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NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE

A FOR AERONAUTICS
TECHNICAL NOTE
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NO.

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1051

PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION

OF THE LOADS

CARRIEDS

BY INDIVIDUAL BOLTS IN BOLTED JOINTS;

U h g l e y Memorial Aeronautical.LaboratoryLangley F i e l d , Va.

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n

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By Manford B. Tate and $amuel J. Rosenfel-d.

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Washington
May 1946

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N A C A LIBRARY
~

LABORATORY
k l e y

field,

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L
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NATIOKAL ADVISORY COl&ITTEE FOR A3FiOhTAUTICS

7
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TECHNICAL XOTE NO. 1051

A g e n e r a l s o h t i o a is p-resented f o r the detersiination of l o a d s c w r l e d by individual b o l t v i n s y n p e t k i c a l


b u t t j o i n t s . Expression3 f o r b b l t bebaviar a r e given by
which t h e general solction m a r be r e a d i l y adapted t o - t h s .
n i m e r i c a l calculation of b G l t l o a d i n g 'in joints made of
any of several conbinations of h i a t e r l i l s contaoq t o air.--plane c o n s t r u c t i o n , and an exampla i s .solve-d t o -illwtq%ce
the numerical procedure.
All eF,ressions. a r e conf'fned -Lo
t h e range of e l a s t i c a c t i o n of j o i n t components.
-.

Tests were conducted i n w h i c h the t e s t sgecfrnens were


. ..
made of &-T
aluminum-alloy p l a t e s re-stened .by t w o or
1
t h r e e --inch a l l o y - s t e e l b o l t s w i t h the bolts- i n. a. -;sLn@e
.
- --

...

l i n e in l i n e w l t k t+e q o l i e d load. Test rF-sults a r e @Ten i n t h e form of curves s5ovilng bolt-load histo:=.iesthrough t h e e l a s t i c E d y t 6 l d r a n g e s t o j o i n t f.ailxTCT-m , i r f c a l l y 3ased princisles &-.e --po2osed. t o_ _ _&Tine' CIge. L r a c t i c a l upper l i m i t of e l a s t i c a c t i - o n of a j o i n t sub-.
Seck t o s t a t i c loading and t o o b k a b c*vos-.re>res&ntLng,
b o l t a c t i o n above t h i s l i m i t for t&-es--bolt . j o i n t s . . 'Lqi-tX
e m p i r i c a l d z t a , suck curves combfned with ,ar;al;r%-lc&l .
equations provide a meens for tLe pred%c.kiori6f -bo,lt -- _ .i
loads a t any joint l o a d .
Emlt-defiectf5n :Curveis arid
t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o tile general- p c b l -e n a-r s -qlso
.pre.sente&.TL
.
.
..
-A

.+-%

. a

_ - e .

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F r o m the t e s t . s of t h r e e - b o l t joints, agreement vl thin


about 10 per-cwit w a s found -be_tween tlieorkti-czl ' a ~ de f s e r i manta1 bolt loads within the e l a s t i c r a n s e .
AltIioWh the
bolts c a r r i e d markedly unequal loads i n - t h e elastic = . w e .
( a s ' i n d i c a t e d by theory), it was found- f o r such j o i c t s
(containing not m o r e tkAan tkiiee, bolts i n t h e l i n e 0.f . . ''
s t r e s s ) t h s t a process of b o l t - l o a d equaiizk%3Xii took
p l a c e beyond t h e l i m i t of elastic a c t i o n ivhich fbr yractdc a l Durnoses c a u s e d the bolts t o be loaded e q u a l l y a t

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NACA TN NO. 1051

joint f a i l u r e . I n f o r m a t i o n is needed vdth r e s p e c t t o


multirow J o i n t s , however, because i n t h e e l a s t i c ran&e
the b a l t s i n t h e f i r s t rows c a r r y f a r g r e a t e r l o a d s
t h a n L n t e r i o r b o l t s and j o i n t failure mag occur before
complete e q u a l i z a t i o n o f b o l t loads i s r e a l i z e d .
IPTRODUCTION

