

in the
the

consideration

much

schools

weakness

of

the

and

of

in

the

order

error

need
to

to

help

students

of

ideology.

of

these

identification

teach

Some

terms

in

educational settings is in order.

How the D.O.E.

Gerhart

Niemeyer,
to

Defines Ideology

the

the

A.V.C.

cold

came

credentials,

and it is to his writings one turns for the

a part of the prevailing


communist
courses

credentials
on

Communist

program.

political
included

with

ch i e f

architect,

philosophy shaping the D.O.E.

war

program's

impressive

He was very much

order,

as

teaching

ideology"

at

his

anti

"graduate

prestigious

40

universities like Yale, Princeton,


Planning Advisor
analyst

with

with

t he

the

Council

member of the resident


(U.S. Congress,
Niemeyer
rejection

of

contemplative
willed

says

society

theory"

born

and

of

Department,

Foreign
at

a research

Relations,

the U.S.

War

a nd

College

14).

that

positions.

contemplation

on

faculty

H.C.U.A.

any

State

and Columbia, being a

ideology
based
the

means

upon

the

"subordination

adoption

of

"connotes

the

truth"

of

of

dogmatically

Philosophy
love

total

the or y,
(Niemeyer,

Between Nothingness and Paradise 142).


Ideologies,

Niemeyer asserts,

have assumed a number

of characteristics:
1) they are total critiques of society;

the whole

existing order must be overturned so it can be replaced


by a new one.
2)

all

Ideologies prescribe as well as describe;


previous

phases

of

society

in

history

are

rejected in favor of the projected or prescribed one;


3)

ideologies

claim

that

reason

and

log ic

substantiate the argument in favor if ideology;


4)

and

other

events

ideology's

predominance

occur

as

processes

rather

humans;

revolution

than

being

forced

resulting
result
in t o

of

in

the

natural

history

by

41

5)

understanding the natural processes by which the

ideological
secret

goal

is

knowledge

reached

made

requires

manifest

"a

by

specific

the

thinker

and
as

messenger.

the

Once

the

masses

ones

who

know,

obtain
the

old

(Niemeyer, Between 42-43).


Wit h

the

advent

the

secret

social

knowledge

order

from

will

fall.

F)

of Marx

and

Engels,

Niemeyer

says

ideology assumed additional characteristics:


1) history results from natural processes or stages;
2) besides laws of change,

there is an ultimate goal

where humanity attains a life with greater value;


3)
the

by

pitting

ideologues

the

say

ideal

that

future

humanity

against

the

has

desire

no

past,
to

identify with the past;


4)
person

the
or

obtainable

ideological

group
only

goal

is

not

embodied

but,

rather

it

stands

by

humanity

acting

as

in

one

something

collectively.

(Niemeyer, Between 74-75).


The

common

thread

of

Niemeyer's

of ideology is that a collectivity,


of

its

conditions

by

information

group of individuals,
with

new

one

as

characterizations

once made
from

one

conscious

or

small

completely supplants the old order


a

result

of

naturally

occurring

42

processes.

Overturning of tradition worries Niemeyer,

evidenced b y

his

repeated

rejecting the past

and

criticism.

Of ten,

changes

they

are

expressing

sentiments

population.

Despite

are

ideology

potent

{usually

have

not

holding them

breaks

for

form

of

with
social

intellectuals)

carefully-thought-out

widely

are

radical

most

held

Niemeyer's

ideas

intellectuals

leaders

ma jo r social movements

revolutionary

of

(Niemeyer, Between 81-83).

Revolutionary
tradition,

denunciation

as

claims,
usually

are

by

in

the

the

of

views

general

details

secret,

but

the minority

of
the

because

formal education usually is beyond the economic means of


the

average

criticism,

person.

If

however,

the

ideas

are

not

subject

to

the integrity of the intellectual is

at stake.
Niemeyer is pr eoccupied with the threat of ideology
to

"the p a s t " i.e.,

that

he

tends

challenge

to

thinking about
challenge.

to

to traditional

slide

into

traditional
any

social

as

the

systems so much
error

of

seeing

ideological.

system

is

in

fact

so
any

Critical
a

kind

of

43

What Mainstream Writers Sav About Ideology

"Ideology"
Clause
new

was

Destutt de

science

Institute

a word

Tracy

of

on

id eas

of Arts

and

into an ideology,

first
23

May

before

Sciences.

he claimed,

used by Antoine
1797

the
By

Louis

in proposing

French

National

systematizing

ideas

the mysticism of the past

could be

supplanted by

reason.

could be

eliminated by

restructuring

All

of

society's
the

wrongs

school

system

in order to institute an education founded upon the


rational

method

of

understanding

People's beliefs could be put


and

treated

as

disagreements

logical

about

the

called

new

"ideology."

into a well-defined order

system,

way

thereby

society

mitigating

was

to

be

run

(Mannheim 71).
Both
with

the

French

numerous

other

and

social

importance of idea systems


structured

and

Frederick Engels

American

urbanized

upheavals,

societies.

reinforced that

further

by

arguing

ideology to instill a false


(Marx 25,

79).

Marx and

that

consciousness

Engels

held

Marx

that

a nd

in agreeing

ideologies,

ruling

the

increasingly

Karl

importance
systems

along

emphasized

in dealing with

with de Tracy by calling belief


went

revolutions,

classes

but
used

in the masses
the bourgeois

44

ideology,
society.
class,

in

particular,

The dominant
and

society

in

the

did

accurately

ideology was

bourgeois

a way

not

that

ruling

satisfied

that

of

class
its

the

had

own

describe
ruling

described

needs.

Those

people who make the major decisions about how society is


to be run propound the dominant ideas,
Marx and Engels,

"the ideas of the ruling class are

every epoch the ruling ideas"


argued

that

dominant
opt

it

ideas

for

or, as stated by

is

an

r evolution.

(Marx 47). Marx and Engels

illusion

can never

in

to

change,

Often,

think

th a t

for people

the

ruling

these

can always
ideas

are

"expressed as an eternal law," or as morality and rights


(Marx 47). For Marx and Engels,

the tool of ideology is

usually biased, while for de Tracy, it is a technique to


describe actuality.
Karl

Mannheim

in

Ideology

and

Utopia

says

that

ideology is a set of ideas imposed upon a society by the


ruling

class

(Mannheim
status,

8,

and
193).

as well

as

is,

to

ideology
his

certain
reflects

discontent

extent,

illusory

a person's

with

society.

class
These

belief systems may admit to social discontent but often


attribute false reasons
will

lay

the

bl a m e

for

for

it.

Often

s ocial

the ruling class

problems

entirely distinct from the actual causes.

on

things

When a person

45

holds

ideas

system

constitutes

Otherwise,
society
social

which prevent

if

the

an

etc.)

idea system is a utopia


Mannheim,
cannot

aspirations.

can

act

participation,

institutions,

people

action,

ideology

person

(political

For

effective

in

belief

(Mannheim

194).

effectively

within

interacting

spite

of

the

with

ideas,

the

(Mannheim 204).

ideology

is

effectively

Reality

the

reactionary

express

is always

because

their

changing,

social

and a person

can easily become ideological by not changing with that


reality. Utopian or ideological,
portray

reality

because

biased.

Other writers,

people

holding

d i s c u s s e d be low,

Mannheim by saying that


understanding,

the

ideas do not accurately

ideology hinders

calls

An ideology," he says,

impose

one's

universe"

64).

(Bell

Hodges 377).

"works of presumption.

"projects wish fulfillments where

political

"a secular religion

ideas"

ideologies

unavailable."

(Fuer

into levers.

blocks

and reinforces the traditionalism favored

Lewis Fuer

is

are

substantiate
change,

by Niemeyer (Ries 290, Harrington 348-349,

knowledge

them

It is

will

Daniel

"an

upon

Bell

attempt

the

refers

. . .

nature
to

of

to
the

ideology

as

. . . the conversion of social ideas

It is the commitment to the consequences of


96).

Ideologies

ask

one

"to

accept

46

reading of e v e n t s ."
of

events

"but

ideologies,
sort"

insistence

their

says

(Kristol

Ideologies

that

'true'

Irving

108).

To Raymond

knowledge

of

consciousness

and

"are

and

also
the

persons

undesirable.
Harrington

ideology
must

of

is

act

"the

as

an

It is something to believe

of

commitment."

that

world,

hold

the

C. Wright Mills,
see

sense,

religions

Ries,

way

the

value

of

which

maintains specific relations of power"


all

this

(Ries 283)

"Ideology consists both of that form

understanding

Not

In

society

. . . analogous to religious

For another writer,


of

meaning."

Kristol,

instrument of social change.


in

do not contain knowledge

view

interpreting

justifies

(Lilienfeld 260).
that

ideology

Robert Haber,

of

an

or

ideology

is

and Michael
as

way

of

clarifying political issues and motivating people to act


for

social

342).

As

change
type

inhibition to

(Mills

of

131,

compromise

human

as

impulse

to

p o wer ,

th e

reactionary,
development

b ein g

useful

development."
ideology
and

186,

between

However,

ultimately

(Cornforth

91-92).

as

a neutral

an
w ay

Maurice Cornforth views

expression

becomes

Harrington

ideology

understanding and as

of analyzing social phenomenon,


ideology

Haber

of

as

"profound

class

takes

conservative,

then

deleterious

to

While

last

these

human
four

47

views

take

de

Tracy's positive

none

of

these

writers

used

to

stifle

would

approach

favor

understanding

to

ideology

and

an

ideology,
if

it

was

improvement

of

society.
All these writers agree that ideology is at least a
system of ideas about a social situation. However, Marx,
Engels,
for

and especially Mannheim

the

view

held

by

many

provide the foundation


modern

w r i t e r s that

an

ideology is a non-critical way of thinking. For example,


Donald

Clark

identified
and

Hodges

with

disguises

the

of

holds

more

human

that

or

less

interest

i d e o l o g y "can

conscious
groups"

be

deceptions

(Hodges

374).

While people disagree about the detailed characteristics


of

ideology

and what

roles

it

should

play,

most

view

ideology as a pejorative name for a set of ideas held by


someone with a closed or uncritical mind.
On
of

its

the

surface,

close-minded

unique or

rejects

approach,

significantly deviant

Marx clarifies
is

Niemeyer

false

it does

not.

when

view

not

from the

these concerns by

consciousness

thinking about

ideology

because

especially

other writers

stating

that ideology

reality

c h a ng es

If anything,

that this aspect of Niemeyer's position

it is

and

ironic

on ideology

is

more like that of Marx in that holding rigidly set ideas

48

is

counterproductive

functions.
is

that

to

understanding

how

s o c i ety

In other words, the worst feature of ideology


it

o bst r u c t s

cl e a r

thinking.

thinking and rigid bias are the two

Non-critical

senses of

ideology

that Niemeyer presumably dislikes, and Marx's criticisms


of

ideology

critically

are

grounded

one's

biased

in

the

failure

thinking

to

about

assess

political

economies.
Niemeyer faults the ideologues for grounding their
system of beliefs in a logic void of critical thinking.
While

he

says

ideology

is

dogmatic,

his

characterization and real objection to it centers about


people behaving normally by rejecting what has been done
to them
part,

in the past

the

D.O.E.

and

claims

opting
to

for

favor

change.

critical

promoting

the

D.O.E.

preserve traditional

indoctrination

economic

systems.

its

thinking.

discrepancy exists between advocating critical


and

For

thinking

program

to

great deal

of

critical thought went into shaping the rationale for the


D.O.E.

program,

confines

of

but that
rigid

conservative

chapter demonstrates
D.O.E.

to

esp ous e

thought was

how this

critical

shaped within the

philosophy.

philosophy

thinking

as

The

next

a llows
superior

ideology and still defend the indoctrination program.

the
to

CHAPTER FIVE
THE D.O.E.'S DEBT TO CONSERVATIVE PHILOSOPHY

Niemeyer *s Philosophy
Many

public

school social studies

ideological.

That,

What elicits

concern

reasons

explaining

in itself,

is not

curricula

are

very interesting.

is the pragmatic and philosophic

why

the

ideologues

want

to

install

their agenda. Frank S. Meyer, an author appearing on the


A.V.C.

book list,

says that the

importance of

ideology

lies not so much with its content as with the attempt to


change

social

"Consensus"

order

230-231).

wit h

half

their

content

(Meyer

Reinforcing their program

fact the average workplace,


over

that

waking

is the

where so many people

hours,

authoritarian and even worse

can

be

oppressive.

say and the nature of their position

spend

described

as

By what they

those controlling

the workplace and other key segments of the economy have


a

practical

critical

reaso n

for

thinking workers are more

to the demands of bosses.


bespeaks

favoring

the D.O.E.

special

brand

ideology.
docile

Without

and yielding

The less apparent philosophy


of

conservatism

underscoring

ideology justifying the U.S. system.

49

50

Gerhart Niemeyer's

conservative

the rationale for the curriculum,


about

the

society

architect
his

of

he

would

the original

principal

motive

and he is transparent

like

D.O.E.

for

thinking permeates

to

see.

While

program,

opposing

he

the

expressed

communism

and

establishing a new order in Facts on Communism prepared


by the defunct H.U.A.C.
curriculum
is

held

bibliography.

out

replace

the

".

notion

(U.S. Congress,

essence

H.C.U.A.
with

and

.
of

of

many

Communist
This

made

relevant

communism

something

divine

thinking"

doctrine
for

to

judgment"

is

close

(U.S.

Congress,

entirely

consistent

examination

"recognizes

and

the

all-important

rights

of

man

are

accord

that

want

and

the A.V.C.

"the rejection of religion is thus the

a God

not

of

128). The core of his attack on

Americanist doctrine which

do

says

who

Providence

133).

other source"

forming part

Niemeyer

for

H.C.U.A.

communism is that
very

and

derived

fact
from

(U.S. Congress, H.C.U.A.


themselves

fundamental

the

the existence of

that
God

by

the

and

fundamental

not

from

any

65). Human beings


rights

either

by

democratic elections or revolution.


Niemeyer
means

the

also

rejects

explanation

of

communism because
all

things

and

terms of a supposedly ultimately material

"It

. . .

happenings
reality

in

(U.S.

51

Congress,

H.C.U.A.

127).

Underlying this

the rejection of materialism,


the

deliberate

rejecting
creation
125).

rejection

the
of

idea

Niemeyer

of God.

that

divine

itself,

the

spirit

discusses

for it is

".

is
.

Rejecting God means

material
(U.S.

both

objection

world

Congress,

political

and

is

the

H.C.U.A.
religious

instruments for bringing about a society based upon this


view.
He makes clear who should run society and what they
should
chief

do.

In

ends

of

Law

Without

a political

entity

the definition of . . . ends"


many views always exist

does

only

not embrace

minority,

organization"
the

persons

of

he
are

to

that

the

"struggle

for

"the group which

definition of the State's

more than
the

states

(Niemeyer, Law 125). While

in a society,

is agreed upon the prevailing


ends

Force

entire

a section,

possibly

'membership' of the

(Law 121). The "unity of common aims among


of

or g a n i z a t i o n

that
of

dominating
social

group

coordination

. makes

an

p o s s ib le. "

P o l iti ca l o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o a l e s c e a r o u n d a p r e v a i l i n g
definition of functional ends, and the definition set by
the dominating group in the organization
some

way

the

entire

"represents in

'membership' because it provides

52

the concrete formulation of the ends of State functions,


without whic h no organization could operate at all"
(L a w 122).
As to those functions,
coordinates

behavior,

collective action,
one of function,
not existence"

Niemeyer says that "politics

not

lives;

not collective

not of being.

it

brings

culture;

forth

its unity

is

Politics is performance,

(Niemeyer, L a w 127).

The " . . .

behavior

that corresponds to the scheme of order must not only be


decided

upon,

but

also

must

actually

be

provoked

and

arranged for by practical acts and personal contact."

greater

spiritual

people's

and

social

understanding

institution.

There

intention

in

organization"
The

aims

. must

collectivity,

difference

envisions

Mussolini

of

of
be

if

facilitates

t he

some

there

political

community

of

is

an

to

be

(L a w 128-130).

ch i e f

Niemeyer

".

homogeneity

is

and

that,

the
in

between
ones

the

the

created

form er,

polity
by

Hitler

the

that
and

political

organization acts upon a community's preconceived ideas,


whereas

in

the

latter,

the

which the State operates.


of purpose is present;

State

sets

In the former,

in the latter,

the uniformity of purpose

the

the

reasons

for

the uniformity
State

(Niemeyer, Law 131).

imposes
The way

53

people
the

regard

scheme

the

nature

of

of

order

acted

upon

Achi ev ing

that

unity

organizations.

human

existence

comprises

by
of

political
purpose

scheme of order is left to another device--religion.


introduces

this

instrument

disassociation from others


social

order

and

then

fi rs t

by

reiterating

having designs

by

substituting

and
He
his

for a unified
a

metaphysics

rooted in classical philosophy.


Niemeyer,
reiterates

in

his

Between

Nothingness

and

criticism of totalitarian

Paradise,

ideologies and

communism for reputedly not wanting to preserve anything


of the past or present
then

outlines

the

common

his

(Niemeyer,

"Ethics

purpose

to

of

be

want

Niemeyer

"A political

stabilizing
temporal

eternity'"

means

preserve

sameness

vicissitudes

'imitating
told,

t he

Existence"

community

abides

truth

thus,

hold

Myth,

".

multitude

these
.
of

truths
a ny

set

people,

as

in the divine

to
of

be

self

and,
in

of

seen,

reader

ground"

as

time,

flux

hav e

the

State.

is

(184).

Independence's words
evident"

symbols

living

the

we

"Eternity,"

As reflected by the Declaration of


"We

in

He

provides

the

pa st ,

(183).

"participation

by

the

of

and

136-140).
that

orchestrated

Conservatives
says,

to

Between

through

together,

(189-191).
which

symbolically

54

secure

the

transparency

participation
together.

in

the

Niemeyer

of

divine
then

life

and

awareness

g r o u n d , " holds

justifies

an

the

of

polity

authoritarian

order by indicating that critical thinking would destroy


the polity.
He states that the average American
in the ways of myths;" without myth,
"the

universal

assumption

anarchy (Niemeyer, Between


"serve

as

the

organ

of

of

is

there would prevail

hostility,"

191).

"pertain

to

consciousness
and

to

the

is

representation

subject

the

area

and

the

general

to

of

"laws

complex

divine

that

is,

People bear a myth and


of

truth which is what gives authority to the


The public truth

"uncritical

of

public

vox populi."

of vitality"
tensions

ground,

relation

the

psyche

things

that

between
and

nous,

mutable

to

eternity (193).
Quoting Aristotle,
best part

of

us

Niemeyer

. . . whether

says

it

is

the most divine thing in us" and is


through

the

participation
The

in

edifice

the
of

the

nous

is

"the

itself divine,

or

"the source of order

divine

ground

political

. . ."

(Niemeyer

195).

order,

says

Niemeyer,

rests upon Aristotle's notion of friendship as

related to "noetic consciousness of participation in the


divine

ground"

(196).

person

constantly

thinking

55

critically about the prevailing myths, divine order, and


so forth would be

seriously out of place

in Niemeyer's

ideal society.
Human beings,

so that life will be attractive, must

recognize that unity is composed of the rational and the


i r r a tio nal
s u stains

and
the

attractions,
The

balance

the

two.

