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ACERT 2007

Systems Overview

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Good Old Days


1969 427 Corvette

435 hp
460 ft-lb
9-14 MPG

Lowest emissions
Ease of service
Less service

2006 427 CID LS7

505 hp

More Power

470 ft-lb

More Torque

16-26 MPG

Best fuel economy

1969
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When were
the good old days?

Today

Regulated Diesel Emissions


Particulate Matter (PM)
Soot from incomplete combustion
Soluble organic fractions from the fuel &
lubricating oil (SOF)
Sulfates formed from the sulfur in the fuel
Oxides of Nitrogen (NOX)
Composed of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen
dioxide (NO2)
Hydrocarbons (HC)
Regulated either as total hydrocarbon
emissions (THC) or as non-methane
hydrocarbons (NMHC)
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
Smoke/Opacity

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On-Highway Emissions 1988 to 2010


0.6

EPA 88

0.5

PM

0.4
0.3
EPA 91

0.2
0.1

EPA
07/10

EPA
04

EPA
94

EPA
98

0
0

NOx (g/bhp.hr)
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10

11

New Engine Content


Core engines remain essentially
the same
Percent new content
C7 / C9 = approx. 35%
C13 = approx. 32%
C15 = approx. 32%

Predominantly external
components

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2007 System Overview


Series
Turbochargers

Flow
Sensor
Throttle

CGI
Cooler

Intake Valve
Actuation

CCV
Filter

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ATAAC

CGI
Valve

High
Pressure
Injection
System

Diesel
Particulate
Filter

ACERT 2007
Diesel Particulate Filter

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Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)

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Dual DPF

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Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)


1. What is a DPF?
2. How does a DPF work?
3. What does a DPF look like?
4. Is special DPF maintenance
required?

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Diesel Particulate Filter

Single DPF
Vertical or Horizontal
Mounting

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Dual DPF
600 Hp & Up

What is a DPF
Cells Fill Up
Soot Collects
Along the Inlet
Walls

Particulate Matter
or Soot

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Clean
Exhaust Out

How does a DPF work


Substrate

HC
Catalyst (Platinum)
CO
NOx
PM (soot+SOF+sulfates)
O2

Washcoat

CO2
H2O
NOx
O2

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Ash Distribution
Low density ash plug near outlet of filter
High density ash layer on wall thickness
increasing from inlet to outlet

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Core Materials
Cordierite
Inexpensive raw material
(cordierite is basically sand)
Low thermal expansion coefficient
Good mechanical strength

Cordierite
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What does a DPF look like?


Sensors on Center Section

CGI Connection
DPF Outlet

DPF Inlet

Skin
Temperature
Protection
V-Band ClampsTorque 100 inch/pounds
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DPF Sensors
Particulate Trap # 1 Intake
Temperature Sensor

Particulate Trap #1 Outlet


Temperature Sensor

Particulate Trap #1
Differential Pressure
Sensor Tap

Particulate Trap # 1
Differential Pressure
Sensor Tap

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Inlet Section

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Inlet Section
Distributor
Tube

Formed Marmon
Flange

Condensate
Ring
Insulation

Lifting
Eye

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Formed Flange
Connections to
Center Section

Inlet - Description
Inlet Diffuser
Tube

Outer Shell

Condensation Ring
Outer End
Cap

Inner End
Cap

Insulation

Lifting Eye

Inner Shell

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Center Section
Sensor Box

Temperature
Probe
Pressure
Boss

Sensor Box
Strap

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Filter does not


slide out of
center section

Center Section
1- time use gasket

Ceramic mat material


review safety material in
Service Manuals

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Center Section
Retaining ring is
welded in place

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Irreversibility
Cone feature is longer on reverse side of filter and will
cause interference with tab if trying to install backwards

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Center Section Sensor Box


Rock Guards

75 in/lbs

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Sensor Box

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Insulation

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Outlet Section

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Outlet Description
Outer Shell
Irreversibility
Tabs
Outer End
Cap

Condensation
Ring

Inner End
Cap
Insulation

Inner Shell
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Lifting Eye

Outlet Section - Vertical

Drain in this area

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Rain Protection
System on
Verticals

Typical DPF Installation


CGI Line

Air Flow
CGI Line

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OEM DPF Harness Connection

Purge Pump
Power Connector

DPF 1 & 2 Connectors

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Center Section Analysis

Good DPF no signs of


soot on outlet

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Soot collected on outlet side


of DPF -failed

Center Section Analysis

Soot collected on outlet side of DPF -failed

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Failed DPF

Soot collected on outlet side of DPF

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What do you think?

