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Mdulo 1

En este mdulo vamos a desarrollar los conceptos bsicos gramaticales como
soporte necesario para poder expresarnos verbalmente por el telfono; tambin
desarrollaremos aquellas expresiones de uso ms frecuente en el mbito
profesional que nos ocupa.
Al finalizar el estudio de estas lecciones sers capaz de:

Utilizar correctamente las estructuras gramaticales bsicas del idioma.

Utilizar expresiones idiomticas del mbito profesional
Utilizar expresiones idiomticas de la comunicacin telefnica.
Reconocer las expresiones ms tiles en la comunicacin telefnica.

Mdulo 1: Grammar

Leccin 1
Adjetivos terminados ed/-ing

In English you can form adjectives that end in ed (like the past participle) and
ing (like the gerund).
Adjectives ending in ed describe the way a person feels.
Adjectives ending in ing describe the thing or person which causes us
to have a reaction.

For example:
I am bored, describe how I feel. (estoy aburrido)
This book is very boring, describe how the book is. (este libro es
I am interested in Art, describe one of my interests. (me interesa el
Art is very interesting, describe how the Art is. (el Arte es interesante)

Some present participles (-ing forms) and past participles (-ed forms) of verbs can
be used as adjectives.
Most of these participle adjectives can be used before the noun they describe or
following linking verbs:
She gave me a welcoming cup of tea
I found this broken plate in the kitchen cupboard
We can use some participles immediately after nouns in order to identify or define
the noun. This use is similar to defining relative clauses:
A cheer went up form the crowds watching (the crowds that were watching)

A few participles are used immediately after nouns, but rarely before them:
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None of the candidates applying was accepted

Other participles like this include caused, found, provided, used.

Some participles can be used before or immediately after nouns:

Rub the area infected with this antiseptic cream
Rub the infected area with this antiseptic cream
Other participles like this include: affected, broken, chosen, identified, interested,
remaining, resulting, stolen.
As we have explained above, you have to remember the differences between ed
and ing adjectives: tired/tiring
When we use them to describe how someone feels about something, the ing
adjectives describe the something and the ed describe the someone:
Im pleased with the result
Its a pleasing result

We often form compound adjectives with a participle following a noun, adverb or

another adjective, and connected by a hyphen:
I hope it will be a money-making enterprise

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Leccin 2
Nombres contables e incontables


Countable nouns can be singular or plural, i.e.: car/cars, house/houses; but

uncountable nouns have only one form, in singular, i.e.: water, rain, air, rice, salt,
oil, plastic, money, music, tennis, cheese, coffee, milk, chocolate, soap, soup,
bread, sand.
In English you have to pay attention with some words that are always
uncountable: information, weather, advice, hair, furniture, paper, news.
You use some for both countable and uncountable in positive sentences; you
use any for both, too, but in negatives and interrogatives. Also, you can use some
in questions such us:
Would you like some coffee? (Because you are offering and its more
Can you lend me some money? (Because you are asking for something
and its more polite)
Much + uncountable, i.e.: much money
Many + countable, i.e.: many books
A lot of + countable and uncountable, i.e.: a lot of food, a lot of shops
Much and many are more usual in questions and negative sentences and a lot
of is more usual in positive sentences.
A little + uncountable, i.e.: a little water
A few + countable, i.e.: a few years
Sometimes a noun is used uncountably when we are talking about the whole
substance or idea, but countably when we are talking about:
1. Recognised containers for things:
Three teas (= cups of tea), please
2. A type or brand:
There were dozens of cheeses to choose from
3. A particular instance of a substance or an idea:
The statue was made of stone
I had a stone in my shoe
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There are many nouns like this: beer, coffee, water, fruit, shampoo, cake,
chicken, land, stone, improvement, war
Some nouns have different meanings when they are used countably and
She is looking for work (job)
Shakespeares complete works (compositions)
Give me some paper (material)
Give me a paper (newspaper)
She gave a paper in Bristol (speech)
Bolivia is one of the worlds largest producers of tin (the metal)
The cupboard was full of tins (metal food containers)
Other nouns like this include: accommodation, competition, glass, grammar,
iron, jam, lace, paper, sight, speech, time, work.
Some nouns that are usually used uncountably can be used countable, but only
in the singular, including education, importance, knowledge, resistance, traffic:
She has an extensive knowledge of property prices in this area.
The noun damage can be used countable, but only in the plural:
Sue is claiming damages for the injuries caused (= money paid as
In English there are several groups of uncountable nouns:
1. Names of substances considered generally:
bread, cream, gold, paper, tea, dust, ice, sand, jam, soap, oil, stone,
2. Abstract nouns:
advice, beauty, courage, experience, fear, help, hope, information, work
3. Other nouns:
baggage, luggage, damage, furniture, weather, news
We can use expressions to count them: a bit of, a drop of, a grain of, a piece
of, a sheet of, a pot of.