::n recent years the need for more r a t i o n a l m e a n s o f


d e s i g n and a n a l y s i s o f connections has been emphasized by
the e x a c t i n g requirements o f modern a i r p l a n e c o n a t r u c t i o n .
The methoda o f j o i n t - a n a l y s i s are far lliore a n t i q u a t e d t h a n
t h o s e enmloyed f o r other p a r t s o f the a i r c r a f t s t r u c t u r e .
Improved methods f o r p r e d i c t i n g joint strength o f f e r a
means o f reducing w e i g h t i f t h e y a r e adapted t o make more
efficient use of all connectors w l t h i n a j o i n t .
F ~ o mM e
production viewooLnt, Jenkins ( r e f e r e n c e 1) has shown that
aoproxLrnately 50 p e r c e n t of t h e t o t a l c o s t o f t h e a l l metal a i r i l a n e frame is due t o connecting the varioua
comDor:ei?ts o f the s t r u c t u r e and that t h e c o s t o f r i v e t i n g
end b o l t i n g c o n s t i t u t e s between 60 and 90 percent o f the
t o t a l cost o f connections. These c o n d i t i o n s s u g g e s t a
proinisil?-g f i e l d f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n .
The w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d methoes f o r computing r i v e t o r
b o l t l o a d s a r e based on a s s m q t i o n s d e r i v e d f r o n u l t i m a t e s t r e n g t h t e s t s o f B number o f r i v e t e d j o i n t s .
%vets o r
b o l t s o f the Sam size were thought t r r c a r r y equal l o a d s
because the u l t i m a t e s t r e n g t h of the t e s t e d j o i n t was
a m r o x i n a t e l y equal to the s t r e n g t h determined f r o n the
u l t i m a t e e t r e n g k b f a stngle r i v e t m u l t i p l i s d by the
number of r i v e t s i n t h e joint.
The f a c t t h a t r i v e t s o r
b o l t s ln a s t r u c t u r a l joint do n o t g e n e r a l l y carry e q u a l
l o a d s Ln t h e elasiAc range was reoognlzed as e a r l y - a s
1867 (.reference 2 ) . Batho ( r e f e r e n c e 3 ) demonstrated
that a riveted j o i n t is a staticallyindeterminate struct u r a l system and t h a t the r l v e t loads may be o b t a i n e d by
the pr:Lnciple o f l e a s t work. Hrennikoff' ( r e f e r e n c e 2 )
develooed equations for rivet l o a d s for a l i m i t e d number
o f j o i n t arrangenents from a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e defomat i o n s o f p l a t e s and r i v e t s . ?orsner ( r e f e r e n c e
develoFed a g e n e r a l b o l t - o r r i v e t - l o a d e q u a t i o n f o r l a p J o i n t s
based on t h e dofonnations of the p l a t e s i n t e n s i o n and In
b e a r i n g under the bolts or r i v e t s
Several i n v e s t i g a t o r s
have madc use o f e q u s t i o n s derived by means s i m i l a r t o
those Zust mentioned hut have o b t a i n e d f a c t o r s for r i v e t

4)

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.=

NACA TiV No. 1051

tjehsvrar by tests o f t verious j o i n t arrang3rnents ( r e f e r ences 1, 2, pp. 464-&9, and 3 ) . S0r.e i n v e s t i g a t o r s


have d e a l t w i t h butt j o i n t s ( r e f e r e n c e s 2, -pp. l.&-t~69,
and 5 ) , some w i t h la3 joints (references - L and 4),and
sone w i t h both ( r e f e r e n c e s 3 , 2, 5, and 6 ) . A b r i e f
h i s t o r t ; o f e a r l y i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i s given i n rei'erence 2,
?Po 47b484.