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Good Filter
Weld marks

This is a new filter from the factory


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What do you think?

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Good Filter

Staining is Acceptable,
Black soot is not

This is a used filter from service


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LC Lab DPF

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LC Lab DPF

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Nuked Trap

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Whats Happening to the Iron?

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Rules of Engagement
Engines Purchased from Leasing Company
Single Lease Customer Operation
All 6 Units Operated on the same Route
South East to West Coast

2 Phase Program (Phase 1=360K, Phase


2=475K)
Outside Engine Industry Expert Conducts
Teardown, Inspections & Written Reports

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Products History

Cat C15

Line Haul
ACERT
1. 355,515 Miles
2. 480,973 Miles

Cummins
Line Haul
Cooled-EGR
360,901 Miles
455,319 Miles

DDC S60

Line Haul
Cooled-EGR
381,100 Miles
480,717 Miles

Same Oil Change Intervals


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Competitive Tear Down


Inlet Manifolds

Soot
Build Up

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Detroit Intake
Phase 2

Phase 1

Soot Build Up
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Cummins Intake

Soot Build Up

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Cat Intake

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Competitive Tear Down


Performance Deterioration
Cooled-EGR contaminates the
air system with soot, blocking
ports and acids attack valve
seats

Phase 1

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Detroit Valves and Ports


Soot Build-Up

Phase 2

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Airflow Restricitons

Cummins Valves & Ports

Acid Attacking
Valve Faces
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Soot Build-Up

Reduced Air Flow

Cat Valves & Intake Port


Phase 2
Airflow Unrestricted

Valves Free
of Deposits

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Cummins EGR Cooler


Inlet Plugging

Phase 1

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Outlet 60% plugged

Phase 2

Detroit EGR Cooler

Soot Build Up

Phase 2

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Engine Inspection Report


DETROIT
Deep wear grooves top ring reversal area
Lack of honing marks throughout ring swept
area
# 6 intake valves show unusually high levels of
deposits
Oil rings show severe wear in expanders
High soot levels, normal result from using EGR

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Engine Inspection Report


CUMMINS
Significant Wear Overall
Significant Higher Top Ring Side Wear
Cyl. Liners Worn Through Hone Pattern
60 MM Wide Below Top Ring Reversal Point
High Soot Levels, Normal Result from Using
EGR

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Engine Inspection Report


CATERPILLAR
Excellent Top Ring Wear for 480K Miles
Very Light Liner Step @ End of Ring Travel
Lower Soot Levels = Lower Wear Levels

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Anticipated Life In Miles


1,000,000

530,000

Cat
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Cummins

490,000

DDC

Cooled EGR

More Soot Into the Air Intake


More Soot Build-Up in the Engine Oil
More Wear of Critical Parts
More Repair Costs over Time?
Higher Overall Operating Costs?
Overhaul before Trade Cycle?
Resale ?

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ACERT Technology

More Cool Clean Air


Cleaner Air = Cleaner Oil
Better Durability/Reliability
Lower Overall Operating Cost than EGR
B50 = Million Miles to Overhaul
Higher Resale Value

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ACERT 2007
Special DPF Maintenance

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DPF Ash Service

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DPF Ash Cleaning Tool


Requirements
Shop Air (100 psi)
120 VAC

Size
75(l) x 40(w) x 83(h)
1.9m(l) x 1.01m(w) x 2.1m(h)

Weight
1100 lbs
500 kg

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DPF Ash Cleaning Tool


Computer
Controlled
Valve

HEPA
Filter
Control
Panel

Filters
Disposable
Bucket
(Behind Door)