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Leccin 3
Verbos modales



1. may
for all persons in the present and future
might in the conditional and after verbs in a past tense
forms: may not; might not
may is followed by the bare infinitive

2. can
for all the persons in the present and future
could for past and conditional
forms: cannot/cant; could not/couldnt
can is followed by the bare infinitive

3. in the present or future

I can take a day off whenever I want (its possible)
I may leave the office as soon as I have finished (I have permission to
do it)
You may park here (I give you permission to park)
You can take two books home with you (the library allows it)
You cant eat sandwiches in the library (I dont allow it)
In certain circumstances a police officer may ask a driver to take a
breath test (he has the right to)
If convicted, an accused person may appeal (he has the right to)
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4. In the past
On Sundays we could stay up late (we were allowed to)
We couldnt bring our dog into the restaurant
5. Request
Can I open the window? (informal)
Could I pay by cheque? (formal)
May I smoke? (muy formal)
He may/might tell his wife (perhaps he tells/will tell his wife)
Tom may lend you the money (increased doubt by stressing)
He may/might not believe your story (perhaps he wont /doesnt believe
your story)
Could be can be used instead may / might be:
I wonder where Tom is. He could be in the library.
Do you think the plane will be on time? I dont know. It could be
delayed by fog

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Can is used to express possibility:

1. General possibility:
You can ski on the hills (there is enough snow)
2. Occasional possibility:
Measles can be quite dangerous (sometimes its possible for them to be
quite dangerous)

Can is used in conjunction with be + the adjective able, which supplies the
missing parts of can and provides an alternative form for the present and past
There is only one future form, because can is not used in the future except to
express permission. In the conditional, however, we have two forms: could and
would be able.

Our baby will be able to walk in a few weeks
Can you type?
I cant pay you today
Since his accident he hasnt been able to leave the house
Could you run the business by yourself? (If this was necessary)
Could he get another job? (If he left this one)
Could you lend me $5? (Introducing a request)
When I was younger I could climb any tree in the forest (past ability)


Ought is a modal verb. The same form can be used for present and future, and
for the past when preceded by a verb in a past tense or followed by a perfect
I ought to write to him tomorrow/today
She said I ought to write

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Should is also a modal verb. The same form can be used for present, future and
You should drink more water
She shouldnt speak up at hospital

Ought and should are used to express the subjects obligation or duty:
You should send in accurate income tax returns
Or to indicate a correct or sensible action:
They shouldnt allow parking here: the street is too narrow
Should can be used in formal notices and on information sheets:
Candidates should be prepared to answer questions on
Should and ought can express advice:
You ought/should read it, its very good
Must is used in the present or future. It can express obligation and emphatic
You mustnt drive now
She must get up early

The past tense is supplied by had to.



del emisor




Will have to



Have to


Had to

Had to


Wont have to
have to
Didnt have to

Must expresses obligation imposed by the speaker:

You must wipe your feet when you come in (a mother speaking)

Have to expresses external obligation:

I have to wipe my feet every time I come in
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You must wear a dress tonight. You cant go to the opera in those
dreadful jeans (speakers authority)
You must use a dictionary. Im tired of correcting your spelling mistakes
(speakers authority)
You have to wear a uniform on duty, dont you (external authority)
You will have to cross the line by the footbridge (external authority)
Staff must be at their desks by 9:00 (orders or instructions)
In this office even the senior staff have to be at their desks by 9:00
(commenting another persons obligations)
I have to take two of these pills a day (habit)
Before we do anything I must find my chequebook (obligations are
urgent or seem important to the speaker)
Need not can be used for present and future. It expresses absence of
obligation. The speaker gives permission for an action not to be performed or
sometimes merely states that an action is not necessary:
You neednt make two copies. One will do.
Must not express a negative obligation imposed by the speaker or very
emphatic advice:
Staff must not smoke when serving customer
You neednt go on a diet: but you must eat sensibly and you mustnt
overeat (doctor)
Visitors must not feed the animals (zoo notice)
The lifts must not be used during Fire Drill (school notice)
You neednt read the whole book but you must read the first four
chapters (teacher)