" p s y c hol og y

unified

intellectual

of

feelings,
e l e men t

"vital

power"

memor ies ,

and

of

hopeful

m utu al

impulses."

friendship

is

"the

consciousness of a higher ineffability through which man


is

rightly

ordered."

To

have

political

everyone must be

equal in that their souls are

the

for

divine

and,

the

sake of

the

those who are equal."

Carrying the

thinking

says

mean

that

existence

further,

he

"friendship
and

cements

eng e n d e r s

'whatever it may be.'"

that

the

"open to

divine, open

to

critique of critical

political

an

community

entity

wis h

to

aspirations
of

political

preserve

it,

Sustaining a political tradition

is "homonoia, the capacity to be of the same mind, which


renders possible the making of laws and taking action in
history (Niemeyer Between 197).

Niemeyer is very clear

about what that same mind focuses upon.


He sympathizes with Aristotle in saying that ethics
means

centering

".

. man's

orientation

towards

the

56

divine and

love of that

in man which is closest to God

and through which men participate in the order of being


(Nie meyer,

Between

198).

Thi s

consciousness

divine is the highest political value,


preservation,

similar

fi na l l y ,

enjoyment

Niemeyer

"the

vehemently

ci v i l

give

lack

the

these

attitudes,

existence"

modern

(198).
( "modern

d e - e m p h a s i 2ing

"human

These
and

existential

theologies

merely

propositions

virtues

of

and public goodwill"

writings,

and

religion

postulates

communal solidarity,
In

f or

th e

followed by group

and

common

in the divine."

ideological

"totally

of

deplores

theologies")

participation

judgments

of

Niemeyer

t ha t

friendship,

(200).

argues

for

State

which is the instrument of a common theological purpose.


Every action,
accordance

every thought,

with

participation"
polity.

is

towards

soul

God,

not

agreeing

says

to

without

of

the

the

the

notion

(Niemeyer, Between 192).

god
of

idea

tension
as

he

the

of

does

"divine
of

that

the
every

of the person
'sensorium

not

(atheists)
a

if not in

well-being

qualification

soul

meaning that

recognizing a

with

theocrat's

. . . knows the

and

transcendence',"

ruling

inimical

Niemeyer

"individual

persons

the

every appearance,

of

acknowledge

and those

transcendent

not

entity

57

When

the

practice

legislature

"every

teachers,

Christian

such as Moslems,

violating

the

law

theocratic mandate
Yet,

to Niemeyer,

because

says

by

school

virtue,

Jews,

refusing

to

it requires

abide

would be
by

Statutes

legislature would

the teachers

shall

non-Christian

or atheists,

(Florida Revised
the

teachers

be

that

233.09).

"righteous11

to participate in his

"divine ground" of being by teaching Christian virtues.


The

e x tan t

A.V.C.

law

evidences

legislature's support for Niemeyer's

the

Florida

claim that

"people

are uncritical in the ways of myths" and that the State


should coordinate the behavior of individuals.
Despite

his

a pp a r e n t

wish

t ha t

e ver y o n e

should

march lockstep in pursuing a divine order, Niemeyer does


not

characterize

totalitarian
to

his

view

theocracy.

ideology,

advocacy

program,

and

lead one

to believe

Athenian

democracy

His
of

subscription
that

Niemeyer

avoi ds

an

avowed

ideal

philosophy

in

Aristotelian

he

would

as

polity

staunch

to

insofar

participating in a divine
Yet,

of

be

having

as

opposition
the

A.V.C.

ethics

might

comfortable
everyone

with

equally

order of being is concerned.

using

the

word

"democracy"

in

reference to Athens or in his recommendations for an ideal


society, while other conservatives freely use it.

58

discussion

understanding

why

authoritarianism
thinking

of

in

the

democracy

Niemeyer

while

useful

really

claiming

D.O.E.

is

to

program

argues

support
and

in
for

critical

why

other

conservatives with views similar to Niemeyer's argue for


democracy.

The opposite

of

an

authoritarian

workplace

is a democratic one, and effective workplace democracy


means practicing critical thinking.

That is so if

democracy means each individual should participate in


deciding how society should be run and if effective
participation means the individual must be-well informed
and willing to keep an open or critical mind.

The way

conservatives qualify their use of the word "democracy"


shows how they view the workplace and justify the current
system.

Classical Foundations of the D.O.E.

Both
F.E.A.
about

the

D.O.E.'s

curricula
why

policies.

emanate

societies
To

from

exist

elucidate

discuss how the D.O.E.


system.

political

and

this

they

and

Niemeyer's
who

should

lies

the

decide

helps

characterize

use

economic

philosophy

statement, it

ideologues

Behind the words

A.V.C.

Ideology

to

the U.S.

philosophy

59

that goes
D.O.E.

into shaping the

economic

indoctrination program.

material

refers

to

the

The

U.S.

as

"capitalistic" or "free enterprise," that is, reflecting


the classical

liberal economics of the writings

of John

Locke.
However,

the

philosophy

of

further clarified by the manner


say

people

should

concentrates

behave

heavily

m e ntioning democracy.
about using the word,
starting
D.O.E.

point

for

on

the

economic

in which

is

the ideologues

politically.

Aristotelian

D.O.E.

system

Niemeyer

ethics

without

ideologues are ambivalent

and how they discuss it suggests a


dis cussing

the

phi losophy

of

the

minimizes

its

ideology.

Th e

D.O.E.

itself c o n s p i cuously

references

to democracy. Frank S. Meyer,

author

the

on

"Liberal's

A.V.C.

faith

calling

the

230).

Others

is

U.S.

in

only

on

reading

that

list,

'democracy'"
a

republic
list,

a conservative
sa y s

and

insists

(Meyer,

like

J.

that

the
upon

"Consensus"

Edgar

Hoover,

interrupt this trend by frequently referring to the U.S.


system

as

contrasted
the

democracy (Hoover

in the A.V.C. law not to

"principles

epitomized

320).

in

of
its

Constitutional
National

Communism

"democracy"

Government

Constitution

but

. . .

is
to
as

(Florida

60

Statutes

233.064(a)).

The

Declaration

of

and Constitution use "Republic" but not


On e

theoretically

within Americanism,

may

find

Independence

"democracy."

"democratic

but Americanism,

itself,

processes"
is not

necessarily considered democratic by the conservatives


involved in formulating the D.O.E.
Only when one examines the
the

D.O.E .

references

adopted
to

social

textbook

"democracy"

program.
studies texts

list

appear.

do

on

the

copious

Magruder's

American

Government is a widely used text both nationwide and in


Florida

(M c C l e n a g h a n ).

democracy
mentions

and

representative

power

people as electorate.
directly.

As

used

and

republican

same thing"

to

use

D.O.E.

the

representatives

of

the

of

and

"To most

Americans

representative democracy,

government

generally

mean

the

(McClenaghan 28).

Democracy
different,

Magruder

republic,

form

claim

People in democracy decide issues

by

the terms democracy,

are

who

text

In

in

those

t he

United States is a republic rather than a democracy.


those

between

democracy,

direct

the

republic,

debate

discussing

that

the

Besides

and

and while
terms

doctrine

republic

conservatives

they

when

are

it

are

disagree

united

comes

to

philosophically

in

the

about

when

supporting

participation

the
in

61

Niemeyer's

divine

list calls

it an

people

"subject

"Consensus"

order.

One writer

"organic moral
to the

14-16).

effects

This

theory

the

democracy and

classical

views

of

several

A.V.C.

is

bibliography,

of

but

of

republic,

by

on

third

by

by

(Meyer

despite

the

exploring

second,

writers

and,

sin"

support
first,

book

governed

original

clarified,

conservative

the A.V.C.

order"

unity

division over

on

with

the

the

D.O.E.

what

other

conservatives say about the nature of democracy.


In

describing

the

emanates

from

tyranny

economic classes.

classical
democracy

to rule by education and


guardians

culminate

of

with

and

Plato

warring

The

among

the

Rulers acquire the ability

intense preparation.

State

leaders

must

endowed

begin
with

Training

from

the

youth

common

person

does

not

and

philosophical

perspective and ability to guide society smoothly


564b).

says

Only if ruling people possess virtue

can it thrive in the State.

the

republic,

have

(Plato

role

in

running the affairs of state.

Each person in society is

consigned

accordance

his

or

her w o r k

in

with

training

and background.
Aristotle
based

on

mentions

strict

five

types

eguality--the

poor

of

democracy:

having

the

one
sa m e

advantages as the rich a nd everyone sharing power in the

62

government;

another

where

according

minimal

p roperty

to

magistrates

are

elected

qualifications;

third

which requires that the law be supreme over the citizens


who share equal power in the government;
admission
citizen
where

and

the

decree

to

the
is

government

subject

majority

to

rules

occurs

the

in

law,

all

a fourth, where

only

if

and,

finally,

respects

(Aristotle 1291b 30 to 1292b 38).

one

and

is

rules

one
by

The type to be

emphasized depends upon the aims of the State.


People

band

constitution
must

work

sense,

(the

its

together
partnership

way

to

participate

in

in

being

the

perfection,
the

divine

state's purpose is for the

community,

or,

ground

State),
in

or
which

Niemeyer's

of

being.

"good life," ma king sure that

citizens do not do injustice to each other a n d promoting


virtue

(Aristotle

community,

that

1880a).
is,

Wh e n

every

every

citizen,

then the whole State can be perfect


individual doing the best
not unlike Niemeyer's
the

people's

he can)

practices

of

the

virtue,

(virtue being every

(1276b

saying that the

behavior.

m ember

30).

State

Upon Aristotle's

This

is

coordinates

notion

of who

can be virtuous and be a citizen hinges the real meaning


of

classical

democracy,

democracy

with that promoted by the D.O.E.

quite

program.

compatible

63

Aristotle
to

take

in Politics

part

administration
citizen

of

in
of

that

says,

the

any

has

the power

or

judicial

deliberative

state

state"

"He who

is

(1275b

said
19).

by

us

The

to

be

virtues

of

citizen are to be capable of

ruling and o beying

freeman."

can be

citizens,

for

to

citizens

w h o are

cannot

Not

all

consider

necessary

to

people

all

the

those

existence

of the

"The necessary people are either


the wants of individuals,

be

citizen

Aristotle

in

or mechanics

democracy

says,

"No

man

one
can

and

were

and

the

must

be

practice

opportunity

functions of class status.

present

political

concepts

of

system

democracy,

it

is
is

(1278a 2).

laborers who

(1278a 7-10).

virtue

to

rooted

in

understandable

constitute

proportionate

is not saying that people


because

of

a tenet

of

not

power

Aristotle's

do

is

is

If one argues that the

from po li cymaking positions

Niemeyer

who

attain

are barred

legislature.

but

(1278a 20).

workers
not

To be

virtuous,

living the life of a mechanic or laborer"


Citizenship

"we

slaves who minister to

are the servants of the community"


a

state"

"like a

arguing

part
for

of

why

wage

as

they

Florida's

democracy

and

should not be disenfranchised

classical

democratic

theory.

His

64

concept of a person's

role

in

society

is

founded

in a

special type social cohesion centered about a theocratic


purpose.
Niemeyer faults Athens not for barring workers from
the political

process

demonstrated

measure of human thoughts and actions"

and

"...

is a matter

but of participation
participation

in

not

in the

the

not

that Socrates
God

Socrates was

. that

saying

but

order

by

man

political

".

but

of wealth

order

concrete

of being
reality

as

of

the
that

success
well

as

A the n s , "

"admonishing Athens in the name of God"

"return to the divine ground of being


Between

and

is

213).

. .

Like Plato and Aristotle,

to

(Niemeyer,
Niemeyer does

not see the average person as inherently fit to govern,


and

neither

republic

nor

democracy

is

enough

to

sustain his ideal of universal participation in a divine


ground of being.

Socrates'

criticism forms the basis of

what Niemeyer and other like-minded conservatives want.


Alexis

de

Toqueville,

the

often-quoted

critic

of

democracy from the last century, articulates many of the


conservative
D.O.E.

ideas

program.

democratic republic

shaping

De

the

Toqueville

. . . had.

habits and laws of the people

thinking
states

".

behind
.

. . sunk deep

...

the
if

into

the

a more insufferable

65

despotism

would

absolute

(not)

monarchies

prevail

of

. . .

Europe"

(de

in

any

Toqueville

Democracy requires a thoughtful population,


that

"studies

above

the

these,
are

of

this

average

coupled

capacity

with

"uncritical

nature

in

(of

the

ways

(150).

myths,"

123).

are

far

Views

assertions

of

the

but he says

philosophy)

of men"

Niemeyer's

of

that

help

like

people

show

the

anti-critical nature of the D.O.E. program.

The Authoritarian Basis of the D.O.E.

De

Toqueville

said,

"Fixed

ideas

Program

about

God

and

human nature are indispensable to the daily practice of


men's

liv es ."

justifies

the

authority.
doubt
and

gets

half

151).
de

Religion
system

and

is

necessary

establishes

the

because

it

principle

of

"When the religion of a people is destroyed,


hold

of

paralyzes

the
all

higher
the

powers

others"

of

the

intellect

(de Toqueville

ISO-

People are not philosophically sophisticated and

Toqueville's

statement

would

justify

argument that a humans being's main

Niemeyer's

function in society

is to participate in a divine order of being rather than


to

create

states,

his

"Man's

own

well-thought-out

nature,

created

good,

order.

Niemeyer

has

vitiated

been

66

by

his

sinful

opposition

to

the

Creator

resulting distortions of body, mind,


. . . impart
Between

. . .

218).

humanity

D.O.E.

depends

principle

of

merciful

God"

respect

for

(Florida

one's

said

that

"The

country

2)

comes

in daily Bible

in Masters

essence

saying

l ov e

and

"children

and

(5).

A.V.C.
faith

is rooted in a belief in a Supreme Being"


Religious

dogma

stands

behind

the

that

and

that

our

view

living

and
when

(Niemeyer

t he

"a

the

of

the

that

from

reading"

of D e c e i t , on

very

by

comes

State

emotions and soul

Niemeyer's

religion

dignity

a return to God"

reflects

upon

human

teachers engage
Hoover

a yearning,

J.

Edgar

book

list,

in democracy
(Hoover 320).

authoritarian

character of the conservative views of the State and the


D.O.E. program,
Frank
the

S.

Meyer,

libertarian

Me y e r )

for

the

transcendental"
the

itself.

human

(a

also

type

on

of

"confusion

A.V.C.

conservative,
of

the

authority
God

that

Nineteenth

century conservatives,

institutions

faults

according

temporal

suppresses

of

authority

list,

with

to
the

in that he could not distinguish between

authority

the

book

of

"the

and

God

truth."

and

sacred

(emphasis
while

of

aura

freedom

"the

included)

"They respected

truth,"
of

and

divine

gave

human

authority."

67

Classical

liberals

were

not

aware

of

"the

reality

of

original sin" and looked to the state to promote virtue.


Collectivism challenges a person's
. . . and common
19).

All

(Meyer,

conservatives,

or explicitly,
.

faith"

based

says

"transcendent dignity

"The

Common Cause"

Meyer,

accept

16-

implicitly

the existence of an objective moral order


on

the

existence

of

immutable

standards by which human conduct should be judged."


objection

to

ideology

immutable

laws

a re

reconstruction."
dogma

of

means

not

"the

susceptible

Ideology,

"ordered

th a t

then,

liberty"

but

that dogma with a new set of

is

the

ideas"

The

existence

to

of

ideological

not

the

attempt
(Meyer,

existing
to

change

"Consensus"

230-231).
Hoover
democratic
meaning

f ai th"

that

independent
sy s tem ,

refers

to
(sic)

transcends

of

one

any

belief

such

of

the

"aspects

as

"belief

that

any

manmade

system."

system,

and

diametrically

materialistic dogma of communism."

of

lif e

o ur

has
It

a
is

"outlasts

any

such

opposed

by

the

J. Edgar Hoover said

that communism is opposed to religion and "poses today a


crucial

problem

for

every

patriotic

America.

If allowed to develop,

of

(Hoover

life"

320-321).

"Out

man

and

woman

in

it will destroy our way


of

the

deep

roots

of

68

religion . . .

is the source of strength for our land if

we are to remain free"

(330).

Hoover hypothesized,
a little time each day,
the

communist,

in

"Suppose every American


less than the

studying

the

documents of American history,


The

late

between

F.B.I.

director,

democracy

or

Bible

making

ever

humble

Toqueville,
faith,

in

republic,

Hoover

the

service

remarks

real faith.

. . .

at

and

basic

and culture?"
distinction

restates

Niemeyer's

of

the

t he

by

a ny

vision by calling for "a new America,


but

time demanded

government

not

spent

vigilant,
God. "

end

"All

With God's help,

strong,

Echoing

de

we

is

need

America will

remain a land where people still know how to be free and


brave"

(emphasis included)

Th e

thinking

behind

which that of the D.O.E.


further by

how other

(Hoover 334-337).
the

reference

man

conservatives

to

lives

Judeo-Christian God,
conscience.
of

liberty

by

authority,

existence is possible."

ideology

of

is representative is elucidated

forms the basis of the State.


"Civilized

widespread

argue

that

religion

Russell Kirk asserts that


authority;

indeed

no

without
form

of

some
human

That authority is a deity,

the

. . . understood through the human

"Genuinely ordered freedom is the only sort


worth

having"

(Kirk

23-2 5) .

Liberty

is

69

ordered freedom, and freedom is that granted by a deity.


Kirk

j ustifies

the

Republic

by

referring

to

"a

government which prefers principle to ideology,"

and by

saying

of

civil

"the

philosophical

order was

rooted

moral

in the

the worship of Reason"


philosophical

and

(Kirk,

structure

Christian
37).

u n d e r s t an din g,

faith,

Faith,

e xp la i n s

our

not

in

rather than

and

justi fie s

events and institutions.


According
agrees

with

trusted,

to

M.

Stanton

authoritarians

and

wa n t s

"to

Evans,

in

the

that

conservative

people

restrain

the

cannot

be

destructive

tendencies he discerns in a fallen humanity"

(Evans 74).

Fallen humanity refers to Adam and Eve committing

"sin"

by eating from the Fruit of the Tree of Knowledge in the


Garden of Eden myth.
the

"Fall"

in

supporting

inherently

evil.

this

of

vie w

writer

Ortega

Fundamentalist Christians refer to

Evans

"human
y

their
has

little

nature."

Gasset,

claim

Evans

that

people

disagreement

Quoting
says

are

about

conservative

that

people

are

"forced by (their) nature to seek some higher authority"


(71).

The

freedom

granted

by

higher

authority

gives

people the right to choose according to how one affirms


a "transcendent order"

(69).

70

The Role of Religion and Faith in the D.O.E.

Religion
rationalize

and
the

faith

are

ranging from what

impose

re li g i o n
In

says

the

that

"from the
and

to

principle

of

readers are told,


faith.

The

Florida's D.O.E.

the

acknowledgment

frequently

system.

pronouncements

Florida,

recognition

upon

political-economic

abound,

leaders.

called

A.V.C.

of
of

man's

made

living

by

immortal

E xa m p l e s

nat ional
handbook

dignity

and

soul."

to

is doing to

curriculum

individual

Ideology

comes

merciful

God

Further

on,

"It is easier to distrust than to have

fight

against

the

com m u n i s t

demands an appropriate perspective;

consp ir acy "

it is a battle where

one is "fighting for faith." A very important lesson one


learns

in

of faith"

fighting communism,

says the D.O.E.