Expansion
Tank
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Accumulator Tank

Ash Cleaning Tool Features


Extensive testing
Patented pulse cleaning process
Extended Cartridge filter life
Self cleaning feature

Pre-check burst to determine if DPF


is cleanable

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Ash Cleaning Tool Features


Computer controlled
Fully Automated

Cleans all Caterpillar DPF sizes


Full containment of Ash for easy
disposal
HEPA filter system

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Ash Cleaning Process

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Ash Cleaning Process


Regen DPF on the Truck
Cat ET attached
Ash Service Test

Let Cool and Remove Filter


Place Filter in Tool

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Ash Cleaning Process


Adapter
Seal
DPF
Various adaptors for
the different DPFs
1 adaptor can be
used for multiple sizes
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Seal

Ash Cleaning Process

Bed
Hand Pump Raise
the bed
Seals Unit in Tool
Hydraulic Cylinders
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Ash Cleaning Process


Start Process
Air Flow
30 Puffs
45 Minutes
Totally
Automated

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Ash Cleaning Process

Ash
Collection
Area

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Ash Cleaning Process


Remove Filter from Tool
Re-install on Truck
Replace Seals

Hook-up Cat ET
Reset Ash Model
Interim Process - Call DSN

Send the truck on its way!

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Ash Cleaning Process


Cost
Total time 3 hours labor
Consumable Costs
Tool Cost

Customer Cost
$400 to $600 USD

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Part Numbers & Costs

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Tool Part Numbers


319-2189 Cleaner Gp
Includes:
319-2187 Cleaner DPF
319-2190 Adaptor group

319-1834 Cone 11 inch


319-1835 Cone 13 inch
319-1836 Cone 15 inch
319-1838 Adaptor-lower large
319-1839 Adaptor-lower small

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Consumables
Five Items

HEPA Filter
Cartridge Filters (2)
Disposal Bucket
Air Dryer Desiccant
Coalescing Filter

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Consumables
HEPA Filter
319-2193
Life
500 - 1000 DPF
Cleanings

Cost
$840.76 USD D/N

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Consumables
Cartridge filter
319-2194
14 dia, 30 long
2 filters/pack
Life
15 to 100 DPF Cleanings

Cost
$ 349.45 USD D/N

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Consumables
Cartridge filter
319-2194
Soot in DPF dramatically
14 dia, 30 long
shortens Cartridge Filter
2 filters/pack life!
Life

15 to 100 DPF Cleanings

before
Regen
Cleaning
DPF
Cost
$ 349.45 USD D/N

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Consumables
Filter Bucket
319-1833
Life
3 or 4 per clean out
Clean out every 15 100 DPF Cleanings

Cost
$113.97 USD D/N

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Consumables
Air Dryer Desiccant
320-2679
Life
25 DPF Cleanings
Can be oven dried and re-used

Cost
$XX.XX USD D/N

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Consumables
Coalescing Filter
320-2680
Life
500+ DPF Cleanings

Cost
$XX.XX USD D/N

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Additional Adapters
Mass Transit Bus

Use 319-2192 Adaptor-MTB*


Use with 319-1835 cone
Cost
$739.74 USD D/N

*This is NOT part of the standard 319-2190 Adaptor


Group, it is ordered separately!
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Cleaner Costs*
Dealer Net

319-2189 Cleaner Gp

$16,169.47

Individual Pricing
319-2187 Cleaner DPF
319-2190 Adaptor group
319-1834 Cone 11 inch - $245.12
319-1835 Cone 13 inch - $249.66
319-1836 Cone 15 inch - $256.90
319-1838 Adaptor-lower large - $747.64
319-1839 Adaptor-lower small - $750.54
*Dealer Net prices as of 14 Sep 07
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$14,787.77
$2,024.87

Shop Tips
This image is the result of
NOT using Anti-Seize on
the DPF Inlet
thermocouple sensor spin
nut or DPF mounting
boss during initial
installation in Tech Center
Building L (DPF Upgrade).

