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International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics

Volume 66 No. 2 2011, 145-156

THE CONICAL HELIX STRIP IN E 3


Filiz Ertem Kaya1 , Y. Yayli2 , H. Hilmi Hacsalihoglu3
1,2 Department

of Mathematics
Faculty of Sciences
Ankara University
Tandogan, Ankara, 06100, TURKEY
1 email: fertem@science.ankara.edu.tr
3 Department of Mathematics
Faculty of Sciences and Arts
Bilecik University
Bilecik, TURKEY

Abstract: In this paper we give a definition of the conical helix strip in


E 3 and we give a characterization about conical helix strip.
AMS Subject Classification: 14H45, 14H50, 53B30, 53C50
Key Words: helix, curvature functions, strip, conic, conical helix strip
1. Introduction
In 3-dimensional Euclidean space, a regular curve is described by its curvatures
k1 and k2 and also a strip is descibed by its curvatures kn , kg and tr . The
relations between the curvatures of a strip and the curvatures of the curve can
be seen in many different books and papers. We know that a regular curve
is called a general helix if its first and second curvatures k1 and k2 are not
constant, but kk12 is constant (see [2], [5]). Also if a helix lies on a conic, it is
called a conical helix and a conical helix has the strip at (s). The conical helix
strips provide being a helix condition at the point (s) of the strip by using the
curvatures of helix k1 and k2 .
Received:

October 6, 2010

Correspondence

author

c 2011 Academic Publications


146

F.E. Kaya, Y. Yayli, H.H. Hacsalihoglu


2. Preliminaries
2.1. The Strip Theory

Definition 1. Let M be a surface in E 3 and is a curve in M E 3 . We


define a surface element of M to be the part of a tangent plane at the neighbour
of the point. The locus of these surface element along the curve is called a
strip or curve-surface pair and is showed by (, M ).
2.2. Vector Fields of a Strip in E 3
Definition
2. We knowo the Frenet vectors fields of a curve in M E 3
n

o n

are t , n , b . t ,
n , b is called Frenet frame or Frenet threshold. Also
n





o

Frenet vectors of the curve is showed as V1 , V2 , V3 . Here V1 = t , V2 =
n,

V3 = b . Let t be the tangent vector field of the curve , n be the normal

vector field of the curve and b be the binormal vector field of the curve .
Then
: I M E3
s (s).
: I E 3 is a curve in E 3 with k(s)k = 1. Then is called unit velocity. Let
sn I be the
arc length parameter of . In E 3 for a curve with unit velocity,
o


t ,
n , b Frenet vector fields are calculated as follows:

t = (s),

(s)

n =
,
k (s)k



b = t
n,

see [5].
n

o
Strip vector fields of a strip which belongs to the curve are ,
, .
These vector fields are:


Strip tangent vector field is t = ;

Strip normal vector field is = N ;

Strip binormal vector field is


= , see [1], [10].

Definition 3. Let be a curve in M E 3 . If (s) = t ( t = ) and

is a unit strip vector field of a surface M at the point (s), than we have

|(s) = |(s) |(s) , see [8]. That is


|(s) is perpendicular to |(s)
n
o

and also to |(s) . So we obtain ,


, orthonormal vector fields system
is called strip three-bundle, see [8].

THE CONICAL HELIX STRIP IN E 3

147

2.3. Curvatures of a Strip


Let kn = b, kg = c, tr = a be the normal curvature, the geodesic curvature,
the geodesic
torsion
of the strip, see [8].
n

Let , , be the strip vector fields on . Then we have

or

0
c b

= c 0
a ,

b a 0

= c b,
= c + a,
= b a.

(1)

2.4. Some Relations between Frenet Vector Fields of a Curve and


Strip Vector Fields of a Strip
n

o n
o

,
, , t ,
n , b and be the unit strip vector fields, the unit

Frenet vector fields and the angle between


and
n on . We can see that if

the vectors
, ,
n , b are in the same surface then we obtain the following
Let

equations
D
E

t , = 0,

D
E

t ,
n = 0,

D
E

t , b = 0,

D
E

t ,
= 0.

2.4.1. The Equations of the Strip Vector Fields of the Frenet Vector
Fields
n
o n

o

Let t ,
n, b , ,
, and be the Frenet vector fields, strip vector

fields and the angle between


and
n . We can write the following equations

= t,

= cos
n sin

= sin n + cos

b,

b,

or in matrix form




t
1
0
0

0
cos

sin

0 sin cos
b

148

F.E. Kaya, Y. Yayli, H.H. Hacsalihoglu

2.4.2. The Equations of the Frenet Vector Fields of the Strip Vector
Fields
We can write

t = ,

n = cos
+ sin ,

b = sin
+ cos ,
or in matrix form




t
1
0
0

= 0 cos sin .

0 sin cos
b

2.4.3. Some Relations between a, b, c Invariants (Curvatures of a


Strip) and , Invariants (Curvatures of a Curve)
We know that a curve has two curvatures and . A curve has a strip and
a strip has three curvatures kn , kg and tr .
kn = b,
kg = c,
tr = a,
see [7], [8], [10]. From the derivative equations we can write
= c b.

