You are on page 1of 105

Pipeline Design

and
Construction Issues

U.K. DHOOT
General manager
(Projects-monitoring)
IOCL (Pipelines Division)
18.2.2014

Vision
Visionary Progress
Strategic Vision &
Long term Planning
behind sound base
and strong growth

1999

2009

Vision
Formulated

New Shared Vision


Formulated

A major, diversified, transnational, integrated


energy company, with national leadership and a
strong environment conscience, playing a national
role in oil security & public distribution

Navratna Co. in 1997


Reconstituted Board started
functioning in 1999

Maharatna Co.
In May 2010
st
st
1 Maharatna Board Meeting
held in March, 2012

Objectives

Profile of Business

Turn over 2012-13 --- Rs. 414909 cr. (USD 76.2 billion)

As on 01.12.2013

Productivity - IndianOil
Sales Thput in (MT)

Thput in (MT)

IBP

(2009)

(2008)

BRPL

AOD
(1981)

Total Manpower

Thput in (MT)

As on 31st March 13 6

Typical Mode-wise Transportation of


Petroleum Products
INDIA*
Rail
30%

Road/
Coastal
31%

Pipelines
39%

* Source : PPAC

USA**
Coastal
25%

Rail
3%

Road
4%

68%

Pipelines

** Source : Association of Oil Pipelines, 2006


http://www.aopl.org/posted/888/Shift_Report_1984_2004.126714.pdf

Modes for Transportation of Petroleum A Comparison


Head

Road

Rail

Pipeline

Energy cost

Very High

High

Low

Operating cost

Very High

High

Low

Pollution

High

Low

Nil

Movement
congestion

High

Low

Nil

Handling loss

High

Low

Negligible

Safety Hazards

High

Low

Negligible

Reliability

Low

Low

100%

CONCEPT AND NEED FOR PIPELINES


 Identification

of Pipeline
Crude/ Natural Gas/ LPG

Projects-Product,

 Need and Justification


 Selection

of an
available options.

alternative

from

different

 FR/DFR preparation with cost Estimation and

Financial analysis
 Basic Design
 Detailed Design and Engineering
9

The Pipeline Design Philosophy

10

Hydraulic Design
The hydraulic design is the process of
 Evaluating the physical characteristics of the product to be transported
 Quantities to be transported (MMTPA)
 The pipeline route and topography and the range of pressure (Head)
 Temperature and environmental conditions along the route.

Inputs
 Appropriate codes and standards.
 Projected Requirements.

Output
 Identify the number and location of pump stations with respect to the
hydraulic design.
 Selection of the pipe type, material, diameter and thickness.
.

11

Mechanical Design
Governed by the codes and standards, experience in operating
different pipeline system.
Focus is on the selection of the pipe material and the specification
of physical pipeline properties such as pipe diameter and wall
thickness as required by the stress imposed on the system by the
hydraulic and thermal conditions as well as structural loading.
Other aspects of the mechanical design involves
 The type, size and power requirement of the pumps
 Other equipments or ancillary facilities required to meet the
hydraulic thermal design such as the support or burial
requirement of the pipeline
 Development of piping and instrument diagram, layout,
flexibility and surge analysis & related specification.
12

Operational Design
This aspect of design takes in to consideration the day to day tasks of
operating and maintaining the functional integrity of the system. These
include:
The necessary control system to operate the system within its design
parameters and to promote safe and continuous operation.
Methods to test the pipeline integrity.
The preferred pipeline system for a given set of conditions is selected
through an economic comparison of several systems, seeking to identify
the system that yields the best economic return on the investment,
depending on the initial and subsequent capital costs and the operating &
maintenance costs for the economic life of the investment.
13

PIPELINE DESIGN
PARAMETER REQUIRED
Capacity of P/L (volume of flow/flow rate)
 For crude P/L system capacity is based on crude oil requirement of grassroots
refinery/refinery augmentation
 For product P/L system capacity is based on DEMAND/SUPPLY analysis.
Location of Pumping stations: Hydraulic considerations
Location of Delivery/Terminal station
 crude oil pipeline system-Refinery location
 product pipeline system-As per demand projection (Generally for 10- 15 years)
Pipeline Length
 Based on reconnaissance /detailed survey
Elevation / Profile / Terrain
 Based on maps, reconnaissance/detailed route survey
(preliminary analysis of alternative route is carried out, if required, and techno economically superior alternate is selected for detailed examination.)
14

PIPELINE DESIGN
Residual Head
 Based on branch off /requirement at delivery station
Fluid parameters
 specific gravity
 viscosity
Friction loss
 To be calculated based on hydraulics/ type of fluid/profile
Flow through Pipeline depends on fluid characteristics
 Viscosity
 specific gravity/density
 pour point
 vapor pressure
 Temperature
 compressibility
Flow pattern
 Laminar
 Turbulent
 Transient
15

PIPELINE DESIGN
No. of Pump Stations
 If SDH required > MAOP, more than one stations
necessary.
 Depending on value of SDH / MAOP, determine
number of stations.
 Minor variations could be taken care of by
providing
higher wall thickness and/or higher
grade pipe.
 Adjustment may be required depending on location.