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CGI Line

CGI Line

CGI Line
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CGI Venturi & Cooler

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CGI Line to the Mixing Valve

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CGI Actuator

Mixing Valve Door

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Aftertreatment Regeneration
Device

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Cat Regeneration System


Consists of:
ARD (Aftertreatment Regeneration
Device)
DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter)
Electronic Controls

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CRS Cat Regeneration System


Goal: To increase exhaust gas temperature to accelerate
regeneration of the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)

C (s) + O2 + Energy (heat) = CO2 (g) + H2O


Trapped in the DPF

From Engine or ARD


In engine exhaust

GLOBAL MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT

Out tail pipe

Soot and Ash


Definition of Soot

Soot Cleaning

Soot is a byproduct of
incomplete combustion

DPF Collects the soot

Definition of Ash

Ash Cleaning

Ash is Noncombustible
residue of a lubricating
oil or fuel

DPF Collects the ash

GLOBAL MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT

Elevated exhaust
temperatures convert the
soot to vapor

Ash is removed using a


special service tool

Regeneration Types
Active Regeneration
No
Regeneration

0C
32F

200C
392F

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Passive Regeneration

400C
752F

600C
1112F

700C
1292F

Passive Regeneration
Occurs when the engine is under high
load
Exhaust temperatures alone are
enough to regenerate small amounts
of soot
Passive Regeneration

0C
32F

200C
392F

GLOBAL MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT

400C
752F

600C
1112F

700C
1292F

Active Regeneration
Mobile Active (No Interaction) (Moving)
Enhanced Passive (No Interaction)
(Stationary)
Manual (Requires Interaction)
Active Regeneration
(Stationary)

0C
32F

200C
392F

GLOBAL MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT

400C
752F

600C
1112F

700C
1292F

Mobile Active Regeneration


Occurs when a regeneration is needed
and vehicle is over 20 MPH
No operator notification
Active Regeneration

0C
32F

200C
392F

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400C
752F

600C
1112F

700C
1292F

Enhanced Passive Regeneration


Occurs at 0 MPH
Maintain soot during extensive idle
periods
Lower exhaust temp
700 RPM,
Fan On
Enhanced Passive
400 C for 20 minutes every 2 hours
0C
32F

200C
392F

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400C
752F

600C
1112F

700C
1292F

Manual Regeneration

Occurs at 0 MPH
DPF lamp must be illuminated
Must initiate with force switch
ET commanded manual regen does not
require DPF lamp to be illuminated
Active Regeneration

0C
32F

200C
392F

GLOBAL MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT

400C
752F

600C
1112F

700C
1292F

Manual Regen Requirements


Level 1 regeneration warning
reached
DPF Light On

Coolant Temp greater than 20C


(68F)
ARD out Temp greater than 30C
(86F)
Aftertreatment Disable Switch Off
or Not Programmed
Clutch Pedal Position Switch Off
(open)
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Manual Regen Requirements

Transmission neutral switch engaged


Service brake switch #2 engaged
In park (if automatic transmission)
PTO On/Off Switch in the Off position
(if programmed)
Regeneration in PTO set to enabled (if
programmed)
Vehicle must be stationary

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Manual Regen
Hold manual regen switch for 4 seconds
ECM tests the air valve and fuel valve
DPF lamp will go out and engine speed
will ramp to 1400 rpm
Engine fan turns on (for parasitic
loading)
HEST lamp will come on when exhaust
temp exceeds 450 C

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ARD Lights for 5 Reasons


Automatic DPF regeneration
Enhanced passive maintenance of the
DPF
Manual DPF regeneration
Mid-Range warm-up emissions
strategies and white smoke elimination
HC cleanup (MR/HD) emissions
strategies and white smoke elimination

GLOBAL MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT

Emissions Strategies
Mid-Range Warm-Up
Emissions compliance sooner
Runs if dpf out is less than 250 C and
vehicle speed is 0 MPH
Engine RPM remains at low idle due to VNT
usage
Runs until dpf inlet is greater than 450 C (1
second) or dpf outlet is greater than 325 C
for 2 minutes

GLOBAL MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT

Emissions Strategies
HC Clean-up (on MR and HD)
Eliminate HC slip (raw fuel in the DPF)
Engine RPM will elevate to 700 RPM
Runs every one hour based on a timer
Timer will be 0 if:
Vehicle speed is above 0 mph
Soot is greater than 115% (enhanced passive starts at 120%)
Dpf inlet is greater than 400 C or outlet is greater than 150 C

Runs until dpf inlet is above 400 C or outlet is greater than 325
for 2 minutes

GLOBAL MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT

What Triggers a Regen?