The uresent paper d e a l s w i t h tile problem of l o a d


d i s t r i b u t i o n a-3ong the b o l t s of s g m e t r i c a l b u t t joints.
T e s t s were conducted t o deternine ex:)orLnentally, both
w i t h i n and above the elastic range, the manner in w h i c h
l o a d was distributed =.ow
the verious b o l t s . The test
sl?ecirdens were doubly symmetrical two- and t h r e e - b o l t
j o i n t 8 made of &S-T alurninw-alloy ? l a t e s j o i n e d by a
1
cin:le
line of --inch
a l l o y - s t e e l bolts.
Zeference t o a

j o i n t h a v i n g a c e r t a i n nuTber of b o l t s m a n s that the


t o t a l joint load i s imposed on t h a t number of b o l t s ,
h h l j t i c a l e x p r e s s i o a s , based on e l a s t i c a c t i o n of' t h e
j o l n t compor,ents, are given whereby the b o l t loads nay
Se ccmputed and t h e experimental-6nd a n a l y t i c a l results
m e compared. TLe i n p o r t a n t question of j o i n t action
above the limit of e l a s t i c behavior is most r e a d i l y
treated f r o = the s t a n d s o i n t of e m y i r i c i s a - P r i n c f p l e s ,
based on t h e t e s t r e s u l t s , a r e suggested, b u t such p r i n c i g l e s cen be extended for g e n e r a l application only when
a y p r o p r i a t e e m s i r i c a l data a r e s v a i l a b l e .
-_
A-

c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l mea, square inches

bolt constant, dependent w o n elastic p r o p e r t i e s ,


geometric shape, dimensions, and manner of l o a d i n g
of b o l t s , and upon b e a r i n g - p r o p e r t i e s &1d t h i c k ness of p l a t e s , inches per ki?

B o l t dia-neter, inches

i3

Youngfs modulus, tension

s h e a r i n g nodulus of' elasticity, k s i

- .

OF

--

--

- .--.

compression, k s i
._

geometric moment o f i n e r t i a , inches4

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NACA

i e q t h , inches

hr

b e n d i n j moment, inch-kips

=lumber o f b o l t s i n t r a n s v e r s e row

e x t e r n a l apDlied load, k i p s

-....
:

._ .

._

TN KD. 1051

nlat-s-constant f9r t e n s i o n o r compression l o a d i n g ,


denendent-npan g e o n e t r i c shape, dimensions,
.e l a s t i c prcporties o f p l s t e s , and assumed stress
._
d i s t r i b u t i o n , inches Eer ktp

- .. .i.

cc

. .

.-

. ..

F?

zhllllt

l0a_rlj k1-ps

p l a t e w i d t h , inches
.

._-

- p i t c h , inches

t h i c k n e s s , Inches

'N

uniform l o a d on bglt p e r unit lenptfi, kips p e r - i n c h

dist-an=e measurea along bolt m F s , inches

4Lstance rnaasmed i n plane of l o a d l n g norntal t o b o l t


axis, i n c h e s
-

numerical f a c t o r for beams bv w h l c h fiverage shearing


stress is multiDlied Ln o r d e r to det-arrrino
a h e a r l r i s t r e s s a t - c e n t r o i d of a c r o s s sectlon

d e f l e c t i o n of bolt, inches

deformation

-:ens i l e s t-ra in

d i r e c t s t r e s s , ksi

shearLng stress, k s i

. .

Sabscz-ipte :

fixed-end

av

eivsrage

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YACA TN

NO.

1051

bolt

Sb

Sending of bolt

br

bearing

bs

shear 3f b o l t

zr

critical

any transverse r o w of b o l t s

last t r a r s v e r s e TOVI of bolts with r e f e r e n c e t o end


of b u t t strap
,

any p l a t e , o r m a i a plate

butt strap

.~

S p e c i a l c m b i n a t l o n s o f symbols :
PL

m e a s u r e d i n t e r n a l l o a d i n lower main p l a t e ( s e e
f i g . 1) at a s e c t i o n w h e r e PL s h u l d equal
kips
.
-- -

P,

measured i n t e r n a l l o a d i n b z t t stra?s at c e n t e r of
joint, where P, should e q u a l P, kips

Pu

measured i n t e r n a l l o a d i n u p p r main p l a t e (see


fig. 1) a t a s e c t i o n w h e r o PU should equal
kips

P,
-- -

i-1

P,

8 swmnatior! of a l l b o l t Loads from row 1 to row


excludlng row i
1

i-,
-

-.