PIPELINE DESIGN
No. of Pump Stations
Case I : SDH < or = MAOP
Case II : SDH > MAOP & < 2 MAOP i.e. SDH/MAOP between 1 & 2
Case III: SDH > 2 MAOP & < 3 MAOP i.e. SDH/MAOP between 2 & 3
SDH

Q3
Case III

Q2
Case II

Q1
Case I

Q3>Q2>Q1

Sample Hydraulics Calculations


MAOP
Pipeline diameter (D)

8.625

Wall thickness(t)

0.219

Grade of pipe

API 5L-X46

Yield strength(s)

Factor of safety

46,000 psi

65%

Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure (MAOP) in psi


=

(2x46000x0.219x0.65) / 8.625

1518 psi

106.7 kg/cm2

MAOP in mtr column of liquid (mcl)


Water
HSD

106.7 x 10 / 1.0

1067 mtr

106.7 x 10 / 0.85

1255 mtr

Sample Hydraulics Calculations

Thput
Operating hours
Flow rate
Length of pipeline
Friction loss per km
Friction loss for total length Elevation at A
Elevation at B
Residual head
Total head required

1.1 MMTPA
8000
170 kL/hr
116 kms
9.22 mtrs
1070 mtrs
35 mtrs
50 mtrs
50 mtrs

1070 + (50-35) + 50 = 1135 mtrs


Note:
Total head required is less than the MAOP (1255 mcl). Therefore, no
intermediate station is required.

PIPELINE DESIGN
Nos. of Pump Stations - Adjustment for Peaks


Ground profile never uniform : peaks in-between.

Selected hydraulic gradient between end points may not cross


the in-between peaks.

Minor variations could be corrected by using higher SDH in the


same system with higher wall thickness and/or higher grade
pipes.

Major variations may require addition of pump station.

Major Codes & Standards Used for Pipeline Design


Sl.
No

Standard

Description

Usages

ASME B31.3

Process piping

To Establish requirement
for safe Design for station
piping

ASME B 31.4

Pipeline
Transportation To Establish Requirement
System
for
Liquid for safe Design for cross
Hydrocarbons and other country oil pipelines
liquids

ASME B 31.8

Pipeline
Transportation To Establish Requirement
System
for
Liquid for safe Design for cross
Hydrocarbons and other country gas pipelines
liquids/ Gas pipelines

ASME B 16.10

Face to face and End to Pipeline valves


end dimensions of valves

Major Codes & Standards Used for Pipeline Design


Sl.
No

Standard

Description

Usages

ASME Sec VIII

Boiler and pressure vessel To Establish Requirement


code
for
safe
Design
for
pressure vessels (Barrel,
sump tank etc)

API 5L

Specification for Line Pipes Mainline Pipes

API 610

Centrifugal
Pumps
for MLPU, BPU
Petroleum, Petrochemical
and Natural Gas Industries

API 650

Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Tanks


Storage

API 1104

Welding of pipelines and Mainline welding


related facilities

10

API 6D

Pipeline
Transportation Valves
System-Pipeline Valves

Major Codes & Standards Used for Pipeline Design


Sl.
No

Standard

Description

Usages

11

API 600

Bolted bonnet steel gate Gate Valves


valves for petroleum and
Natural gas industries

12

API 602

Globe
Steel gate, Globe and check Gate,
valves for size 100mm and check valves
smaller
petroleum
and
Natural gas industries

13

ASTM A106 Gr.B

Standard specification for Station Pipes


Seamless
carbon
steel
pipes for high temperature
service

14

ASTM A53 Gr.B

Specification for pipes, Station Pipes


welded and seamless

15

IS 3589

Specifications for pipes for Pipes for fire water


water service
application

and

23

Major Codes & Standards Used for Pipeline Design


Sl. No

Std.