"is that

(Florida State 2, 11, 16).

Christianity

is the

official

religion

in Florida.

Legislation entitled "Duties of Instructional Personnel"


mandates that teachers set an example for pupils, mainly
by practicing

" . . .

Statutes 231.09(2)).
the Bible
in

1963

every Christian virtue"


The 1980 law

and religion,"

ruling

to the

"permitting study of

and where,

contrary,

(Florida

the

U.S.
"The

Supreme Court
school

board

71

may provide
purpose

that

of

silent

effect in 1988"

brief

prayer

or

for

meditation"

".

was

. the

still

in

(Florida Statutes 233.062).

Public advocacy of the


go v e r n m e n t

period

on

injection

na tio nal

level

of

religion

reinforces

into

D.O.E.

philosophy.

In a 1984 prayer breakfast speech President

Reagan

that

said

influence
moral

on

order

morality

are

morality

the

the

state,"

is

religion,"

is

religion

are

because

sinners

only
can

",

that

inseparable."

necessarily related
Church

church

the

U.S.,

was

he vowed

remov e

its

President").
the

not

"focus

. has
.

had

. the

"...

Because

"rel ig ion

strong

bedrock

politics

the

and

foundation

of
are

. . . And our Government needs

the

those

humble

enough

democracy

trying
".

and

of

politics

bring

that

".

and

requires in order to survive."


that

to

theological

the

admit

they

tolerance

it

Although Reagan claimed

establish

. .we

to

poison

religion

in

the

society

when

we

("Remarks

by

underpinnings"

In 1983, he said that the Soviet Union was


of

evil

in

the

Webster's dictionary gives

modern

w or ldd ."

several general

(Clines)

synonyms for

"evil," and the context of each of these usages suggests


that the word means
references to "God"

"Satanic."

Besides

the persistent

in the Declaration of Independence,

72

the U.S.

currency is

Trust."

" U nd er

allegiance
political

in

God"

the

and

constant
was

1950s.

economic

reminder that
put

int o

Faith

as

policy

the
a

"In God We
pledge

of

rationale

carries

for

far-ranging

structural consequences for the system.


Patrick Buchanan,

Reagan's

communications

director

and President Nixon's assistant,

is quite unequivocal in

his call for a U.S.

In a column

of

G o d l e s s n e s s ,"

theocracy.
he

calls

the

U.S.

Christian country" and regards as mere


that Christian values m a y be

"The Crisis

"a

supposedly

"taunts" the view

imposed upon

others

"The

Old and N ew Testament are not only infallible guides


personal
just

salvation;

laws and the good

upon a hill."
of

they

morality,

asking,
the

only

can

do

prescriptions

for

society for building a city

set

For that
and

"Whose

contain

society,

m orality

country

the

is

is

"Religion

the

this,

never

to

cease

basis

and

is the

root

law."

In

Buchanan

says

of

anyway?"

thing the traditionalist


"is

the

you will,

possible,

to our

a godly country"

Conservative

policy

conservative

struggling until

recreated a government and an America that


close as

to

image

of

we

have

conforms,

as

society,

if

good

(Buchanan).
makers

create

and

sustain

social hierarchy that oppresses workers on the job.

Such

73

conservatives
hold that

the

those

religion

inseparable
that

as

setting

(formulating

up

the

ideas

from political-economic

majority

of

people

critically

are more

likely

rather

than

make

to question

to

out

of

program

faith)

decision-making
decisions

faith rather than critical thinking.


think

D.O.E.

based

is
and
on

Individuals taught

rely

social

faith

alone

arrangements.

The

conservatives are willi ng to suppress

upon

efforts

to change

an authoritarian system while still advocating "freedom"


because of their conception of freedom and liberty.

How Freedom And Liberty Help Shape the D.O.E.

In

political

science

expressions of rights)

(Dye).

This

freedoms

are human actions

a person's will to act,


individual's

terms,

as opposed to liberties,

distinction

(as

resulting from

ability to act within societal


ni c e

Ideology

or the

constraints

introduces

s om e

very

fundamental assumptions about the role of government and


how the power for an individual to act is derived.
freedom,
granted
liberty,
action.

the
from
t he

power
outside
st a t e

The H.U.A.C.

to

act

the

comes

from

society,

determines

and

the

natural
in

the

limits

With
rights

case
of

of

human

statement on Americanism refers to

74

natural rights,
deity and
defined

not liberties.

cannot

by

be

human

Freedom is granted by a

questioned,

society,

whereas

can.

When

liberty,

the

being

Constitution

speaks of liberties in its Preamble it talks of what the


State allows people to do

and not

their

"natural"

god-

"freedom"

and

given f r e e d o m s .
The

D. O.E.

literature

"liberty"

as

synonyms.

theories,

however,

the

obviously

that

political

of

In

treats

the

application

definition

of

these

science

Power and Society by Thomas Dye.

of

as

Freedom

their

terms

is

discussed

in

is an inherent

right to act in a manner prompted by a person's will.


is

natural

from the

and

derived

deity.

society's

from

Liberty,

definition

source

on the

of

outside

other

a person's

hand,

right

It

society,

represents

to act within

the concept of the group.


This
in the

nice distinction may be observed historically

Declaration

granted

by

revolution,
defined

t he
and

of

Independence

Creator

rights

permissions

to

of

are
the

act

freedoms

Constitution

granted

H.U.A.C.

lists

freedom

of

worship

(i.e.,

right

granted

by

God).

freedom,

however,

becomes

in which

by
as

The

the
a

the

rights

justifying
are

legally

State.

natural

exercise

of

The

right
that

subject to State control when

75

the

State

defines

theocracy,
to

is

acceptable

god

religion

and

no

becomes

other,
the

publicly in a manner acceptable


god.

religion.

In

a State which defines itself as b e i n g subject

particular

practice

what

Freedom

becomes

the

"freedom"

"l ib e r t y "
to

to

behave

the worship of

indistinguishable

from

to

that

liberty

since both are subject to the sacerdotes' whims.


Freedom

allows

critical

thinking

and

resulting

action without limit, while liberty imposes restrictions


to actions.

In an oppressive state,

little liberty,

where there is very

the presumption is that while people may

criticize the state in private they should not accompany


the

thoughts

by appropriate

deeds.

leadership

with

specified ends in mind will act in its best interests by


emphasizing

liberties.

Religion

acts

as

convenient

device for allowing an advocacy of freedom but


its

curtailment. On

liberal

because

of

one

hand,

that

theocratic

advocacy but

excusing

regime

is

autocratic

in

deferring to a deity's commands restricting liberties.


While

on e

sophistication
agency uses

in

t he

not

f i n d t hi s

D.O.E.

program,

degree
because

of
that

"liberty" and "freedom" interchangeably,

authoritarianism
restricting

does

exists

both,

as

because
in

of

religion's

legislating

role

morality.

the
in
If

76

students

are

ideologues
certain

to

would

think
like

bounds,

theocracy.
references

to

However,

interest

and contradictions
must

that the U.S.

them

those

in

so

set

by

its

by

only

underpins
freedom

the

A.V.C.

and

the

must

critical
emphasize

curriculum

faculties
the

of communism"

"evils,

the

polity

ideologue's
and

discussion,
is

not

that

the

it. No process
conclusions

As recently as 1987,
enterprise"

."

fallacies

A.V.C.

13-14).

statutes,

the

U.S.

of

of

of

real

are

iterates

economy provides

the

is

program

implied

predetermined.
that the

"the highest

of living of any nation in the world"

thinking

lip service is

analysis

instruction

faith

circumscribes

of

even though

the D.O.E.

that

critical

aim

critical

Program

view

liberty

promotion

mandated in Florida schools,

when

(Florida State

according to

D . O.E .

philosophy

paid to

repeated

system is the best on earth.

the

of

within

Niemeyer's

Critical Thinking As A Part of the D.O.E.

Given

program's

teachers are implored to "stir up

and

learn,

t he

do

demonstrated

"critical"

teachers

Students

have

as

is

handbook. For example,


student's

to

such

This

critically,

"free

standard

and requires that

77

it

should

be

defended

against

all

others

(Goddard

et

a l . , CH-310 35).
The educational material thus defines not only the
premise to be studied but the conclusion which must be
reached. Any debate under such circumstances has to be a
sham.

Even

the

which

provides

marketplace

criteria
the

are

mo s t

prescribed.

goods

a nd

That

is

se rvices

best

in

the

in which the individual is free to exercise

choice. There is no opportunity to define terms.


It should not be necessary to do more than point to
these

obvious

flaws

weakness.

However,

society's

efforts

citizens

that are

Florida

Schools,

in the
there

to

human

are

program to

issues

achieve

the

either

dignity

its

in

any

for

its

lives

consideration

directly

or

in the

tacitly.

The

critical thinking is necessary

s ugg es ts

that

judging the quality of an economic


the power of a person

know

involved

best

eliminated from

D.O.E.'s insistence that


for

D.O.E.

to think

the

st an d a r d s

system must

and act

for

include

accordingly

in

the workplace.

"Critical" means being "more imaginative"

but

critically

thinking

and

making

decisions

have

special meanings apparently in the economic arena.


Much
of

the

is made

freedom

throughout

the

student

the
will

instructional

program

have

choices

to

make

78

when

he

has

graduated.

To

teach

that

he

will

right to many choices is perhaps misleading.

have

the

It would be

easy to offer long lists of what he is not free to buy:


methanol

is not a choice

at most

example,

nor

for

machines.
the

are

His

positions

parts

freedom to
employers

service

man y

choose
offer.

otherwise

his

work

Steel

important

critical

exceptions

c ho i c e s .

to

major

the

is

limited by
have

few

These are not the

opportunity

part

for

reparable

workers

chances to make steel in 1988 America.


most

stations,

of

t he

to

make

ideology's

rationale seems to be that the average worker should not


participate
produced,
shall

making

operated.

centers

services,

The

pursuing careers,

When

the

work

position

the

some control
up control

they

did

is

not

to

be

enterprises

version

choosing

of

free

goods

an d

and the opportunity to

sell

CH-310 33-34).
the

workplace,

to

they

participate

in

The majority of workers then

established concern.

over their own

over one's

what

or how

opportunity

for an already
that

about

encounter

meaningful decision-making.
must work

what,

{Goddard et al.,

students

without

about

curriculum's

primarily

goods for a profit

often

decisions

who shall get paid

be

choice

in

help
lives

define,
(Bowles

Taking

they
90).

life for a third of one's

give

a
up

Giving
waking

79

hours

is counter to the

idea that

one

should think

and

act critically. A m a j o r part of a person's identity as a


dignified

individual

is,

as

the

D.O.E.

admits,

"free

access to all different competing viewpoints," a liberty


society should allow.
act

on

one's

consider
D.O.E.

as

Dignity

thoughts,
a

divine

translates

this

or

also means

the

being able

freedom

right

becomes

into

political

conservatives

meaningless.
terms,

"Government is the creation of the people,

to

that

The
is,

and its power

rests with t h e m , " but it does not clarify how freedom is


to

permeate

D.O.E.'s
".

the

workplace

ideology

of

. inalienable

(Florida

Americanism

rights

. .

State

says

. are

. .

4).

The

that worker's
. freedom

to

enjoy the fruits of his work, which means the protection


of his property rights"
power as property,
way the D.O.E.

(65).

A person possesses mental

including the power to think, and the

says the person should use that power and

for whose benefit tells one reason w h y the conservatives


behind the D.O.E. program defend "free enterprise."
In classical
the
upon

free

liberal

enterprise

possessing

system

is the

ideology

property.

difference between
right

economics,

is
For

capitalist
to private

upon which mu c h of

based,
the

freedom depends

D.O.E.

system

and

ownership of

a
a

central

socialist
productive

80

property.

"This

privilege

is

based

on

the

belief

that

people are entitled to keep the rewards from their labor


or

their

33).

business

efforts"

(Goddard et

al.,

CH-310

32-

The philosophical basis of this can be found when

John

Locke,

opined

".

liberal

. . it is very

difficulty,
Property"

how

Labor

political

economist,

easie to conceive without

could

first

begin

any

title

of

views

go

(Locke 344).

Ho w e v e r ,
further

classical

than

arguments

the

implications

what

in

the

favor

D.O.E.

of

of

Locke's

intended

property.

in

In

adopting

casting

his

aside

whether a person may not receive virtually all material


fruits

of

applying
labor

labor,
to

as

how

Locke's
a

critical

enterprise"

views

worker

m ay

thinking,

treats

the

on

benefit

help

dignity

property,

of

insofar

through

explicate
the

as

mental

how

"free

individual

as

function of thinking and acting freely in the workplace.


Locke
existence,

said
or

those objects

that

life,

in order

his

her

into useful

things.

When produced

society,

these objects become

(Locke 330-332).

Aristotle,

involves

inexorably linked with property,

to

or

objects

the person's property


accept

mixes

with

by the individual in this

to

worker

Life,

transform
solely

if one is

individuals

being

and if that property is

81

taken away from them without due


that

per so n's

questions

ide n t i t y

concerning

is

compensation,

lost.

property

and

Th ere

part

exist

"rights"

of

m an y

which

are

ignored in the D.O.E. program, possibly because critical


thought

about

them

could

lead

to

questioning

of

the

justice of the U.S. system.


Karl Marx said "the secret of the self-expansion of
capital

resolves

itself

into

having

the

disposal

definite quantity of other people's unpaid labor"


500).

An equally

va l u e

can

be

of

(Marx

succinct modern admission of surplus

found

in

an

publication, Security World:

it e m

in

the

bus ine ss

"You hire someone because

you will earn more from his labor than you will pay him
in

wages"

("Honesty

Testing"

71).

Gerhart

Niemeyer

freely admits that surplus value is an integral part of


any economy;

"all civilization depends on it"

(Niemeyer

U.S. Congress 36). What the worker produces is sold, and


the

employer

accumulates

wealth

as

result

of

mixing

the hired labor with the capital of m ac hin es.


The presence of capital in the mix has been used to
deny that the workers share of the value of the product
is

any more

automation
worker's

than
and

the wage

he has

concurrent

responsibility

for

received.

d e m a nds
the

to

product

Increasing

in cr e a s e

the

suggest

that

82

surplus value

should be

continued

topic

for

critical

thought.
The

central

quality

is

how

Niemeyer

says,

question
freely

"Those

have

s om e

However,

says

the

power.
of

an

economic

person

who

undoubtedly
he

of

may

collect

power

in

political

think

it

the

and

[surplus
social

system

critically

surplus value.

thinking

w o rk er

who

value]

mitigates

does

that

the role

not

collect

In most m anu fac tu rin g facilities persons

are divorced from the objects the y produce,


of

act.

system."

This does not answer the question about

sake

system's

argument,

let

us

assume

but

for the

that

they

receive

thing

left

for

appropriate compensation.
After
worker

after

decisions.
Both

life

domain

compensation,

as

labor

Yet,

this

power
is

employer.
how

does

only
is

taken

the
along

ability
with

and property

are placed

under

soon

individual

becomes

as

the

With service industries,


activity,

the

the

content

Even
one

if

to

labor

the

the
make

power.

employer's

an

employee.

a person's life is expressed by


of

which

worker

reconcile

is

the

is

determined

adequately
admonitions

critically with the authoritarian workplace?

by

the

compensated
to

think

83

Every day the employee is saying to the boss,


can determine what m y
hours.

You

say

Effectively
participate

existence will be

what

speaking,
in

the

will

by

do

not

like

with

being

decision-making

"You

for
my

eight

t im e."

allowed

process,

to

part

of

the worker's existence is stripped away by the employer.


In other words,
autonomy,
time,

gets

e xcept,

material
benefit.
less

but

the worker

think

nothing

perhaps,

compensation.
Workers,

as persons.
and

act

has

agreed

in

the

return

the

Denying

is

up

some

for part

of

that

for

employer's

the worker

critically

give

opportunity

Existence

in

to

reduces

eyes,

the

that

such

control

over

workers

has

receive

someone

else's

are

worth

opportunity
person

level of a robot or a well-trained animal.


having

to

to

to
the

An employer

access

to

the

political apparatus if wealth has been accumulated.


Despite
rights

to

politics,

what

the

participate

ideology
equally

the businessperson

has

says
with
an

able to finance that participation.

about

everyone
advantage

person's
else
by

in

being

Because of this,

the

employers have an interest in carrying their pattern of


restricting a worker's participation
in

the

workplace

into

the

in decision-making

political

p a s s i m ). A person holding political

arena

(Greever

power generally has

84

the ability to seek another to do her or his will.


power

holder

people.
a

has

a greater

In the U.S.

function

Gintis

of

have

existence

system political

wealth,

as

argued.

Domhoff,

This

can

status

than other

power normally

Mills,

be

The

is

Bowles,

explained

and

by

the

relationship that wealth can have with human life.


The

power

to

make

decisions

function of accumulating wealth.


the

ability

to

direct

one's

(Florida
of

State

4).

self-control

Employers

in

exchange

political

w e a lt h,

power

deny workers
for material

which

in the

case

activities

as the D.O.E.

The ability to control workers'


accumulated

society

is

Power over oneself,

own

function of individual dignity,

in

lives

or

is

has stated

this

ability

compensation.

is represented by

facilitates
of

also

financing

access

to

campaigns

or

buying office.
Political power often means that

a person wielding

a great deal of it has a greater existence status than a


member of the general population.
large

amount

of

wealth

is

evidence

Niemeyer's view that the power


regulated
constitute
Those

by

government,

the

imposing

authority

accumulation of
that

of wealth

those

government

An

contrary

in

Greever,

t he

to

is effectively

possessing wealth

(Bowles,

often

Domhoff).

workplace

and

85

d i s c o u r a g i n g w o r k e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n in d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g
often are the same ones who serve often generously,
boards

a nd

c oun cil s

consciously

injecting

they

make

but

and exclude

can

find

bias,

recommendations

democracy
D.O.E.

advising

the

it

would

which

workers

D.O.E.

in

as

be

Without

natural

effect

citizens.

on

that

advocate
Thus,

the

come to demand that people think critically


ways

at

the

same

obedient to a theocratic

time

order.

to

make

them

more

A primary purpose

for

preparing individuals to think critically is so they can


participate effectively in deciding what happens in the
political

and

economic

systems

of

their

country,

that

is, to make them good democrats.


Although the
of the U.S.
the

D.O.E.

curriculum presents

system,

the U.S.

philosophy.

values being imposed on U.S.

social

failure

a distorted view

reality reinforces
to

talk

about

working people will

the

likely

block the success of a program designed to teach people


to

thin k

critically

about

their

society.

The

chapter describes the values that need criticism.

next

CHAPTER SIX
IDEOLOGY AND SOCIAL REALITY

THE D.O.E.

How Students Are Told They Must Act in the Workplace

Despite
think

th e

D.O.E.

critically

and

claims

that

students

philosophically,

the

should

conservative

mentality behind Florida's cold war prog ram is that the


average

person

is

not

things on faith or,

philosophical

and

as Niemeyer says,

cannot

come

from

men

should

"...

under the

sun

or

from God"

(Niemeyer Between 168). The D.O.E.

accept

what is new

nature

but

only

argues that

"It is easier to distrust than to have faith." The fight


against communism is "fighting for faith"
11).