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Absence of obligation: Forms





Need not


Need not


External authority
Wont need to
Wont have to
Dont/doesnt need to
Dont/doesnt have to

Didnt need to

Didnt need to

Didnt have to

Didnt have to

You neednt write me another cheque (speakers authority or advice)
Tom doesnt have to wear uniform at school (external authority)
Must: Note the difference between the past forms of must used for deduction
and the past equivalent of must used for obligation (had to). Must is not used for
negative deduction and is not normally used in the interrogative except when
querying a deduction with must:
There is a lot of noise from upstairs. It must be Tom
He has a house in London and another in Paris, so he must be rich
This must be the key (no other choice)
Bill must be ill (if an ambulance stops at his door)
Have: This is an American usage which is sometimes heard in Britain:
It has to be a hero
There was a knock on the door. It had to be Tom (sure he is)
Will can be used for assumptions about present or past actions:
Ring his home number. He will be at home now (Im sure hes at home)
Should can be used for assumptions about present or past actions:
The plane should be landing now (I expect it is landing)

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Obligation to do something (obligacin de hacer algo)

Have to

Obligation to do something (obligacin de hacer algo)

Must not (mustnt)

Obligation not to do something (obligacin de no

hacer algo)

Dont have to

No obligation to do something (lack of obligation)

(ausencia de obligacin)


Advice to do something (consejo de hacer algo)


Advice not to do something (consejo de no hacer algo)


Lack of obligation (ausencia de obligacin)

Difference between neednt and dont have to:

You use neednt for a personal lack of obligation, to do with private
wishes or advice; you use dont have to for an impersonal lack of
obligation, to do with outside authority, law or rules

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Leccin 4
El condicional

Main sentence

Conditional sentence

Simple present

Simple present

Would + infinitive

Simple past

Would have + past participle

Past perfect

Ill buy a new car if I earn more money

I do my homework if you do yours
Close the window if you are cold
I would buy a new car if I earned more money
I would have bought a new car if I had earned more money
They imply that the action in the if-clause is quite probable. There are some
variations of this basic form:

In the main clause:

1. if + presente + may (possibility):
If the fog gets thicker the plane may be diverted
2. if + presente + may (permission)/can (permission or ability):
If your documents are in order you may leave at home
If it stops snowing we can go out
3. if + presente + must/should (orden, peticin o consejo):
If you want to lose weight you should eat less bread

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In the if clause
1. if + present continuous (present action or future arrangement):
If you are waiting for a bus youd better join the queue
If you are staying for another night Ill ask the manager to give you a
better room
2. if + present perfect:
If you have finished dinner Ill ask the waiter for the bill


Its used when the supposition is contrary to known facts:
If I lived near my office Id be in time for work (= but I dont live near
my office)
It can be used when we dont expect the action in the if-clause to take place:
If a burglar came into my room at night Id scream (= but I dont expect
a burglar to come in).
Sometimes, rather confusingly, type 2 can be used as an alternative to type 1
for perfectly possible plans and suggestions:
Will Mary be in time if she gets the 10:30 bus? No, but shed be in
time if she got the 9:30 bus (more polite)
No, but shell be in time if she gets the 9:30 bus (informal)
There are variations of this basic form:
In the main clause
1. Might / could be used instead would (possible):
If you tried again you might succeed
2. Continuous conditional form may be used instead of the simple conditional
If I were on holiday I would be touring Italy
3. If + past tense can be followed by another past tense when we wish to
express automatic or habitual reactions in the past:
If anyone interrupted him he got angry
In the if-clause
1. If + past continuous:
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If my car was working I would drive you to the station

2. If + past perfect:
If he had taken my advice he would be a rich man now
Its used when the time is past and the condition cannot be fulfilled because the
action in the if-clause didnt happen.
There are variations of this basic form:

1. Could/might may be used instead of would:

If we had found earlier we could have saved his life

2. The continuous form of the perfect conditional may be used:

If Toms boy had not been there I would have been sitting in front

3. Past perfect continuous in the if-clause:

If I hadnt been wearing a seat belt I would have been seriously injured

4. A combination of types 2 and 3:

If I had worked harder at school I would be sitting in a comfortable
office now, I wouldnt be sweeping the streets (= but I didnt work hard
at school and now I am sweeping the streets)
5. had can be placed first the if omitted:
If you had obeyed orders this disaster would not have happened = had
you obeyed
You can use other links in the conditional:
Even if (with the clause in negative)
Whether or (= if or)
Unless + affirmative verb = if + negative
Otherwise, supposing, in case, if only.