Description

Usages

16

OISD 118

Layouts for Oil & Gas Installation

F/F Facility

17

OISD 117

Fire Protection Facilities for Petroleum F/F Facility


Depots, Terminals, Pipeline Installations
and Lube Oil Installations

18

Material- ASTM A 234 WPB, MSS SP 75 Fittings


WPHY 52,65
Dimension- ANSI 16.25, MSS SP75
Inspection ANSI B16.9, MSS SP 75

19

Material- ASTM A 105,


Flanges
Mfg/Dimension- ANSI B16. 5, MSS SP 44,
API 605

20

API 1589, API 1581

Separator Filter
Elements

21

Material- ASTM A 216 WCB,


Design- ANSI B16 104, ANSI B 16.5,

Valves
24

Major Codes & Standards Used for Pipeline Design


Sl. No

Standard

Description

Usages

22

IS 5120

Pump Design

Fire Fighting
Pumping Units

23

API Standard
601

Metallic Gasket for Raised-Face Gaskets


Pipe
Flanges
and
Flanged
Connections
(Double-Jacketed
Corrugated and spiral-wound)

24

API Standard
526

Flanged
valves

25

API Standard
2510

Design and Construction of LPG


installations

30

API 520/527/
ASME Section
VIII

API standard 520, 526, 527


ASME section VIII

Steel

Pressure

Relief Relief Valves

TRVs

25

KEY ELEMENTS OF A GOOD


SPECIFICATION
WORKABILITY
STRUCTURED & STANDRASIZED
WELL FORMATTED
SCOPE IS CLEARLY DEFINED &
UNDERSTOOD BY SUPPLIER
REFERENCE TO APPLICABLE STANDARD
EASY TO PRICING
AVOID REPETITION

26

New Practices Adopted in IOCL Pipelines


 Use of Copper based IS 2062 Gr.C for Tank Roof in coastal region
 Use of Stringer ladder in tank with about 1 gap between shell and

stringer plate to avoid corrosion between shell & stair


 Increased use of Ball valves instead of gate valves considering better

operation and maintenance flexibility


 Use of High pressure Reciprocating pumps for evacuating sump pump

product in intermediate pump station where residual inlet pressure is


high
 Adopting Transmix tank(250 KL/500 KL) at all Terminal locations for

Interface splitting/accommodating excess Interface/Surge


 Use of Plug valves in Manifolds to ensure positive isolation and to

minimize interface during product changeover

New Practices adopted in IOCL Pipelines


 High

Integrity

Pressure

Protection

System(HIPPS)

for

surge

protection
 Mass flow meters in all stations.
 Dual Leak Detection System in Pipelines with independent server at

two locations- One acting as primary and other as secondary.


 Dual Master station for better monitoring and operation.
 OptoLink System for ensuring 100% Data/voice communication in

Pipeline system.
 Use of liquid mounted primary seal in tanks along with secondary

seal.
 Use of aluminum internal floating roof with

Typical Pump Station Equipments


BOOSTER SECTION

STRAINER
SECTION

FLOW
METER

MASTER
METER

TANKS

DENSITY
METER

MAINLINE
PUMPING SECTION

SUMP
PUMP &
TANK

MOV

PRESSURE/TEMPERATURE
INSTRUMENTS

NRV
HOV
PIPELINE OPERATIONS THROUGH SCADA

SCRAPPER
LAUNCHING
BARRELTION

Mainline Pumping Units

30

Typical Delivery Station Equipments


FCV

METERING

DENSITY
MEAS.

S R VALVE

SRB

FROM PREV. STN

SUMP
TANK &
PUMP

MANIFOLD

FILTERATION

TANK
FARM

Typical Terminal Station

Madurai
Terminal

Asanur TPoint

Trichy Terminal
Chennai Pump station

Sankari
Terminal

Pipeline System


Pipeline systems are the safest


and the most environment
friendly mode of transportation
of crude petroleum, refined
products and natural gas

Being a closed system, minimal


handling and transit losses as
compared to other means of
transportation,
hence
most
efficient

Safety & Reliability minimum


disruptions

Pipeline System


High
Grade
Steel
Pipes
(conforming to
International
Code API 5L) are used
for
constructing
cross
country
Pipelines

The typical sizes of the Pipes are


as under:
 Diameter : 4 inch 56 inch
 Pipe thickness: 0.219 inch 1
inch

Pipes are welded and inspected


as per the most stringent
international standards

Pipeline System
 The

flow in the pipeline is


achieved using high capacity
pumps
(liquid
lines)
&
compressors (gas lines).

 The

normal flow in product


pipeline is around 300-1000
KL/hr & for Crude Pipeline is
around 1500-3400 KL/hr

 The cross country pipelines are

designed to operate at very high


pressures (upto 120 kg/cm2) to
achieve throughput.

Pipeline System


To safeguard the Pipeline from


external corrosion, the pipes are
coated from the following type
of materials





3LPE
Three
Layer
Polyethylene
3LPP
Three
Layer
Polypropylene
DFBE - Dual Layer Fusion
Bonded Epoxy
Coal Tar Enamel

In addition to the anti-corrosion


coating, the pipelines are also
provided with custom designed
Cathodic Protection systems

Challenges in Pipeline Projects


Hostile Working Conditions

PIPELINES NO PICNIC
An advertisement for Pipelines job, on 15th June 1942
 Working and living conditions on this job are as different as
those encountered on any construction job ever done in the
united states or in foreign territory.
 Men hired for this job will be required to work and live
under most extreme conditions imaginable. Temperature
will range from 90 deg above zero to 70 deg below zero.
 Men will have to fight swamps, rivers, ice and cold.
Mosquitoes, flies and gnats will not only be annoying but
will cause bodily harm.
 If you are not prepared to work under these and similar
conditions, do not apply.

