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com
UNIVERSITY OF JORDAN
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
HIGHWAY ENGINEERING PROJECT

Summer Course 2009-2010


Instructor: Prof. Khair Jadaan
TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION
2. ROUTE LOCATION
2.1 Guiding Principles
2.2 Route selection
3. EARTHWORK CALCULATIONS
3.1 Profile and Cross Sections
3.2 Areas of Cross Sections
3.3 Volumes of Earthwork
3.4 Sample Calculations for Areas and Volumes
3.5 Mass-haul Diagram
3.6 Cost Estimation of Earthwork
4. HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT
4.1 Sight Distance
4.2 Design of Horizontal Curves
4.3 Superelevation Calculations
4.4 Sample Calculation
4.5 Widening of Pavement on Curve
5. VERTICAL ALIGNMENT
5.1 Grades and Types of Vertical Curves
5.2 Design of Vertical Curves
5.3 Sample Calculation
6. CONCLUSION
REFERENCES

civilium-ju.com
UNIVERSITY OF JORDAN
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
HIGHWAY ENGINEERING PROJECT

Summer Course 2009-2010


Instructor : Prof. Khair Jadaan
TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION
2. ROUTE LOCATION
2.1 Guiding Principles
2.2 Route selection
3. EARTHWORK CALCULATIONS
3.1 Profile and Cross Sections
3.2 Areas of Cross Sections
3.3 Volumes of Earthwork
3.4 Sample Calculations for Areas and Volumes
3.5 Mass-haul Diagram
3.6 Cost Estimation of Earthwork
4. HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT
4.1 Sight Distance
4.2 Design of Horizontal Curves
4.3 Superelevation Calculations
4.4 Sample Calculation
4.5 Widening of Pavement on Curve
5. VERTICAL ALIGNMENT
5.1 Grades and Types of Vertical Curves
5.2 Design of Vertical Curves
5.3 Sample Calculation
6. CONCLUSION
REFERENCES

civilium-ju.com

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T'-i+~enl,al

F o r r Lane'
m o tLane
wa
s,des'''D_
y

fT

Bustness.

/f...oolway~

[
I

2-lane street

__.--

Outer separalton /

Urban motor way

Shoulder

Lanes

Shoulder

rr-T---~-l Gentle slope


....___;__.:___-+---'-1-__:___ / Rounde d

Rouzd;:nlle slope

\j

"',"'-~/ "

Rounded dilch ____.,.

2 or 3-lane rural highway


Ce nl r al

Gen tie
s I ope

Rou nde d -...___,;----------'-"'-~L-+----__.:__

_:_

Rout\d;d ditch

Rura I

Fig. (1.21.

l.arte

Vvidfk:..

m_ ot or way :-J:: .P,i

T1 pical high11:11

ct<lSS-SL~Ltinns

3 ..s _ ~, #'

Right-of- way boundary

Formation Width

Batter

Moving Traffic

Verge

Table 7.3

W3P-I~~

Batter

,, Sho;lder

1\pical shoulder widlhs on .1culcd undi1idcd mrul roads

Design traffic volume (vehicles/day 1

Shoulder width rn tftJ

Single-lane roads
Two-lane roads
ur to IO()(l
over 1000

1.5

1.'11 to

2.5

t~l

I() 11) to 2.0 tfll

1.0

(.\)to

3.01 !OJ

Source. Ihsed on ;\ustroads ( Jl)X9J. Tahle -1.2.

Table 7.6

General ma.Yimum grades on undi1idcd rurul roads IIJN ont!

Terrain
Road classification

Flat

Rolling

Mountainou;,

Arterial
Sub-arterial
Collector
Local

3--5
3-5
3--5

4-h
5--7
6-X

(J X
7--9
X I0

4-6

7-9

9-11

civilium-ju.com
D\STAN

\! }

E:-

is wet. i.e. the condition chosen fur measuring the friction factor. American
experience in this matter suggests that the speed ftH wet conditions is appru.ximately ~:'to l)'i per cent of the design .~peed. Studies on rnotorways 111
this countn. howen:r. indicate that Bnttsh dnvcrs pay relattvely ltttle attention [~~t weather cnnditions. hH this tcason it is probably safer to dcstgn
on the assumptitlll that 1chicks will be travcllinL?. at the dcsit.;n spL~ed of the
htghwav.
~Tab-le 6.9 shows the safe stopping sight distances recommended hy the
Department oft he Environment fur usc in the design of single- and dualcarriagc\\'ay urban and rural roads in Britain.

Slllf'f'illg

!;,,"'1'"<'"-

1Jnigll

L. ri><JII

,//\/<1/ICt'. Ill

1\uro/

Or<'l'/tiidll~ disl,/11<<!, 111

L rhun

<()()
210

120
I\)()

Sll

l.fll

h()

<)(I

:'ill
\()

7()

l.f()
')()

lW

270

1\unil

4:"0
:l61l
270

225
1.1.''

_\\)

c--- . --

--+--------------~-----------------------------------------

_l:_p

-~---IIIJ,.,

I..

d,

..

Fi)!. 6.111.

dz
Flcmcnts of total passing sight dtstancc rc:qutrcmcnts ,,n 2-lanc roads

2-lanc roads. i\s indica ted by Fig. 6.1 0. there arc four components of the

minimum distance required for safe overtaking on 2-lanc roads.


The dimension d 1 represents the time taken or distance travelled by a
vehicle while its driver makes up his mind whether or not it is safe to pass the
vehicle in front. This time period has been described as the hesitation
timc 115 l and is in the order of J5 sec for comfortable o\crtaking conditions.
The dimension d 7 represents the time taken or distance travelled lw the
overtaking vehicle it~ carrying out the actU<il passing manoeuvre. Tl;u, it
begins the instant the overtaking driver turns the wheel and ends when he
returns to his own lane. Measurements under controlled conditions regarding the length of this dimension arc shown as solid lines in Fig. 6.11. The
dotted lines shown in this graph provide estimates of the requirements at
higher speeds. l17 Sec.. f<~"" 7S Krn/r.v Spu.tA of NCK~o.K~l"' w.\..\<:.le.)
The dimension d, has been called the safctv dimension and is the time or
distance between the overtaking \Thick and the oncoming Ychtc!c at the
instant the ovcrtak111g vehicle has returned to its own lane. !-rom a safctv
aspect it is uf course desirable that this distance should be as large as
possible. Practical economic requirements on the other hand necessitate that
it oc as small as possible. One suggested value has been Ji sec. This means
that if the combined relative speed
160 krn/h, then a safety margin of 6 7 m
is available between the two vehicles.
The dimension d 4 represents the time taken or distance travelled by the
opposing vehicle at the design speed of the road while the actual overtaking
manoeuvre is taking place. Conservatively it should be the total distance
travelled by the opposing vehicle during tht: timt: d 1 + d 2 , but in pract icc this
may be questioned as being too long. Examination of the overtaking vehicle's track in Fig. 6.10 shows that it can return freely to its own lane at any
instant prior to drawing alongside the overtaken vehicle. If this initial time i~
not taken into account then the opposing vehicle dimension d,. can be taken
as approximately equal to ~-d,.

is

~-

civilium-ju.com

Cut

'

\'\'!urn~. <1\"L'f<H!l!

c'lld area mcth:Jd -._, --

'

Cut

'

'_,>------ -/
I
I

I') ranml ,olumc. fill


Pyramid volume. cut

~\\ i.:l":\~1...

