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At sign - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

At sign

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The at sign, @, normally read aloud as "at", also

commonly called the at symbol or commercial at, is
originally an accounting and commercial invoice
abbreviation meaning "at a rate of" (e.g. 7 widgets @ 2 =
14). In contemporary use, the at-sign is most commonly
used in email addresses. It was not included on the
keyboard of the earliest commercially successful

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At sign

typewriters, but was on at least one 1889 model[1] and the

very successful Underwood models from the "Underwood
No. 5" in 1900 onward. It is now universally included on computer keyboards. The mark is encoded
at U+0040 @ COMMERCIAL AT (HTML @).
The fact that there is no single word in English for the symbol has prompted some writers to use the
French arobase[2] or Spanish and Portuguese arroba, or to coin new words such as asperand,[3]
ampersat[4] and strudel[5]), but none of these have achieved wide usage.


1 History
1.1 Origin theories
1.2 History
2 Modern use
2.1 Commercial usage
2.2 Contemporary usage
2.3 Programming
2.4 Gender-neutrality in Spanish and Portuguese
2.5 Other uses and meanings
3 Names in other languages
4 Unicode variants
5 In culture
6 See also
7 References
8 External links


Origin theories


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The earliest yet discovered reference to the @ symbol is a religious

one; it features in a Bulgarian translation of a Greek chronicle
written by Constantinos Manasses in 1345 (See Figure left). Held

today in the Vatican Apostolic Library,[7] it features the @ symbol

in place of the capital letter alpha 'A' in the word Amen. Why it was
used in this context is still a mystery.

@ symbol used as the initial

"a" for the "amin" (amen)
in the Bulgarian
translation of the Manasses
Chronicle (c. 1345).

Aragonese @ symbol
used in the 1448 "taula de
Ariza" registry to denote a
shipment from Castile

to the Kingdom of Aragon.[6]

@ used to signify French

"" ("at") from a 1674 protocol
from a Swedish court (Arboga
rdhusrtt och magistrat)

In terms of the commercial character of the at sign, there are

several theories pending verification.

One theory is that the symbol developed as a mercantile shorthand

symbol of "each at"the symbol resembling a small "a" inside a
small "e"to distinguish it from the different "at" (symbolized by
the mere letter "a") or "per." For example, the cost of "12 apples @
$1" would be $12, whereas the cost of "12 apples at $1" would be
$1a crucial and necessary distinction.
Another theory is that medieval monks abbreviated the Latin word
ad (at, toward, by, about) next to a numeral. One reason for this
abbreviation was that it saved space and ink. Since thousands of
pages of biblical manuscripts were copied onto expensive papyrus
or hides, and the words at, toward, by and about repeated millions
of times throughout the pages, a considerable amount of resources
could be spared this way. A theory concerning this graphic puts
forward the idea that the form derives from the Latin word ad,,
using the older form of lower case d : , which persists as the
partial derivative symbol.
It has been theorized that it was originally an abbreviation of the
Greek preposition (transliterated ana), meaning at the rate of or
Another theory is that it derives from the Norman French ""
meaning "at" in the "each" sense, i.e. "2 widgets 5.50 = 11.00",
comes the accountancy shorthand notation in English commercial
vouchers and ledgers to the 1990s, when the email usage overtook
the accountancy usage. It is also used like this in Modern French,
Swedish or Czech; in this view, the at-symbol is a stylised form of
that avoids raising the writing hand from the page in drawing the
symbol; this compromise between @ and in French handwriting
is found in street market signs.


Whatever the origin of the @ symbol, the history of its usage is more well-known: it has long been
used in Spanish and Portuguese as an abbreviation of arroba, a unit of weight equivalent to 25
pounds, and derived from the Arabic expression of "a quarter" ( pronounced ar-rub).[8] An
Italian academic claims to have traced the @ symbol to the 16th century, in a mercantile document
sent by Florentine Francesco Lapi from Seville to Rome on May 4, 1536.[9] The document is about
commerce with Pizarro, in particular the price of an @ of wine in Peru. In Italian, the symbol was
interpreted to mean amphora (anfora). Currently, the word arroba means both the at-symbol and a
unit of weight. In Italian, the symbol represents one amphora, a unit of weight and volume based
upon the capacity of the standard amphora jar, and entered modern meaning and use as "at the rate
of" or "at price of" in northern Europe.