Pipeline Route


Pipeline route is carefully


selected to stay clear of
inhabited areas

Pipeline route is selected to


avoid reserved & protected
forest
area,
wild
life
sanctuaries, water logged
and marshy areas etc. to the
maximum extent possible

Global Positioning System


(GPS) based Geographical
Information Systems (GIS)
are also used for route
selection and finalization

RIGHT OF WAY (ROW)


 18 M strip of land (ROW

Right of Way) acquired


through 3(1) & 6(1) Gazette
Notification of PMP Act for
ROW

 Notices served to individual

landowners for start


construction activities

of

 Land is restored and handed

over to owner.
Owner
continues to use the land for
agriculture
and
other
activities.

PIPELINE CONSTRUCTION

ROW Grading/Leveling

Trenching

Pipeline Construction


Pipelines are generally laid at a


depth of 1- 2 M.

At locations where the pipelines


cross Roads, Railway Lines and
Rivers or water bodies the
following special arrangements
are made:






Pipeline is laid at greater depth


Use of Heavy Pipes (Higher wall
thickness)
Casing Pipe for Road & Rail Xing
Horizontal Directional Drilling for
River Xing
Concrete weight coating for crossing
water bodies for anti-buoyancy

PIPELINE CONSTRUCTION

Transportation of Pre-coated Pipes to


Site

String of Pipes in ROW

PIPELINE CONSTRUCTION

Welding of Pipes in
Progress

Joint after Welding

PIPELINE CONSTRUCTION

Coating of the Welded Joint

PIPELINE CONSTRUCTION

Lowering of the Pipeline

ISSUES & CHALLENGES

ISSUES & CHALLENGES


1. ROW acquisition
2. Land Acquisition for Stations
3. Statutory clearances
4. Laying of Pipeline in Common RoW
5. Resource Mobilization by Contractors
6. Line Pipe Quality & Supply
7. Offshore Installations
8. Implementation of MB Lal Committee Recommendations
9. Socio-Political Scenario

LAYING OF PIPELINES : SUGGESTIONS


o Pipeline industry to be declared as Infrastructure Industry
o Single window clearance for various types of crossings by
respective State Govt.
o Speedy deputation of Competent Authorities (CA) by State Govt.
o Appropriate amendment in P&MP Act 1962 for land compensation
for obtaining RoU in land for laying of pipeline
o Review of MB
implementation

Lal

Committee

Recommendations

and

its

o Approach Govt. of India for developing ENERGY SUPER HIGH


WAYS or UTILITY SUPER HIGH WAYS for laying the petroleum/gas
pipelines
o May form JVs with state governments for laying of pipelines

Oil Pipelines Network in India


Jalandhar
Ambala
Roorkee
Sangrur
Najibabad
Panipat
Meerut
Nahorkatiya Tinsukia
Delhi
Rewari
Loni
Sanganer
MathuraShahjahanpurSiliguri Bongaigaon
Digboi
Ajmer
Jodhpur
Numaligarh
Chaksu Tundla
Lucknow
Kanpur
Guwahati
Jagdishpur
Kot
Chittaurgarh
Barauni
Sidhpur
Ahmedabad
Rajbandh
Kandla
Ratlam
Navagam
Budge
Mundra
Jamnagar
Maurigram
Koyali
Budge
Indore
Vadinar
Dahej Ankleshwar
Haldia
Bhatinda

Hazira
Mumbai
High

Manmad

Mumbai
Pune Secunderabad
Uran
Hazarwadi Pakni
Mangalore

49

Vijayawada

Bangalore

Sankari
Karur
Coimbatore
Kochi

Paradip
Vizag

Chennai

Asanur
Trichy
Madurai

IOCs Pipelines (Existing)


Product
Crude Oil
IOCs Pipelines (On-going)
Product
Crude Oil
Other Companies Pipelines(Existing)
Product
Crude Oil
LPG