A work

force

than

critical

which

reasoning

has

been

tends

to

(Florida State

taught

be

faith

docile

and

rather
easily

governed. What students are told about their role in the


workplace seems to reflect this philosophy.
Florida

grammar

school

"decision-making" means
at

solution

to

j u dg me nt, " there

is

students

learn

"The act or process


problem,

no

especially

suggestion

that

CE-131

clarified

3,

passim).

further

The
in

role
high

86

while

of arriving
by

giving

decision-making

should apply to the operation of a workplace


al.,

that

(Goddard et

of decision-making
school

in

is

that

87

not only does management

organize

and

direct

resources

but that it is "the administrative aspect of an industry


as

opposed

to

Vocational
making"

labor"

(Goddard

et

orientation materials

a l .,

CH-310

say that

"decision-

and critical thinking are only meant

worker

performance

and

not

to

establish

8).

to

the

improve
workers'

control over the economy (Dresner 19).


Business leaders do complain that
requires
are

too

much

bei ng made

supervision,

to

bring

the overall pattern is


ma king

labor

of

into

labor's

("Management-Labor").

problem

and,

establishing a

such a condition
although

management

exclusion
Half

the

critical

attempts
levels,

from dec is ion

solution

thinking

to

the

program

or

democratic workplace is recognizing that the ideology of


America ni sm depend
social

reality

upon

a ph il osophy

beneficial

to

those

that
in

reinforces

power.

Further,

students are being taught that obedience at work has the


greatest material
best

on

provides,
system

is

earth

rewards.

because

teaching
a

way

If

of

the

obedience

to

"free

quantity

to

sustain

enterprise"

those

the

of

is

goods

controlling

Florida

the
it
the

legislature's

judgment.
Florida
the

U.S.

students

workplace.

learn
All

how

of

to

the

behave
following

properly

in

nationally

88

used materials
schools.
used

have been

found

in

In It's Up to You, a contemporary,

"job

survival

parameters

are

publication

calls

skills"

clearly
a

booklet,

"...

in

Florida's
frequently

t he

described

"no-nonsense"

instructs the students

workplace
what

style.

The

that

teacher

what kinds of answers

acceptable for an interview"


".

frequently

(Dresner 4).

are

The students

. . need to convince the employer that they meet the

requirements

for

the

job

wishes

for

job

create

the

motivation

workplace.
has

19).

The

student's

career

goals,

and

stability

become

assimilated

security,
to

job the person

appropriate

contribute

(Dresner

skills,

towards

worker

likes

and

to

do

into

for which

cooperative

contentment.

the
he

attitude

Hardly would

worker want to be situated in an intolerable workplace.


Comfort,
much

however,

comfort

carries

tempers

double-edged

criticism or a desire

Stability depends upon satisfaction.


to

attain

that

demanding,

sword.

happiness,

condition

not

for

Too

change.

On the other hand

workers

often

tolerated

by

become

workplace

s u p e r vis or s.
It's

Up

flexibility,
assertiveness,

to

You

says

the

workers

cooperativeness,
and

decision-making

should

have

dependability,
ability.

The

last

89

does

not

mean

that

decision-making,

the

workers

but that workers

abide by stipulated workplace


act

suitably.

necessary

These

for

smoothly.

should

t he

participate

should obey the boss,

conditions,

elements

are

political

democracy,

do,"

precisely

taught

economy

or

more

but

rather

defined

by

. person

decisions.

who

. . . "

gives

function

by superiors, managers,
who m

the

what

(Dresner 19).

comes

to

"The

by

But,

makes

such

more

authority

Ranking is done

and bosses of all types, to each

employee

Decision-making

not mean

example,

instructions

worker

being

He has to make

because the boss gives it (Dresner 21).

of

to

the

a decision about which job he wants"


".

as

"choosing

company offered him two different jobs.

and otherwise

Decision-making for the worker does

participatory

in

is

occurs

beholden
within

in

varying

degrees.

carefully

defined

structure.
To

what

succinctly,
decide

if

end

is

decision- ma kin g

the question
someone will

is:

be

directed?

"How does

a good

the

In

the

director"
it

is

answer

portion

states,

much

easier

of

"If they
for

me

the

booklet,

have
to

if

W hy

are

(Dresner 92)?
the

definite

see

interviewer

investment?

new employees investments for the company"

More

they

"personnel

career
will

goals,
fit

in

90

here."

If

they

future,"

they will

will know " . . .

money

is

what

they

likely know now,

are investments

spent

in

want

so the

they'll be happy here"

The workers
and

. know

in

their

interviewer

(Dresner 92).

because a lot of time

training

them.

Employees

are

resources for production;

for them to remain on the job,

they

In

should

be

happy.

mock

interview

factory worker, decision-making means " . . .


machines

in good working

order,"

.pa

the limited thinking expected of

the

an

with

keeping the

indication

employee

of

(Dresner

117).
Nowhere

does

the

unsettling

question

arise

about

who owns or controls the means of production, what shall


be

produced,

surplus

who

should

shall be distributed,

to be where it is.
as s ume d

the

idea

of

how

the

or how the

productive

situation got

In virtually every instance,

existing

enterprise should prevail.


the

decide

economic

order

of

it

is

private

Implicit in this material is


one's

place.

Tasks are parceled out among workers at various

levels.

In t e r a c t i o n

subordination,

among

th ose

or

levels,

keeping

save

levels (those having more authority)


wha t

to

do,

is

discouraged.

for

the

upper

telling lower ones

Workers

wi t h

less

91

"responsibility" and authority look up to and not across


to supervisors.
In Getting a Job, after proper dress and manners,
workers

learn where

the job.
among

they

find

specific

information

Students aspiring to be workers

"supervisor,

co-worker,

and

no

on

should choose

one"

(Knox

33).

Quickly, the student discovers that one does not ask the
supervisor where the restrooms are, how much

weekly pay

is, whether one can eat lunch with the supervisor

(much

less, where to buy lunch), or why one is leaving early.


Most significantly,
supervisor

how

the worker does not ask or tell the

the

former

is

liked.

divulge particular information.


people
does

may

associate with

not sit down

teacher does
This

latter

appears,

not

to

lunch with

sit

comment

down with
is

not

for

some

school

significantly

from

the

teachers

to bosses,

other

as

Special

people

Only certain classes of


classes.
the
the

the boss

employees,
student

extraneous

st r u c t u r e s

workplace,

As

if

the report cards

do
one

so the

(Knox

as

33).

it

not

first
d if fe r

likens

the

to paychecks,

the

curriculum to workplace rules and instructions,

and the

bells to timeclocks.
When

the

student

the world of work.

graduates

from

school,

he

meets

In another widely used publication,

92

Don't Get Fired, Mike cleans up a large office building.


The

boss

enters,

carelessly

allows

cigarette

ashes

to

fall on the floor Mike has spent so many hours cleaning,


and then
angry

orders Mike

when

Mike

to

clean

criticizes

them up.

the

man, when you work for someone,


is trouble,
wise

to

wrong"

talk

back

to

the

help

in

saying

"Young

you obey orders."

There

boss,

have

even

when

In a recent

mainta in ing

report

industry,

readers

learned

and white

collar

employees

how

Computer-generated
structure

basis for disciplining,

it is not

the

boss

is

apologists

in

the

vocational
editorial

admitted

work

traditionally

of

w o r ki ng

reports
systems

in U.

blue

under

"are

S.

collar

the

and

be i n g

to

("Management-Labor"

for

U.S.

industry

confirms

material.
that

"In

situations
expected

technology

even

used

form

the

d emoting or even firing the slow

workplace

course

straitjacketed

scrutiny of the computer."

pay

or under-skilled employee
What

"millions

performance

piece-rate

on

are

more watchful and relentless

many

gets

(Anema 53).

workplace.

happens

demand,

boss

"Because Mike hasn't learned that

Bosses

to

The

to

the

A
the

norms

1984
auto

what

actually
taught

Business
industry,

elsewhere,
do

say

124).

they

Week
as

workers
are

by

told

in
are
and

93

leave

the

thinking

to

the

boss

("Management-Labor").

Various restrictions in the workplace such as timeclocks


and performance
and

dissent.

business

quotas

Nothing

community

tend
in

to

the

encourages

stifle

basic
the

critical

values

thought

held

sharing

of

by

the

authority

with workers.

Business Values Underlying the Curriculum

Central
private

to

businesses,

economic values
of

shaping

their

Institute

and

D . O. E.

their

W or k

curriculum

purpose

to human resources"

professional
for

the

Learning.

"adding

is expressed by one

organizations,

and

of

are

In

its

sponsored by the U.S. Office of Education,

the

National

recent

study

the institute

says:
The bottom line for all activities associated
with these functions is whether, collectively,
they
produce
material
re sp e c t ,
trust,
reliability,
and demonstrated results mee ti ng
the s p e c i f i c n e e d s of i n d i v i d u a l b u s i n e s s e s ,
higher educational
institutions,
and adult
learners. (Gold 14)
Learning
system.
skills
society.

needs

First,
while

are

articulated

students

developing

must

be

within

motivated

positive

certain

to

acquire

attitudes

Skill and attitude need to be ".

towards

. . linked in

94

the

l earner's

opportunities
society.

mind

to

in the

Improved

relevant

immediate

motivation,
and

the

people,
community

in

anti-social

behavior

programs."

The curriculum must

places

need

turn,
for

a nd

instill

other

the participation

citizens."

In

of

employers,

producing

cost

remedial
and

To do this
workers,

effective

supply aligned with the market demand

both

democratic

capitalist values in the minds of students.


"requires

larger

reduces

costly

and

and

"labor

for labor"

every

social sector interested in the system should take part


in

training

students.

socialized,

and

Workers

must

"positive,"

be

while

kept

motivated,

social

ord er

is

preserved and enough workers are made available when the


"market" demands it (Gold 3).
As
people,

shown
does

workplace.

above,

"democracy," as

used

by

not necessarily mean that workers


Instead,

it

usually

impl ie s

that

should use decision-making to select

the best

goods

making

and

enterprise"
the

system,

specific

to

find

better

system work.
according

needs

of

to

w ay s

The

worker's

such

individual

of

words

businesses,"

consumer and element of a labor pool,


instrument of a profit-making machine.

run the
workers
consumer

the

central
as

business

"free

role

"meeting
is

that

in
the
of

a pool that is an
Rather

than

the

95

economic

system

serving the workers,

the

workers

serve

the economic system.


That these views have wide currency is evidenced by
what

other

major

Vocational
should

business

Association

only

help

groups

says

"the

that

private

say.

The

American

vocational

sector

with

education
a

suitably

trained work force that is productive and competitive in


the m a r k e t p l a c e in essence,
to be profitable"

(Paul 3).

helping the private

sector

The National As sociation of

State Directors of Vocational Education described " . . .


what they perceive to be the main purposes of vocational
education"

("Position Statement"

There are two:


the y

need

to

productivity
More

local,

state,
to

of

work

Vocational

education

also

decisions,

but

the

aims

economic

are

about

specific

"Provide individuals w i t h the skills

attain
of

nature

only

business profits.
must

This

and

give

for

freedom.

words
special

Enhance

the

national

economies."

individuals

information

and

work

trains

opportunities.
people

enhancing

to

production

make
and

Organizational leadership skills also

"promote and support the values

in a democratic
other

11).

society"

democracy
brand

of

("Position

must

contain

democracy,

by

of free

enterprise

Statement"
"free

3).

In

enterprise."

incorporating

the

96

"free enterprise"
back to the boss

workplace values,

such as not talking

"even when the boss is wrong,"

is like

Aristotle's view that democracy excludes non-citizens,


among who m are workers.
Endorsement

of

free

national organizations

enterprise

(as

type

programs

from

indicated on the Council

Economic Education advertisements),

public

for

and private,

lends credence to the assertion that the D.O.E.

program

in Florida cannot be treated as an isolated phenomenon.


The

Free

Arizona

Enterprise
and

Act

is

Louisiana,

typical,

which

enterprise

courses

consisting

material

as

used

Florida.

students

in these

course

in

in

states

order

to

have
of
Like

must pass

graduate

as

exemplified
mandatory

the

those
the

from

same
in

free

high

by

fre e

type

of

Florida,

enterprise

school.

The

purported economic values are hard work with expectation


of

r e w a rd ,

militates

b ut

against

what
a

actually

critically

happens

on

thoughtful

Not being able to "talk back" to the boss

the

work

job

force.

"even when the

boss is w r o n g , " threatening workers by monitoring their


every keystroke,
"employees

leave

authoritarian

and admissions from some employers that


thinking

workplace

" M a n a g e m e n t - L a b o r " ).

to

the

is

common

Freedom

boss"

show

(Anema
of

that

53,

the

Perl,

opportunity,

97

participatory democracy,

and critical thinking still are

mere ideals.

What the Business Values Mean

In

addition

to

enjoining

deviant

behavior

workplace and ignoring fundamental problems


economic

sys te m,

discussed

above

features.

It

productive,

workplace

calls
is

for

system

will

lowest

w ag e.

hire

aggressively

workers
business

specific

everyone

as

Competition means that


to

person

selling

as

many

regardless

of

whether

Association's

material

with

involving

wil lin g

destroyed or human safety is


Vocational

society

the

in the U.S.

orientation

competitive workers.

bosses

possible,

the

in

produce

gains

goods

by

services

as

environment

is

jeopardized.

statement

the

advantage

and

the

for

The American

indicates

that

both

productivity and competition serve private profitability


(Paul

3).

"Economic

Profitability measures
Freedom,"

competitiveness
"nature

and

couched

with

success

values

becomes

of

of

linked

opportunity

both.

private
to

the

( "Position

11).

Work and opportunity are


profitable,

the

productivity

of work, " a l o n g

Statement"

in

the

supposed to make business

and profitable businesses

enable the worker

98

to prosper. However, material prosperity is not the only


way

of

gauging

society

values

"democracy,"
beyond
thing

an

e con o m i c

critical

thinking.

success

In

using

if

the

the
term

those advocating critical thinking must go

"decision-making"
to

sys t e m ' s

do

and

say

merely

that

as

selecting

democracy

.pa

the

means

best
using

critical thinking in every aspect of life, including the


workplace.
A
talk

person

back

like

to

the

Dresner
boss,

(who

even

says

when

Mike

the

should

boss

is

not

wrong)

promote a society where bosses, analogous to Aristotle's


"citizens,"
as

discourage

non-citizens.

workplace

Within

this

democracy
special

for

workers

democracy

is

workplace where there are specific relationships defined


in

terms

of

public

and

private

sectors,

b u ye rs

sellers of labor power, a cutthroat marketplace,


and

followers,

and

employers

distinctions

separate

participation

in

p a r t i c ip ati on ,

people

faculties,

and

people

decision-making.

especially

have

little

if they

are

leaders

workers.
and

Such

discourage
Without

need

and

for

told what

this

cri t i c a l
to do

all

the time.
It is consistent for students to be told that they
must follow orders blindly in the workplace on one hand

99

and be told,
a

on the other hand,

democratic

society

and

they

are

will happen in their own lives.


of

U.S.

society

benefits,
is

not

they

provided

to

choose

should

be

or

to

most

shown

that

people,

businesses

the

Carmody,

"Ousted Worker Wins").

opportunity

to

skills
when

working

criticize

do

not

those

that

fire

hazardous

system's

millions

workers

conditions

their

People
orders,

who
and

an

interest

in

be

scant

decision

should

not

have

run.

voice

say

from

This

maintaining

workers

should

they

generally become developed.


having

and

if

have

ideology which

cannot

are

(Freudheim,

power benefit by an oppressive

workplace

what

To get a balanced view

protest

happens

free

but they also should be aware that health care

homeless,

ma king

that they are living in

in
the

says

the

how

the

private

business sector expresses concern that workers are being


turned into robots without any thinking skills.
programs

to

involve

workers

in

making

decisions

how the workplace is run often falter without


support
the

from

lack

of

management
such

("Management-Labor").

support,

getting people to participate

there

the

about

continued
Besides

problem

in decision-making.

within a supportive environment,


take

is

However,

of

Even

people are reluctant to

time and effort to get involved.

Business leaders

100

are

thrust

into

not unlike a war.

highly

destructive

competition,

one

They are caught between the perceived

need for running the business like an army division and


allowing

workplace

alongside

democracy on the outside.

the

alleged

political

A business person's mistrust

of governments stems not only from a realization of what


well-heeled organizations
cutthroat

busine ss es,

can do,
but

such

from

as

efficient

the

en or m o u s

inefficiencies attendant with all bureaucracies.


When
teachers

schools
are

thinking

caught

and

detrimental
economic
the

use
in

A
this

rigid

can

more

subtle

ways

recent

business

discouraged.
report,

critical

in

the

does

m ay

that

critical

U.S.

criticize

worker

instead

is

not

person

thinking

publication

contained

is
a

"Bottom Line Personal The Many New Measures of

Intelligence,"
Times about
persuasion
Be i n g

like Mike

that

Fired,

critically

being

workplace;

Get

teaching

thoughtful

encounter
meet

in

well

someone

critically

Don't

Thinking

person's

system where

like

dilemma

p h i l o sop hy .
to

boss.

material

an

which

".
as

cited

article

. . psychologists
essential

academician,

intelligence,

an

and

"...

to

[who]

success
having

in
a

in

The

see
much
great

New

York

the

art of

of

life."

deal

of

success have little to do with

101

each

other"

article.

according

makes

something,

has

The

namely,

than

psychologist

do

wit h

person

is

"...

success

the

of

philosophical

means

for

telling

and

an

in

ability

thinking,

the U.S.

earth.

academic
while

If

partial
are

students

something
truths.

sell

educational
does

unlike

with

the

skills do,

then

system,

correlate

it w oul d be

emphasize critical thinking skills

against

more

often

Florida

salespersons
ideology

establishments
not

critical

The

not

"free enterprise"

intelligence

sales

life."
to

militate

Americanism and saying, without qualification,

on

the

academic

academician,

selling

the D.O.E.

indoctrinating

product,

in

the habits of m i n d that foster

traits

salesperson,

not

to

quoted

(Boardroom R e p o r t s ) .

and

legislature
in

"...

virtuous

thinking
a

little

successful

productivity"

being

One must be "practical" because

intelligence
What

to

that,

its

is the best
assume
with

that

success

logical

b ut

of

not to

salesmanship.

There is little distance from that point to arguing that


a

successful

D.O.E.

pro gra m

is

one

students that a doctrine is true.


pedagogy
that

In turn,

can

convince

the D.O.E.'s

establishes for students a pattern of thinking

not only

learning

which

is

acceptable

environment

but

in an ostensibly
pattern

vital

to

objective
success.

102

D.O.E.-type ideologies reinforce a workplace and social


structure

that

perpetuating
join

in

citizen.
Many

says

those

the

workers
in

power

philosophic

are

tools

and

are

reasoning

to
not

be

used

for

competent

necessary

to

to

The course material has significant omissions.

realities

which

demand

consideration

While the student is told he lives

are

ignored.

in a democracy,

the

average workplace is not that.


Th es e

eff ec ts

flow

from

an

educational

program

which by its nature betrays its intent as will be shown


in the next chapter.