L'lld

lllethnd

<I!"C'a

Fill' olumc. a\'c'J'a~c

end area metlwd

FIGURE 5.4
Earthwork calculation> in transition fm111 till to cut.

general rule, most sQils...wilLs.l1rjnk and ro_s;l'~iiL~!Y-~ll. This shrinkage or swell must
be accounted for in order to determine whether a given amount of excavation will
make a given amount of embankment. The definitions of shrinkage and s\vell may
sometimes differ in practice: for purposes of this text. howe,er. shrinkage and swell
will be defined as the proportional change in volume of the material. relative to the volume it occupied in its natural state. This means that
(5 61

VI =(I + s)V(
and

Vc

v,

+-

(5.7)
.1'

where Vc and Vr are the volumes of cut and fill, respectively, and sis the shrinkage or
swell, understood to be negative when it is shrinkage and positive when it is swell.
I~XAMPI,E PROBLEM 5.2

Given the end areas below, calculate the volumes of cut and fill
between sta~im~s 351 ~~- 00 and 352 + 50. f~' the ma.terial shrink~er~ent, ho:"', much excess cut or till1s there? Express excess cut 111 nr1 o1 cut, and excess 111! 111 m 3 of hi!.

/'

...

~'./).

) '~'

"'-

I
I

.)

Station

r.f
)

End areas, m2

l
'l"r
r

"

351 + 00
351 +50
35) + 75
352 + 00
352 + 14
352 +50

Cut

0
8.40
13.80
.13.34

Fill

57.93
52.28
23.58
3.73
0

civilium-ju.com
Table .

l!slla! dl'.lixn .\fheds fin 1uriou.1 classes of rood


~-

Area

f"unction

Rural

Arterial

Suo-arterial
Collector
Local
Urhan

Arterial

Suh-arterial
Collector
Local

Freeway
Divided
Undivided
Undivided
Undivided
Undivided
Freeway
Divided
Undivided
Divided
Undivided
Undivided
Undivided
--------

-~~

--- - - - - - - -

I 00-130 ( 60-XO J
I 00-130 (60-XO)

KO-l.lO (50-SO)
60-120 (40--7.~)
60-120 (40--7 5)
40-KO (25-50)
H0-100 (50-60)
80-100 (50-60)
m--HO (45-50)
70-XO (45--50)
60-KO {-+0-50)
SO-SO (30-SO)
40-60 1254())

----~------------~-------

AP-R!QQriate level of service for specified combinations of


area and terrain type
Rural level

Rural rolling

Rural
mountainous

Freeway
Arterial

B
B

B
B

c
c

c
c

Collector
Local

D
D

0
0

Functional
class

Exhibit

Guidelines for Selection of Design Levels of Service

Level A
Free flow, no restrictions
on .f!l.<!MtJ.Yering
or operating speed

Level B
Stable flow,
few restrictions

Urban and
suburban

civilium-ju.com

,), t
'',

Level C
Stable flow,
more restrictions

Level D
Approaching
unstable flow

,,):

lliiiiiilr.l' .,,, :

Level E
Unstable flow,
some stoppages

~,;;;.; 1 ':.~

S...e-

Level F
Forced flow,
many stoppages

IGURI~

/l-11

(CONTINUFD)

59

civilium-ju.com
UNIVERSITY OF JORDAN
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
HIGHWAY ENGINEERING PROJECT
Summer Course 2009-2010
Instructor: Prof. Khair Jadaan

You are asked to prepare a complete geometric design for a 2-lane


U.A?/b
single carriageway rural road to connect three towns A,B and Cas shown
on the hypothetical attached contour map . Assume that there is a bridge
over the sag vertical curve with a vertical clearance of 30m

../
Given the following information for geometric design
Design speed
= 100 km/hr
Max. uphill gradient
Perception time
Reaction t:me

= 4% '"
= 0.50 second
= 0.75 second

Coef. of friction between tyre and road


Coef. of lateral friction

Max superelevation
Length of commercial vehicle

0.4

= 0.15

0.067
= 15m

Rate of change of centrifugal acceleration (C)

= 0.5 m/seC2
Vertical radial acceleration (a )
= 0.4 m/seC2
Height of driver's eye above the road surface
= 1.05 m
Height of dangerous object above the road surface= zero
~1}'1 015 tl
The following information is also given for earthwork calculations :

Level across cross-section


Shrinkage factor

= 0.85

Free-haul distance

= 250m

Overhaul cost
Cost of borrow

=
=

JD 0.25/m3/5 km
JD 0.50/m3

Cost of surplus

JD 0.35/m3

Assume any necessary additional data.

civilium-ju.com
"""""1J I a_;.:::.,.
f oolway lane ' lane

S1deslrip

2-lane street
fool,.,ay SerVIce road

Lanes

Med1an

~;~----111'
~lanr j

Business

,J

Ouier

se~or:Jilon

Res1denl1al

.---

Urbar, motJrway { v(~,J C,c,(({J,_je_ \J~

lii.i dr,llii\":J
I

-''lo fo( t.IP.}

Shouldrr
Laces Shoulder
Roundr1 . .
r-- _.____-t --.,..,- -1
\ Ge.,- ie '.lo 1.c 1
j
I
1 Gen tie
sl <-pe

~ ,

;("~
...,._.:.,;-..
.. ~

v~

J./-r.... ~

Rounded d<lch _.....,-

2 or

I
3-la~e

' I Rounded
~/

rural highway

Rural molorway
Fil!. 6.21.

-r~ e d~ .1t5 ~ Cro9;, sed 1 '~.,.