Network of Gas Pipelines in India


Tu
rk-

Iran

Af
g-P
a

k-I

nd
ia

NANGAL

Pip
eli
ne

BHATINDA

-Pa
k-In
dia
Pip
elin
e

DELHI

BAREILLY

GURGAUN
MATHANIA AGRA

AURAIYA LUCKNOW

DISPUR

JAGDISHPUR

DAHEJ
10 mmtpa*

BARMER

KANPUR

GWALIOR

KOTA
MUNDRA
6.5 mmtpa

PATNA

PHOOLPUR

JHANSI

VARANASI

UJJAIN VIJAYPUR

RAJKOT

GAYA

AGARTALA

LNG

BOKARO

BHOPAL

Existing

AHMEDABAD

KOLKATA

HAZIRA
2.5 mmtpa

BARODA

DAMRA

SURAT

MUMBAI

DABHOL
5 mmtpa

Upcoming

CUTTACK

BHARUCH

BHUBANESHWAR

PUNE

Transmission Pipelines
Existing

KRISHNAPATNAM

RAJAMUNDRY

SOLAPUR

GAILs Planned Pipeline


RILs East West Pipeline
RILs Planned Pipeline
GSPCs Planned Pipeline

KAKINADA
HYDERABAD

KOLHAPUR

VIJAYAWADA

GOA
NELLORE
HASAN

BANGLORE

CHENNAI

TIRUCHCHIRAPALLI

KANJIKKOD

ENNORE
2.5 mmtpa

City Gas/ CNG


Existing
Planned
LNG Terminal

COIMBTORE

50

KOCHI
5 mmtpa

TUTICORIN

Total Length = 11360 (Approx.)

Thank you

ISSUES & CHALLENGES

ISSUES & CHALLENGES


Dadri Panipat Gas Pipeline

ISSUES & CHALLENGES


Dadri Panipat Gas Pipeline

ISSUES & CHALLENGES


Paradip-Raipur-Ranchi Pipeline

ISSUES & CHALLENGES


2. Land Acquisition for Stations
a.

Acquired as per provisions of L&LA Act-1894 or through Direct


Purchase

b.

Land is acquired for Pump stations, Booster Stations, Repeatercum-Cathodic Protection Station, Block valve locations

c.

Increasing awareness in land owners

d.

Phenomenal increase in land cost and usage

e.

Big

difference

in

cost

of

land

acquired

through

State

Government and prevailing market cost.


f.

Agitation by land losers, demand for employment, demand for


higher compensation over and above already paid through state
administration and subsequent court cases

ISSUES & CHALLENGES


3. Statutory Clearances for linear projects
a.

Various statutory clearances are required for setting up a cross


country pipeline viz State Pollution Control Board, Environment &
Forest clearance

b.

Amongst all statutory clearances, obtaining Forest clearance is


very cumbersome process which may take about 18 to 24 months
and in some cases over 30-36 months

c.

MoE&F, Delhi has recently eased some processes for obtaining


forest clearance for linear projects. However, abnormal delay is
still observed in completing the process and obtaining forest
clearance due to linear nature of the project

d.

For obtaining Consent to Establish (CTE), different requirements


are there for different states. No uniform process is followed

ISSUES & CHALLENGES


4. Laying of Pipeline in Common RoW
a.

Normally, pipeline route selection is as crow flies.

b.

Competition amongst oil industries in picking lions share in this


growing industry.

c.

RoW not shared by one company with other on the pretext of


future pipelines of their own in the same RoW.

d.

Considering increasing difficulties in acquisition of RoW and


anticipated growth of pipeline industry, Government of India to
create

mechanism

through

MoP&NG

or

through

an

autonomous body of Oil Industry itself for sharing of RoW by


different pipeline industries on agreed terms and conditions
including technical and commercial conditions. This would help
reduced maintenance cost of RoW, encroachment removal etc.

ISSUES & CHALLENGES


5. Resource Mobilization by Contractors
a.

With growing pipeline industry, development of contractors and


vendors is very important

b.

Specialized works like laying of pipeline across major water body


through Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD), Rim Seal Fire Protection
System etc. - availability of less number of contractors

c.

New contractors take up jobs by quoting very competitively and


agreeing to all terms and conditions, however, needs lot of hand
holding during execution for ensuring cash flow, quality and
timeliness of the project

d.

Resource deployment and finance management normally an issue with


the contractors jeopardizing the targeted schedule of the project which
may be due to their financial vulnerability or lack of understanding by
their project manager

e.

Extensive care to be taken for choosing the right contractor for offshore jobs.

ISSUES & CHALLENGES


6. Line Pipe Supply & Quality
a.

Line pipe cost forms major component of pipeline project cost

b.

Quality of line pipes is a must for ensuring safe and sustained operation

c.

Globally, line pipe specifications are developed on the basis of API 5L


Standard

d.

Individual operator add specific requirement over and above API 5L

e.

IndianOil has customized specifications of various types of pipes e.g. High


Frequency Electric Resistance Welded (HFERW), Submerged Arc Welded
(SAW) and Seamless Pipes.
(Continued)

ISSUES & CHALLENGES


6. Line Pipe Quality & Supply (Continued)
f.

IOCL has elaborate scheme for qualifying pipe mill for sourcing of line
pipes by undertaking visit of pipe mills by multi-disciplinary team of
experts to observe performance of facilities installed in the pipe mill.

g.

For upgradation of such qualified pipe mills, re-qualification is done as


per requirement

h.