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Until now the first historical document containing a symbol resembling a @ as a commercial one is
the Spanish "Taula de Ariza", a registry to denote a wheat shipment from Castile to Aragon in 1448.
Even though the oldest fully developed modern @ sign is the one found on the above-mentioned
Florentine letter.[9]

Modern use

Commercial usage
In contemporary English usage, @ is a commercial symbol, called at site or at rate meaning at and
at the rate of. It has rarely been used in financial documents or grocers' price tags, and is not used in
standard typography.[10]

Since 23 October 2012, the At-sign is registered as a trade mark by the German Patent and Trade
Mark Office DPMA (registration number 302012038338
( for
@T.E.L.L. While company promoters have claimed that it may from now on be illegal for other

commercial interests to use the At-sign, this only applies to identical or confusingly similar goods [11]
and no court, German or otherwise, has yet ruled on this purported illegality.

Contemporary usage

A common contemporary use of @ is in email addresses (transmitted by SMTP), as in (the user jdoe located at site the domain). BBN Technologies'

Ray Tomlinson is credited with introducing this usage in 1971.[12] This idea of the symbol
representing located at in the form user@host is also seen in other tools and protocols; for example,
the Unix shell command ssh tries to establish an ssh connection to the
computer with the hostname using the username jdoe.

On web pages, organizations often obscure email addresses of their members or employees by
omitting the @. This practice, known as address munging, makes the email addresses less vulnerable
to spam programs that scan the internet for them.
Another contemporary use of the @ symbol in American English is adding information about a
sporting event. Opposing sports teams sometimes have their names separated by a v. (for versus).
However, the "v." may be replaced with "@" when also conveying at which team's home field the
game will be played. In this case, the away team is written first.[13] This usage is not followed in
British English, since conventionally the home team is written first.

On some online forums without threaded discussions, @ is used to denote a reply; for instance:
"@Jane" to respond to a comment Jane made earlier. Similarly, in some cases, @ is used for
"attention" in email messages originally sent to someone else. For example, if an email was sent
from Catherine to Steve, but in the body of the email, Catherine wants to make Keirsten aware of
something, Catherine will start the line "@Keirsten" to indicate to Keirsten that the following
sentence concerns her. This also helps with mobile email users who cannot see bold or color in


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In microblogging (such as Twitter and StatusNet-based microblogs), @ before the user name is used
to send publicly readable replies (e.g. "@otheruser: Message text here"). The blog and client
software can automatically interpret these as links to the user in question. When included as part of a
person's or company's contact details, an @ symbol followed by a name is normally understood to
refer to a Twitter ID. A similar use of the @ symbol was also made available to Facebook users on
September 15, 2009.[14] In Internet Relay Chat (IRC), it is shown before users' nicks to denote they
have operator status on a channel.


@ is used in various programming languages although there is not a consistent theme to its usage.
For example:

In ALGOL 68, the @ symbol is brief form of the at keyword; it is used to change the lower
bound of an array. For example: arrayx[@88] now refers to an array starting at index 88.
In ActionScript, @ is used in XML parsing and traversal as a string prefix to identify attributes
in contrast to child elements.
In CSS, @ is used in special statements outside of a CSS block.
In C#, it denotes "verbatim strings", where no characters are escaped and two double-quote
characters represent a single double-quote.[15] As a prefix it also allows keywords to be used as
identifiers,[16] a form of stropping.
In the ASP.NET MVC Razor template markup syntax, the @ character denotes the start of
code statement blocks or the start of text content.[17][18]
In Forth, it is used to fetch values from the address on the top of the stack. The operator is
pronounced as "fetch".
In Haskell, it is used in so-called as-patterns. This notation can be used to give aliases to
patterns, making them more readable.
In Java, it has been used to denote annotations, a kind of metadata, since version 5.0.
In LiveCode, it is prefixed to a parameter to indicate that the parameter is passed by reference.
In ML, it denotes list concatenation.
In modal logic, specifically when representing possible worlds, @ is sometimes used as a
logical symbol to denote the actual world (the world we are 'at').
In Objective-C, @ is prefixed to language-specific keywords such as @implementation and to
form string literals.
In Pascal, @ is the "address of" operator (it tells the location at which a variable is found).
In Perl, @ prefixes variables which contain arrays @array, including array slices @array
[2..5,7,9] and hash slices @hash{'foo', 'bar', 'baz'} or @hash{qw(foo bar baz)}. This
use is known as a sigil.
In PHP, it is used just before an expression to make the interpreter suppress errors that would
be generated from that expression.[19]
In Python 2.4 and up, it is used to decorate a function (wrap the function in another one at
creation time).
In Ruby, it functions as a sigil: @ prefixes instance variables, and @@ prefixes class
In Scala, it is used to denote annotations (as in Java), and also to bind names to subpatterns in
pattern-matching expressions.
In Swift, @ prefixes "annotations" that can be applied to classes or members. Annotations tell
the compiler to apply special semantics to the declaration like keywords, without adding
keywords to the language.
In T-SQL, @ prefixes variables.


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In several xBase-type programming languages, like DBASE, FoxPro/Visual FoxPro and

Clipper, it is used to denote position on the screen. For example: @1,1 SAY "HELLO" to show
the word "HELLO" in line 1, column 1.
In FoxPro/Visual FoxPro, it is also used to indicate explicit pass by reference of variables
when calling procedures or functions (but it is not an address operator).[20]
In Windows PowerShell, @ is used as array operator for array and hash table literals and for
enclosing here-string literals.[21]
In the Domain Name System, @ is used to represent the $ORIGIN, typically the "root" of the
domain without a prefixed sub-domain. (Ex: vs.

Gender-neutrality in Spanish and Portuguese

In Portuguese and Spanish, as well in other West Iberian languages where many words end in '-o'
when in the masculine gender and end '-a' in the feminine, @ is sometimes used as a gender-neutral

substitute for the default 'o' ending,[22] which some advocates of gender-neutral languagemodification feel indicates implicit linguistic disregard for women. These languages do not possess a
neutral gender and the masculine forms are also used traditionally when referring to groups of mixed
or unknown sex. The at-sign is intended to replace the desinence '-o', including its plural form '-os',
due to the resemblance to a digraph of an inner letter 'a' and an outer letter 'o'.

As an example of the @ being used for gender-inclusive purposes, we can consider the Spanish and
Portuguese word amigos. When the word represents not only male friends, but also female ones, the
proponents of a gender-inclusive language replace it with amig@s. In this sense, amigos would be
used only when the writer is sure the group referred to is all-male. Usage of amigas is the same in
traditional and such new forms of communication. Alternative forms for a gender-inclusive at-sign
would be the slash sign (amigos/as) and the circle-A, (amigs). However, it is more common to use
the masculine ending first and include the feminine in parentheses, as in amigos(as). For more about
this, see Satiric misspelling. Lately, though, it's becoming more and more common (since slashes and
parentheses put first the masculine form and the other two are seen as "an 'a' inside an 'o'", meaning,
in their eyes, that the feminine is supedited to the masculine) the use of the 'x' letter instead, a use
that is the choice of advocates of gender-inclusive language, but strongly frowned upon by people
not adhered to said movement (but not necessarily against it). The Real Academia Espaola
disapproves of the use of the at-sign as a letter.[23]