.At

Tv(l1( 4 \

Crvs> >~crJ~

T.1 pica/ high11ay CJws-scetions

Right-of- way boundary

Formation Width

----------

~
Verge

Table 7.3

Batter

Tvpicalshoulda widths on seolcd undi1ided rural m(/ds

Design traffic volume (vehicles/day)

Shoulder width rn (ftJ

Single-lane roads
Two-lane roads

!.." tSi to 2.5 tll)

up to I 000

1.0 (J) to 2.0 (6)

over I 000

1.0 t3i to 3.0 ( 101

Source: Based on Austroad;.; ( 19X9i. Table 4.2.

Table 7.6

General maxinnun grades on undil'idcd ruwl mads

Terrain
Mountainous

Road classification

Flat

Rolling

Arterial
Sub-arterial
Collector
Local

3-S
3-S
3-5
4-6

4-6

6-~

5-7

7-9

6-l\

~-10

7-lJ

lJ-11

lflN C('!l/)

civilium-ju.com

l Jnc il.~r1 ncllll'd

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.1nglc

y
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Of he t

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7r- 7/Olhct

llncll.lnncilll'd

1\liiltlicg 1111<'1"''1''"1

Other'

_j~

-,,---

-------

/(_
~

--~--

//
Fi,lfl'Ci

R.tJ(dl

lfl!{'l )('(_

l i(Jfl
\

i'

civilium-ju.com

Partralclovcrlcal (p,uclo)

I vpicdlcloverlc<tl

r,unps in 2 qu<tdr,mts

wrth collcllor distrihutor rodds

~OLJR.CE

1\J.tptt'd lrnrn 1\mrr iL d!1

\v'lO(r,ttron

of

)t.t!C

Hi;.;hw.t)

Ott lltdl'> ,-1 /)o/~r yon Ct'ometr!( L)e_\f(j/7 of Rural llt<Jh-

lvoy.,, .'\lllL'fllc\11
1%\,p 1'11.

\\\(Jlt.!!l(>n 1!

~Lite Hrghwd~

OlfrLrdl-.,

FICURE 7-5
CL.OVIRL[;\1 INTERCJL\NCJ:S

(c) [)i,mwnd

civilium-ju.com
ARAB FUND FOR ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL

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The saturation flow is the flow which would be obtained if there was a continuous queue of vehicles and they were given a I 00 per cent green time. It is
generally expressed in vehicles per hour of green time. 1t can be seen from Fig. 20

a?

;t(t'<'f.'\

u~ Jhe !lften

2'

of

c,

pirtctSe

:__ _

Saturation !low:=
?'~

hY

S2.5 _. Appl"o"'c:J.... w'1c!.{i-. (m)

'

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1-he
I

:::::.

Arll ner

~:, -:. {<.e d


'

T 1 rne ----- --

Delays at traffic signals


.
The TR RL has calculated that the delay in seconds per vch1cle due to
I,
,; ,
traffic signals is approximately:

s(c --g) 2

1800qc

d = 0 9[
+
2c(s-q) gs(gs--qc)

J
0 C L.t :::

\, C)O

.'

{<.? J Aw-"ot1

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ARAB FUND FOR ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

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610

Highway Capacity
610.01
610.02
610.03

General
Definitions and Symbols
Design

610.01 GENERAL

without partial control of access, that may have periodic


interruptions to flow at signalized intersections.
~~ f-fY'_

The term "S.i!J?acity" is used to express t!Ic:! maximum


number of vehicles that have a reasonabl~ expectation of
passing over a se<;tion of a lane or a roadway during a
given time period 4nder prevailing roadway and traffic
conditions. Highway capacity is of vital concern in the
design of highways. A knowledge of highway capacity is
essential to the proper fitting of a planned highway to the
requirements of traffic. It helps both in the selection of
highway type and in determining dimensional needs such
as number oflanes.
The purpose of this section is to provide the user with
enough information to perform a preliminary capacity
analysis for basic highway sections. This chapter also
gives a basis for determining the need for more detailed
capacity analysis.

Peak Hour Factor (PHF). The ratio of the volume


occurring during the peak hour to the maximum rate of
flow during a given time period within the peak hour. It
is the measure of peaking characteristics of a highway
section or intersection.
Service Flow Rate (SFL). The maximum hourly rate of
flow that can be accommodated past a point or short
uniform segment of traffic lane (for multilane) or the
entire roadway (for a two-lane facility), under prevailing
traffic, roadway, and control conditions while maintaining a stated level of service; value is specific to a given
level of service .
.:.\..t._,~,
.
'J/:..,IL--'Ic...>...,
T erralD. __, " j

(a) Level Terrain. Any combination of grades and


horizontal and vertical alignment permitting heavy
vehicles to maintain approximately the same speed
as passenger cars; this generally includes short grades
of no more than 1 to 2 percent.
This Design Manual chapter does not cover preliminary
capacity analysis for highway portions with signal spac(b) .Rolling Terrain. Any combination of grades and
!ng of less than 2 miles and those within 2,500 feet of, ~~~v .v horizontal or vertical alignment causing heavy
mterchange ramps.
JJ)r' ;~
1 vehicles to reduce their speeds substantiaiJy below
610.02 DEFINITIONS AND SYMBOLS
p-t~f,--' those of passenger cars, ~~t [lot causing heavy
vehicles to operate at crawl speeds for any significant
( 1) Definitions
( r..t<-Jiii1J '>P<"Ld
length oftime.
Average Daily Traffic (ADT). The volume of traffic
(c) Mountainous Terrain. Any combination of grades
passing a point or segment of a highway, in both direc- ~~and horizontal and vertical alignment causing heavy
tions, during a period of time, divided by the number of "" y/ \ vehicles to operate at crawl speeds for significant
distances or at frequent intervals.
days in the period and factored to represent an estimate
of traffic volume for an average day of the year.
Heavy vehicle is defined as any vehicle having more than
Directional DesignHourVolume(DDHV). ~c
four tires touching the pavement. Crawl speed is the
vol~.inJhe peak direction of flow;
maximum sustained speed which heavy vehicles can
usually a forecast of the relevant peak hour volume.
maintain on an extended upgrade of a given percent.
(Units ofDDHV are vehicles per hour. DDHV should be
(2) Symbols
rounded to the nearest 50 vph.)
K
The percentage of ADT occurring in the peak
Freeway. A divided highway facility that has a minihour.
mum of two lanes for the exclusive use of traffic in each
The percentage of peak hour traffic in the
D
direction and fulll~~JfloS!cce/.i ..,.-JJ 0-Mttli':J ~
heaviest direction of flow.
Level of ~ervice (LOS). A 'l!:l.'YJtative measure describKD The product of K and D.
mg the Oj)erationaLmndjtions. wittJ.!n a traffic stream;
Adjustment factor to account for the effect
fE
generally described in terms of such factors as speed,
of the highway's access and egress points
travel time, freedom to maneuver, comfort and con(intersections, driveways, ramps) and
venience, safety, and others. See Figure 610-1 for approwhether or not it is a divided highway. (Sec
priate design levels of service for different highway types.
Figure 610-2.)
Multilane Highway. A highway with at least two lanes
for the exclusive use of traffic in each direction, with or

Design Manual
June 1989

610-1

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.bi~GT<A/VI (cov~s
P':oMASS- 1-/AIJL

B.:f

J)Y-

Kha1r :Tadeta.ll

No7Ev
.l!li~oog5)J)O-

Method of Constructing the Mass-haul diagram


1.