Off late, pipe supply is getting affected due to deteriorating financial


conditions of reputed suppliers thereby affecting project schedule
adversely

ISSUES & CHALLENGES


7.

Offshore Installation - Problem Faced during SPM System Installation


Work at Paradip - A CASE STUDY

Heavy and complicated configuration of spools required not only air bag inflation
but also main crane assist which has been greatly influenced by offshore weather
condition. Further the complicated configuration also resulted in additional use of
pulling wires and thus a lot of time was spent in preparation of rigging lines.

The invisibility on the sea bed - Difficulties of diver operation, in addition to the
inconvenience of monitoring diving works on the sea bed, making diving
supervision in the diving control room ineffective.

Rough weather accompanied by squalls, high sea swell, strong sea current made
the process of installation all the more difficult coupled with the concern of safety
in high seas of man, machine and material.

Integrated Offshore Crude Handling Facilities at Paradip


Pipeline Laying and SPM Installation - Challenges

11

Integrated Offshore Crude Handling Facilities at Paradip


Pipeline Laying and SPM Installation - Challenges

16

Integrated Offshore Crude Handling Facilities at Paradip


Pipeline Laying and SPM Installation - Challenges

14

ISSUES & CHALLENGES


8.

M.B. Lal Committee Recommendations - Major Recommendations


to be Complied during Project Implementation

 Provision of Remote Operated Shut-off Valves (ROSOV) as tank body


valve.
 Push buttons on the MOV should also be brought just outside the dyke
 Hydrocarbon (HC) detectors shall be installed near all potential leak
sources of class A and B petroleum products e.g. tank dykes, tank
manifolds, pump house manifolds, etc.
 Medium expansion foam generators shall be provided to arrest vapour
cloud formation from spilled volatile hydrocarbons
 Remote operated long range foam monitors (1000 GPM and above) to
fight tank fires shall be provided which should be of variable flow
 Buffer safety zone around the Petroleum Installations. A distance of 250
to 300 meters from the likely point of ignition is necessary to be kept
clear.

ISSUES & CHALLENGES


8. M.B. Lal Committee Recommendations  The fire water requirement for terminals shall be based on

two fire contingencies simultaneously as is the case in


Refineries.
 The dyke volume has been revised to 110% of largest tank

in certain international standards.


Incorporation of above broad recommendations along with other
recommendations, shall affect project viability adversely. Presently
IOCL (Pipelines Div) is spending about Rs. 900 Cr. on implementing
new / upgraded provisions of revised OISD-117.
Buffer zone of 250 300 meters around oil installation shall be the biggest
hurdle.

ISSUES & CHALLENGES


9. Socio-Political Scenario
a.

During opening of RoW for laying of pipeline, many interferences


are faced in terms of demand for higher land compensation over
and above provided as per P&MP Act-1962, issues not related to
particular project, different local groups of muscle men operating
en route pipeline demanding money.

b.

At times, land compensation do not go to correct land owners


inspite of best possible mechanism for tracing the right owners.

c.

Increasing court cases on compensation issue

d.

Demanding higher
compensations.

e.

Expectations of locals for permanent employment duly supported


by conflicting active groups at local level

crop

compensation,

presumptive

crop

Kochi-Bangalore Gas Pipeline of GAIL

Kochi-Bangalore Gas Pipeline of GAIL

Clearances / Permissions during Construction


Acquisition of ROU in land under P&MP Act 1962
Private land
CA and MoP&NG , GOI
Permission to lay pipeline in From District Collector
Govt. land
Defense clearance for laying Ministry of Defence, GOI
the pipeline in their land
Clearance from authorities for Concerned authorities
way leave charges
(Port
authorities,
Railway,
Development authority etc.)
To lay pipeline in Air port area

National Airports Authority of


India

Clearances / Permissions during Construction


Allotment of land
Allotment of land/ shed in Concerned
Industrial
industrial Areas
Development Authority
Allotment
Land

of

Government District Collector office

Acquisition of land

District Collector/State Govt.

Conversion of Land use to District Collector office


None Agriculture purposes
Change in land use in urban Town Planning Department
areas

Clearances / Permissions during Construction


Approval of building plan
Approval of building plans in Concerned
Industrial areas
Development
Authority.