THEORY A X 0 BASIC ASS-UMPTIONS


Elastic behflvior of j o i n t s , - A bolted j o i n t is a
s t a t i c a l l y i n d e t e r m i n a t e structural sgst6m and can bes
analyzed as such a system if c e r t d n c a n d i t i o n s are k n d m
3r assumed. The theoretical solution glven in a??endis A
f o r t h e d e t e r x i n a t i o n of the loads carried b y b g l t s i n
symmetrical b ~ t tj o i n t s i s based u;3or! tbe f o l l o w i - q 3 condFtiona;

(1) The ratio of s t r e s s t o s t r a i n is constant,

..

.--

5
- ( 2 ) The stress is unifcrxly distributsd over the
cross e e c t l o n s of main p l a t e s and buttrstraps

( 3 ) The e f f e c t of f ' r t z t i o n is n e g l i g i b l e

& > The b o l t s irit t h e h o l e s i n i t i a l l y , and tfre


m e t e r i a l of the p l a t e s In the i,mmediate v i c l n i t y o f the
holeEi is not darnaced or stlressed in rr.aking the hOl3S 3r
by i m e r t i - n g t%e b o l t s
(5 )

The r a l a t i o n v h i p bet*een ?\tilt deflection e n d


l i n e a r in tl;e s l a s t i c r m a e

m i b 1 0 ~ 6I s

On t ; b B b a s f s o f these ass-tiiip'iiorfi, it 2s faufid far SF.metrical h x c t j o i n t s t h a t the r s l h t i o n s h l p between the


loads on any tim S U C C Q S S ~ V F b
~ c l t s i n a single l i n e c f
b o l t s is

zi
. .

SquatLon (1) is used in the computation o f bolt; loads I n


appen6ix

B.

__
.

i3a3ed on assumptions 1 and 2, . the


plate ccnstant
.

rL

..

_-

. -

I ....

--

2-

-..-

may bcj s t a t e d as

._

The l l n e a r relation between b o l t load and deflection


(assunintion 5 ) m a y b e expressed in t e r m s of the b o l t
cGnstslnt
(3
as

. . -.

In the determinstion of C it is assumed that-the


b o l t acts as a f i x e d - e n d beam w i t h tha h o l t . 1 o a d H d l s t r i b u t e 3 u n i f o r m l y along a length equal t
a the main-plate
t h i c k n e s s , Acting i n t h e opposite direction, t h e b o l t
loa3 is tL?l.formly d i s t r i h u t o ? a l o q t w o l e n g t t a , each
e q u s l to the b u t t = s t r a n t h i c k n e s s . B e a r i n g s t r e s s is
computed i n the convent-ianal manner a s b o l t load divided
b y an .area that is deterxinod bf projacting the b o l t
d i a m e t e r on the p l a t e t h i c k n e s s ; arid b e a r i n g dsformations
a r e ex7riasaod in terms o f the compressive moduli of the
P

*
c

- ---

- --

.
NACA TN NO.

1051
I

m a t e r i a l s a n d dimensions of the b o l t a n d p l a t e s . F r o m
t h e s e c o n s i d e r e t i o n s , C m a y be s t a t e d asro-ilow: T o r
joints made of 24s-T p l a t e s w i t h a b u t t - s t r a p t h i c k n e s s

of one-half t h e main-plate t h i c k n e s s
f a8 t e n e d w i t h e l l o y - s t e e l b o l t s :

(.. = 2)

and

For other symmetrical b u t t - j o i n t arrangements, e x p r e s s i o n s


f o r C a r e given i n appendix A.
(See e q u a t i o r s ~ 1 6
to
A22. )

The t h i r d a s s u m p t b n ( t h b t the e f f e c t o f f r i c t i o n is
n e g l i g i b l e ) g i v e s r i s e t o a h i g h l y c a n t r o v e r s i & l point i n
tile l i t e r a t u r e on ri-vetad j o i n t s .
I t aupears, a t l e s s t
in the design range common i n c i v i l - e n g i n e e r i n g practice,t h a t a large p a r t o f the j o i n t load i s c a r r i e d by f r i c t i o n
in h o t - r i v e t e d j o i n t s and i n b o l t e d S a i n t s i f the balts
are drawn t i h t . T e s t s r e p o r t e d b y Hill and B o l t ( r e f e r ence 2, p p . 64-46?, i n d i c a t e d , hawever, t h a t f r i c t i o n I s
o f l i t t l e importance a s a factor i n t h e behaviar o f
r l v o t e d joints. @ s t e i n ( r e f e r e n c e 7 ) a l s a conducted
t e s t s t h a t indicated minor f r i c t i o n a l e f f e c t s in coldr i v e t e d joints.