THE D.O.E.

CHAPTER SEVEN
PROGRAM A ND PHILOSOPHY

What Constitutes R easoning and Critical Thinking

To

teach

students

how

to

think

critically

about

social science the legislature and D.O.E. must find some


alternative to the current program.

The A.V.C.

and Free

enterprise courses inhibit an understanding of the world


and

serve

systems.
in

only

to

inflame

students

against

other

The D.O.E. wants students to accept philosophy

deference

Philosophy
approach

to

the

reputedly

is

defined

by

the

truth

in

the

ideological

D.O.E.

which

as

an

communism.
"attempt

assumptions

may

questioned and critically examined.

(Florida State

Ideology

of

is

defined

as

the

absence

questioning

to
be

18).
and

critical examination.

Because the D.O.E.

is looking for

philosophically

rather

way

to

teach

ideologically,
philosophy

in

we

need

order

to

teaching methodology

to

see

identify

and what

what
the

than

constitutes

current

should be done

to

D.O.E.
change

it.
The

D.O.E.'s

examination",
of

philosophy

and
and

references
"logic"
are

to

"reason,"

constitute only

not

synonymous

103

with

"critical

special parts
each

other.

104

Niemeyer

f au lts

ideologies

because they cohere


logic

system

can

for

logically

be

be

In this way,

thinking

(Niemeyer,

constructed

research and predicated upon


assumptions.

holding

critically

with

ideas

merely

Between
great

a set of well

73).
deal

thought

A
of

out

thinking logically appears to

or

open-mindedly.

The

person

constructing it may be quite willing to hold the system


up to public

scrutiny and even be willing to alter

assumptions.

major

problem

occurs

when

the

conclusions

are drawn only within the confines of a particular logic


system.
The

D.O.E.

ideology,

but

that

diligent

the

"studying
communism"

the

in

curricular

closer

"critical, for

that

agency,

to

of

the

find

For

arguments

example,

communism"
evils,

(Florida

questions."

and

12-13).

its

students

raise

or

'no'

questions

of
are

contradictions

'yes'

one

anti

analysis

To the D.O.E.

"more than a
Students

that

material

means m ak in g a

"critical

means

over

examination

sustaining

fallacies,

State

critical means giving


to

focus

philosophy

Upon

views.

nature

prefers

critically.

effort

communist

it

the primary

is on thinking
finds

says

of

being
answer

so

the

teacher can discuss appropriate concepts. One concept is


that

" freedom is

denied

in all

phases

of

life

in

the

105

Soviet Union."

To

elicit presentation

of

this

concept

students ask questions about religion and culture in the


U.S.S.R.

(Florida

State

14,

30).

Lest

about how teachers present material,


discussion
thinking,

about

courses

of

writers

structuring

an

al.).

text

One

activity

of

argument

"r ea son "

defines

presenting

attempt

(Weddle,

critical

to

means

show

that

consciously

Scriven,

"reasoning"

the

reasons

as
in

Toulmin
"the

et

central

support

of

so as to show how those reasons succeed in giving

this definition

(Toulmin et al.

is that

Precisely what

"activity"

reasons?

it

standards
the

argument,

emotion in w i n nin g arguments.

say

strength to the claim"


with

there needs to be a

of

often

is preferable to

number

claim,

nature

arise

and philosophy.

Philosophy
"reason"

the

confusion

Is
for

it

is vague

is involved

ordering

of

the

The problem
and

word

circular.

in presenting the

relationships

evaluating claims?

definition

13).

and

"Reasons"

setting

is used

"reasoning. "

This

in
is

analogous to defining a "farmer" as one who farms.


A

less

circular

definition

"systematically

working

problem,

the

toward

toward the truth of

toward

of
the

understanding

the matter"

"reasoning"
solution

of

(Scriven

of

is
a

phenomenon,
2).

Although

106

this

definition

captivates

a major

idea

in

saying that

intellectual effort rather than mere acceptance


to arrive at a concept,
agreement
the

as

to

the

definition

articulated,

found by this
invokes

this

it is assumed there is a general

mean in g

assumes

solution

or

of

"to approach the truth"


Reasoning
support

an

can

"systematic."
once
exists

The

D.O.E.'s
when

that

constitute
support

mean

but

people

support

"reaso n. "

also
ca l l

are

one

selected

"rea son ."

begs

from

Often,
but

way

pitted
that

constitutes

wants

the

can

be

Unit

students

able

question

to

about

(Weddle p a s s i m ) .

does

not

bases

used

to

other

standards

of logic

An

necessarily

of

is

ju d g e

than

what

support

beyond

the

and specified

(Feibleman 121).

incorporates

emotion.

against

emotion

and

is

regarded

humanity

arrives

at

consensus

(Scriven

2).

support

is

Resource

metaphysics

methods of^arriving at answers

gets

it

being

standards

immediate realm of the mechanics

sometimes

problem
and

it

simply

exists
The

depend upon metaphysics,

Support

Further,

(Florida State 18).

there being such a thing as support


assertion

truth

reason

also

argument,

of

that

"reasoning."
m eaning

is used

It

is

"Reason"
more
of

assumed

as

what
here

107

that

there

that

is

is

a human

totally

universal.

thought

divorced

Different

from

process

called

emotion

and

cultures

and

"reason"

that

people

of

it

is

diverse

perspectives may organize thoughts about the same thing


differently.
that

any

It would be rather presumptuous

single

logic

or

way

of

creating

to claim

logistic

system is sufficient to gain universal and unguestioned


acceptance
defining

among an
emotion

emotional

is

not

humanity.

such

an

Unambiguously

eas y

task.

Mo r e

difficult is determining the degree that emotion enters


into a decision-making process.

Often, human feeling is

so intertwined with the facts (that are supposedly


independent of that feeling) that one cannot say when
"reason" is being used.
The term "philosophical reason" has been used as an
attempt

to

overcome

combining

arriving at universal truths


paraphrase Scriven,
(Scriven

5).

with

(Fogelin 302).

reason

in

Reason,

to

certifies the shortcuts to the truth

P e r ha ps

philosophical

emotion

reason

is to

better

way

say that the

of

treating

"truth"

refers

to what the people see as the truth,

even if emotion is

involved.

"universal

comm it s

To
one

to

say
a

that

there

position

are

not

unlike

truths"

religonist

claiming the existence of a perfect being or deity.

How

108

close to a universal

agreement

a way

of

thinking comes

is only one ingredient in "critical thinking."


Critical
English

and

thinking
speech

"argumentation"
"good"

versus

enables one

".

and

truth"

Critical
better"

"debate."

"poor"

Neil

Postman

also

thinking,
(Scriven

f or

college

rubric

"how

to

of

what

is

to

"critical

critical

thinking

difference

Scr i v e n ,

13).

the

refers

that

the

means

in

Understanding

says

tell

taught
under

reasoning

. .to

and

is

departments,

or

thinking."

often

between

think"

(Postman

means,

"Critical

lies

"to

4).

reason

thinking"

means

"identifying and describing the strengths and weaknesses


of
the

arguments."
beginning

arguments

must

"whether

through"
One

The
and

basic

end

pass

of

an

through,

particular

(Toulmin et al.
principal

instruments
argument,
and

of

the

tests

argument

is

this

include

stages

for

the

checking

fully

reasoned

advocating

critical

23).

danger

of

thinking as a way of overcoming the teaching of ideology


is

falling

"neutral"
recognize
D.O.E.'s

prey

to

truths
with

the
that

proper

thinking

that

supposition
everyone
thinking.
after

that

there

necessarily
An

example

"critical

is

are
will
the

analysis"

students automatically will see how "evil" communism is.

109

"The goal
is

no

is the truth"

"truth"

intuition

but

or

objectivity

conclusion

subjective
one

argumentation

is

means,

emotions

means

for

som e

to

bias

at

by

12)?

T he

in

good

have

people,

even

if there

arrived

(Scriven

(Scriven 50).

and

but what

finally

supposed

should not be aroused


remove

says Scriven,

that

emotions

It is difficult to

in

computers,

for

the

humans programming the machines have value judgments and


biases.
what

How

one

selects

standards

biases.
escape

of

the

things

evaluation

to

are

be

used

analyzed
reflect

and

human

It is difficult to conceive how a humanity can


itself.

exclude

human

Even

thinking

that

feeling presupposes

"reasoning"

could

judgment made by

human presumably with feelings.


A

synonym

for

lack

of

emotion,

gets coupled with a historicity.


the

best

standards

maintained,
"reasoned"

danger

id eas

perspectives.
considering
thinking.

of

are

true

There
the

thinking

in

regardless

of

at

least

importance

of

history

history,

one

loses

reasoning

standards

in

denigrating
the

fare

the

opportunity
in

have

believing

are

F irs t,

often

When people think that

critical
lurks

neutrality,

different

been

that

historical

pitfalls
in

in

critical

importance
of

the

seeing

contexts.

of
how
For

110

example,
Salem

the standards set for good evidence during the

witchcraft

trials

those in the 1980s.


to

see

the

applying

second pitfall
a

way

of

seventeenth
involves

that

the

revolt

because

workers

U.S.

deterministic

it.

Each

and

from

is

from

standards.

The

Making

representative
people

nineteenth

a misuse

will

the

at

century

period

value

this.

rise

same

is another means

false

of

up

England

is

Invoking

for assessing a
judgments

contains

in

conditions

of h i s t o r y .

arriving

historical

arising

ev en ts.

undergoing

latter
and

situation

century

w o r k in g

historical perspective
social

consequences

social

they are
in

different

an overreliance upon history as

comparisons

Saying

that

social

explaining

historical

radically

A historical perspective allows one

possible

those

are

its

about

modes

and

standards for reasoning.


For critical thi nking in general,
claims,

involves

cultures,

and

history is not
texts,

standards

that

the

"supporting"

vary with

individuals,

other s u b j e c t i v e factors.
often a major topic in critical

Although
thinking

some people like Belth and Toulmin et al.

devote

sections to the importance of p l a cin g the standards


critical
Toulmin

thinking in historical
et

al.

129-135).

As

context

Toulmin

et

for

(Belth 126-154,
al.

ask,

"May

Ill

not people

in different

in

begin

history

from

cultures
different

So may not the actual

course

quite

different

differently

(129).

in

Qualitative

adequate

support

for

or

at different

initial

presumptions?

of practical
cultures

assessments

of

not

claim

are

times

reasoning go
and

what

epochs?"

constitutes

alone

considered

good critical thinking.


Some of these difficulties seem to be recognized in
the

literature,

thinking

texts

however.

As

one

writer

. the

ways

remarks,

burden of proof is allocated


one

can

authoritatively

reasoning,

along

presumptions,

with

"must

be

the

. . . have a history."

No

that

set

of

accepted

general

the

as

in

critical
which

s ay
a

of

kind

same

of

initial

authoritative

and

compulsory in all cultures and in all historical epochs"


(Toulmin et al.

134).

There does appear to be a general

agreement among persons presenting


courses

that

constant,

open

critical

inquiry

is

arriving at ideas.

Broadly interpreted,

taking

varying

account

possibility

of

that

cultures,

conclusions

often

thinking

important

in

this would mean

history,
are

and

laden

the
with

multiple and even conflicting truths.


Three interrelated areas of critical analysis enter
into

an

analysis

of

social

problems;

gathering

facts,

112

arranging
drawing

and

analyzing

conclusions.

the

meaning

Facts

can

of

be

facts,

and

gathered

in

conformity with a performed argument, or an argument can


be made on the basis of the facts.
reasoning

and

critical

In gathering facts,

thinking texts

frequently

to "backing, "support," or "evidence."

refer

In one text,

set of exercises asks for the kinds of information that


would go into backing up the given assertions
et

al.

63).

S tu den ts

documentation would
that

the U.S.S.R.

and 1953

was

is

skill

For example,

as k e d

necessary
"terror

(Toulmin et al.

statistics
well.

be

are

64).

kind

support

society"

the

of

claim

between

1949

Recognizing the place of

taught

students

to

what

(Toulmin

in

critical

courses

are told that the

as

figures

given in the following passage is "unknowable."


"In
wars.
have

the

5000

years

men

One out of four persons


been

war

1,245,000,000
list"

past

casualties.
men,

(Kahane 78).

women,
The

A
and

have

fought

14,523

living during this time


nuclear
children

case against

war
to

would
this

add

tragic

nuclear war would

be immensely strengthened with data which could actually


be

found,

such as

figures

from

the

Hiroshima

bombing,

and numbers of war dead from the previous world wars.

113

By far,
courses

is

Part

the

of

the greatest

on

the

emphasis

analysis

problem,

says

in critical

thinking

of

facts

in

argument

form.

one

text,

is

choosing

among

logic,

empirical analysis,

156).

Some other ways of evaluating data are detecting

fallacies,

recognizing

appropriate

analogs,

bad

comparisons,

and

and

so forth

statistics,

assessing

language used in the argument.

One

the

text

has

on comparing different national incomes.


cost

of

would

living

not

is

low,

necessarily

(Weddle 98-99).
Students

quite

low

text

are

based upon word usage.


such

as

asked to

Some
the

low

quality

of

a section

income

living

assertions

level

standard

in arguments.

criticize

political

making

If a country's

Language can be critical

in this

information,

then

mean

(Belth

arguments

contain

speech

no

new

quoted

in

Weddle.

"'The real thrust of this administration

. . .

consists

in

which

opting

tend to be cost

where

effective

missions

and

goals'"

"running

the

institution

Drawing good

possible

for

programs

in mee tin g this

(Weddle

69).

effectively"

conclusions

institution's

Weddle
means

primarily

says
the

that
same.

depends

upon

being aware of how all the elements of argument analysis


come together.
any

errors

in

This means making an effort to discover


argument

construction.

Toulmin

et

al.

114

establish

six

elements

analysis.

Claims

support

claims)

the

argumentation

and

entering

their

must

used must

be

into

grounds

an

(facts

established.

be presented.

The

holds

have

to

must

withstand

te x t

writers

be

tr y
by

in

separately.

under

established.

possible

argumentation
encountered

or conditions

(Weddle

developing

categorizing

th e

argumentation

and

Identifying

authority

behind

evaluating

comparisons,

sources,
and

areas,

however,

type

of

or

the

the

argument

the

argument

25).

type

Other

of

of

good

problems

discussing

making

them

questioning

the

generalizations,

examining

overlap

to

is needed.

se n s e

fallacies,

causality comprise the p r o bl em areas


problem

which

Finally,

rebuttals

used

Support,

way the evidence is used to back the claims,


The modalities,

argument

the

m eaning

for Weddle.

greatly

with

of

These
what

is

covered in logic courses.

What Logic Is

Philosophy
ostensibly

departments

designed

to

develop

Standard beginning logic texts,


Baum

and

Irving Copi's

offer

log ic

critical

courses

faculties.

such as Logic by Robert

Introduction

to

Logic

say

that

115

logic sets standards for the way people reason and forms
the basis for clear and critical thinking.

These

logic

courses often are divided into two p a r t s : deductive and


inductive

logic.

Students

ascertain whether
the premises
be,

as

they are

are true,

well.

the

Deductive

relationships

among

symbolize

arguments

deductively

valid,

conclusion

logic

is

already

if

necessarily must

the

study

of

established

Inductive logic involves informal fallacies,


induction,

i.e.;

and

formal
t r u ths .

enumerative

and some theories about scientific method

(Copi, Baum, W e d d l e ) .
These logic courses
do

not,

in

the

main

often are quite


comprise

departments,

Niemeyer,

the

have

for

reasoning

in mind

programs.
speech

their

For example,
departments,

where

taught

present

as

possible
language,
However,
listeners

arguments
(Brock).

D.O.E.,

logic

traditionally were

what

is

others

oratory

forcefully

control,

to

thinking

in English
and

to have
and

seem

critical

taught

in order

Voice

non-philosophy

and

and

structured and

and

rhetoric

the

speaker

convincingly
command

of

as
t he

and argument structure comprised these skills.


these

departments

needed

to

recognized

"describe,

the oratorical content

that

interpret

(Brock 19).

students

and

as

evaluate"

11 6

Symbolic

lo gic

attempts

to

translate

language arguments into an analyzable form.

ordinary

However,

it

is highly debatable whether this can be done.

There is

reason to believe

symbolic

logic was

to

that

the

original

intent

symbolize mathematical

Barkely Rosser,

originator

of

the

of

relationships.

system

in symbolic logic texts such as Copi's,

J.

commonly

used

says

Politics, salesmanship, ethics, and m a n y such


fields have little or no use for the sort of
logic used in mathematics, and for these our
symbolic logic would be quite useless . . .
no
adequate symbolic treatment of the relationship
involving cause and effect has yet been devised.
(Rosser 6)
James K. Feibleman states that logic texts are more
interested

in proving theorems

and

doing

applied

logic

rather then exploring the assumptions made in logic.


the

reasons

examined,

for

what

accepting

follows

t he

is merely

assumptions
mechanical

are

If
not

(Feibleman

119 et s e q . ).
Informal
faulty modes
l a ng ua ge.

logic

includes

of reasoning,
The

fallacy

study

of

fallacies,

partly b y wrong
of

amphibole,

uses

for

of

or
the

exa mp le,

presents an argument as being deductive with purportedly


true premises,

while playing upon a multiple meaning of

a word or phrase

(Baum 138).

117

Other components of the typical


are

scientific

method

and

basic

probability.

scientific method is usually discussed,


on

probability

is

usually

logic course

mechanical

No

and the

in

one

section

nature.

Both

are treated as inductive logic and it is not uncommon to


arrive at conclusions qualitatively.
Formal

logic

relationships

among

does

elements

otherwise been found.


it does

not

have

serve

substitute

logic

upon

for

as

well

philosophy.

human

invention

as

Logic

existence of structure and order,


by

would
is

n ew

not

open

have

in that

set

for

of premises.

there are problems with using logic to explore

and understand the world,

made

discover

established procedure

arriving at a conclusion based


However,

that

Inductive

a regularly

to

and

using

logic

as

presupposes

the

arrangements that are

imposed

upon

the

world.

Another common denominator among all aspects of logic is


the

supposition

called
things

that

"inference."
given

certain

there
Humans

is

will

arrangements

example is transitivity.

If x is

is larger

is

occurs

than

when

conclusion,

z,

there
as

then x
is
when

no

psychological
be
of

different

to

things.

conclude
A

simple

larger than y,

larger

universal

able

process

than

z.

agreement
cultures

and

A problem
about
enter

the
the

118

picture.

Here,

one

mus t

go

beyond

logic,

and

mere

critical thinking.
Philosophers like E.A. Burtt offer a useful insight
into critical thinking.
learn from each other"
views,
Even

Burtt

(Burtt. 32).

differing points
so,

ideas

says people must

of

a re

In critically held

view must

subject

be

to

accounted

change

circumstances upon which the idea is based,


in

the

purposes

for

which

the

"freely

idea

is

for.

due

to

or a change
fitted.

An

essential criterion for determining if an

idea has been

generated

and

the

withstand

challenges.

held

opposing views,
idea

generates

idea's

wea k

subjected ",
of"

More

is

than

one asks whether


ways

points.
. .to

(Broad 19).

critically

of

whether
simply

says

can

accounting

for

the person holding the

successfully

Broad

idea

that

discussing
an

idea

must

the
be

all the objections that we can think

Reasoning,

critical thinking,

and logic

are not adequate for this task.