Industrial

Approval of building plans in Local Authorities


other areas
Others
Water Cess

Power supply

Central Ground Water Authority


/
Concerned
state
Govt.
authority
State Electricity Board

NOC for VHF communication

Clearance from WPC

Clearances / Permissions during Construction


Prior to Commissioning
NOC from District Collector for District collector
operation of installation.
No Objection from district Fire Fire Services Department
Department
Registration as a Factory
Consent

to

operate

Chief Inspector of Factories


under State Pollution Control Board

Water and Air


Approval for commissioning of CCE,
new facilities (project).
Clearance
inspector

from

Petroleum

&

Explosive

safety Org.

electrical HT CEA ; LT Elect Inspector

MAINLINE PUMPING UNIT

MAIN LINE PUMP


WITH SUCTION /
DISCHARGE ARMS

FIRE WALL

GEAR BOX

M/L ENGINE

MAINLINE ENGINE AUXILIARIES

FUEL OIL DAILY SERVICE TANK

EXHAUST SILENCER

RADIATOR ASSEMBLY

SCRAPPER LAUNCHING
BARREL

SCRAPPER RECEIVING BARREL

SCRAPPER BARRELS

TYPICAL PIPE CONNECTIONS

TRV
PI
PS/P
T

BASKET STRAINER WITH


ISOLATING MOVS

Y TYPE STRAINER

U/S FLOW
STRAIGHTENER

INSTALLATION OF TURBINE METER

D/S FLOW STRAIGHTENER

Supply Chain

Crude evaluation
& Procurement ?

Demand
Forecast ?

What and How


to Feed ?

Distribution
Planning ?

What & Where


To Make ?

What & where to


Store and from where ?

Introduction of Pipelines in Oil


Transportation
 The

first cross country oil pipeline was laid in


Pennsylvania (USA) in 1879 from Bradford to Allen town,
about 109 miles long and 6 in diameter

 In India after 1960, most of the refineries were installed in

land-locked locations and then crude / product pipelines


were laid.
 During 1960-63, Oil India Limited laid the first trunk crude

oil pipeline, 1156 km long from Naharkatiya and Moran oil


fields to the refineries at Guwahati and Barauni
 The first cross country product pipeline was laid by IOCL

during 1962-64 to transport products from Guwahati


refinery to Siliguri
 Pipeline

industry has grown


development of oil industry

in

parallel

with

the

Transportation
ofPetroleum
Petroleum
Transportation of
Products
(Tentative Projections)
Products (Tentative
Projections)
Present Transport Modal-Mix
(2010-11)

Projected Transport Modal-Mix


(2030-31)

PRODUCT PIPELINES- PRESENT SCENARIO

*Source : IPR 2010-11

IOCL leads the industry with 46% share in Pipeline capacity.

Advantages of Pipeline Transportation









Lower cost of transportation


Lower transit losses
Energy efficient
Economies of scale
Safety & Reliability- minimum disruptions
Environment friendly

Multi-product handling

Stationary carrier

Augmentation at low cost

Minimal land costs

Decongestion of surface transport systems


Pipelines are the best suited mode for transportation of
large volumes of petroleum over long leads.

Pipeline Transportation of Liquid Petroleum


Scenario in India


Indian

oil

industry

has

around

five

decades

of

experience in transportation of crude oil and finished


petroleum products through pipelines


The crude oil pipelines transport waxy crude as well as


low sulphur & high sulphur crude

Liquid Product Pipelines transport various products viz.


MS, HSD, SKO & ATF in multi-product pipelines

LPG is also transported through dedicated pipelines

Pipeline Project Management Key Issues


A. Route Selection & ROW Acquisition
a)

Route survey - Reki

b)

Detailed Route survey

c)

Cadastral survey

d)

3(1) schedule publication

e)

Hearing

f)

6(1) publication

g)

ROW acquisition

h)

Land compensation and Crop Compensation payments

Pipeline Project Management Key Issues

B. Land acquisition- P/Station, RCP & Valve Location


a)

Identification of land for Stations and RCPs

b)

Acquisition of land through Government

c)

Private land purchase through committee

Development of Pipelines in India


 The first cross country product pipeline was laid by IOCL
during 1962-64 to transport products from Guwahati
refinery to Siliguri.
 Subsequently, number of product and crude oil pipelines
were laid in the 60s, 70s and 80s, including sub-sea crude
oil pipelines.
 The pipelines laid during the 60s were designed, engineered
and constructed by foreign companies. However, the
exposure to this technology enabled Indian engineers to
gain confidence, and the pipelines which came up later, were
designed and constructed with indigenous expertise.
 IndianOil today has 10,909 km of crude oil and product &
gas pipelines.

Pipeline Project Management Key Issues

Pre-construction activities involve :


 Conducting

engineering & cadastral survey for route


finalisation, alignment checking , collection of details in
respect of various crossings and for collection of village
maps .

 Marking of P/L route and width of ROW on village maps


 Extraction of plot-wise area within ROW and
 Consolidation of list of plot nos. & respective area village-

wise in sequential manner.


 Segregation of private land from Govt. land and public

bodies

Pipeline Project Management Key Issues




to list out names & addresses of all affected landowners


as per state Revenue records/ maps

to assess amount of compensation


towards ROW acquisition and

to assess amount of compensation towards standing crop,


trees etc. required to be paid at the time of taking of ROW
and of presumptive crops during PL laying .