2.
3.

4.
5.

Calculate cross-sectional areas at convenient intervals.


Calculate the volume between adjoining cross-sections, letting cut
volumes be +ve and fill volumes be -ve.
Sum the volumes algebrically from length to length.
Draw the base line under the longitudinal section, and mark off
chainage to the same scale as the longitudinal section.
Plot the algebric sum of the volume vertically against the length
horizontally.

Characteristics of the M-H diagram


L
2.
3.
4~

5.
6.

7.

8.

9.
10.

When the curve slopes upwards (rising) the work is cutting.


When the curve slopes downwards (falling) the work is filling.
The max. points on the curve occur at the end of a cut.
The minimum points on the curve occur at the end of a fill.
The curve starts at ze~o, and when it again reaches zero, the cut
balances the fill between the two points.
The difference between the ordinates at two points represents the
volume of cut or fill between the two points so )onq as there is
no maximum or minimum point between the two.
Any horizontal line (ab) drawn across the curve will give cut and
fill balance between the two points of intersection (a&b).
(Such a line is termed a balancing line)
If at the end of the route the curve is below zero, then fill
exceeds cut and extra material will have to be brought on to the
site.
If, however, the curve is above zero, then cut exceeds fill.
To avoid either of these difficulties, the proposed formation level
may be adjusted so that cut and fill balance.
If this cannot be done
a.

11.

Where there is insufficient fill it is usually cheaper


to make the cut wider than to bring in extra material.
b. Where there is excess fill, it is cheaper to widen the
fil1 than to transport earth to dumping ground.
When the curve is above the balancing line, material must be moved
to the right; when it is Qa1ow such a line the material must be
moved to the left.

'

civilium-ju.com
EXTRA COMMENT

l.

It is possible ~tiJSe the base 1ine as a balancing 1ine but in our case
if it is used there is a surplus {excess cut) of 8,480 m3 ) (ex. Bannister
P235). Therefore, any number of horizontal lines may be drawn on the
curve to do the work in the most economical manner. These lines need
not be continuous.

2.

If balancing lines are not connected it means that the earthwork between
these points (1,2- 3,4) will not be balanced. (If curve is rising =i>
waste cut; if falling~it is necessary to borrow materials).
/

3.

It can be seen, therefore, that to obtain the most economical scheme,


the balancing lines will not probably be continuous.
Balancing line too

long~excessive

and uneconomic haul distance

too short 9-a lot of wasted cut and borrowed materials


due to incontinuity.

4.

Thus scheme involving a} Balanced earthworks


b) Borrowing at some points

c) Running to waste at others


is most likely to be used.
5.

J having

regard to
free haul

It is better if material hauled down hill, since this requires less


power. Therefore, in long hauls up steep gradients it may be worthwhile
to waste material from the cutting and borrow from subsequent
embankment.

1 ('.\

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Earthworks

+ ve, the falling


curve indicates fill --ve.
(3) the maximum and minimum points of a M.H. D. oct:ur directly
beneath the intersection of the natural ground and the formation
grade, such intersections are called gmde points.
(4) as the curve of the M.H.D. rises above the balance line AB,
the haul is from left to right. When the curve lies below the balance
line. the haul is from right to left.
(5) the total cut volume is represented by the maximum ordinate
(2) the rising curve, shown broken, indicates cut

r_

1
N

"'
'a

"lT~r
~I ,.J

'tl

CD.

1il

~I ::J

(6) in moving earth !'rom cut to fill, assume the first load 'ijould be
from the cut ut );'to the fill at }'; the last load from the cut at Y to

I .\

:; 1_(. I
Ei~
_ iE
()

Ill

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t

~\
0

<

if
u

....
Cl

l-

-.!i

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i1\

:;

l.J.S. Balancing Procedures

In order tu illustrate the use of freehaul distance consider Figure


2.26.
(I) assuming a free haul distance of l00 m; move this scaled distance

'tl

the Hll nt Z. Thus the haul distance would appear to be from a point
mid-way between X and Y, to a p11int mid-way between l' and Z.
1-Iowcver as the section is repre.sentative of volume not area, the
haul distance is from the centroid of the cut volume to the centroid
of the fill volurne. The horizontal positions of these centroids may
be found by bise.cting the total volume ordinate CD with the h11ri
z.ontalline EF.
Nnw as haul is Vl)lumc X dist:.tnce. the total ha1tl in the sectiun
is total vnlume'>:total haul distance:.:: CD:.<f/100stn. m.

~;

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67

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2.26

N)

civilium-ju.com
ROUTE LOCATION

250

The selection of a crossing point is in most instances coni1ected


with a deviation from the desired alignment, and therefore the
location of a bridge crossing over a major river should be considered
as an essential route control point.
58. Route Development on Slopes
'\'hen locating a route in mountainous regions or a hilly country,
and especially along river valleys and ravines, one frequently comes

I)

1st olternutiue
I

1st

!/

{J

alternative

Sta4!0

. <:::s

2nd olternotive

,](}{}

1/

Sto410

Fig. J 19. Alternative road location on a hillside

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~

Art&rla!Roada

_j

Sub-artertal Roads

Co,.<to< Roodo

Local Roads

Figure 25 Furrctioil.al ciasses of road and relacin~ priority for through traffic and access ro abuccing
property (source: Traffic Authority of New South Wales. 1981. Figure 5j

34

I) RoaJ

W GEOMETRIC DESIGN OF ltOAOS

Table 2..1

Classification of roads for design purposes

Area

Function

Type

Rural

Anerial

Freeway
Divided
Undivided
Undivided
Undivided
Undivided

Uttmpi

Sub-aneriai
Co1lec10r
Local

2) ctu'tcWiese
Urban

Anerial

Sub-arterial
Collector'
Local,
:1.