What It Means to Think Philosophically

A vast gap exists between


Ideologues merely accept
what

others

say

or

ideology and philosophy.

and hold ideas

present

as

irrespective of

refutation.

Persons

119

holding

views

co nt rad i c t i o n s ,

uncritically
wh i l e

the

i gno re

ideas

are

change and tend to be simplistic.


fanatics
writ"
is

who

talk

(Hoffer 128),

in the

here

ended fashion.
just

about

problems

and

the

".

subj ec t

to

These people are the


.

. certitude

of

holy

Critical thinking does address what


now and

deals

With philosophy,
with

not

i nt ernal

answers,

with

it

however,

no

matter

in an open-

there are not


how

critically

held.
Critical

thinking

stands

against

the

philosophy, be it a guess at the truth,


of

logic,

or

just meditating without

there is something called "reason."

backdrop

of

the metaphysics

being

aware

A philosopher

that
".

. delights in the clash of thought and in the give and


take of controversy"

(Hoffer 8).

When the D.O.E.

says

philosophy means approaching the truth while questioning


and critically examining basic assumptions,
enough,

as

carefully

logical

relating

thought out rules.

truth

elements

can

be

reasoned

according

Philosophy also

that is not

to

out

by

critically

is an inquiry into

the nature of human purpose and uses a variety of means,


such as critical thinking and logic. C.D. Broad suggests
that

Speculative

Philosophy

in vol ve s

guesses

at

the

truth, which then are subject to critical analysis (19).

120

While the particular m e a nin g of philosophy differs


for each individual,
an

open

mind.

it

One

still

common

directs

denominator

present among all philosophy texts.


process

of

holding

considered

as

ideas

absolute.

to

ingredients

and

it.

It involves

numerous

subjective

seems

challenge.

evaluative

to

keep

to

be

There is an ongoing

Philosophy

many

up

a person

is

No

a process,

techniques

elements

enter

ranging

into

formal

used.

Philosophy as a process enters into all phases of


of

how

and

to

The accumulation

of

from

is

logic

instruction.

evaluation

idea

facts

one mode of their presentation exists,

language

never

ends,

learn.

does

biases.

mean

noted,above,

that

just

philosophers

the

carry

selection

of

no

standards

This

for

As
good

thinking is biased and has built-in value judgments.


the other hand,

if the bias

no

and no one set of

conclusions can be drawn about what people


not

is

is recognized,

On

a person who

thinks philosophically will be all the more cognizant of


the need to entertain other ideas.
Ironically,

for Niemeyer,

Marx,

in

the 1859 edition of K a p i t a l , stated that


never be

complete.

beliefs,

it could be

method

which

says

Instead

of Marxi sm

considered

that

inquiry

his

to

his work would


being

a m et hod of
must

preface

set

inquiry,

continue

of
a

forever.

121

It is persistent

inquiry with

an open mind,

after

all,

that Niemeyer wants in a good D.O.E. program.


That the D.O.E.
definition
claim

it

of
is

omits several vital features in its

philosophy
teaching

explains

philosophy

why
but

the
is

D.O.E.

can

nevertheless

using only a highly structured component of philosophy,


such as

logic.

exhibit

an

A closed system of thinking often will

extensive

variety

emanate from open minds,


shaping

that

ideology

exists.

D.O.E.

system
The

uses the method

id e o l o g i c a l .

of

id e a s

appearing

to

but as long as the assumptions

are

not

next
of

open

chapter

logic

to

question,

examines

to make

its

how

an
the

curriculum

CHAPTER EIGHT
HOW THE D.O.E. PRESENTS ITS COURSES
The D.O.E.

System of Logic

Gerhart Niemeyer objects to the logical basis of an


ideology because the lack of critical analysis
admit

any

new

truths

into

the

society ideologically based,


faith
the

that

the

measure

Niemeyer

inherent

of

says

right
that

system

of

does

ideas.

not
In

"Its core is an ideological

logic

of

living"

values

concepts

(Niemeyer,

in

an

can

contain

Between

134).

ideologically

based

system are not arrived at critically and are accepted as


if they were

real

(133).

He

faults

ideology

logically based and says an

ideological

one

deprivation

".

participation"

based
(134).

on

Niemeyer

refers

social

for being
order is

rather

than

to the deductive

or closed argument.
A
true,

deductive
a

argument

argument

necessarily
is

truth

means

true

deductive

preserving

axiom

is

arguments

truth

that

and

and

premises

follows.

operates

Rigid ideologies
are

cannot

122

the

conclusion

according to a set of rules.


as

if

be

"closed

are
T he

strictly
are cast

systems."

questioned.

It

An
is

123

principle

or

set

of

principles

upon

which

all

other

statements and arguments within a deductive system rely


for

integrity

(Hempel

495).

Axioms

may

or

may

not

describe the world, but as long as they are accepted as


being true everything that follows from them is true if
the argument

is to be

deductive.

For

example,

let

us

say that all dogs are chipmunks and that all chipmunks
are elephants.

If we accept

the first two statements,

then "all dogs are elephants" is true.

This argument is

tautologous because the conclusion is grounded solely on


the first two statements.
P h y s i c i s t W e r n e r von H e i s e n b e r g r e c o g n i z e d this
type of problem in what is now known as the uncertainty
principle.

Observations made by a scientist are

to be shaped by what the


standard

for

experimenter establishes as a

observation.

the observation,

going

The

observer

"contaminates"

and the values built into the premises

will be carried noncritically over into the conclusion.


Deductive truths within an
the

real

or

inductive

ideology may be specious


world

because

the

in

a xioms

themselves often are not subjected to critical analysis.


As shown in the previous chapter,

arguments that say it

is

not

true

because

information,

do

it
not

is

true

rely

do

upon

contain

critical

any

new

thinking,

and

124

represent what Niemeyer says he is trying to avoid in a


curriculum.

A deductive argument's principal value lies

in producing

new way

of

information.

The D.O.E.

teach

deductively

it

D.O.E.
th e

are

looking at

as

same

ideology and the means


based

justifies is closed,

curriculum

the

because

the

set

of

used to

system

the

the premises are advanced in

unquestionable,

and

the

D.O.E.

requires specific teaching methods.


The

House

statement
in its

Un-American

on Americanism,

A.V.C.

Activities

which

and F.E.C.E.A.

the

D.O.E.

curriculum,

Committee
relies

says

that

upon
the

Declaration of Independence and the Constitution provide


th e

basis

for

Americanist

axioms in logic
fails

to

asserted

(Florida

question
in

the

revolution;

that

was

radically

order of British monarchy


more

perfect

union

By m ak in g this break,
would

be

allowed

judged

analogous

to

Curricular material

are

"self-evident"

Whether

it

is

by what

type

as

truly

of

order,

it seeks to preserve or foster.

system

it

65).

truths

can be

rigid or flexible,
U.S.

State

Constitution.

flexible document

The

principles,

born

of

political

economic

separated

itself

".

order to establish a

. .in

."as

the

from

the

Constitution

old

states.

the revolutionaries clarified what

inside

the

system

and

what

wou ld

be

125

prohibited.

Titles

permitted,

as

homeowner's

consent.

will

well

be permitted

respect

to

in

nobility,

as

then,

the

inside

and

operate

to

as

"natural

troops

the

manner

that
logic

deduction

system"),

what

both with

Americanist
specific

truths
system

not

without

system,

to

are

declares

structures.

according

"naturally'1 in a deductive

example,

Constitution

legally

same

for

billeting

The

functions

principles,
Much

of

a re

rules.
derived

(often referred
the

Declaration

alludes to "natural" rights in explaining how truths are


derived
those
only

in

the

rights

U.S.

the

system.

people

certain people.

liberty,
with

justice,

the

spirit

and
of

An ything

have

right

Despite

its

general

welfare,

Aristotle's

blacks,

the

not

propertyless--could

to

abolish,

pronouncements
but

in

democracy,

Constitution applied only to a minority.


of the p o p u la tio n women,

destructive

but

about

keeping

the

1789

Fifty percent

native Americans,

vote,

of

according

and

to

the

change with

the

original Constitution.
A
times.

rigid deduction
An ideologue's

system does
view of

not

the world

is

similar;

it

is also ahistorical and places that person in a position


of

arguing

people

in

for

outdated

their

places

ways
is

of

what

thinking.
happened

Keeping
after

th e

126

British
but

monarch

the

was

overthrown

traditionalist

two

ideologue

hundred
with

years

an

ago,

eighteenth-

century mindset would argue that everyone should be kept


in his place today in a similar manner.

Nothing

in the

Constitution guarantees the right of a worker to have a


say about what happens on the job or enjoins businesses
from

abusing

the

peoples'

shapes

the

relationships

as

the

anti-trust

in

Laws many
for

times

action,

right

to

and

are

trust.

between

statutes

minimum

still

law

and

to problems

workers

dignified

business

and

reactions

today,

Statutory

often

society,

wage

laws.

long overdue

do

not

enjoy

the

adequately-paying

job

with

the

power to exercise democracy on the job.


It

is

non-legal

circumstances,

act to restrict a person,


Chapter
about

Six

showed what

h ow

to

behave

in

at

that

least as much as

students
th e

though,

are

often

any

law.

really being

told

workplace

and

how

that

contrasts with how the D.O.E. portrays the U.S. economic


system

in

its

free

enterprise

courses.

Workers

often

are kept in the workplace because of what is demanded of


them

on

shaped

the
by

abortion
rearing

"outside,"

social
i ll e g a l ,

and

especially

constraints.
positive

"family

values,"

if

For

the

ex amp le,

reinforcement
and

demands

social

of

are

making
child-

disdain

for

127

childlessness

act

to

maintain

the

economic

system

by

requiring people to be tied to a job in order to earn a


steady income.
The
thi s

boundaries

instance

prevailing
woman

by

ideas

has

to

of the

physical

of

pay

system

how

at

because the boss demands

circumscribed

necessities

people

least

are

$10

should
a

behave.

week

she wear them,

tied to the workplace even more.

imposed

for

If

in
by
a

pantyhose

this worker

is

Being a whistle blower

or severe social critic entails risks of losing a job or


social

ostracism.

Thus,

social

systems

are

not

rigid

just because of what a government allows.


By implication the system
that

is,

itself

all

booklet presents
idealized

market,

other

systems.

a lasting one,

It is to

maintain

One F.C.E.E.

course

"pure/perfect competition" as . . . a n

market"

where

all

goods

are

of

th e

same

no one person can disproportionately affect the


and

the

right

offered for sale.


offering

to be

in a state of equilibrium.

against

quality,

is

th i s

as

quantities

of

(Florida State 40)


a

desired

goods

are

always

The bias enters in

model,

when,

in

fact,

inflexible support for the so-called market economy acts


to restrict the ability
where the economy fails.

of

governments

to plan

and act

128

Such a rigid model is like a deductive system being


used as

the sole device

phenomena.

One

variety with

cannot

these

dogmatically-held

people
should

be

is,
set

social

say that

only

the

scientist

prison."

Charles

"Th e
says,

For

social

unlimited

social

at

conclusions
may

be

example,

"market"

systems
from

likened

when

a
to

business

should determine who

market,"
"might be

Lindbloom

and analyze

Looking

pr emi se s

policy.

political

institutions"

fo r

deriving
of

employed.

policy making,

account

limited devices.

deductively--that

imprisoning

to describe

says

as

one

prominent

characterized
that

"it

as

imprisons

and imprisons our attempts to improve our


(Lindbloom 329).

In order for the system to be self-maintaining,

the

system normally does not tolerate anythi ng contradictory


to

the

principles

grounded.

upon

second,

that

system

reputedly

system

that

they

are

"all elements
functionally

will

t end

to

or

variables

W.
static

obtains"

in

interdependent;

act

and

react

other to a point where a state of stability,


a moment,

is

David Easton describes an equilibrium-seeking

system as one in which


political

which

on

and
each

if even for

(Easton, The Political System 268).

Ross

Ashby

systems

as

terms

these

self-maintaining

"h omeostatic," likening

them

to

or
how

129

the

human

b od y

keeps

itself

stable

(101).

depends upon feedback for its survival


what outputs are acceptable.
or ".

Nadel

so it can assess

states that output,

input

of feedback justifies the output.


ascertain

acceptable

survivability.
system

to

in

Systems

assume

that

models

system's

the

with

economies

says

environment

and

those

Nevertheless,

authoritatively
a nd

acceptance
428).

Of

authority.

so

the

it

society's

cour se ,
Even

through

if

it

though

static

entity

merely

".

to

to

(Nadel 407).

in

t he

order

system,

which
a

society,"

members

is

those

the

process

to

values

members

maintaining

. .

of

are

tries

(Easton,

the

".

values

allocates

system may appear to be democratic,


a

takes

even the system itself

the political

for

the

manipulates

disturbances

allocated

does

of

system

In the process,

interactions

persist

controls

maintain itself.
can change.

th a t

of

adaptability

try

persist in a world of stability or change"


Easton

determines

it

for

type

ability

ability

what

accounting

political

This

partially

means

conformity

(401).

The

output

Adaptability

change

survive.
often

system

. . any conduct in accordance with the social norm

. . ." comes bac k part ial ly as

to

to

to
the

Systems

who

have

maintaining

system still
itself

for

a
is

the

130

benefit

of

those

in

control

(Systems

432).

The

best

political theory Easton says he can present is to impute


to a political

system a

"theoretical

reference against which any set of


can be contrasted or compared
278).

Advocating

that

norm"

or point

empirical

relations

(Easton, Political

system

should

remain

of

System

the

same

and maintain itself is an appeal to deduction. Deduction


is, after all, a closed system which does not allow the
admission of any new elements

(Rosser

6,

Feibleman

15,

Copi 51-54).

The D.O.E. s Deductive Methodology

close

examination

Enterprise

courses

e x er ci ses

its

vagueness

of

terms

comparison

of

systems,

students

the

shows

of

three

deductive

"truths"

the
major

teaching

and

A.V.C.

dictation

to be

used

ways

the

Free
D.O.E.

methodology:

concepts,

and

and

faulty
to

the

parallel

teachers

in discussion.

and

These

problems, however, do not exhaust the reasons the D.O.E.


program

is a poor way

to

teach

economic

awareness

and

international understanding,

but they i l l u s t r a t e the

need

for

the

D.O.E.

to

teaching social science.

use

different

approach

to

131

By m aking generalizations

and using vague terms

it

is easier to frame premises which people accept as being


true.

This

is

the

principle

behind

the

fallacy;

one

introduces false or ambiguous premises

into a deductive

argument

dubiously

so

conclusion.
"All

as
For

giraffes

giraffe

is

animals,

one

to

"demonstrate"

example/
are

tall

short

fallacy

of

animals.

animal."

cannot by

equivocation

Therefore

While

transitivity

sound

a ll

is

short

giraffes

are

say that a giraffe

is a short animal.
The A.V.C.
political
wages,

economy

higher

freedom and
on earth."
assigned

"the

standards

Furthermore,
to

t hi s
to

indigenous

to

living,

is

"freedom,"

shall

United
The
and

liv ing ,

produces

higher

greater

personal

system of

economics

"No teacher or textual material

the

2 33. 0 6 4 ) .

says that the U.S.

which

any other

course

the

itself,
one

of

liberty than

preferable

Statutes

legislation,

present

free-enterprise
States"

words

(Florida

higher

"preferable"

the legislative language.

Communism

Minimally,

are
we

as

economy
Revised

standards

of

unqualified

in

find a picture

that is much more complicated than the legislation would


have us believe.

132

For

ex amp le,

material

says

competition
highest
with

t he

"The

results

constant

economic

their parents were"


material

well

living"

have

needs

relatively

the

w as

al.,

the

has

only

left

higher

wages

than

each

off than

35).

Even

criterion

"highest

While

the

in the world"

CH-310

of an economy,

qualification.

standard of living.

that

and

been

considerably more well

being

throughout the world,

motive

(sic)

nation

growth

curricular

profit

economy has

(Goddard et

judging the worthiness


of

approved

living of any

generation of Americans

if

of

in the Am erican

standard of

"a

D .O.E.

U.S.

standard

workers

comparable

for

do

workers

they are not guaranteed a minimum


Higher standards of living might be

gauged by a car in every garage,

but

that

by the absence of public transportation

is mitigated

(Weddle 92).

If

car repair costs are significantly greater than the cost


of

public

family

transportation,

has

may

n ot

be

then
a

the

good

number

of

cars

indicator

of

living

standards.
Factually,
economic growth,
and

the

addition,

the

U.S.

has

not

experienced

as evidenced by the 1930s'

numerous

recessions

discussion

needs

life most Americans have.

to

since
include

that
the

Poverty levels,

constant

Depression,
time.

In

quality

of

environmental

133

contamination,
considered

a nd

factors

mounting

personal

qualifying

t he

debt

phrase

may

"well

be

off"

(Rodgers and Harrington 406-411).


In using still another sweeping generalization,
legislation
the U.S.

states

that

communism

is

free enterprise economy.

not

the

preferable

to

This means that there

are no aspects of communism that are preferable to those


of the U.S.

economy.

Even by

saying

the

has

that

enterprise"

U.S.

economy,

it

is

correcting the D.O.E.

mixed

rather

difficult

there is virtually no feature in the


is preferable
D.O.E.

to what

legislation,

the

one

to

than

by

"free

imagine

that

Soviet system that

U.S.

system

cannot

argue

has.

Under

favorably,

the
say,

that the universally available health care in the Soviet


Union,

however minimal,

in the U.S.

For the D.O.E.,

found "preferable"
criticism

is preferable to the

on

nothing in communism can be

to that in the U.S.;

this

point

lack of it

(Florida

there can be no

Revised

Statutes

233.064).
The second problem area with the D.O.E. methodology
is

faulty

teachers
selected
disparate

parallelisms.
must

compare

criteria.
that

one

Besides
systems

Co mmunism
c an

not

using

vague

according

and

to

Americanism

compare

them

terms,
a
are

few
so

sensibly

134

according to a single set of s t a n d a r d s .

If a curriculum

portrays only the positive aspects of the U.S. political


economy and the negative aspects

of competing,

an expected conclusion would be that the U.S.

systems,
system is

the best one on earth.


As

another

H.U.A.C.'s
D.O.E.,

example

definition

makes

no

of

of

comparison,

"Americanism,"

mention

only a political

faulty

of

an

declaration.

adopted

economic
"Free

t he

by

the

system;

it

is

enterprise"

is

an

economic system only in the Free Enterprise and Consumer


Education Act.
defined

as

Center

for

"communism"
one.

In the

1962 A.V.C.

"political

Economic
an

ideology"

Education

economic

It is economic

system

in that

it

law,
and

course
as

"Communism"
D.O.E.

approved

material

well

as

is

ca l l s

political

"uses the commands

of

central planning agency to decide how collectively owned


resources
in

that

of a society
it

wants

individualism"

to

through

shall

be

abolish
"the

Because

definition

allocation
of

both

of

the

systems, which aspects of


comparison with

"private

replacement

system with collective planning"


4).

u s e d . " It

property
of

the

and

market

(Goddard et al., CH-310

resources

Soviet

is political

is

political

the
a nd

focus

of

economic

"communism" are to be used for

"Americanism?"