J?

Apparcntly t h e f o u r t h assumption (that the b o l t s f i t


t h e h o l e s ) would seldom be f u l f i l l e d in an a c t u a l j o i n t ,
and d e p a r t u r e from t h i s assumption wcmld'be determined
l a r g e l y by f a b r i c a t i o n methods. It s b a u l d be remembered,
however, that althou& t h e presence -of numerous b o l t s i n
8 j o i n t makes the l i k e l i h o o d o f e r r o r e from e x t r b e o u s
s o u r c e s grc-ater, the p e r c e n t a g e d8vjatiC-n from t h e pr-e- -:dieted t h e o r e t i c a l b o l t l o a d will probably-be le-ss t h a n
i n the c m e where only a small number o f b o l t s make up t h e j o i n t , because such e r r o r s are d i g t r i b u t e d mong a
l a r g e r number o f b a l t s i n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e t h a n - h the'
second. It may be a n t i c i p a t e d , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e m a i n
features of t h e a n a l y s i s will h o l d Ghen corn-ections m e
joined with several b o l t s and when good s h o p p r a c t l c 6 s
- a r e used.

Further c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the ascond ancf f i f t h aasumpt i o n s i s made i n t'ne d i s c u s s i o n of t h e analysis of t e s t


data, and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h assumptions were fulfilled
i n s o f a r as p r a c t i c a b l e i n the f a b r i c a t i o n of t e s t S2flCimene.
--

.:.
. i
- L

e"

- rrr 3

.- -

I n e l a s t i c behavior o f J o i n t s . - A s l o a d on a joint l a
i n c r e a s e d , a load is reached at w h i c h y i e l d i n g o f the
p l a t e s o r of t h e b o l t s occurs. Whether g i e l d takee place
firs-: in t h e p l a t e s o r b o l t s o r o c c u r s simultaneously i n
b o t h depends upon t h e i r r e l a t i v e dimensions and e l a s t i c
p r o p e r t i e s . I t i s t h e r e f o r e p o s s i b l e f o r one component;
t o a c t e l a s t i c a l l y and the o t h e r i n e l a s t i c a l l y , but the
y i e l d i n g o f any component c o n s t i t u t e s the beginning o f
i n e l c a s t i c a c t i o n of the j o i n t as a whole. Interpretation
of t h i s d e w p o i n t , however, should b e p r a c t i c a l and
should not i n c l u d e y i e l d i n g o f s m a l l reglona where there
are rrtress c o n c e n t r a t i o n s when such yielding has no
a p p r e c i a b l e e f f e c t on the over-all elastlc behavior o f
the Joint. A p a r t o f the behavior o f a j o i n t may be predictcid from an elastic theory, and e m p i r i c a l method8 may
be employed i n t h e determination of t h e upper l l r n i t o f
e l a s t i c a c t i o n and of j o i n t behavior above t h l s e l a s t l c
l i m i t , . T h i s upper l i m i t of elastic a c t i o n is termed t h e
" c r i t ; i c a l b o l t load" R
,
i n this paper.

In t h e a n a l y s i s of t h r e e - b o l t j o i n t s i n whlch t h e
main p l a t e and butt straps are of t h e s a m e width and