If we substitude = t in the last equation, we obtain


= n
and
b = sin ,
c = cos ,
see [4], [7]. From the last two equations we obtain,
2 = b2 + c2 .

THE CONICAL HELIX STRIP IN E 3

149

This equation is a relation between the curvature of a curve and normal


curvature and geodesic curvature of a strip, see [1], [3], [8].
By using similar operations, we obtain a new equation as follows
= a +

bc bc
,
b2 + c2

see [3], [8]. This equation is a relation between (torsion or second curvature
of ) and the a, b, c curvatures of a strip that belong to the curve .
And also we can write
a = + .
The special case: if =constant, then = 0. So the equation is a = .
That is, if the angle is constant, then torsion of the strip is equal to the torsion
of the curve.
Definition 4. Let be a curve in M E 3 . If the geodesic curvature
(torsion) of the curve is equal to zero, then the curve-surface pair (, M ) is
called a curvature strip, see [8].

3. General Helix
Definition 5. Let be a curve in E 3 and V1 be the first Frenet vector
field of .U (E 3 ) be a constant unit vector field. If
hV1 , U i = cos (constant)
, and Sp{U } are called a general helix, slope angle and slope axis, see [1],
[2].
Definition 6. A regular curve is called general helix if its first and second
curvatures , are not constant but is constant, see [1], [2], [11].
Definition 7. A curve is called a general helix or conical helix if its tangent
makes a constant angle with a fixed line in space. A curve is a general helix if
and only if the ratio is constant, see [4], [5], [9].
Definition 8. A helix is a curve in 3-dimensional space. The following
parametrisation in Cartesian coordinates defines a helix, see [10].
x(t) = cos t
y(t) = sin t

150

F.E. Kaya, Y. Yayli, H.H. Hacsalihoglu


z(t) = t.

As the parameter t increases, the point (x(t), y(t), z(t)) traces a right-handed
helix of pitch 2 and radius 1 about the z-axis, in a right-handed coordinate
system. In cylindrical coordinates (r, , h), the same helix is parametrised by
r(t) = 1,
(t) = t,
h(t) = t.
Definition 9. If the curve is a general helix, the ratio of the first
curvature of the curve to the torsion of the curve must be constant. The ratio

is called first harmonic curvature of the curve and is denoted by H1 or H.


Theorem 1. A regular curve E 3 is a general helix if and only if
H(s) = kk12 =constant for s I, see [5].
Proof. () Let be a general helix. The slope axis of the curve is showed
as Sp{U }. Note that
D
E
(s), U = cos = constant.
If the Frenet threshold is V1 (s), V2 (s), V3 (s) at the point (s), then we have
hV1 (s), U i = cos .
If we take derivative of the both sides of the last equation, then we have
hk1 (s)V2 (s), U i = 0 hV2 (s), U i = 0.
Hence
U Sp{V1 (s), V3 (s)}.
Therefore
U = cos V1 (s) + sin V3 (s).
U is the linear combination of V1 (s) and V3 (s). By differentiating the equation
hV2 (s), U i = 0, we obtain
hk1 (s)V1 (s) + k2 (s)V3 (s), U i = 0,
k1 (s) hV1 (s), U i + k2 (s) hV3 (s), U i = 0,
k1 (s) cos + k2 (s) sin = 0.

THE CONICAL HELIX STRIP IN E 3

151

By using the last equation, we see that


H = constant.
() Let H(s) be constant for s I, and = tan , then we obtain
U = cos V1 (s) + sin V3 (s).
1) If U is a constant vector, then we have
D U = (k1 (s) cos sin k2 (s))V2 (s).
By substituting H(s) = tan is in the last equation, we see that
k1 (s) cos k2 (s) sin = 0,
and so
U = constant.
2) If is an inclined curve with slope axis Sp{U }, then
D
E
(s), U
= hV1 (s), cos V1 (s) + sin V3 (s)i

= cos hV1 (s), V1 (s)i + sin hV1 (s), V3 (s)i ,

and we obtain

D
E
(s), U = cos = constant.

Definition 10. Let be a helix that lies on the conic. A helix which lies
on the conic is called a conical helix.
Definition 11. Let M be a conic in E 3 , and be a helix on M. We define
a surface element of M as the part of a tangent plane at the neighbourhood of
a point of the conical helix. The locus of the surface element along the conical
helix is called a helix strip.
Definition 12. Let M be a conic in E 3 , and be a helix on M. The part
of the tangent plane on the conical helix is called the surface element of the
conic. The locus of the surface element along the conical helix is called a strip
of conical helix.
Let be the angle between the tangent vector field and slope vector u of
a strip of cylindrical helix. Since .u = cos is constant, we have
0 = (.u) = u = .u.

