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Chemistry - a branch of science w/c deals

with the study of:


A. Composition and properties of
matter.
B. Changes that matter undergoes.
C. Energy wich accompany these
changes.
D. Laws and principles which govern
these changes.
Importance:
1. It touches all human interest.
2. It serves as an illustration of what
science is.
3. It develops scientific mind.
Division of Chemistry
1. General Chemistry - general survey of
the entire field of chemistry with
particular emphasis placed on the
fundamental concepts and elementary
laws.
2. Inorganic Chemistry - concerned with
the preparation and properties of the
elements and their compounds. Carbon
compounds are not included.
3. Organic Chemistry - study of carbon
and its compound.
4. Analytical Chemistry - concerned with
the detection and determination od
substances and their constituents.
A. Qualitative Chemistry - deals with
the analysis of the compound part.
B. Quantitative Chemistry - deals
with the determination of the amount of
component parts.
5. Physical or Theoretical Chemistry concerned with the laws and
generalizations underlying chemical
changes wherever these laws are
expressed mathematically.
6. Biochemistry - study of compounds and
chemical changes that are brought about
by living processes.
7. Radiochemistry or Nuclear Chemistry study of changes that take place in atomic
nuclei when bombarded with suitable

projectile.
Scientific Method
- rational ecplanation of facts and
laws designed to suggest why or how
something happen as it does.
- logical approach to the solution of
any problem w/c lends itself to
investigation.
Steps:
1. Recognizing a phenomenon and stating
it as a problem.
2. Gathering data.
3. Form a hypothesis.
4. Theory
5. Stating generalization
Matter - is anything that occupies space
and has mass.
Properties:
1. Physical - characteristics w/c
describe a physical appearance
- could be perceived by our
senses
- they can be observed
without causing any change in
chemical composition
2. Chemical - characteristics which
describe chemical behavior
- describe the tendency
of a substance to undergo
chemical change alone or by
interaction with other
substance and in so doing
form different materials.
Classification
A. Elements - simplest from of matter
- made up of only one type of
atom
- cannot be broken down into
simpler forms by ordinary
chemical and physical means or
change

Types:
* Metals - conductors of electricity
- have luster
* Non-metals
- non conductors of
electricity
- not shiny
* Metalloids or Amphoretic Elements
- exhibit properties that are
intermediate between
* Inert or Noble or Rare Gases
- most chemically inactive
- unreactive
- stable elements
B. Compounds
- made up of 2 or more elements
that are chemically combined
- could be decomposed by simple
chemical means into 2 or more
different substances
- abide to the law of definite
proportion
- do not retain their properties
Types:
1. Acids
- sour in taste
- yield hydrogen ion (H^+) in
water solution
- turn blue litmus paper to
red
2. Bases
- bitter taste
- yield hydroxide (OH) in
water solution
- turn red litmus paper to
blue
- slippery to touch
3. Salts
- made up of positive ion
other than H^+ a negative ion
other than OH
C. Mixtures
- made up of 2 or more elements
or compounds not chemically
combined
- should be decomposed or

broken down or separated by physical


or mechanical processes such as
evaporation, decantation, distillation,
magnet
- do not abide to the Law of
Definite Proportion
- each component retain its own
characteristics or properties
Types:
A. Homogeneous Mixture
- also called a solution
- uniform in appearance
- single me phase
- particle size <10^7 cm
B. Heterogeneous Mixture
- also called SUSPENSION
- not uniform in appearance
- distinct phases
- composition and physical vary
from one part of a mixture to another
1. Caustic Soda (NaOH) - used to removes
fats and grease from clog drains.
2. Hypochlorous Acid (HClO) disinfectant for floors and wards in the
hospital.
3. Bicarbonate (HCO3) - it is an extra
cellular negative ion in the body.
4. Pentose (C5H10O5) - simple sugar
5. Bauric Acid (H3BO3) - a gemmicide
6. Sodium Citrate (Na3C6H5O7) - prevent
clotting of blood.
7. Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) - it is an
antacid.
8. Sodium Sulfate (Na2SO4) - a cathartic clean out large intestines.
9. Ammonium Chloride (NH4Cl) - a
dioretic - urine.
10. Potassium Iodite (KI) - an expectorant.
11. Phosphate (PO4) - formation of bone.
12. Magnesium Hydroxide Mg(OH2)- it is
a laxative
13. Ferrous Sulfate Fe(SO4) - treatment of
anemia.
14. Adenocine Triphosphate