4s

m a t e r f a l with t, =
and a r e j o i n e d by b o l t s that a r e
2
all of' t h e 8ame Bize and m a t e r i a l , t h e following procedure
mag be used t o p r e d i c t t h e Joint-load a g a i n s t the b o l t l o a d ( P - R ) r e l a t i o n s h i m i throughout the e l a s t i c and y i e l d
ranges to joint failure. The Drocedure, -however, ha8 not
been extended t o i n c l u d e o t h e r joint arrsngements because
o n l y two- and t h r e e - b o l t j o i n t s were t e a t e d . Far the
e l a s t i c range, the P-R r e l a t i o n s h i p s may be established
b y m e a n s of equat'ion ( 1 ) . These r e l a t 3 o n e h i p s m a y be
p l o t t e d and the experimentally determined value of Rcr
p l o t t a d on t h e P-R curve for t h e most h e a v i l y loa&ed b o l t ,
which i s either end b o l t f o r the case under c o n s i d e r a t i o n .
The end b o l t s can be shown t o s u p p o r t equal l o a d s , and
eithe:r one c a r r i e s a g r e a t e r l o a d in t h e e l a s t i c range
than t h e middle b o l t .
(See appendix C . )
A rstralght l i n e
may bp *awn connecting the p o i n t 8 f o r Rkr* and the
average b o l t l o a d a t f a i l u r e , which I s equal tu t h e j o i n t fai1u:ne load d i v i d e d by 3 ; t h u s the P-R curve for e i t h e r
end bolt i s completed. T h e end-bol-load
R1 may be cornp u t e d f o r any j o i n t l o a d from equations of t h e a t r a i g h t
l i n e s o b t a i n e d a8 o u t l i n e d . Load R2 on t h e middle b o l t
2Al.
may be found at any given j o i n t l o a d as R 2 = P
The vcilues of RZ, however, are o f l e s s importance man
t h e g r e a t e r l o a d s R1 on the e n d bolts and in many cases
i t i s unnecessary to computs-values o r R2.
-

..

..

.-

NACA TN BO.

1051

TEST S P r C I M E N S AND PROCSNJRES

Specimens and Apparatus

Specimens. - M a t e r i a l s Cornon to a i r c r a f t c o n s t r u c t i o n
were used f o r the t e s t specimens, which were s e l o c t e h t o
provide a p l a t e - t h i c k n e s s range s u f f i c i e n t t o check the
a p p l i c a b i i i t g o f the t h e o r y . s i x s p e 6 r i c a l b u t t - j o i n t
specimens - t h r e e of. t t e t w o - b o l t j o i n t s and t h r e e o f
t h r e e - b o l t j o i n t s - .vere f a b r i c a t e d and e s t e d .
Each
specimen w a s made s y m e t r i c a l about i t 3 t r a n s v e r s e c e n t e r
l i n e . Such a c o n d i t i o n provides d u p l i c a t e t e s t specimena,
as t h e t h e o r e t i c a l behavior o f t h e p a y t of t h e j o i n t on
one s i d e of' t h i s c e n t e r line is identical with t h a t o f the
p a r t on the o t h e r s l d e of the l i n e . The specimens were
c l a s s i f i e d i n t_wo grorzps, A and B.
It wag decided t a
test two-bolt j o i n t s (group A ) in order t o procure inf'ormatlon i n - r e g a r d t o the r e l i a b i l i t y o f the method f o r _ .
determining bolt l o a d s from s t r a i n measurements and t o
s e c u r e additLana1 information whlch m i g h t ser_ve_-in the
i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of data o b t a i n e d f r o m t e s t s o f t'mee'bo'l_$joints, The t h r e e - b o l t j o i n t s ( g r o u p B ) were c h o s e n t o furnish an experimental chsck of t h e theory and t o dxpe--2
d i t 6 testing and the a n a l y s i s o f data.
-_ - -

..

..

I n a l l c a s e s , the material o f i t b e p l a t e s w a s 2 4 s - T
aluminum alloy and t h e bolts were - i n c h a i r c r a f t bolts,
4
equivalent t o those s p e c i f i e d i n reference 8 o f heatt r e a t e d . alloy s t e e l w i t h minimum ultimate t e n s i l e and
s h e a r i n g s t r e n g t l e of 125 k s i and 75 k s i , respectively.
Specimens-A-I.. and B-1 were o f balanced deslgn -based
on t h e usual assumption t h a t load is d i v i d e d equally
among the bolts. The d e s i g n s t r e s s e s were 62 anq-90 ksi
f o r t e n s i o n and b e a r i n g o f the p l a t e s , r G s j % 6 t i v e l g , and
reference 8
75 k s i for shearing of t h e b o l t s . A 1 t h G - h
p e r m i t s a g r e a t e r allowable tensile s t r e s s , it w a s con- s i d e r e d advisable t o use 62 k s i t o a t t a i n the aEtual
shear a t r e r q t h gf the b o l t s .
,Secimcn* A - 2 and 372 versdesigned to fail i n s h e a r ; and s p e c b e n s -A-3 and B-3, in
t e n s i o n . I n every case, the butt-strap t h i c k n e s s w a g
one-half t h a t o f t h e main p l a t e . A width of 1 i n c h s s
2nd a p i t c h of 2 inches were used f o r a l l specimens i n
o r d e r t o acccjmmodate the s t r a i n g a g e s . A wring f i t w a s
used t o f i t t h e bolts i n a l l specimens.
I n p r e f e r e n c e to
washers, c o l l a r s made o f &-inch steel tubing were placed-2