152

F.E. Kaya, Y. Yayli, H.H. Hacsalihoglu

Because > 0 and .u = 0, we see that u is perpendicular to and so


u = cos . + sin ..
By differentiating the last equation,
( cos sin ) = 0
or

is also constant, see [4], [5].


tan =

Since tan is constant,

Theorem 2. (Terquem Theorem, see [10]) Let M1 , M2 be two different


surfaces in E 3 . Let and be a nonplanar curve in M1 and a curve in M2
i. The points of the curves and corresponds to each other 1:1 on a plane
which rolls on the M1 and M2 , such that the distance is constant between the
corresponding points.
ii. (, M1 ) is a curvature strip.
iii. (, M2 ) is a curvature strip.
Proof. Claim. Two of the three lemmas give the third one (see [10]).
By applying the similar approach in the proof of Theorem 14 in [10] to the
strip of conical helix strip, we give the following theorem.
Theorem 3. Let C and M be a conical helix and a surface in E 3 . Suppose
that C and M have common tangent plane along and conical helix . If the
curve-surface pair (, M ) is a curvature strip, then the curve is a helix strip.
Proof. If the curve is a helix on C, then it provides 11 is constant. We
have to show that is a helix strip on M, that is, 22 = constant. By Figure
1, we have

(s1 ) = (s1 ) + (s1 )


v (s1 ),
(2)
where

(s1 ) =
m + c 1 (s1 ).

By differentiating both sides of (3), we see that

d1
d
=c
.
1=
ds1
ds1
By (1),

1 = c(b1 1 a1
1 ),

(3)

THE CONICAL HELIX STRIP IN E 3

153

Figure 1
and we obtain a1 = 0 and b1 = 1.
Let c be the distance between gravity center of the conic and (s1 ). We

denote c = 1. If
m is a position vector of the gravity center of conic, then
m
must be a constant vector.
Since a1 = 0 (, C) is a curvature strip. By the strips (, C) and (, M )
are curvature strips and by nTheorem
o 3.2, we see that is non-zero constant.

Let v (s1 ) be a vector in Sp 1 , 1 , and let be the angle between 1 and

v (s ). Then we write
1

v (s1 ) = cos 1 + sin


1 .
By substituting (3) and (4) in (2), and differentiating both sides, we obtain:

d
m d 1
d
d

=
+
+
(cos 1 + sin
1 )
ds1
ds1
ds1
ds1

154

F.E. Kaya, Y. Yayli, H.H. Hacsalihoglu

d(cos 1 + sin
1 )
. (5)
+ (s1 )
ds1

Since the vector


m and are constant, we obtain the following equation

d
d 1
d(cos 1 + sin
1 )
=
+ (s1 )
ds1
ds1
ds1
or

d
d 1
d
d1
d
d
1

=
+ (s1 )(
sin 1 + cos
)+
cos
1 + sin
.
ds1
ds1
ds1
ds1
ds1
ds1
By (1), we see that



d
d
d

= 1 (
+ c1 ) sin 1 + (
+ c1 ) cos
1 cos 1 .
ds1
ds1
ds1

(6)

Since the conical helix and the surface M have the same tangent plane along
the curves and , we can write



d
, 1 = 0.
ds1
By subsitituting (6) in the last equation, we obtain cos = 0. By using that
equation (6), we have

d
= (1 c1 ) 1 .
(7)
ds1
If we calculate the second and third derivatives of the curve , then we get

d2

= c1 1 + (1 c1 )c1
1 (1 c1 ) 1 ,
2
ds1
h
i

d3
2
=
c

(1

c
)c

(1

c
)
1
1
1
1
1
3
ds1
i
h

1
+ c1 c1 c1 c1 + (1 c1 )c1


+ (c1 c1 ) 1 .
Since the same result is obtained by using the other form of (7), we use the

d
= (1 c1 ) 1 of (7) in the rest of our proof. By differentiating both
form ds
1
sides of (7), we obtain

d
=(1 c1 ) 1 ,
ds1

THE CONICAL HELIX STRIP IN E 3

155


d2

= c1 1 + (1 c1 )c1
1 (1 c1 ) 1 ,
2
ds1
i

d3 h
2
=
c

(1

c
)c

(1

c
)
1
1 1
1
1
3
ds1
i
h

1 + 2c1 1 .
+ 3c1 c1 + c1
n o
By applying Gram-Schmidt method to the , , , we have

F1 = (1 c1 ) 1 ,

F2 = (1 c1 )c1
1 (1 c1 ) 1 ,

F3 =

(1 c1 )c1 c1
(1 c1 )c1

1 .
1 +
2
2
c1 + 1
c1 + 1

By [8], we have
21 = b21 + c21 , b1 = 1
and

12

(8)

b c1 b1 c1
= a1 + 1 2
, a1 = 0.
b1 + c21

(9)

By (8) and (9), we see that

1 =

c1
.
21

(10)

By using (10) in F3 , we obtain

F3 = (1 c1 )1
1 (1 c1 )c1 1 1 .
If we calculate 2 and 2 , then we have
2 =

1
|1 c1 |

2 =

1
.
|1 c1 |

and

By dividing 2 to 2 , we obtain
1
2
=
.
2
1
We obtain the proof of theorem from last equation.

(11)

156

F.E. Kaya, Y. Yayli, H.H. Hacsalihoglu


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