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Leccin 5
Construccin de palabras


The most common endings to form words are:

-ly (incomparably)
-ing (interesting); -ed (bored); -ful (beautiful); -ive (sensitive);-able
(payable); -al (economical); -tic (dramatic); -less (senseless); comparativos y
superlativos terminado en er (older) y est (longest)
-ment (agreement); -on (production); -ist (journalist); -er (driver);-ry
(explanatory); -ty (reality); -hood (brotherhood); -dom (freedom); -ship
There are several suffixes that add different meanings to words:
phobia (fear): claustrophobia
cide (killing): insecticide
monger (dealer with): fishmonger
worthy (deserving): trustworthy
like (similar to): ladylike
most (furthest): innermost
wards (in the direction of): heavenwards
et (small): piglet
Also there are some prefixes that add different meanings: mal- (error):
a- (ausencia, sin): apolitical
mal- (wrongly): malfunction
fore- (anterioridad): foretell
out- (ms, mejor): outlived
over- (ms que): overbooking
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and many others in relation with numbers:

uni-/mono-; duo-/bi-; tri-; pent-; dec-; cent-
If you would like to have further information:

When we want to give more specific information about someone or something,
we sometimes use a noun in front of another noun:
A rice pudding; a glasshouse; a window-cleaner
When a particular combination is regularly used to make a new noun, it is called
a compound noun. We sometimes make compound nouns which consist of more
than two nouns:
A milk chocolate bar
Some compound nouns are usually written as one word (tablecloth), some as
separate words (waste paper) and others with a hyphen (word-processor).
Some can be written in more than one of these ways (a golf course/a golfcourse).
Even if the first noun has a plural meaning, it usually has a singular form:
An address book (not an addresses book)
However, there are a number of exceptions:
1. nouns that are only used in the plural, or have a different meaning in
singular/plural or countable/uncountable:
a communications network
a savings account
a customs officer
2. cases such as:
the publications department
When we refer to an institution of some kind which deals with more than
one item or activity:
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the appointment board ( the board with deals with a particular

the appointments board (the board with deals all the appointments)
To make a compound noun plural we usually make the second noun
In compound nouns that consist of two nouns joined by of or in, we make a
plural form by making the first noun plural:

Birds of prey
Notice that we say: a ten-minute speech; a five-year-old child
Some compound nouns consist of ing + noun:
A living room; chewing gum
Others consist of noun + -ing:
Film-making; sunbathing
Sometimes a noun + noun is not appropriate and instead we use noun
+ s + noun (possessive form) or noun + preposition + noun.
In general we prefer noun + s + noun:

When the first noun is the user of the item in the second noun:
a babys bedroom; a womens clinic

2. When the item in the second noun is produced by the thing in the first:
goats cheese; cows milk
but when the animal is killed to produce the item referred to in the second noun:
lamb chops

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3. When we talk about parts of people or animals, but we usually use noun
+ noun to talk about parts of things:
a womans face; a computer keyboard
We prefer noun + preposition + noun:
1. when we talk about some kind of container together with its contents:
a cup of tea (= una taza con t dentro)
a tea cup (= un tipo de taza, la de t)
2. when the combination of nouns does not necessarily refer to a well-know
class of items:
a grammar book (un tipo de libro conocido)
a book about cats
Some compound nouns are made up of nouns and prepositions or
adverbs, and related to two- and three-word verbs:
He broke out of prison by dressing as a woman
There was a major break-out from the prison last night
We can form other kinds of hyphenated phrases that are placed before
nouns to say more precisely what the noun refers to:
State-of-the-art (= very modern)
Day-to-day (= regular)

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Leccin 6
Estilo indirecto

1) Statements.- In this sentences you must mainly observe the charges in tense:

Simple present

Simple past

Present continuous

Past continuous

Present perfect

Past perfect

Present perfect continuous

Past perfect continuous

Simple past

Past perfect



Future continuous

Conditional continuous

2) Comand and request.- You must remember the use of ASK and TELL with the
For example:
Please, help me --- She asked me to help her
Dont shout --- I told him not to shout

3) Questions.- Appart from the charges in tense, pay special attention to word
order: subject before verb form.