Other uses and meanings

In (especially English) scientific and technical literature, @ is used to describe the conditions
under which data are valid or a measurement has been made. E.g. the density of saltwater may
read d = 1.050 g/cm3 @ 15 C (read "at" for @), density of a gas d = 0.150 g/L @ 20 C, 1
bar, or noise of a car 81 dB @ 80 km/h (speed).
As an abbreviation for alias in articles about missing persons, obituaries, brief reports - for
instance: "John Smith @ Jean Smyth" (a possible abbreviation of aka). For example, a Chinese
Singaporean may use two transliterations of his or her Chinese name (e.g., Mao Tse-Tung @
Mao Zedong).
In chemical formulae, @ is used to denote trapped atoms or molecules. For instance, La@C60
means lanthanum inside a fullerene cage. See article Endohedral fullerene for details.
In Malagasy, @ is an informal abbreviation for the prepositional form amin'ny.
In genetics, @ is the abbreviation for locus, as in IGL@ for immunoglobulin lambda locus.
In the Koalib language of Sudan, @ is used as a letter in Arabic loanwords. The Unicode
Consortium rejected a proposal to encode it separately as a letter in Unicode, but SIL


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International uses Private Use Area code points U+F247 and U+F248 for lowercase and
capital versions.[24]
A schwa, as the actual schwa character "" may be difficult to produce on many computers. It
is used in this capacity in the ASCII IPA schemes SAMPA, X-SAMPA and Kirshenbaum.
In leet it may substitute for the letter "A".
It is frequently used in typing and text messaging as an abbreviation for "at".
In Portugal it may be used in typing and text messaging with the meaning "french
kiss" (linguado).
In online discourse, @ is used by some anarchists as a substitute for the traditional circle-A.
An abbreviation for "around"

Names in other languages

In many languages other than English, although most typewriters included the symbol, the use of @
was less common before email became widespread in the mid-1990s. Consequently, it is often
perceived in those languages as denoting "the Internet", computerization, or modernization in

In Afrikaans, it is called aapstert, meaning "monkey tail", similarly to the Dutch use of the
( at).
In Arabic, it is
In Armenian, it is (shnik), which means "puppy".
In Azeri, it is t (at), which means "dog".
In Basque, it is a bildua ("wrapped A").
In Belarusian, it is called (limak, meaning "helix" or "snail").
In Bosnian, it is ludo a ("crazy A").
In Bulgarian, it is called (klyomba "a badly written letter"),
(maymunsko a "monkey A"), (maimunka "little monkey"), or ("banitsa"
- a pastry roll often made in a shape similar to the character)
In Catalan, it is called arrova ("a unit of measure") or ensamada (because of the similar shape
of this food).
In Chinese:
In mainland China, it used to be called A (pronounced qun A), meaning "circled A /
enclosed A", or A (pronounced hu A), meaning "lacy A", and sometimes as
(pronounced xio losh), meaning "little mouse".[25] Nowadays, for most of China's
youth, it is called (pronounced i t), which is the phonetic transcription from "at".
In Taiwan, it is (pronounced xio losh), meaning "little mouse".
In Hong Kong and Macau, it is at.
In Croatian, it is most often referred to by the English word "at". Informally, it is called a
manki, coming from the local pronunciation of the English word "monkey". Note that the
Croatian word for monkey, majmun, is not used to denote the symbol.
In Czech and Slovak, it is called zavin, which means "rollmops".
In Danish, it is snabel-a ("elephant's trunk A"). It is not used for prices, where in Danish a
alone means at (per piece).
In Dutch, it is called apenstaartje ("[little] monkey tail"). The "a" is the first character of the
Dutch word "aap" which means "monkey". However, the use of the English at has been
coming increasingly popular in Dutch.
In Esperanto, it is called e-signo ("at" for the email use, with an address like
"" pronounced zamenhof e esperanto punkto org), po-signo ("each"
refers only to the mathematical use), or heliko (meaning "snail").


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In Estonian, it is called tt, from the English word "at".