Freeway
Divided
Undivided
Divided
Undivided
Undivided
Undivided

See Chap1er
I
. ''
ll

I-

7
7
7
7

..,

l-

9
8
y
8
8
8

In speci:;l cases. these roads may be divided. ~uch as for


i:.md~capmg, aeslhetic or topographic reasons.

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civilium-ju.com
610
Highway Capacity
610.01
610.02
610.03

General

Definili:Jns and Symbols


Design

610.01 GENERAL
The term ..capacity" is used to express the maximum
number of vehicles that have a reasonable expectation of
passing over a section of a lane or a roadway during a
given time period under prevailing roadway and traffic
conditions. Highway capacity is of vital concern in the
design of highways. A knowledge of highway capacity is
essential to the proper fitting of a planned highway to the
requirements of traffic. It helps both in the selection of
highway type and in determining dimensional needs such
as numberoflanes.
The purpose of this section is to provide the user with
enough information to perform a preliminary capacity
analysis for basic highway sections. This chapter also
gives a basis for determining the need for more detailed
capacity analysis.
This Design MlUIJIIll chapter does not cover preliminary
capacity analysis for highway portions with signal spacing of less than 2 miles and those within 2,500 feet of
interchange ramps.

610.02 DEFINITIONS AND SYMBOLS


(1) Definitions

Average Daily Traffic (ADT). The volume of traffic


passing a point or segment of a highway. in both directions, during a period of time. divided by the number of
days in the period and factored to represent an estimate
of traffic volume for an average day of the year.
Directional Design Hour Volume (DDHV). The traffic
volume for the peak hour in the peak direction of flow;
usually a forecast of the relevant peak hour volume.
(Units ofDDHV are vehicles per hour. DDHV should be
rounded to the nearest 50 vph.)
Freeway. A divided highway facility that has a minimum of two lanes for the exclusive use of traffic in each
direction and full control of access.
Level of Service (LOS). A qualitative measure describing the operational conditions within a traffic stream;
generally described in terms of such factors as speed.
travel time. freedom to maneuver. comfort and convenience, safety. and others. See Figure 610-1 for appropriate design levels of service for different highway types.
Multilane Highway. A highway with at least two lanes
for the exclusive use of traffic in each direction, with or

Design Manual
June 1989

without partial control of access. that may have periodic


interruptions to flow at signalized intersections.
Peak Hour Factor (PHF). The ratio of the volume
occurring during the peak hour to the maximum rate of
fl.ow during a given time period within the peak hour. It
is the measure of peaking characteristics of a highway
section or intersection.

Service Flow Rate (SFL). The maximum hourly rate of


flow that can be accommodated past a point or short
uniform segment of traffic lane (for multilane) or the
entire roadway (for a two-lane facility), under prevailing
traffic. roadway, and control conditions while maintaining a stated level of service; value is specific to a given
level of service.

Terrain.
(a) Level Terrain. Any combination of grades and
horizontal and vertical alignment permitting heavy
vehicles to maintain approximately the same speed
as passenger cars; this generally includes short grades
of no more than 1 to 2 percent.
(b) Rolling Terrain. Any combination of grades and
horizontal or vertical alignment causing heavy
vehicles to reduce their speeds substantially below
those of passenger cars, but not causing heavy
vehicles to operate at crawl speeds for any significant
length of time.
(c) Mountainous Terrain. Any combination of grades
and horizontal and vertical alignment causing heavy
vehicles to operate at crawl speeds for significant
distances or at frequent intervals.
Heavy vehicle is defmed as any vehicle having more than
four tires touching the pavement. Crawl speed is the
maximum sustained speed which heavy vehicles can
maintain on an extended upgrade of a given percent.
(2) Symbols

K
D

KD

fE

The percentage of ADT occurring in the peak


hour.
The percentage of peak hour traffic in the
heaviest direction of flow_
The product of K and D.
Adjustment factor to account for the effect
of the highway's access and egress points
(intersections, driveways, ramps) .and
whether or not it is a divided highway. (See
Figure 610-2.)

610-1

610.03 VJI!:$i1GN
(1)

~sigr1

civilium-ju.com

Responsibility

District Location Project Engineer's office initiates the


process of highway capacity determination and performs
the capacity analysis for the highway segment under
consideration. If the capacity analysis goes beyond the
scope of this chapter, the district Traffic Design Office or
the Travel Data Office of the headquarters Planning,
Research and Public Transportation Division should be
requested to do the analysis. This request s~ould be ~a~e
as soon as possible to ensure that the capaCity analysis IS
completed during the design report stage.
(2) Two-Lane RwaD .~ghv.tay

The objective of capacity analysis for two-l~e rural


highways is to determine the design level of service for a
given segment for future sets of conditions.
Determine the appropriate design level of service
from Figure 610- L
Select the appropriate maximum allowable ADT
directly from Figure 610-3 for the highway'slevel of
service, K factor (pen:ent of ADT occurring in peak
traffic) and terrain type. No computations are needed
at lhis stage.
Compare the maximum allowable ADT t? the
expected ADT at design year. If the maximum
allowable ADT is less than the design year ADT, a
more detailed capacity analysis is warranted.
(3) Multi-Lane Highway

Determine the DDHV, given the anticipated ADT


during the deisgn year. using the formula:
DDHV

=
=

ADT x KD where

0.11 for rural


0.08 for suburban
0.05 for urban
Usc these general values when specific values for the
particular corridor a.-c u:tavailable. Generally, multilane highways wit i.ess c:1an ten uncontrolled access
points(driveV'<.ys, intersections, ramps) per mile (on
one side) are r.onsidered to be "rural" while those
with more than ten uncontrolled access points per
mile are considered to be suburban.
Select an appropriate value of the service flow rate
per lane (S!:::r.) from Figure 610-4 for the highway's
level of service (from Figure 610-1). environment
type (urban, suburbm, or rural) and terrain type.
KD

Determine the required number of lanes in each


direction, N, from the formula:
N

DDHV/(SFL x fE x PHF)

where fE is found in Figure 610-2 and PHF in Figure


610-5. Round the value, "N", to the nearest whole
number.
Compare 2N to the number of lanes proposed. The
proposed number of lanes should be ~ater than _or
equal to 2N. Otherwise, a more detatled capacity
analysis is warranted.
(4) Basic Freeway Sections
Determine the DDHV. given the anticipated ADT
during the design year. using the formula:

DDHV
KD

=
=

ADT x KD where

0.11 for rural freeways


0.07 for suburban freeways
0.05 for urban freeways
Use these values when specific values for the
particular corridor are unavailable.
Select an appropriate value of the service flow rate
per lane, SFL, from Figure 610-6 for the prevailing
truckpen:entage and terrain and for the required LOS
(from Figure 610-1).
Determine the required number oflanes in one direction, N. from the formula:
N = DDHV/(SH.. x PHF)
where PHF can be obtained from Figure 610-5.
Round the value, N'', to the nearest whole number.
Compare 2N to the number of lanes proposed. The
proposed number of lanes should be greater than or
equal to 2N. Otherwise, a more detailed capacity
analysis is warranted.
(5) Miscellaneous Highway Sections

For the capacity analysis of intersections, highways with


signal spacing of2 miles or less, highways within 2,500
feet of interchange ramps. ramps, weaving sections,
transit systems, and bicycle and pedestrian trails, refer to
the Highway Capacity Manual (Special Report No. 209,
Washington. D.C.: Highway Research Board, 1985).
Refer to Otapter 910 for charmelization guidelines. The
district Traffic Design Office or the Travel Data Office
oftheHeadquartersPlanning,ResearchandPublicTr~

portation Division should be requested to do the capacity


analysis on these miscellaneous highway sections.