Questions without a question word require IF in indirect speech, p.e.:

Are you tired? --- She asked me if I was tired

Questions words are repeated, p.e.:

Where does she live? --- He asked me where she lived

Time and place expressions also change; have a look to this table:

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That day


The day before

The day before

Two days before


The next day/the following day

The day after tomorrow

In two days time

Next week, year

The following week, year

Last week, year

The previous week, year

A week, year ago

A week before/the previous








We often use a that-clause in the reported clause:
He said (that) he was enjoying his work
After the more common reporting verbs such as agree, mention, notice, promise,
say, think, we often leave out that (this is the reason to write it into brackets).
However, it is less likely to be left out after less common reporting verbs such as
complain, deny, speculate, warn, answer, argue, reply.
Some reporting verbs which are followed by a that-clause have an alternative
with an object + to-infinitive, although the alternatives are often rather formal:
They declare that the vote was invalid
They declared the vote to be invalid
Other verbs like this include: acknowledge, assume, believe, consider,
expect, find, presume, report, think, understand.
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Study the following sentence:

I notified the bank that I had changed my address
We must use an object (the bank) between the verb and the that-clause, and
this object cant be a prepositional object. So we cant say I notified that I or I
notified to the bank that I
Other verbs like this are: assume, convince, inform, persuade, remind, tell.
With advise, promise, show, teach and warn we sometimes put an object before a
They promised (me) that they would come to the party
After admit, agree and beg we can use a that-clause with or without an object
before the that-clause. However, if we do include an object, we put a preposition
before it:
She admitted (to me) that she was seriously ill
We agreed (with Susan) that the information should go no further
I begged (of him) that he should reconsider his decision
Verbs with to + object: admit, announce, complain, confess, explain, indicate,
mention, propose, recommend, report, say, suggest.
Verbs with with + object: agree, argue, check, confirm, disagree, plead.
Verbs with of + object: ask, beg, demand, require.
The tense we choose for a that-clause is one that is appropriate at the time that
we are reporting what was said or thought. This means that we sometimes use a
different tense in the that-clause form the one that was used in the original
Tim is much better, she said that Tim was much better.
When the situation described in the that-clause is a permanent situation, still
exists or is relevant at the time we are reporting it we use a present or present
perfect; when we use a past tense in the reporting clause we can use either a
present or past tense (or present perfect or past perfect) in the that-clause.
When the situation described in the that-clause is in the past when we are
reporting it, we use a past tense (simple or continuous).

Say and tell are the verbs most commonly used to report statements. We use an
object after tell, but not after say:
He told me that he was feeling ill
She said that she would be late
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I said to John that he had to work harder

With the verbs admit, deny, mention and report, we can report a statement
using an ing clause:
He denied hearing the police warnings
He denied that he heard the police warnings
1.- Verb + object + to-infinitive clause
When we report offers, orders, intentions, promises, requests we can use this
pattern after the reporting clause.
The object usually refers to the person who offer is made to:
You should take the job, Frank She encouraged Frank to
take the job.
Other verbs like this: advise, ask, command, compel, expect, instruct, invite,
order, persuade, recommend, remind, request, tell, urge, warn.

2.- Verb + to-infinitive clause

Some verbs cannot be followed by an object before a to-infinitive clause:
Ill take you to town She offered to take me to town
Other verbs: agree, demand, guarantee, vow, hope, promise, swear, threaten,
Ask is used without an object when we ask someones permission to allow us to do
I asked to see his identification before I let him into the house
3.-Verb + that-clause or verb + to-infinitive clause
After some verbs we can use a that-clause instead of a to-infinitive clause:
He claimed to be innocent
He claimed that he was innocent

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Other verbs: agree, demand, expect, hope, promise, propose, request

4.- Verb + that-clause (not verb + to-infinitive)
After verbs such as advise, insist, order, say and suggest we use a that-clause
but not a to-infinitive clause.
Advise and order can be used with object + to-infinitive clause:
The team captain said that I had to play in goal
5.- Verb + to-infinitive clause (not verb + that)
After some verbs we use a to-infinitive clause but not a that-clause:
Carol intends to return to Dublin
Other verbs: long, offer, plan, refuse, volunteer
6.- Reporting by an -ing clause
When we report what someone has suggested doing, either what they should do
themselves, or what someone else should do, we use advise, propose, recommend,
suggest followed by an ing clause:
The government proposed closing a number of primary schools