__
-t

NACA TN EO. 1051

10

under t h e n u t s t o eliminate b e a r i n g o f t h e p l a t e s o n b o l t
t h r e a d s . When t h e ' specimens wore assembled, t h e n u t s were
f i r s t H g h t e n e d t o bring the p l a t e s t o g e t h e r and then, in
order t o e l i m i n a t e f ' r i c t i o n f a r c e s i n s o f a r as p r a c t i c a b l e ,
were loosened to cause firm c o n t a c t - b e t w e e n the bolt tieads
o r c o l l a r s and p l a t e s , The specimens a r e shown in figure 1
and Cheir d1mension.s a m given in t a b l e 1.

A a r a t u s . - Load was a p p l i e d i n tension by mean8 o f


a hycbau
--%ET-e-sting mmhint. having 1 0 0 - k i p c a p a c i t y and
an ac:curacg w i t h i n 0.5 percent. Wedge grips were used tua p p l y l o a d t o specimen A-1, and t h e remaining specimens

were g r i p p e d wi tk Templin g r i p s o f 5O-kip capacl t y .

1
C t r a i n w a s -measured by --Inch Sn-4 e l e c t r i c a l gages.
2
W i t h t h e s e gages, the error i n strain measurement d i d n o t
exceed 2 p e r c e n t . An a t t e m p t WLLS made to measure b o l t
d e f l e c t i o n s by means o f m i c m m c t e r microscopes but wag
abandoned because th3 inskrurnents wore not s u f f i c i e n t l y
p r e c i s e t o measure the small d e f l e c t i o n s that o c c u r r c d i n
t h e e l a s t i c range. As I Q s d was a p p l i e d , cnlargoment o f
tk0 gap bstween m a i n plates was measurGd with 1-inch
Tuckerman optical s t r a i n gages. The arrangement of e l e c t r i c a l s t r a i n gages is shown i n f i g u r e 1 cind the general
t e s t arrangement for a t y p i c a l specimen I s shown in
f i g u r e 2.

Te s t lng Pro ce d u m

The w i d t h and thickness o f each p l a t e wece measured


a t s e v e r a l p o i n t s along the l e n g t h o f the p l a m w i t h a
micrometer c a l i p e r o f 0.0001-inch p r e c i s i o n , and the b o l t
diameters were checked as a p r e c a u t i o n against the u s e o f
appreciably Irregular bolts.
YLoadinp, t 6 s k s i n t h e e l a s t i c range.- I n the loadine
t e a t s - i n t h e elastic range, l o a d was a p p l i e d In s i x o r
seven (usually e q u a l ) increments to a i o a d approxlmatuly
equal t o 45 p e r c e n t of the e s t i m a t e d u l t l m a t e l o a d . The
specimen w a s t h a n unloaded w i t h repetition o f t h e i n c r o ments u s e d i n the a p p l i c a t i o n o f increasing l o a d . This
prococrs was r e p u a t e d twice; w i t h t h e specimen t h u s subj e c t e d to t h r e a complete cycles o f l o a d i n g . Strain
readings were made at each incrament o f l o u d . T h i s proc';dure was followed i n t e s t i n g a l l joints w i t h the oxcept l o n c f specimen A - 1 , which wa8 loaded d i r e c t l y to f a i l u r o .