ECM soot calculation
ECM calculates the amount of soot the
engine is putting out under all operating
conditions

Time
HD - 12 hours (6 hours with sensor fault)
MR - 5 hours

DPF differential pressure


Used as a fail safe since there is no direct
correlation between soot loading and
differential pressure
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perrylb:
perrylb:
illustrator
illustrator

Trigger Graph
Soot

Pressure

12 Hrs (5 MR)
Time (hours)

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Pressure

Soot %

Time

Partial Soot Loading Model Inputs

Coolant Temperature
Ambient Air Temperature
Altitude
Fuel Flow
DPF Inlet & Outlet Temperature
Shot Mode
Engine Speed
Exhaust Gas Temperature #1 (Turbo Out)
Exhaust Gas Temperature #3 (Flame Length)
CGI Flow
Timing
Total Exhaust Flow

GLOBAL MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT

CRS Indicators and Switches


Force Regen Switch
DPF Lamp

HEST Lamp

Manual Disable Switch

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Stop Engine Lamp


Engine derate
Check engine lamp
DPF Lamp - blink
DPF Lamp - solid

0
INCREASING SOOT LOAD

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Permanent System Lockout

Operator Interface Review

100

ARD Combustion System

ARD Head
Spark Plug
Ignition Coil/cable
Combustion Air
Line and sensor
Fuel
Lines/valves/sens
ors
ARD Housing
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Combustion Zones
Secondary
Zone

Max length 12

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Primary
Zone

ARD Housings

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ARD Head

Nozzle

Swirler Plate

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ARD Combustion
Combustion Air Holes

Pilot & Main


Exit here

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ARD Combustion System

Combustion Air Vents


The spark for ignition jumps
directly to the swirler plate

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ARD Housing Assembly

ARD Head

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Combustion Containment
Canister

ARD Housing

ARD Housing Assembly

ARD Head

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Combustion Containment
Canister

ARD Housing

ARD Fuel Supply


Fuel Filter base
Fuel Enable Valve
Pilot and Main
Fuel PWM valves
Pilot and Main
Fuel Pressure
Sensors

GLOBAL MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT

ARD Fuel Supply


Fuel Enable Valve

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ARD Fuel Supply

Main Fuel
Line

Pilot
Fuel
Line

Pilot
Solenoid

Main
Solenoid

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Pilot Fuel Pressure


Sensor

Main Fuel
Pressure Sensor

ARD Fuel Supply


Pilot

Coolant In Main

Pilot
Main

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Coolant Out

New Fuel Manifold Location

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ARD Air Supply


Venturi

Differential Pressure Sensor

CRS Combustion Air Valve

GLOBAL MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT

CRS Temp Sensors


Flame Detect

Flame Length

DPF
Outlet

DPF
Inlet
Turbo Out

GLOBAL MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT

Temp Control & Monitoring


Exhaust gas
temperature #1
Exhaust gas
temperature #2
Exhaust gas
temperature #3
Particulate trap inlet
and outlet temperature
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sensors

Temp Control & Monitoring

Exhaust Gas Temperature #2 Sensor


Exhaust Gas Temperature
#3 Sensor

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Temp Control & Monitoring


Particulate trap # 1 outlet and inlet temperature sensors

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To Disable Regeneration
Set the disable regeneration switch
on the dash (If Installed)
OR
Go to ET configuration screen and
use the ARD Data Link Disable
parameter to manually disable the
regen.
Both actions will manually disable the CRS (air,fuel,and
spark).
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Cat Common Rail Fuel System

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Variable Nozzle Turbocharger

AVNT

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DAVNT

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