Later

the C.E.E.

course

135

booklet

contradicts

i t sel f

s om ewh at

by

saying

that

"Communism is not really a type of economic system,


a

utopian

neither

and

non-attainable

private

property

nor

ideal

where

government

but

th er e

and

is

coercion

(Goddard et al., CH-310 14).


When
economic
their

the

C.E.E.

system

own

defines

where

individuals

investment

individuals

and

"Free

in

businesses

enterprise"
and

"An

businesses

competition
to

as

produce

w it h

and

risk
other

distribute

goods and services for profit" to what degree does this


exist

(Goddard et al.,

"mixed

economy,"

con tro l

says

d i ff ere nt ly.

CH-310
the

6)?

C.E.E.,

However,

Every
but

economy is a

each

aspects

of

emphasizes
the

Soviet

economy may be more controlled than in the U.S. and vice


versa

(Goddard

et

al.,

describing the political


and the U.S.

CH-3 10
economies

8).

The

of the

method
Soviet

of

Union

is too restrictive because the descriptive

categories are so limited.


Certainly,
D.O.E.
to

methodology,

think,

Niemeyer's
method

the third major area of concern of the

of

v io lat es
cri tical
teaching

telling
the

students

whole

t hinking.
means

and teachers

injunction
Using

instilling

in

to

the
the

what

promote

deductive
minds

of

students the A.V.C. axiom that only "free enterprise" is

136

the

world's

curriculum

best

high

system.

school

elements

of

the

freedom,

opportunity,

security."
categories

of

and market"

justice,

the

importance

is

best

of
in

keeping

students

t hat

under

people

their

(Goddard
asked,

et

the

U.S.

(Goddard

that
et

and

"Identify

the

command,

other

et al.,

CH-310

21).

reputedly
by

sell

also

goods

do

"free enterprise."

"freedom"

If the D.O.E.

that

are
be

about

destroy

the
Free

individual,
not

The obvious conclusion,

is that if one values

freely

"American

th e

implication,

goods,

communism

to

The

tells

students

learn

wants

values

the

socialist

consumer

would

communist
CH-310

or

Although

students

is

systems,
34).

choose
or

relative

mandate,

planned

freely,
9).

the

objectives,"

A.V.C.

conditions

al.,

System"

the

freely

CH-310

what

world

whereas

select

include:

growth,

considering

"centrally

cannot

al.,

half

premises,

to

traditional,

economic

with

or desired?"

Enterprise

"Identify

"It's not possible to say

without

careers

" U nde r

successful

system

must

systems:

different

material,

pursue

to

(Goddard et al., CH-310 72).

system

economies"

told

enterprise

efficiency,

teachers

economic

free

are

economic

While students learn that


which

t he

teachers

American

Also,

In

(Goddard

given these

then he is to
insists

upon a

137

logical

approach

dishonest

to

to

say

teaching

that

critical thinking.

using

Still,

its

curriculum,

logic,

alone,

is

it

is

teaching

logic does have a useful role

in the classroom.

Other Logical Approaches

Idealizations are useful in the physical and social


sciences.
Easton

Deductive

never

states

systems
that

do

precisely

system

ever

this.

is

Even

permanently

stable, but "real moments of equilibrium are part of the


political

pattern."

He

condition to an ideal,
bodies

in

Problems

physics

arise,

is

to

admit

perfect,

but

willingness
However,
"Marxism"
ideals.

Political

however,
One

imperfections

logic is used.

the

when

System

that

to

it

is

overlook

278-280).

idealization

w ay to avoid these
regardless

of

what

A person who says the U.S.


that

equilibrium

such as the ideal of frictionless

(T h e

mistaken for reality.

compares

the

best

we

imperfections

is

problems
type

of

system is not

have,
in

the

shows

system.

criticisms of the Soviet Union center about how


or

"communism"

does

not

The C.E.E. material defines

final utopian goal" that

measure

up

to

the

"communism" as

"the

"is not yet achieved"

while

it

138

does

not

subject

meeting

the

opportunity
exists
while

in

c ap italism

to

ideologue's

(Goddard
accepting

demanding

et

similar

claims

al.,

of

CH-310

imperfections

that

the

Soviet

tests

freedom

10).

in

such

the

system

as
and

disparity

U.S.

system

measure

up

to

some i d e a l .
The D.O.E.
for

analysis,

purpose.
the U.S.

is biased in narrowly selecting elements


and

For

shaping

example,

the

analysis

C.E.E.

for

some

acknowledges

end

that

disruption

in

shortcomings

job,

are

allowed

and

family

job changes

life

evidenced

roaming the streets.


in

by the

Although

the

U.S.

and

might

income

economy,

much

loss.

millions

these gross

cause

of

Such

homeless

imperfections

similar

problems

warrant condemnation by free enterprise ideologues,


as

"freedom

economies.
m ay

be

is not

they

want

al.,

CH-310

available

in

of

their

33).

job,"
own

Of

course,

Ideologues

because

it

does

but

field

forced to support a family,

change

in many

In the Soviet Union,"

assured

possible.

in

everyone is not guaranteed work, people m a y not

choose the right

are

the

they
of

centrally planned
say,
cannot

endeavor

if a person

"individuals
work

the

solve

et

in the U.S.

is

opposing
the

where

(Goddard

job mo bility usually

expect
not

they

such

is not

system

problems

of

to
the

139

type

that

exist

in

the

ideologue's

own

country.

The

ideologue's country is supposed to remain in equilibrium


while the other country must alter its system.
Showing the U.S.
with

feedback

logic

system is one of equilibrium and


is

too

comprehensive picture of a
Niemeyer's
Othe r

standards

m or e

of a

limited

social

way

to

ways

system while meeting

satisfactory D.O.E.

instructive

get

exi st

to

program.
teach

an

understanding of systems.
Logic
re late

is

to

s e le c t e d

useful

each

in seeing

other.

Ev e n

a rbi trarily,

new

how
if

social
th es e

entities

do

en ti t i e s are

interrelationships

among

social events can be discovered and new questions can be


posed

about what

is

logic

could

be

d e vic e

to

rai se

happening

u se d

as

in

creating

what

would

society.

pedagogical

questions

issues raised in the D.O.E.

in

brainstorming

and cr i t i c i s m s
courses.

appear,

In effect,

about

the

Logicians do this
at

first,

to

be

outrageous models of how they think the world could be.


A

somewhat

system

is

machine."
upon

combined

tongue-in-cheek
a computer
This

program

artificial

hierarchical

example

data

to form atoms

of

designed

an
as

equilibrium
an

"ideology

intelligence program
base in

which,

which

in turn

are

relies

elements are
combined to

140

form p l a n s .
of

how

Plans comprise themes which make up scripts

ideologies

The major

might

instructive

act

point

out

world

is

that

affairs

dramas.

rather

coherent

set of principles put together in a system can result in


correspondingly
"ideological"

coherent

fiction

imagining how things


scientific

which

writers
could

knowledge

highlight

ordinary

do

look,

n ot

Each

certain aspects or facets

which

says

be

critical

called

that

any

one

Logic

type
It

no

m e tho d

uses

models

perceived
upon

in
the

. . mirrors

only

(Bertalanffy

13).

claim has
or

by

technology

focuses

".

of reality"

thing

what

normally

model

in that

same

given

type of problem being studied.

can be

can

the

exists.

problems

discourse.

Logic

which

(Boden 75-76).

Science

and

behavior

model

to

be

must

made

always

necessarily dominate all the rest.


An inductive system is likened to a system based on
critical thinking in that the open system may

have true

premises but not necessarily true conclusions.

In other

words,

the

conclusion

probability.
seemingly
suggests

That a principle
contradicts

that

ideological

follows

open

with

could be

already

systems

thinking.

only

a re
few

degree

admitted which

established
not

truths

compatible

axioms

of

held

by

with
t he

141

ideologue do not necessarily lead to other truths in the


open

system.

The

closed

system

is

more

keep viable in a changing environment,

difficult

to

for encountering

new challenges requires the consideration of assumptions


possibly not acceptable to the ideologue.
Some

inductive

logic

methods

include

an

interdisciplinary problem-solving approach by separating


the whole society into analyzable

components.

A number

of models may be constructed of how this whole operates.


Cybernetic
society

systems
seeks

Competitive
within

or

game
are

relationship
these

study the
while

relationships

of

questions

While

goals

system,

subject

models

among

manner

individuals

systems

theory.

Here,

some

about

t he

between
methods

asked
the
have

and

groups
is

the

fundamental
intellectual

and

utility

itself.

themselves,

individual
their

which

maintaining

among

being

in

the

they

State.
are

not

sufficient to overcome the flaws in the D.O.E. program.

Criteria for Anal yzi ng Social Systems

Many issues can be raised about problems


the

courses

fail

to

analysis is needed.

account

and

for

which

for which
a

critical

Opposing ideas have a chance to be

fully aired when a number of analytical methods are used

142

together.

At

least as important as

the

being open-minded is whether the D.O.E.

issue

of

logic

courses can deal

with the objections and challenges that a logical method


presents.

The D.O.E.

states that students must fit into

society according to state-prescribed educational


standards,

but this does not avoid the charge of being

rigidly ideological and n o n - c r i t i c a l .


If social systems are to be discussed in the manner
that Niemeyer proposes,

that is, in a philosophical way,

some non-ideological m eth od should be found to do so.

mere description of a political economy often results in


a

hodgepodge

of

isolated

generalizations.
defend

Although

system

may

framework

within

criticized,

and

why

happen

events

forestall
favorable
major

Niemeyer

which

improved.
and

ones.

This

is

to

appears

international
approach

be

from

is the best

to

and

unsubstantiated

structural

biased,
theory

at
can

Theory

enables

unfavorable

g oa l

fa c t s

one

least
be

provides
to

especially

preserve
want

to

understanding

saying uncritically

in the world

and that

it

the
is

when

economy

for
to

enhance

important

However,

that

actions

and

requires

is

reasons

take

political

do.

it

to

articulated,

circumstances
is

device

a
as

fostering
different

U.S.

system

competitive

143

organism which has beaten out all the rest.


good logics

are required to

assumption.

The next chapter explores some alternatives

to the D.O.E. program.

overcome

this

More than
narrowminded

CHAPTER NINE
CONCLUSION: ALTERNATIVES TO THE D.O.E. PROGRAM

Whv Change is Needed

One requisite for changing the D.O.E. curriculum is


a

heightened

about

the

freedom

consciousness

role

and

Enterprise

on

institutions

critical

acts,

the

play

thinking.

because

of

the

part

of

educators

in

limiting

The

A.V.C.

well

academic
and

defined

they mandate and the elaborate apparatus

Free

ideology

established to

teach the ideology, provide a paradigm of how government


and business
discourage
school

any

policy

instructors
they

operate together to maintain

are

challenges
dictates

at

all

doing

and

to

the

levels

it.

If

general

teaching

of

ideology,

need

decide

a system and

in

to

take

conscience

stock

public
then

of

what

whether

they

should help perpetuate the teaching of a state doctrine.


The policy has not been clarified for universities,

but

there are warnings that it could be.

That the Board of

Regents is on the Florida Council of

100

universities

are

curriculum

conjunction

in

helping

to

with

and the

prepare
the

Florida

the

state

D.O.E.

Council

on

Economic Education suggest that the universities condone

144

145

the

teaching

sponsorship
wary

of

because

D.O.E.

of

ideology.

Besides

the

curriculum,

academicians

legal

is

doing

232.246(1)(b)(5)).
the

willingness

U.S.

force

society.

still

( Florida

Heightened

to

exists

assess

Critical

university
should

for

what

Revised

thinking

the

St a t u t e s

consciousness

critically

be

also

what

means

happens

can play a vital

in

role

in making this country a better place in which to live.


Here,

goods

and

services

are

generally

a vai lable,

whereas in other countries they often are not.

People,

for

without

the

most

part,

can

choose

formal governmental approval.


not

as

restricted

by

the

where

to

live

Freedom of expression is

government

as

it

is

in many

other places. These and many liberties can be exercised,


but

governmental

authority

is

not

t he

only

for m

of

restriction.
Materials
program

for

repeatedly

"capitalist and
310

presentation

economics
m ak e

socialist

passim).

sponsored

the

In

for

the

of

the

comparison

system"

appearing

between

Center

the

portion

to

between

(Goddard et
offer

D.O.E.

a l ., CHbalanced

two

economies

the

D.O.E.-

Economic

Education

booklet

The

American Free Enterprise System says that the price for


"freedom of consumer choice" is choosing goods which are

146

disappointing or even harmful."


are

said

to

be

the

answer.

Government regulations

The

material

U.S. people can pursue careers freely,

claims

that

but there may be

considerable disruption or loss of income.

In socialist

countries,

claims

choose

freely,

buy what

or

32-34).
charged

D.O.E.
labels

mandate

they

such

side of
for

text,

as

people

want

assertions

labeling ideas as
only one

the

(Goddard

"free"

or

or

story not

critical

thinking

urgent

economy

problems.
that

if

There

not

al.,

jobs

CH-310

emotionally-

"dictator."

Merely

"atheistic"

and giving

only defeats

Niemeyer's

but

opportunity to become effective


of

et

often made with

"socialist"
the

cannot

denies

students

the

citizens by being aware

are

man y

addressed

features

may

cause

of

this

serious

disruption in the U.S.


Without
want

or

country,

go
the

money,
to

just

people
any

cannot

place.

"free enterprise"

buy
In

the

many

things
areas

and religionist

is so pervasive that peer pressure often will


expression.

Most

people

either

comprehensive

health

care

destitute with

a major

medical

them

into

poorly

(Freudenheim).

or

a re

made

treatment,

maintained

Superfluous

do

charity

variety

in

of

they
the

ideology
stop free

no t

have

financially
thus

forcing

hospitals
goods

and

147

services

often

selecting what

causes
they

people

"want"

to

as

waste

as

standing

line in the Eastern Bloc countries.

rethink

support
with

this

issue,

humanity.

eac h

The

other

for

there

supply
the

may

of

in

the

in

longest

and if people do
be

no

planet

individuals

sa m e

time

Waste in production

also poses serious environmental risks,


not

much

job

or

to

competing

educational

opportunity too often exceeds the demand.

Lack of

affordable housing makes thousands homeless.


The basic assumption that workers are paid the full
value

of

their

contribution

to

their

product

regular topic of public controversy.


not

present

workplace

as

collective
a

viable

ownership

D.O.E.

and

alternative

is

courses do

control

despite

not

of

the

examples

of

plants purchased and operated in the U.S.

by employees.

Neither does

frequently

the

general

followed

by

the public
media.

Severely

proposing

established order,
soviet-style
Soviet
example,

Union
has

see this

does

system
may
its

the Revolution,
Human life,

is

or

criticizing

serious
not

debated

alternatives

automatically

preferable.
m ay

unique

not

the

work

committees

What

system,
to

th e

imply

that

works

in

here.
for

in

the

Cuba,
Defense

the
for
of

something not found in the U.S.S.R.


if it has any value,

cannot be measured

148

materially.
id e a

that

human

encouraged
D.O.E.

humane

to

for

to try other
methods
tried,

of

addressed

systems

varying

the

upon

the

person

is

even

the

That,

failing

may

result

Alternatives

to

to

in a

think
nuclear

was tin g

human

Critical examination and willingness

education

with

that

poignantly,

all.

life surely exist.

predicated

means

world affairs

us

is

philosophically.

More

critically about
holocaust

dignity

think

says.

society

cold

often provide
and

social

degrees
war

Different

organization

of

issue

answers.

success.
by

have

been

Others

have

attempting

to

form

alternative programs and societies.

Alternative Educational Programs

A central ingredient of an educational program that


promotes

peace

and

understanding

The D.O.E.

program does

promoting

rigidly-held

precisely
ideas

described as antiquated.
attitudes.
subject

critical

the

that

thinking.

opposite
can

at

through
best

As John Dewey said " . . .

be
some

. . central in effective ways of dealing with

matter

mindedness,

is

single

and responsibility"

."

are

".

mindedness
(173).

.
(or

directness,

open-

whole-heartedness),

Through education,

people can

149

become aware of how to be effective


assuming responsibility
the

workplace.

"Essential

to

both

Bowles
the

and

success

coalition

of

students,

worker's

organizations"

in

citizens

their own

Gintis

of

the

teachers,

capable of

lives

and

in

hav e

shown

that

program

would

be

community

(250).

Some

groups,

and

attempts

at

achieving these ideals have been tried.


Sumemrhill
that,

at

first

Niemeyer's
citizens

is

a school
gla nce ,

goal

and

of

address

in England
would

seem

producing
the

founded
to

".

1921

accomplish

critically-thinking

concerns

of

Dewey,

Bowles

Gintis and also be an effective remedy against


hysteria.

in

and

cold war

The school is designed to counter schools for

. . uncreative

citizens w ho want

docile,

uncreative

children who will fit into a civilization whose standard


of success in money"
be

capable

wise

and

voted

of

thinking

realistic

upon

by

is

that

long

others

really

harmful

answer

is no,

life.

and,

anyone
are

to

Children are assumed to

given

decisions.

students,

behavior
as

(Neill 4).

not
anyone

and
can

All
a

do

hurt.
else?"

then objectors

chance,

will

school

rules

general
as

she

"Is

(Neill

to Mr.

principle

or

what

make

he
Mr.

344)

wants
X

are
of
as

doing
If

the

are acting a n t i

150

However,
regulations

the
but

Head-Master
with

stipulation

children.

that

the

they

mandatory,

but

regularly.

Quality of the courses sometimes is in doubt

at

levels,

concluded that

".

children

but

grow

older,

British

. . valuable

attendance

are

to

as

Class

approves

beneficial

various

the

the

ultimately

they

education

educational

is

not

go

more

commission
research

is

going on here which it would do all educationist good to


see"

(Neill

promoting

85).

Summerhill's

Niemeyer's

raising a child with


and

happy

"misfit"
says,

ideal
the

"genuine"

(Neill x i v ) .

"My

view

realistic.

is

developing"

appear

critical

values

of

mutual

individual

who

to

be

thinking

by

self

will

respect

not

be

The school's founder, A.S. Neill,

that

child

is

innately
adult

wise

and

suggestion

he will develop as far as he is capable of


(Neill

environment,

4).

Neill assumes

sense of self-government,
Another supporter,
success
the

in

Union."

In

cold

antagonism

war

of

If left to himself without

of any kind,

remarkable

advocates

same

In

thi s

that children will develop a


criticism,

Eric Fromm,
teaching

sown

and fair play.


admits to the

achieved

paragraph,
are

laissez-faire

by

though,
his

in

the

the

".

Soviet

seeds

accusation

.*

of

that

151

"old-fashioned methods
in

full

this

strength"

view

inimical

in

to

of

(Neill

saying

freedom"

oppose

the

i).

"The

Neill

very

(122).

advocates of Summerhill,
should

authoritarianism
lends

nature

The

are

of

credence

to

society

is

implication

also the advocates of

Soviet

Union.

applied

While

is

that

freedom,

Summerhill

may

seem to favor the critical thinking that Niemeyer seeks,


Neill's saying that

"Society the cro wd is conservative

and hateful toward new thought" wo ul d have that school's


proponents
opposing

go even

the

further than

Soviet

Neill are rejected;


Places
Florida,

like

fo r

Participant

Loblolly

offer

public

school

the A.V.C.