V:DM6

Design Manual

610-2

June 1989

civilium-ju.com
"

'>

,..,l;'

2
Highway Type

1
Rural
Level

1
Rural
Rolling

B
B

Rural
Mountainous

Urban anct
Suhurhan

B
B

c
c

[)

[)

_')

Principal Arterial
Minor Arterial
Collector
Local Access

NOTES:
(I) Refer to 610.02 and Chapter440 for definitions of these area types ..

(2) Refer to Chapters 120 & 440 for defmitions of these highway types
.TYPE OF AREA AND APPROPRIATE LEVEL OF SERVICE

Figure 610-1

No Access Control
Tvpc

Rural
Suburban
AD~USTMENT

Partial Access Control

Divided

Undivided

Divided

Undivided

1.00

0.95
0.80

1.00
1.00

0.95
0.95

0.90

FACTOR FOR TYPE OF MULTILANE HIGHWAY AND DEVELOPMENT


ENVIRONMENT, IE

Figure 610-2

Design Manual
June 1989

610-3

civilium-ju.com
LEVEL OF SERVICE

K-FACTOR

0.10

2,400

Level Terrain2
4,800

0.11

2,.200

4,400

7,.200

12.200

20,800

0.12

~()()()

4,000

6,600

11.200

19,000

0.13

1,900

3,700

6,100

10,400

17,600

0.14

1,700

3,400

5,700
5,3005

9,600
9,0005

16,300
15,2005

0.15

r.6w

3.2cxY

7.900

13,500

22,900

Rollin~ Terrain3
0.10

1,100

2,800

5.200

8,000

14,800

0.11

1,000

2,500

4,700

7.200

13,500

0.12

900

2.300

4,400

6,600

12,300

0.13

900

2,100

4,000

6,100

11,400

0.14
5
0.15

800

2,000

3,700

5,700

7orP

1,8cxY

3.5oo5_

5,3005

10,600
5
9,900

4
Mountainous Terrain
1,300
2,400

0.10

500

0.11

400

1.200

0.12

400

0.13

400

0.14

300
5
300

0.15

3,700

8,100

2.200

3,400

7,300

1,100

2,000

3,100

6,700

1,000

1,800

2,900

6,200

900

1,700

2,700

1,6oo5

2,5005

5,800
5
5,400

9005

NOTES:

(1) Assumed conditions include 60/40 directional split, 14 percent trucks, 4 percent RV's and no buses.
(2) 20 percent, no passing zones.
(3) 40 percent, no passing zones.
(4) 60 percent, no passing zones.

~ J.

(5) Use for rural two-lane highways, when k-factor is unavailable.

l)l.lb

($

F~'
,
.j

. 1
'

I . '

lil.lilfc':g.IJ<-

C A{ ' :\;-..;;;-MAXIMUM 'DT .VS. LEVEL OF SERVICE AND


1
TYPE OF TERRAIN FOR. !Y(O_L4~L HIGHWAYS

Figure 610-3
610-4

Design Manual
June 1989

civilium-ju.com
Roadway Alignmem

179

0 = Central Angle
for 100" Arc

VARIABLES
PC = Point d curvature (Beginning of cur,e)
PI = Point of intersection
D = Degree of curvature {I J
PT = Point ol tangency (End of curve)
R = Radius of curve ( 2)
PI = Point of intersection
..l = Centra! angle \J, 11~ J~<,' "' ~~
E = External distanc..: f 2 J
L = Leng1h of curve (PC to PT) (2)
M = Middle ordinate: f2J
8 = Length of arc (PC to P) t2J
C = Chord length (21
I = Central angle for arc length I
T = Tangent length (PC to PI & PT to PI} f2j
o = Deflection angle .st PC between tangent and chord for P
a = Deflection angk at PI ilctwcen tangcru and line from PI to P
x = Tangent distance from PC to P (2J
}' = Tangcnt offset P (21

CIRCULAR CL'RVE EQt:ATJO;\S


D

5729.57795
R

(arc dd.)

360

.i
R tan2

R(scc

R -

[R~

x=l':

For any arc length /.

~ iJ
.

_ M = R( 1 - cos
NOTES:

200

For any tangent Jistance x.

1009

- ..l

2Rsm-z

1=--

9
/D
$=-=-

L = 2r.R..l

--C

= R sine

R (1 - cos fl)

A\
z)

(!) This variable used only for curve definition in tmditional US units.
{t) Units for these variables can be expressed in eilher meters or feet.

FIGURE 7-6 Properties of a simple circular curve.

ro

civilium-ju.com

Ltn~t'IH

rtuh>li TS

I
I
Supe!L'll'\ ~II ill!! f unon
1+--L~----- 1_ ____________

SC

,'

250

"

200
!50

c.. ,;

101

IIIIJ

':-1;

"

-"'C g

==
~

'"

:::;

~"'

-:;;,

'=
;;

'I)

II

5i)
!Oil

1'0
200
2.'0
-\

I
(l(j

(>()

21!
\;f'lfHHl

FIGURE 4.19

SupcrciC\ ation diagram. showing

difkr~ncc

in

~levati\>tL

scI

1~
I

----------f. --------+1
I
I

(}r;;

---V1

~
>

~(.:;

I
I
_ _ _ _ _ _ _! _ _ _ _ _ _

2"
u

0.

7.
~

IJ

- ,,
)(/

lJ

;;
::.::

,~q

()'";~

60

4 ,.

xo

1- ()()

-~

+ Hi

1- ()()

FIGURE 4.20

Supcrclcvatiun diagram. showtng roadway cross sections.