In Faroese, it is kurla, hj ("at"), tranta, or snpil-a ("[elephant's] trunk A").
In Finnish, it was originally called taksamerkki ("fee sign") or yksikkhinnan merkki ("unit
price sign"), but these names are long obsolete and now rarely understood. Nowadays, it is
officially t-merkki, according to the national standardization institute SFS; frequently also
spelled "at-merkki". Other names include kissanhnt ("cat's tail") and miukumauku ("miaowmeow").
In French, it is now officially the arobase[26][27] (also spelled arrobase or arrobe), or a
commercial (though this is most commonly used in French-speaking Canada, and should
normally only be used when quoting prices; it should always be called arobase or, better yet,
arobas when in an email address). Its origin is the same as that of the Spanish word, which
could be derived from the Arabic ar-roub. In France, it is also common (especially for
younger generations) to say the English word "at" when spelling out an email address. In
everyday Qubec French, one often hears a commercial when sounding out an e-mail address,
while TV and radio hosts are more likely to use arobase.
In Georgian, it is at, spelled ( ).
In German, it has sometimes been referred to as Klammeraffe (meaning "spider monkey") or
Affenschwanz. Klammeraffe or Affenschwanz refer to the similarity of @ to the tail of a
monkey grabbing a branch. Lately, it has mostly been called at, just like in English.
In Greek, it is most often referred to as (papaki), meaning "duckling", due to the
similarity it bears with comic character designs for ducks.
In Greenlandic, and Inuit language, it is called aajusaq meaning "A-like" or "something that
looks like A".
In Hebrew, it is colloquially known as ( shtrudel), due to the visual resemblance to a
cross-section cut of a strudel cake. The normative term, invented by The Academy of the
Hebrew Language, is ( krukhit), which is another Hebrew word for "strudel", but is
rarely used.
In Hindi, it is at, from the English word.
In Hungarian, it is called kukac (a playful synonym for "worm" or "maggot").
In Icelandic, it is referred to as atmerki ("the at sign") or hj, which is a direct translation of
the English word "at".
In Indian English, speakers often say at the rate of (with e-mail addresses quoted as "example
at the rate of").
In Indonesian, it is usually et. Variations exist especially if verbal communication is very
noisy such as a bundar and a bulat (both meaning "circled A"), a keong ("snail A"), and
(most rarely) a monyet ("monkey A").
In Irish, it is ag (meaning "at") or comhartha @/ag (meaning "at sign").
In Italian, it is chiocciola ("snail") or a commerciale, sometimes at (pronounced more often
[t] and rarely [at]) or ad.
In Japanese, it is called attomku (, from the English words "at mark"). The word
is wasei-eigo, a loan word from the English language. It is sometimes called Naruto, because
of Naruto whirlpools or food (Narutomaki).
In Kazakh, it is officially called ("moon's ear"), sometimes unofficial as
("dog's head").
In Korean, it is called golbaeng-i (, meaning "bai top shells"), a dialectal form of
In Kurdish, it is at, from the English word.
In Kyrgyz, it is officially called ("monkey"), sometimes unofficially as
("doggy"), and et.
In Latvian, it is pronounced the same as in English, but, since in Latvian [] is written as
"e" (not "a" as in English), it is sometimes written as et.


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In Lithuanian, it is et (equivalent to the English "at").