All

School

children,

Education

still

(122).

of

societies

in
for

he does not like any of them.

young

adults,

Summerhill's

Union

those

in

anarchy,

but
one

and

Gainesville,

T he

Tallahassee,

themselves

system,

in

as

Center

for

Florida,

f or

alternatives

if

they

cannot

to

the

subscribe

to

expect

radical

turnabout from the cold w ar mentality that shaped A.V.C.


On

larger

cooperative

scale

economic

decision making.
Mexican

Ejido

attempts

systems

Numerous

cooperatives

(Infield p a s s i m ).

have

been

th a t

examples
and

The Mi ccouskee

made
promote

exist,

the
Land

to

create
popular

such as the

Israeli

Kibbutzim

Cooperative,

and

152

the

Leo n

County

Tallahassee,

Food

and

Florida,

Vegetable

have

cooperatives

proved

to

be

thriving

examples of how collective decision-making works


passim).

in

(Felder

While the lack of ideological direction may be

compatible with critical thinking, the resulting anarchy


can inhibit effective directed action and result in the
same

cold

schools.

war

mentality

Any

attempt

engendered

to make

by

changes

Summerhill-type
nationwide

also

would fail with the same mentality.


Advocates of the D.O.E. program are quite right in
asserting that the ideological program must be total in
scop e

touching

ev e r y

aspect

of

the

student's

life.

Michael Apple says that educational theory hardly can be


neutral.

It must

economic

and

"...

social

have its roots in a theory of

justice."

The

characterize justice Apple puts

criteria

in terms of

used

"increasing

the advantage and power of the least advantaged"


A

more

justice

fu n d a m e n t a l
would

dependent
t h eir

upon

lives,

be

approach

to

say

whether
and

this

that

to

establishing

the

persons
means

can

quality
have

people

to

of

(158).
social
life

control

are

is

over

generally

recognized as individuals having the capacity to do so.


The D.O.E. talks of philosophy versus ideology, and
this

distinction

should

be

used

to

find

out

how

this

153

basic principle
in society.
".

. .as

and

justice

can be

extended

to

everyone

Dewey says that philosophy may be regarded


thinking which

that

".

deliberately
above

of

the

conducted

models

for

advantages,

but

that

spawn

helped

is

is conscious
theory

practice"

social

each

is

the

U.S.

the Americanism versus

of

itself

All

may

with

..."

education

(332).

change

faced

of

the

responses

to

of

have

same

as

the

their

mentality

communism

and

Communism program in Florida and

so many other states.

What An Education Program Must Address

There
with

the

are

three

U.S.S.R.

(Compton passim).
containing

what

"communism,"
Winston

ways

the

since

United

the

end

States

of

World

has

dealt

War

Two

First has been the Truman Doctrine


the

U.S.

expressed

Churchill,

in

and
in

its

allies

speech

Fulton,

12

Missouri,

of

refer

to

March

1947.

speech

on

as

March 1946, promoted the idea of containment by claiming


that

the

Soviet

Union

had

dropped

between western and eastern Europe.


to
not

countries
spread.

ringing the
On

4 April

Soviet
1949

an

curtain"

By lending support

Union,

Truman

"iron

communism
signed

the

would
North

154

Atlantic Treaty Organization act,

specifically designed

to "contain" communism.
The second cold war response was telling the world
how loyal the American people were to their country and
the

ideals

of

capitalism.

This

response

encouraged

others living in socialist countries to reject communism


and adopt capitalism as their system.
Free

Europe

so c i a l i s t

hoped

people

countr ie s

as sistance.

Inside

investig ati on s,

living

would
the

motivated

in

revolt

U.S.
by

Sponsors of Radio
eastern

and

n um e r o u s
S e n at or

questioned the loyalty of dissenters.

call

European
for

U.S.

congressional
Joe

McCarthy,

The effect was to

silence opposition and create a facade of unity against


world communism.
The third way of
with detente.

Various

as

July

one

of

25

responding to

communism has been

nuclear test ban treaties,

1963,

and

s u mmi t

talks

such

evidence

attempts by the superpowers to keep peace while standing


apart

from

each

other.

None

of

these

fostered world peace and understanding,


the

bloated

countries.

military

budgets

strategies

has

as evidenced by

sustained

by

bot h

Certainly, Florida's repeated affirmation of

A.V.C. does not foster that understanding either.

155

There

must

e ducators

to

educators

are

be

change
to

not

undergoing

towards

its

Summit

helpful,

cold

the

part

of

environment

if

changes

However,

fundamental

like

t ho se

the United

States

in

attitude

the Union of Soviet

Socialist

conferences

are

on

war

ab o u t

(156).

chief rival,

Republics.
while

this

bring

envisioned by Apple
is

willingness

only

c ha ng e

and

window

test

ban

dressing

treaties,

as

long

as

national leaders talk about "evil empires," students are


required
used

to

take

social

uncritically
aggressor

A.V.C.-type

studies
accept

against

aggression

by

i n ter pre ta tio ns.


in d i c a t i n g

United States

and

insist

that

texts
that

the

t he

"free

McGruder's American Government


of

courses,

relying
Th e r e

being the

stu dents

Union

worl d."

For

is

the

example,

accuses the Soviet Union

upon

are

legitimate

Soviet

nationally

no

U.S.
notes

opposing

State
or

view,

instigator of

Department
discussions

such

as

the

some major world

conflicts. One would expect an opposing view in using a


c r itical

thinking

approach

to

social

studies

(McClenaghan 493-498).
If a world understanding is to be created and is to
be

lasting,

there must

be

lasting world peace.

World

156

peace

can

come

about

through

change in attitude towards


part

this

European

includes
countries

"socialist"
Moreover,

and

it

a mutual

each other.

appropriately
and

not

friends

an

fundamental

For the U.S.'s

referring

of

"communist,"

involves

and

the
or

to

Soviet

eastern
Union

captive

understanding of

as

nations.

not

only

how

the cold war mentality arose but wh y past relations with


the U.S.S.R.

have failed.

Aside from the fact that the U.S. policymakers have


mistakenly referred to the
three

strategies

have

"spread of communism,"
not

"communism," many more peoples


since the end of Wor ld War Two.

worked.

by

traditional
worked.

bloated

war

answer

to

this

of

A great portion of the


a nd the U.S.

budgets.

cold war m ent a l i t y

One

Instead

have opted for socialism

gross national products of the U.S.S.R.


consumed

these

and

Clearly,

strategies

problem

is

is
the

have

not

different

curriculum having a truly critical philosophy.

The California Program

California
great

distance

critical

social

adopted

program

in

1985

in f ulf illing Niemeyer's


studies

curriculum

that

goes

for

criteria

while,

at

the

same

157

ti m e

mitigating

Florida's

the

A.V.C.

upgrading

program.

academic

Standards

were

elements
As

designed

and ethical ideals."


. . our

sense

to

for

technology"
by

the

Model

all

and

for

for

Curriculum

our m em bership

relationship
our

teachers,

a guide

calls

students

to

".

growing
1).

our

need

dependence

on

After b e i n g reviewed

advisory

prep ar ing

in groups

nature,

committees

review groups of that state adopted the


used as

to

spawn

our culture and our political

(California State

numerous

response

have

history,

our

well-being,

helped

The core curriculum centers about

of

and institutions,

standards,

understand and appreciate

".

which

courses

and

field

standards to be
of

study

in

the

to

the

high s c h o o l s .
California
study

of

standards

History-Social

say

that

Science

is

"Integral
the

examination

issues chosen to teach critical thinking skills."


includes reporting,

analyzing,

and

writing

resources."
of

the

states,

".
As

critically,

using

This

speculating
variety

of

further evidence of the open-mindedness

California

curriculum

the

report

on

standards

"Students should be sensitive to the pluralistic

and diverse nature of today's


realize

interpreting,

of

t hat

history

does

world.

n ot

only

They
deal

need also
with

to

white

158

males ,

n or

is

civilization"

it

only

an

artifact

(California State HS-6).

of

Western

In particular,

social studies course should "present the history of the


West

in

world

interrelations
peoples.

context,

between

Western

synonymous.

It

stressing

Western

history
should

and

developing

societies
world

avoid

the

and

history

other

are

compartmentalizing

not
of

historical chronologies of either the West or the other


major
both

civ i l i z a t i o n s .
capitalism

students

with

industrialism,

and

course

its

such
.

critics

terms
.

as

should

besides

. consider

familiarizing

"capitalism,

mercantilism,

communism,

and

socialism"

(California State HS-33).


California urges teachers
varying views on nationalism,
popular

democracy,

as

democracy,

socialism,

(California

State

standards

occasionally

liberalism,

well

HS-40

to present

as

the

socialism,

and

"Ideologies

of

communism,
-

H S - 4 1).

slips

students with

and
The

fascism"
catalog

of

into questionable mandates

such as "A course should show that the United States has
an economy characterized by
structure,

freedom of choice" and assertions that income

distribution
interaction

. . . competition and market

in
of

the

U.S.

market

forces

.
and

is

result

government

of

an

policies"

159

(California State HS-54).


".

. appreciation

comparison

to

of

other

While

it also

modern

refers

democratic

political

to

values

ideologies,

the
in

including

totalitarianism and d i c t a t o r s h i p s , " no modern country is


named,

thus

avoiding

the

cold

war

name-calling

(California State HS-35).


There are vast sections on
w o men ,

the

fa rm e r s ,

environment,
slaves,

and

labor history,
common

la b o r e r s ,

spend time
as

on

civil

Watergate),

different
studies

course

should
public

issues

and

as

children

corruption

(such

Americans,

say

that

ability

openly

standards"

specifically

information,

"An

such

teachers are to

native

standards

teach

intellectual

thinking skills
judging

The

and

Also,

political

imperialism,

religions.

controversial
rigorous

rights,

of

people,

women,

(California State HS-18 - HS-22).

roles

to

using

social
examine

the

most

t he

critical

include defining

problems,

solving

and

and

problems

(California

State H S - 2 4 ).
There is none of the Florida

D.O.E.

rhetoric about

the U.S. economy being the best in the wo rld or that the
benefits of other systems
is

concern

for

the

should

cold

war

not be
and

taught.

California

serious discussions about the war budget and the

There
urges
" . . .

160

continuing
resulting

post-war
in

Vietnam,

control debates
be

preoccupation

expected

Central

that

there

critically

governmental
policy

for

is

to

system,

about

policies,

arenas.

solution

America,

be

the

While

arms

it may

undercurrent

of

students are encouraged to

all

systems

including

California
eliminating

an

security"

and

(California State HS-50).

advocacy for the U.S.


think

with

those

and
in

current

the

may

not

have

cold

war

hysteria,

foreign

guaranteed
but

it

points the w a y towards a more tolerant U.S. population.


Students hardly can understand other social systems
if the D.O.E.

curriculum is used, especially if they are

told that in no w ay is the Soviet system to be preferred


over

that

of

the

system for what


to

offer

in

taking

this

adopting

We

it is that

the

socioeconomic

U.S.

way

of

problems.
approach

some

should
is,

by

practices

the

a system that

solving
The

accept

some

Soviet

glasnost
used

and

in

has much

urgent

Union

Soviet

U.S.

already

is

perestroika,

in

the

U.S.

such

as

decentralization of some state factories.


If we adopt and teach the view that both countries
can

work

together

in

solving

the

world's

problems,

we

can talk more seriously about alternative social orders.


In

space,

as

well

as

on

earth,

both

Soviet

and

U.S.

161

peoples
together.

can

further
On

the

the

other

Florida continue with


rhetoric,

we

hand,

human
as

long

their hard-line,

cannot hope

but America ni sm versus

whole

race
as

still

working

states

puerile

for much change.

Communism is

by

it

like

cold war
is

1988,

Florida's

representing that state's institutionalized ideology.

law

AP PENDIX A
THE AM ERICANISM VERSUS COMMUNISM ACT
233.064
course

Americanism vs. Communism;

required high school

(1)
The Legislature of the state hereby finds it
to be a fact that:
(a)
The political ideology commonly known and
r e f e r r e d t o as C o m m u n i s m is in c o n f l i c t w i t h and
contrary to the principles of Constitutional Government
of the U n i t e d S t a t e s as e p i t o m i z e d in its N a t i o n a l
Constitution,
(b)
The successful exploitation and manipulation
of youth and student groups throughout the world today
are a major challenge which the free world forces must
meet and defeat, and
(c)
The best m ethod of meet ing this challenge is
to have the youth of the state and nation thoroughly and
c o m p l e t e l y i n f o r m e d as
to
t h e e vils, d a n g e r s
and
f a l l a c i e s of C o m m u n i s m
by g i v i n g t h e m a t h o r o u g h
understanding
of
t he
entire
communist
movement,
including
its
history,
doctrines,
objectives
and
techniques.
(2)
The public high schools shall each teach a
c o m p l e t e c o u r s e of n ot
less t h a n 30 hours, to all
students enrolled in said public high schools entitled
"Americanism versus C o m m u n i s m . "
(3)
The course shall provide adequate instruction
in the history, doctrines, objectives and techniques of
C o m m u n i s m a nd sh all be
for th e p r i m a r y p u r p o s e
of
i n s t i l l i n g in t h e m i n d s of t h e s t u d e n t s a g r e a t e r
appreciation of democratic processes, freedom under law,
and the will to preserve that freedom.
(4)
The course shall be one of orientation in
comparative governments and shall emphasize the freeenterprise-competitive economy of the United States as
the one which produces higher wages, higher standards of
living, greater personal freedom and liberty than any
other system of economics on earth.

162

163

(5)
The course shall lay particular emphasis upon
the dangers of Communism, the ways to fight Communism,
the evils of Communism, the fallacies of Communism, and
the false doctrines of Communism.
(6)
The state textbook council and the Department
ofEducation shall take such action as m ay be necessary
a n d a p p r o p r i a t e to p r e s c r i b e s u i t a b l e t e x t b o o k a n d
instructional material as provided by state law, using
as one of their guides the official reports of the House
c o m m i t t e e on U n - A m e r i c a n A c t i v i t i e s a n d t h e S e n a t e
I n t e r n a l S e c u r i t y S u b c o m m i t t e e of t he U n i t e d S t a t e s
Congress.
1988 Revised Florida Statues

APPENDIX B
THE FREE ENTERPRISE AND CONSUMER EDUCATION ACT
233.0641 Free enterprise and consumer education program
(1)
This section may be known and cites
"Free enterprise and Consumer Education Act."

as

the

(2)
The public schools shall each conduct a free
enterprise and consumer education program in which each
student shall participate.
(3)
Acknowledging that the free enterprise or
competitive economic system exists as the prevailing
economic system in the United States, the program shall
provide detailed instruction in the day-to-day consumer
a c t i v i t i e s of our society,
w h i c h i n s t r u c t i o n m ay
include, but not be limited to, advertising, appliances,
banking, budgeting,
credit, g o v e r n m e n t a l agencies,
guarantees and warranties, home and apartment rental and
ownership, insurance, law, m edicine, m o t o r vehicles,
professional services, savings, securities, and taxes.
The program shall provide a full explanation of the
factors governing the free enterprise system and the
forces
influencing
p r od uct ion ,
d i s t r ib uti on ,
and
consumption of goods and services.
It shall provide an
orientation in other economic systems.
(4)
In developing the consumer education program,
the Department of Education shall give special emphasis
to:
(a) Coordinating the efforts of the various
disciplines within the educational system and activities
of the divisions of the Department of Education which are
concerned with consumer education.
(b) Assembling, developing, and distributing
instructional materials for use in consumer education.
(c)
Developing programs for inservice and preserves
teacher training in consumer education.
(d)
Coordinating and assisting the efforts of
private organizations and other governmental agencies
which are concerned with consumer education.
(5)
The commissioner of Education shall, at least
30 days prior to the 1975 session of the Legislature,

164

165

transmit to members of the State Board of Education, the


President of the Senate, the Speaker of the House of
Representatives,
and the chairmen of the Senate and
House Committees on Education a statement of the overall
free enterprise and consumer program, together with a
recommended method of evaluating student understanding
of the program. Each year thereafter, the commissioner
shall transmit to the above named persons an appraisal
of the overall consumer education p rogram as to the
e f f e c t i v e n e s s as s h o w n by p e r f o r m a n c e - b a s e d tests,
efficiency and utilization of resources, including there
with a statement of the overall consumer education
program for the coming fiscal year and any other
recommendations deemed b y the commissioner to be
appropriate.
1988 Revised Florida Statues

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Beck, Melinda. "Could


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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Upon graduating from Kennebunk
Jeremy

Horne

Maine,

later

attended

Nasson

receiving

his

(Maine) High School,

College

in

Springvale,

A.B.

degree

from

Hopkins University in international

affairs

in 1967.

completed his master's degree


Southern Connecticut
classified archives
thesis

that

the

in political

State University
in Washington,

U.S.

State

in

he

science

1969.

and

He

from

Based on

concluded

Department

Johns

in

U.S.

his
War

Department from 1931 to 1947 formulated well-articulated


but contradictory policies on how to use Viet-Nam to the
U . S . 's a d v a n t a g e .
Besides being a reporter for several newspapers and
working as a VISTA volunteer
taught extensively both
colleges in numerous

in the

in public

states.

college experience includes

logic

teaching
at

Currently,

beginning,

Louisiana

schools

graduate

Horne

and community

from

assistant
1982 to

intermediate,

State

1970s,

More recent university and

in logic at University Florida


year

early

University

1984

and

from

teaching
and a

advanced

19 8 4 - 1 9 8 5 .

Horne is tea ching logic at Cochise Community

College in Douglas, Arizona.

174

175

The

widespread

especially

the

Enterprise

laws,

of

the

rigidity

Am ericanism
made

University

of

in

versus

school

Communism,

him determined
Florida

curricula,

to

take

philosophy

and

Free

advantage

department's

applied philosophy progr am in preparing a document to be


used in helping to change Florida's program and programs
like it.

I certify that I have read this study and that in


my o p i n i o n it c o n f o r m s to a c c e p t a b l e s t and ar ds of
scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope
and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor
of Philosophy.

w/

i f

-------------Richard P. Haynes, Chair


Associate Professor of Philosophy

I certify that I have read this study and that in


my o p i n i o n it c o n f o r m s to a c c e p t a b l e s tan d a r d s of
scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope
and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor
of Philosophy.

Si
Ellen S . 1 H a r i n g
Professor of Philosophy

'

I certify that I have read this study and that in


my o p i n i o n it c o n f o r m s to a c c e p t a b l e st an d a r d s of
scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope
and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor
of Philosophy.

J.

Robert D'Amico
Associate Professor of Philosophy

I certify that I have read this study and that in


my o p i n i o n it c o n f o r m s to a c c e p t a b l e st an d a r d s of
scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope
and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor
of Philosophy.

Norman N. Markel
Professor of Speech

I certify that I have read this study and that in


m y o p i n i o n it c o n f o r m s to a c c e p t a b l e s t a n d a r d s of
scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope
and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor
of Philosophy.

Samuel D. Andrews.
Associate Professor of Foundations
of Education

This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate


Faculty of the Department of Philosophy in the College
of Liberal Arts and Sciences and to the Graduate School
and
w as
accepted
as
partial
fulfillment
of
the
requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.

December 1988
Dean, Graduate School