Many of the times farmers show reluctance to surveyors


entry to their farms to undertake engineering survey.

Retrieval of land records from government offices is time


consuming and old government land records, prepared
without advanced technological aids, have problems of
updation.

required to be paid

Pipeline Project Management Key Issues




Difficulty in establishing ownership due to inaccuracies in


govt records

Inadequacy of land compensation payable as per P&MP


Act, 1962.

Litigations

Volatile socio-political situation

Law & Order issues

Rapid urbanisation and growth of industry clusters around


towns.

Pipeline Project Management Key Issues

For ROW acquisition ( under P&MP ACT,1962)




Request required to be made for services of state govt.


revenue personnel on deputation to serve as Competent
Authority (C.A) and other sub-ordinate staff to assist him

To engage retired revenue officials if govt. officials are


found not spareable on deputation.

Upon joining, to notify in central gazette regarding


declaration of C.A u/s 1 of P&MP ACT- for dealing with
cases related to land and further notifications etc.
Enough time elapses for positioning of C.A for the job.

Pipeline Project Management Key Issues

Procurement of Land for Pumping/ Delivery stations :


 By Direct purchase from Private parties (Normally no such

big plot suitable for pumping/ delivery stations, owned by


single person is available)
 By Transfer of Govt. land (Availability is less for such

suitable big plot)


 By Govt. acquisition as per Land Acquisition Act, 1894.

Pipeline Project Management Key Issues

Application to concerned State Govt. along with


land details

all the

Recommendation from the Collector

Notification
under
LA Act & Filing / Hearing of
objections/inviting claims

Order for Acquisition , marking & measurement

Procurement of land through Govt, acquisition is very much


time consuming.

Pipeline Project Management Key Issues

Statutory Clearances


CCoE Clearance

Consent to Establish (CTE) from respective Pollution


Control Boards

Environment & Forest Clearances from MoE&F

NOC from National Highway Authorities

Railway crossing Permissions

Clearances for Water Bodies

CRZ clearances (wherever required)

Piping Pressure Rating


CLASS RATING

WORKING
PRESSURE(PSI)

WORKING
PRESSURE(KG/CM2)

150

275

19.34

300

720

50.63

400

960

67.51

600

1440

101.26

900

2160

151.89

1500

3600

253.16

SPM System General Arrangement

25 February 2014
100

Commonly used ASME standards




ASME B3 1.3, Process Piping.

ASME B31.4, Liquid Transportation Systems for Hydrocarbons, Liquid


Petroleum Gas, Anhydrous Ammonia, and Alcohol.

ASME B31.8, Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems.

ASME Section VIII,Div-I & II

B16.5, Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings.

B 16.47, for Pipe flanges larger than 24.

B16.9, Butt welded Fittings.

B16.11, Forged Steel Fittings, Socket-Welding and Threaded.

B16.20, Metallic Gaskets for Pipe Flanges-Ring Joint, Spiral-Wound, and


Jacketed.

B16.25, Butt Welding Ends.

B16.28, Wrought Steel, Butt Welding, Short Radius Elbows and Returns.

B16.34, Valves-Flanged, Threaded, and Welding End.

B36.10M, Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe.

Commonly used API standards


 API 5L-Line pipe
 API 610 Centrifugal pumps
 API 1104-Welding of Pipeline and related Facilities
 API 6D-Pipeline valves
 API 1581-ATF Seperator filters
 API 1590- Micron filters
 API 526-Flanged Steel Pressure Relief valves
 API 600-Steel Gate, Globe and check valves 4 & larger
 API 602- Steel Gate, Globe and Check Valves for sizes DN

100 and smaller


 API 2510-Design and Construction of LPG installations
 API 520-Sizing, selection & installation of TRVs

Commonly used other standards


 ASTM 53/106 Carbon steel pipes
 BS 5352 Ball valves
 BS 1868 Swing check valves
 BS 1873 Globe valve
 ASTM A537 Carbon steel plates
 IS 2062 Carbon Steel plates
 MSS-SP-97 Weld-o-let
 NACE RP 394- For Fusion bonded epoxy

coating
 DIN 30670- For Polyethylene coating for pipe
and fittings
 ASME SEC IX for Welding Procedure
Qualification & Welder Qualification

Commonly used OISD standards


 OISD 118-Layouts for Oil & Gas Installation
 OISD117-Fire Protection Facilities for Petroleum






Depots, Terminals, Pipeline Installations and


Lube Oil Installations
OISD 141-Design and construction requirements
for cross country Hydrocarbon pipelines
OISD 214-Cross Country LPG Pipelines
OISD 226 Natural gas Transmission pipelines
OISD 138 Inspection for cross country pipelines

Relevant codes and standards


ASME 31.4/31.8
OISD 118
OISD 117
OISD 141
Electrical Standards

Station Equipments Mechanical, Electrical and T&I

105