In Luxembourgish it used to be called Afeschwanz ("monkey tail"), but due to widespread use,
it is now called at, as in English.
In Macedonian, it is called (my-moon-cheh "little monkey").
In Malay, it is called alias when it is used in names and di when it is used in email addresses.
It is also commonly used to abbreviate atau which means "or" or "either".
In Morse code (not a language), it is known as a "commat", consisting of the Morse code for
the "A" and "C" which run together as one character: ---. The symbol was added in 2004 for
use with email addresses,[28] the only official change to Morse code since World War I.
In Norwegian, it is officially called krllalfa ("curly alpha" or "alpha twirl"). (The alternate
alfakrll is also common, but is not its official name.) Sometimes snabel-a, the
Swedish/Danish name (which means "trunk A", as in "elephant's trunk"), is used. Commonly,
people will call the symbol [t] (as in English), particularly when giving their email addresses.
In Persian, it is at, from the English word.
In Polish, it is called, both officially and commonly, mapa ("monkey"), and sometimes
mapka ("little monkey").
In Portuguese, it is called arroba (from the Arabic arrub). The word "arroba" is also used for a
weight measure in Portuguese. One arroba is equivalent to 32 old Portuguese pounds,
approximately 14.7 kg, and both the weight and the symbol are called arroba. In Brazil, cattle
are still priced by the arroba now rounded to 15 kg. (This occurs because the same sign was
used to represent the same measure.)
In Romanian, it is most commonly called at, but also colloquially called Coad de maimu
("monkey tail") or a-rond. The latter is commonly used, and it comes from the word
"round" (from its shape), but that is nothing like the mathematical symbol A-rond (rounded A).
Others call it aron, or la (Romanian word for at).
In Russian, it is most commonly (sobaka,
meaning "dog"). The name "dog" has come from
Soviet computers DVK where the symbol had a short
tail and similarity to a dog.
In Serbian, it is called (ludo A "crazy A"),
(majmune "little monkey"), or
(majmun "monkey").
In Slovak, it is called zavin ("pickled fish roll", as in
In Slovenian, it is called afna ("monkey" (informally)).
@ on a DVK Soviet computer (c.
In Spanish-speaking countries, it denotes a pre-metric
unit of weight. While there are regional variations in
Spain and Mexico, it is typically considered to
represent approximately 25 pounds (11.5 kg), and both the weight and the symbol are called
In Swedish, it is called snabel-a ("elephant's trunk A") or simply at, as in the English
language. Less formally it is also known as kanelbulle ("cinnamon roll") or alfakrull ("alpha
In Swiss German, it is commonly called Affenschwanz ("monkey-tail"). However, the use of
the English at has been coming increasingly popular in German.
In Tagalog, the word at means "and"; the symbol is thus used like an ampersand in colloquial
writing such as text messages (e.g. magluto @ kumain, "cook and eat").
In Thai, it is commonly called at, as in English.
In Turkish, it is commonly called et, like in English but written in Turkish letters.


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In Ukrainian, it is commonly called (et "at"), other names being (ravlyk "snail"),
(slymachok "little slug"), (vukho "ear"), and (pesyk "little dog").
In Urdu, it is ( at).
In Uzbek, it is called kuchukcha, which loosely means "doggy"a direct calque from Russian.
In Vietnamese, it is called a cng ("bent A") in the north and a mc ("hooked A") in the south.
In Welsh, it is sometimes known as a malwen or malwoden (both meaning "snail").

Unicode variants



In culture

The Museum of Modern Art admitted the at sign to its

architecture and design collection.[25]
Author Philip Pullman added the category of "things
that were invented for one purpose, but are used for
another" to his "Museum of Curiosity" collection with
the @ as an example.[29]
John Lloyd, pledged on QI series A DVD to support
widespread use of the term "Astatine" to refer to the
symbol. This name was chosen as the chemical
In roguelike video games such as
element astatine has the chemical symbol "At".[30]
Brogue, whose graphics are
American R&B singer Usher used a version of the at
composed of ASCII characters, the
sign in his career, where the "a" was replaced with the
player is represented by @.
vowel "u" from his name. Puerto Rican artist Miguelito
also uses his version of the at sign where the "a" is
replaced by the letter "m" from his name in his own
line of merchandise that includes clothes, school supplies, his studio albums, etc.
A Chinese couple tried to name their son @pronouncing it "ai ta" or "love him"according
to the Chinese State Language Commission.[31][32]
In the 1980 video game Rogue, presented in ASCII graphics, the player character is
represented by the @. Many similar games, called Roguelikes, use the same presentation, and
traditionally use the @ to represent the player character as well.

See also

Enclosed A (, )


1. "The @-symbol, part 2 of 2" (, Shady

Characters The secret life of punctuation (


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2. "Short Cuts" (, Daniel Soar, Vol. 31 No. 10 28