We can sometimes report advice, orders, requests, suggestions about things
that need to be done or are desirable using a that-clause with should + bare
Alice thinks that we should avoid driving

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We often use should + be + past participle or adjective:

The report recommends that the land should not be sold
Other verbs are: advise, ask, beg, command, demand, instruct, intend, order,
request, require, stipulate, warn.
We can also use should when we talk about our own reaction to something we
are reporting, particularly after be + adjective (amazed, anxious, concerned,
disappointed, surprised, upset):
Im concerned that she should think I stole the money


Modal verb in original

Modal verb in report

Could, would, should, might,

Could, would, should, might, ought

ought to, used to

to, used to
Would, could, might,
Will, can, may (existing or future
situations and present tense verb

Will, can, may

in reporting clause)
Will or would, can or could, may or
might (existing or future situations
and past tense verb in reporting


Would, should (offers, suggestions


Must (necessary)

Must or had to

Must (conclude)

Had to



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Leccin 7
La voz pasiva


The Passive has got the next structure:

Verb to be + past participle

When we use an active verb form, we are more interested in the person or thing
doing the action (the agent), i.e.:

Mary White opened the first shop in 1978

When we use a passive verb form, we are more interested in the person or thing
affected by the action, i.e.:

The first shop was opened in 1978

If we want to mention the agent we use by, i.e.:

The first shop was openend by Mary White

The agent is often not important.

Have a look to this table with the active tenses and their equivalents in the

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Tense verb form



Presente simple


Is kept

Presente continuo

Is/are keeping

Is being kept

Pasado simple


Was kept

Pasado continuo

Was/were keeping

Was being kept

Presente perfecto

Has/have kept

Has been kept

Pasado perfecto

Had kept

Had been kept


Will keep

Will be kept


Would keep

Would be kept

Condicional perfecto

Would have kept

Would have been kept

Infinitivo de presente

To keep

To be kept

Infinitivo de perfecto

To have kept

To have been kept



Being kept

Participio perfecto

Have kept

Having been kept


The choice between an active and passive sentence allows us to present the
same information in two different orders:
The storm damaged the roof (this sentence is about the storm, and
says what it did).
The roof was damaged by the storm (this sentence is about the roof
and says what happened to it).
We choose a passive rather than an active in some situations:
1. When the agent is not known, people in general, unimportant or obvious.
In an active sentence we need to write the agent but not in the passive:

An order form can be found on page two

2. In factual writing, particularly in describing procedures or processes, we
often wish to omit the agent and use passives:
The most dangerous nuclear waste can be turned into glass.

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3. In spoken English we often use a subject such as people / somebody /

they / we even when we do not know who the agent is. In formal
English, writing, we often prefer to use a passive:
The new computer system is being installed next month

4. In English its preferred to put old information at the beginning of a

sentence and the new one at the end. Choosing the passive often allows us
to do this:
The three machines tested for the report contained different types of
safety valve. The machines were manufactured by the Boron Group in

5. Its often more natural to put agents which consist of long expressions at
the end of a sentence. Using the passive allows us to do this:
I was surprised by his decision to give up his job and move to Sydney.
1. Verb + -ing:
I enjoyed taking the children to the zoo (active)
The children enjoyed being taken to the zoo (passive)
They saw him climbing over the fence (active)
He was seen climbing over the fence (passive)

Other verbs are: avoid, consider, delay, deny, describe, imagine,

remember, find, keep, notice, anticipate, forget, remember, catch
and see.
2. Verb + to infinitive:
His colleagues started to respect Tim (active)
Tim started to be respected (passive)
Mr. Price taught to sing (passive)
Other verbs are: appear, begin, come, seem, agree, aim, hope, try,
advise, allow believe, consider, feel, mean, report, require, hate,
love and prefer.