C10H16N5O13P3
15. Hydrogen Peroxide H2O2 disinfectant of wounds.
A. Physical
- only the physical condition or
property is altered
- chemical composition is not altered
- no formation of a new substance
B. Chemical
- chemical composition is altered
- involves disappearance of the
original substance and formation of a new
one.
EVIDENCES
- formation of bubbles
- insuluble solid or precipitate
- moisture or water droplets
C. Nuclear Change
- results in a change of identity of the
atom and production of great amount of
energy.
ENERGY - the ability or capacity to
do work
Types:
1. Potential - possessed by a body by
virtue of its position.
2. Kinetic - possessed by a body by virtue
of its motion.

1. Exothermic - energy is given off by a


body to its surroundings.
2. Endothermic - energy is absorbed by a
body from its surrounding.
Laws Governing Matter and Energy
1. Law of Conservation of Mass - mass
can either be created nor destroyed in any
transformation of matter.
2. Law of Conservation of Energy energy can either be created nor destroyed
in any transformation of matter.
3. Law of Definite Composition - a pure
compound is composed of the same
elements combined in a definite
proportion by weight.
4. Law of Multiple Proportion - when 2
elements combine to form more than one
compound, the different weights of one
that contains with a fixed weight of the
other are in the ratio.
Language of Chemistry
1. Chemical Nomenclature - a s system of
writing and naming of compounds
2. Chemical Symbol - symbols of some
element by Alchemists.
LATIN NAME

Forms:
1. Radiant - associated with light, x-rays,
radio waves.
2. Chemical - possessed by substance that
allows it to be changed into a new
substance.
3. Electrical - associated with passage of
electrons.
4. Mechanical - associated with machines,
pumps.
5. Heat - released whenever fuels are
burned.
6. Nuclear - associated with the manner in
w/c atoms are constructed.

1. Silver - Argentum
2. Antimony - Stibium
3. Iron - Ferrum
4. Potassium - Kallium
5. Copper - Cuprum
6. Mercury - Hydrargyrum
7. Sodium - Natrium
8. Tungsten - Wolfranium
9. Gold - Aurum
10. Lead - Plumbum
11. Tin - Stannum
12. Bismuth - Bisemutum

Types of Energy Changes

DISCOVERERS

Curium - Curie
Lawrencium - Lawrence
SCIENTISTS
Einsteintinum - Albert Einstein
Nobelium - Alfred Nobel
Mendelevium - Dmitri Meddeleev
Fermium - Enrico Fermi
Solid - compact
Liquid - move freely
Gas - far apart
Homeostatic Balance
Control Center ------> Effectors ------>
Response -------> Stimulus ------>
Receptors
Chemical Formula
- a combination of symbols of
elements constituting a compound; shows
the number and kind of atoms present.
- a shorthand representation of a
chemical compound
Valence
- represents the change of an atom
- combining capacity of an element
Radical
- group of atoms with a a
corresponding change
- polyatomic ion
Subscript
- are small numerals which are placed
immediately after a little below the
symbols of the elements concerned.

Types of Chemical Reaction

1. Direct Combination
A+B -----> AB
2. Simple Decomposition
AB ------> A+B
3. Substitution or Displacement
A+BC ------> AC+B
4. Double Decomposition
AB+CD ------> AD + CB