JI

civilium-ju.com
255

<ii'OMJ: !'RIC DJ:.'iJCi:\

i\ circular curve joined to two tangents hy spiral transition curves is shown in Fig. 6.16. The dotted lines illustrate the circular curve
as it would appear if the transition curves were omitted. TS is the tangentspiral intersection, SC is the junction of the spiral and circular curve, CS is
the intersection of the circular arc and the second spiral and ST is the second
tangent point. The spiral angle, i.e. the total angle suhtendcd by the spiraL is
0,.
T ,; ;. t\ ~~ A I L

Spiru/ properties.

.s

I"(

:4

Orig1nal circular curve


8s~

Sp1ral angle

TransitiOn
curve

Ls'Sp1rallength
Rc' Rad1us of wcular
arc
lc Yc, ( oord1nates
of the SC
k 'Absc1ssa of the
shilled PC

radians
2Rc
~ 7 3L
=- -5 degrees
2Rc

T1 ok+IRcPilan~/

.\..

oT+ptan61z +k

E1 oiRcPI sec~lz-Rc
'[psec~lz

.L' Shill
Is' Tangen! distance from
the PI to the IS
I, Tangen! d1stance for the
unshlfled c~rcular curve
Es' [1ternal d1stance to the
shifted curve
, External d1stance Ia the
unshlfted curve

Fig. 6.1 G.

Ls
es,_

p' Yc-Rcl1-cosA 5l

'L~/24Rc

appro1

k'lc-RcsinA 5
=ls/Zapprol
2
1 c-' L5 I 1 -8s /1 0 I

Yc =L 5 1es /3- 8sf4z I

Basic properties of the spiral transition curve

Also shown in Fig. 6.1 (J arc some of the more important relationships
a!Tccting the usc of the spiral curve in conJunction with the circular curve.
Detailed derivation of these formulae can be found in surveying textbooks.
In Fig. 6.16 the amount by which either end of the circular curve is
shifted inward from the tangent is indicated by the dimension K to P 1 C 1
This distance fl is called the Shifi. It is very convenient to remember that the
otlset from point K on the tangent to the transition spiral is very nearly P/2.
and that the line from K to P 1 C 1 approximately bisects the spiral.

LL'ngt h of' 1runsll/011. The th rce major factors governing transit ion curve
design arc the radius of curvature R.,, the external angle ,t1, and the length of
transition L,. Of these, R, and L1 arc usually selected on the basis of conditions existing in the ileld. L,, on the other hand, is selected on the basis of
factors affecting the comfort and security of the motorist.
As a vehicle passes along the transition curve its centrifugal acceleration
changes from zero at TS to 1 2 / R .. at SC. The transition length over which this
change takes place is equal to the vehicle velocity r multiplied by the travel

civilium-ju.com

Table 4.5

Hourly Expansion Factors for a Rural Prirnary Road

I I our

1/ou r

II I:F

I 'olum e

Volume

11/J

---- - - - - - - - - - - -

h (JO 7:()() a.m.


7:00-t-::t)il a.m.
S:llO-lJ:OO a.m.
9:00--1 ll:OO a.m.
10:00-11:00 a.m.
11:00-12:00 p.m.
12:llil-I:OO p.m.
1:()0 ~:()(} Jl. Ill.
2:1)()

2'!4

42 ()()

42h

2'1.00
22.05
lK.SO
17.10
I.S ..'i2
PUI
I h. 71
1-f.S-l
14.77

)(){)

(J57

722
667
(>()()
7.19

.>:oo r m.

~.i2

l:IJ() 4:00 p.m.


.S_'>6
-1:110-5:01.1 p.m.
'Jhl
.Sl)2
5:011--h:(J() p.m.
Total dailY \'olumc ,_. 12.3)1),

Table 4.6

12.K.~

13 ..')5

Daily E.xpansJon Factors for a Rural Pmnary Ro<Jd

Sunday
\lllllday
Tuesday
\\'cdnc,day
Th lll,;da 1
Frida\
Saturday
Total weeki\ ,.,,Jumc-

Table 4.7

I u I 11111 e

DJ:F

/SLJ.'i
111. 7 14
<J722
I I .4 J.i
I 0.714
L'-125
ll ..'i.ilJ

<J.5 15
7 () 12
7.727
h.5K2
7 012
5.724
h .'ii(J

75.12~.

Monthly [xpans1on FJctors for a Rura: f'rrrnary Roacl


ivlonrh

rvL1rcll
April

1.75(1
I <J7'>
I C1.l~
1-+SI
I.YJ4
l)tJ4:-:
11.57S
lJ 5~ I
lJ.(J]::'
()tJ ..\S
I IS.'i
I ."154

.j_:"()

::'X.450.

tbtil\ \<JIUilll'.

1.\'>l)

l::'ilil
J.

M~l\'

Vl'<II"h \'lllllllll'-

.if 1-.F

lhl!IJ
I71Jtl

.Jun.
July
i\ugust
September
Cktllhcr
Nul"clllhcl
lkccmhL'I"
rvk;lll <II"L'I";JgL'

:\f)

.lanU<Iry
h:hruarv

T<>t:il

6:00 7:00p.m.
7:0() il:OO p.m.
K:00--9:00 p.m.
lJ:OO 10:00 p.m.
I 0:00- I I :00 p.m.
I I :00 -12:00 a.m.
12:00 -I :00 a.m.
I :00- 2:00a.m.
2:00-.\:1!0 a.m.
.':IJO- 4:00a.m.
4:1!0--5:00 a.m.
):il0--6:00 a.m.

2.~71J.

2.'i()ll
411111
4.'51)
)/;;()

.:''()()

:'ll(ll)
1751)

743
7()()
606
4S9

]96
]60
241
1.~0

100
l)()

Kh
137

lh.h2
17'-ll)
20.3.S
25.26
] I. 19
34.31
51.24
K2.3]
12.1.50
1]722
14.1.60
90.14

civilium-ju.com

Figure 4.13
SO liR( T:

Example of a Traffic Flow Map

(;uta.\ 1 n1(1i, Stud\' Ueport.