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1. We often use a passive to report what people say or think if we want to

avoid mentioning who said or thought what we are reporting:
Everyone was asked to bring some food for the party
A common way of reporting what is said by people in general is to use this
pattern: it + passive verb + that-clause:
Its reported that the director is to resign
Other pattern is: it + passive verb + to-infinitive:
It was agreed to postpone the meeting

2. An alternative to the above first expression is: subject + passive + toinfinitive:

The damage was expected to be extensive
3. When a that-clause begins, that + there , we can make a passive
form there + passive + to be:
There are thought to be too may obstacles to peace

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Leccin 8
Comparativo y superlativo
El sistema de comparativos de superioridad y superlativo en ingls se articula
aadiendo sufijos especficos o con categoras gramaticales sintagmticas; sin
embargo el comparativo de igualdad slo se articula con categoras gramaticales
To form Comparative and Superlative in English there are four different groups
to divide the adjectives:
4. One syllable:

Older than
Bigger than

The oldest
The biggest

5. Two syllables ending in e:


Larger than
Nicer than

The largest
The nicest

6. Two syllables ending in y:


Happier than
Heavier than

The happiest
The heaviest

7. Two syllables (not included in groups 2 and 3) and more:


More modern
More expensive

The most modern
The most expensive


The furthest
The worst
The best
The least
The most
The fewest

8. Irregulars:
Good / Well
Many / Much

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We use as + adjective/adverb + as to say that something or someone is like

something or someone else, or that one situation is like another:
Was the film as funny as his last one?
Negative forms of sentences like this can use either not as or not so. In formal
speech and writing it is more common to use less than:
The gap between the sides is not as wide as it was (= less wide than it
We use not so rather than not as in a number of common expressions:
Im not so sure --- Its not so bad

If you put a countable noun between the adjective and the second as, you
should use a/an in front of the noun (if the noun is singular):
She was as patient as a teacher as anyone could have had
Hes not such a good player as he used to be
We can use how/so/too followed by an adjective in a similar way:
How significant a role did he play in your life?
To talk about quantities, we use as as in sentences with much/many:
She earns at least as much as Mark
We can use so followed by an adjective, adverb and a that-clause in sentences
such as:
The recipe was so simple that even I could cook it
Enough is used before nouns and after adjectives and adverbs:
The house was comfortable enough but not luxurious
Sufficiently is used before adjectives with a meaning similar to enough, is
often preferred in more formal contexts:
The policies of the parties were not sufficiently different
Study these structures: adjective + enough and too + adjective:
The beams have to be strong enough to support the roof
She was too ashamed to admit her mistake
Comparison of three or more people or things is expressed by the superlative
with in/of:
The oldest in the classroom (place)
The oldest of the family (no-place)
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A relative clause is useful especially with a perfect tense:

Its the beer (that) I have ever drunk
We can express the same idea with never and a comparative:
I have never drunk better beer.
Gradual increase or decrease is expressed by two comparatives joined by and:
The weather is getting colder and colder
We can compare actions with gerunds or infinitives:
Riding a horse is not as easy as riding a motorbike
Its nicer to go with someone than to go alone
In theory like (preposition) is used only with noun, pronoun or gerund:
He swims like a fish
As (conjunction) is used when there is a finite verb:
Do as Peter does: go jogging
But in colloquial English like is often used here instead of as:
Cycle to work like we do
He worked like a slave (= very hard)
He worked as a slave (= he was a slave)

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Leccin 9
Preposiciones de tiempo


AT: with hours and with these expressions: at the weekend, at night, at
Christmas, at Easter, at the end of ..., at the moment
ON: with the days of the week, with dates and with these expressions:
On New Years Day
On Christmas Day
IN: with the months, with the years, with the seasons and with these
expressions: in the morning/afternoon/evening, in five minutes/hours, days
We dont use in/at/on before this, last, every and next
FROM TO : In sentences like: We lived in Canada from 1989 to 1995
UNTIL: before the end of a period, i.e.:
I went to bed early last night but I wasnt tired
I read a book until 3 a.m.
SINCE: before the beginning of a period of time (from the past to now), i.e.:
John is in hopital
He has been in hospital since Monday
FOR: a period of time, p.e.: George stayed with us for three days
BEFORE: in Spanish means antes de; you can use this with nouns and verbs but
if you use it with verbs dont forget end the verb with ing, i.e.:
Before the exam everybody was very nervous
I always have breakfast before going to work
AFTER: in Spanish means despus de; the usage is the same as AFTER
DURING: in Spanish means durante

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WHILE: in Spanish means mientras:

These prepositions explained above, are the most common in usage. But now,
we are going to explain bit more.
By a time/date/period stands for at that time or before, not later than that
date. It often implies before that time or date:
The train starts at 6:10, so you had better be at the station by 6:00
It is often used with a perfect tense:
By the end of July Ill have read all those books
Before can be preposition, conjunction or adverb:
Before signing this (preposition)
Before you sign this (conjunction)
Ive seen him somewhere before (adverb)
On time means at the time arranged, not before, not after:
The 8:15 train started on time
In time means not late:
Passengers should be in time for their train
On arrival/arriving when someone arrives; here on can also be used similarly
with the gerund of certain other verbs (usually of information):
On checking, she found that some of the party didnt know the way
At the beginning/end means literally this:
At the end of the course you get a certificate
In the beginning/at first means in the early stages, implies that later on there
was a change:
At first we used hand tools, later we had machines
In the end/at last means eventually, after some time:
At first he opposed the marriage, but in the end the gave his consent
Since is used for time and means from that time to the time referred to. Its
often used with a present perfect or past perfect tense:
He has been here since Monday
It can also be an adverb or a conjunction:
He left school en 1997. I havent seen him since
He has worked for us ever since he left school
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For is used of a period of time with a present perfect tense or past perfect tense
for an action which extends up to the time of speaking:
He has worked here for a year
For used in this way is replaceable by since with the point in time when the
action began:
He has worked here since this time last year
During is used with known periods or time:
During 1941
During my holidays
The action can either last the whole period or occur at some time within the
He was ill for a week, and during that week he ate nothing.
After must be followed by a noun, pronoun or gerund:
Dont bathe immediately after a meal/eating
At the moment stands for now. But in a moment means in a short period of
He is in London at the moment
Ill finish my homework in a moment

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Leccin 10
Preposiciones de lugar


In English there are several prepositions to explain the place. We are writing the
usages and some sentences to understand it better.
IN: It is the most common preposition to indicate the place, p.e.: in a room, in a
town, in France, in the water, in bed (not in the bed), in hospital/prison (you use in
this way when you are prisioned or staying in the hospital), in a car (but on a
bus/train/plane), in the middle of
AT: You use this preposition with these expressions: at the door,
at the traffic lights, at the bus-stop, at the top/bottom (of a page), at home, at
work, at school/university (when you are studying), at the station/airport, at the
end (of the street), at the hairdressers, at the doctors, at the dentists, at a
Often in or at is possible for a building (hotels, restaurants )
TO: It is the preposition to indicate the movement, so it is just after movement
verbs: go, turn, walk, come.
Arrive is a special verb; it is a movement verb but doesnt use to:
arrive in (a country or a town), p.e.: They arrived in England last week
arrive at (other places), p.e.: What time did they arrive at the hotel?
arrive home (no preposition), p.e.: I was tired when I arrived home
ON: You use this preposition when something is on a surface, pe..: on a table,
on the floor, on a wall, and also with these expressions: on the bus/train/plane, on
a horse, on a bicycle, on the beach
UNDER: It is the opposite of on.
NEXT TO (or BESIDE): in Spanish means al lado de, p.e.:
You are sitting next to me
BETWEEN: in Spanish means entre, p.e.: The letter B is between A and C
IN FRONT OF: in Spanish means delante de, p.e.:
National Gallery Museum is in front of Trafalgar Square
BEHIND: in Spanish means detrs de, p.e.:
You are sitting behind me in the classroom
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OPPOSITE: in Spanish means enfrente de, p.e.:

In the meeting the president is sitting opposite the secretary
ABOVE: in Spanish means arriba, en la parte de arriba, p.e.:
The pictures are above the shelves
BELOW: in Spanish means abajo, p.e.:
Complete the activities below
ACROSS/OVER: to talk about a position on the other side of, or getting to the
other side of a bridge, road ...:
The duck came towards them across/over the bridge
We use over rather than across when talking about reaching the other side of
something that is high, or higher than it is wide:
He hurt his leg as he jumped over the wall
When we are talking about something we think of as a flat surface, or an area
such as a country or ea, we use across rather than over:
He suddenly saw Sued across the room
ALONG: we use it about following a line of some kind (path, road, river,
They walked along the footpath until they came to a small bridge
THROUGH: to emphasize that we are talking about movement in a three
dimensional space, with things all around rather than a two dimensional space, a
flat surface or area:
He pushed his way through the crowd of people to get to her
It often suggests movement from one side or end of the space to the other:
She walked through the forest to get her grandmothers house

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AMONG: using when we see the people or things as part of a group or mass:
He stood among all his friends in the room
BY: to say that one thing or person is at the side of another:
I pushed the button by the door

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