May 2009 page 18, London Review of Books
3. "New York's Moma claims @ as a design
classic" (,
Jemima Kiss, 28 March 2010, The Observer
4. " Tim Gowens offered the highly logical "ampersat" " (, 05 February 1996, The Independent
5. "strudel". FOLDOC. Retrieved 2014-11-21.
6. "La arroba no es de Sevilla (ni de Italia)". Jorge Romance. Retrieved 2009-06-30.
7. "Chronicle of Constantinus Manasses". Retrieved 2016-03-08.
8. "arroba". Diccionario de la Real Academia Espaola. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
9. Willan, Philip (2000-07-31). "Merchant@Florence Wrote It First 500 Years Ago". The Guardian
(London). Retrieved 2010-04-25.
10. Bringhurst, Robert (2002). The Elements of Typographic Style (version 2.5), p.272. Vancouver: Hartley
& Marks. ISBN 0-88179-133-4.
11. Article 5 Trade Marks Directive, as interpreted in Case C-251/95 Sabel BV v Puma AG [1997] ECR
12. "The First Email".
13. For an example, see:
14. "Tag Friends in Your Status and Posts - Facebook Blog".
15. String literals (,
16. "2.4.2 Identifiers".
17. Phil Haack. "Razor syntax quick reference".
18. ASP.NET MVC 3: Razors @: and <text> syntax
19. PHP: Error Control Operators Manual (
20. "Visual FoxPro Programming Language Online Help: SET UDFPARMS (Command), or MSDN Library
'How to: Pass Data to Parameters by Reference'.". Microsoft, Inc. Retrieved 2011-02-19.
21. "Windows PowerShell Language Specification 3.0 (PDF)".
22. Martell-Otero, Loida (Fall 2009). "Doctoral Studies as Llamamiento, or How We All Need to be 'Ugly
Betty' ". Perspectivas: 84106.
23. DPD 1 edicin, 2 tirada (
24. Constable, Peter, and Lorna A. Priest (October 12, 2009) SIL Corporate PUA Assignments 5.2a
International ( pp. 59-60. Retrieved on April 12, 2010.
25. "Why @ Is Held in Such High Design Esteem". The New York Times, Alice Rawsthorn, March 21,
2010. 2010-03-22. Archived from the original on 24 March 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-25.
26. "At last, France has a name for the @ sign" (, December 9, 2002,
27. Orthographe fixe par la Commission gnrale de terminologie et de nologie (Journal officiel du 8
dcembre 2002)
28. "The ARRL Letter" (, Vol. 23, No. 18, April 30, 2004
29. "Meeting Twelve P-51 Mustang, Tempting Fate, Inventions Being Used for Things They Weren't
Designed For". The Museum of Curiosity. Season 2. Episode 6. 8 June 2009.
30. John Lloyd and John Mitchinson (6 November 2006). QI The Complete First Series: "Factoids" (Audio
Commentary) (DVD). BBC and 2 Entertain. OCLC 271537078. UPC 5014503232528.
31. "English invades Chinese
language" (, August 17, 2007",
People's Daily Online
32. "Couple try to name baby @" (
c_id=188&objectid=10458356), August 17, 2007, NZ Herald

External links

commercial-at ( at the

Free On-line Dictionary of Computing

Look up commercial-at or
at sign in Wiktionary, the
free dictionary.


At sign - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Page 11 of 11

"The Accidental History of the @ Symbol

Wikimedia Commons has
" ( related to At sign.
nature/The-Accidental-History-of-the-at-Symbol165593146.html), Smithsonian magazine, September
2012, Retrieved June 2013.
The @-symbol, part 1 (,
intermission (, part 2
(, addenda
(, Shady Characters The
secret life of punctuation ( August 2011, Retrieved June
"Daniel Soar on @" (, London Review of Books,
Vol. 31 No. 10, 28 May 2009, Retrieved June 2013.
ascii64 the @ book free download (creative commons) by patrik sneyd foreword by
luigi colani) ( November 2006, Retrieved June 2013.
A Natural History of the @ Sign ( The many names of
the at sign in various languages, 1997, Retrieved June 2013.
Sum: the @ Symbol (, LINGUIST List 7.968
July 1996, Retrieved June 2013.
Where it's At: names for a common symbol
( World Wide Words
( August 1996, Retrieved June 2013.
UK Telegraph Article: Chinese parents choose to name their baby
"@" ( August 2007, Retrieved June 2013.
Tom Chatfield tells the story of the @ sign on Medium (
Retrieved from ""
Categories: Punctuation Typographical symbols

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