Virginia

D~partmcnt, >I

I ransportat1on. Richmond. \',\ .. Jl)h5.

civilium-ju.com
UNIVERSITY OF JORDAN
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
HIGHWAY AND TRAFFIC ENGINEERING
COURSE NUMBER: 0901481
COURSE OUTLINE
Professor khair Jadaan

1. The Transportation System and its classification


2. Characteristics of the driver, the pedestrian, the vehicle, and
the road
3. Traffic engineering studies
4. Capacity and level of service
5. Highway surveys and location
6. Earthwork
7. Highway geometric design
8. Highway surface and sub surface drainage
9. Contracts and supervision
References :

1. Garber, N. and Hoel, L. "Traffic and Highway Engineering ",PWS


Publishing,

4th

edition, 2009

2. O'Fiaherty, C.A. , "Highways", Butterworth- Heinemann,


edition, 2002
Grading

Midterm exam
Project
Course work
Final exam
TOTAL

20%
20%
10%
50%

100%

4th

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civilium-ju.com

VOLUME STUDIES
Traffic volume studies arc concluctccl to collect data on the number of vehicles and/or
pedestrians that pass a point on a highway facility during a specified time period. This
time period varies from as little as 15 minutes to as much as a year depending on the
an_ticij]l\tgl usc of the d<)ta. The data collected also may be put into subclasses which
may include directional movement. occupancy rates. vehicle cl<lssification. and pedestrian age. Tmffic volume studies arc usu;illy conducted when certain volume characteristics arc needed. some of which follow:

.,_,,,

,~

~ ~.,;.

. >-" ~

I. Average Annual Daily Traffic ( Ai\OT) is the average of 2.f-hour counts collected
every day of the year. AADTs arc used in several traflic and transportation
'-F>
analyses for:
/Estimation of highway user rcn;n~~~
b. Computation of crash rates in tenm of number of crashes per 100 million
vehicle miles
\)/. Establishment of traffic volume trends
.lt: Evaluation of the economic ka~bility of highway projL'Cts
e. Development of frecwav and major arterial street svstems
f. Development of imprm;cment ill~d maintenance prc~grams
2. Average Daily Traffic ( ADT) is the average of 24-hour counts collected over a
number uf days gre;tkr th;m lll1C hut ic~s than u year. ;\J)Ts Jll<l\' fw u~ccl for
a. Planning uf highwa~ activitie.'>
h. Measurement of current demand
C. Evaluation or existing traf"lic llmv

.l Peak Hour Volume (PI IV) is the rnaximhlJ11 number of vehicles that pass a point
.
.
.
~l-.
.
.
on a highway dunng a penod ol @.consecut1ve mmutcs. PI !Vs arc used tor:
a. Functional classification nf highways
V( Design of the geometric characteristics of a highway, for example. number or
lanes. intersection signalization. or channelization
\JX Capacity analysis
d. Development of programs related to traffic operations. for example. one-way
street systems or trartlc routing
c. Devclupmcnt of parking regulations
4. Vehicle Classification (VC) records volume with respect to the type of vehicles.
for example. passenger cars. two-axle trucks. or three-axle trucks. VC is used in:
V. Design of geometric characteristics, with particular reference to turning-radii
requirements. maximum grades. lane widths. and so forth
0 Capacity analyses. with respect to passenger-car equivalents of trucks
c. Adjustment of traffic counts obtained by machines
v;r. Structural design of highway pavements. bridges, and so forth
5. Vehicle Miles of Travel (VMT) is a measure of travel along a section of road. It
is the product of the traftic volume (that is, average weekday volume or ADT) and
the length or roadway in miles to which the volume is applicable. VMTs arc used
~mainly as a base for ~JY(lt:tnin_g resources for maintenance and improvement or
highways. 't\: \s. "-tso t\.~c..c.ssa.~ ,t,. c::lt.~~~n\~N ~c:c.\cN.""~ y"'-1;-.e.r.
-~

I~(

rACCi~f

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STUD\ES

TR.\FFJCE SI.R\TYS

20

NEWTOWN

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PARKI'\G

Peak parkmg time


"/

PARKING USAGE SURVEY


Bliock

Cl5

15

'of week: Tuesday

Block: C5

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;erver: Bill Bloggs Weather: Fine/Sunny Date: 1Oth Jul_v 69

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4 739 I 739 I 739 ;J739 4


I 250 I 861 I 861 1!861!1
I 244 2 250 I 250 li25014
18901890180211802.11
I 278 I 278 I 890 I j890j I
1 642 I 642 I 278 3f341il
558 I 341 1 642 4 472 1
321 I 558 I 341 I 563 f
321 i 558 4 825 I
321 I 321 I

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890[
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1
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1
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I!

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927 I 650 2 978! I 978
134 I 927 I

541 2
802 6
843 3
9785

13

ote: The 'ticks' and numbers in the small columns to right of the registration
mbers are not 'field' records but calculation checks.
Figure 4.3

0
a

Typical parking usage sune~ recording sheet.

; to obtain the peak (or 'most common' in this instance) parking


at ion.

:xtending this exercise a little further, still from the same set of
vey records, it is possible to calculate the total number of parked
ide-hours-- a figure which is of the utmost importance if a
nmercially-run, fee-paying, car park is to be considered.
'he calculations are best explained by demonstrating the tabulation,
of the figures recorded above in the typical survey record form.
(ing car 763 for example. its presence was noted on the 0800 circuit,

//'

',/',/,'.

'/>/'

<:

.r' -/,

/-,-

-_-/--~-/--

. ..V

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Figure 4.4

I
II
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Ij978
134 I21
I
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0800

II

/f/

i o8Jo 09oo! o93o 10oo i 1o1o: u oo ln1o 12oo l1no noo 113o
763 I 7631/ ! 763
542/ 890 11 890
180 I 321 I 244
1
1
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34511 j 642
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cuit start time:1

C)

0900

1100
Time of day

iOOO

Parking

surve~

1300

1200

1400

presentation: parked 'ehicle,;time' of

da~.

again at 0830, 0900 and 0930, which latter was the fourth and last time it
was noted. Tracing through the record sheet therefore, 763 was ticked
once, twice, thrice and then the number '4' was inserted instead of a tick
at 0930. Similarly, car 180 was traced through 0800 and 0830 to end up
at 0900, where it was marked '3'.
The tabulation oft he survey results recorded in Fig. 4.3 should be set
out as shown below. The number of cars marked' l', '2', etc. in the small
right-hand columns of Fig. 4.3 are listed as numbers of vehicles in the
appropriate 'times seen' column. As already mentioned, each sighting is
considered as a half-hour occupancy of a parking space, giving
durations in hours, which, when multiplied by numbers of vehicles
gives 'parked vehicle hours'. Thus:
Time seen:
Duration (hrs ):
No. of vehicles:
Parked veh-hrs:

_,'

1h
5

1 ~~

4
2
7

2\6

JOY:

14

2\6
l
2\6

3
I
3

7
3\6
0
0

8
4
2
8

Hence:
Total parked vehicle-hours= 47V2
Peak duration = 1-2 hours, i.e. short-stay parking.
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Transverse Drains

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t
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CAPILLARY RISE

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--

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