.-

KACA TN No, 1051

11

Loading t e s t s t o f a i l u r e . - Xter the first phase d f


t e s t i n g , t h e spechiens were loaded t o f a i l u r e s - Load ivas
asplied i n 1 2 t o 15 incremen-ts u n t i l f a i l u r e occuzred.
Strain and tile i n c r e a s e in w l . a t h of the ga;! between
__
mah
o l a t e s were observea at e e c l i l o a d increment.- r ' k o t o p a hs
of? t h e f r a c t u r e d s>ecimens are snown as f i g u r e s 3 &nd

c.

Auxiliary tests.- stress-strzFn data w e r e secured


froir, t e s t s o r sta-ldard tension s a e c b e n s r e p r e s e n t f c g the
p l a t e components of t h e joints. The location of the tension sqecinens i n r e l a c i o n t o the I j l a t e s f r o m whicn they
w e r e obtained i s shown i n r i g u r e 1.

Shear t e s t s . of s i n s l e bolts were conducted i n order


t o e v a l u a t a z double-she,-tren& t h a t woula be r e s r e s s n t a t i v e of the bQ1t;s P m p l O Y 6 d Ln joinicg t h e syeciinens
of $ r o x p A and 3, For t h s s e t e s t s , t h e D l a t e s were of
S . A . E . bl5a h e a t - t r e a t e d steel and a w - r . l n g fit m a s used
t o f i t the bolts.
Fne dfnrrellulons of the s y e c b e n s a r e
shown in t a b l e 1. As ir; w a s d e s i r e d t o coq3are s s p z r a t o l g
3etermiiied b o l t d e f l e c t i o n s w i t h avera?e values computed
2rom t h e novenent o f the gap, t h r e e s e t s of c i e f l s c t i o n
neasuraments were o b t a i n e d in eacl, of t w o tests. I'ovement of t h e gap vas aetermined i n tke manner used t o
s e c u r 6 s b i l a r d a t a for specilllens cf groups A and 3.
DeflectLon maasurecentn for b o t h b o l t s were o b t s l n e d s m e r a t e l y bg p l a c i n g 2-inch Tuckerman gages ori o3pcaite
f a c e s of 6 specimen IsitS'the f i x e d k n i f e edge of a
on the b u t t stra;? and w i t h the lozenge -on t h e m a i n p ate.
Precautjons were taken t o snsure aTrprox5mats p a r d l e l i m c
between t h e gages and ? l a t e s u r f a c e s ,
-_ -_
-

yge

PF(ESEI7TATIOE AI.?

DISCUSSIOE 03' T3ESULTS

Determination of S o l t Loads a n d DeflectLon?


from Yest Data .

..

-__
_._ .

T 9 s exaxrlmental b o l t l o a d s -tiere o b t a i n e d 57 findf-ag


t h e loads i n the b u t t s t r m s a t s e c t i o n s n:lclwa~ between
b o l t s ; the d i f f e r e n c e batween loads a t t w o a d j a c s n t asc-

tions was consfderad to be e q u a l t o t h a l o a d on t h e i n t a r vening bolt. B u t t - s t r q loads wera comsuted f-rorn strain
3.sta; And f o r specimens -A-I,
A-2, 3-1, and 5-2 tae i b a a s
w9re c o r r e c t e d for t h e e 2 f e c t of lateral bending acment
i n t h e b u t t s t r a ? s , whisr_ a c t e d i n a plane n o r m a l to tne
nlane of t h e s t r a 3 s . The l a t e r a l mozent w a s induced by
e c c e n t r i c i t y of t h e resultant of t h e part CJ? a b o l t load

12

NACA TN NO. 1051

that. was t r a n s m i t t e d t o one b u t t s t r a p . The curves of


the b u t t - s t r a p lotids Ps are plotted I n =Cures 5 ( a ) tul5(a) t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e e f f e c t of l a t e r a l bending and are
shown i n conjunction with the curve8 of j o i n t load against
b o l t load because of t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p o f these curve8
owing t o t h e u s e of
P8 i n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f correct i o n factors. C a l c u l a t i o n o f b u t t - s t r h p loads, the presence of l a t e r a l bending monient, and t h e correction procedure a r e e x p l a i n e d i n appendix D.

Tho m e t h o d s u s e d i n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of b o l t d e f l e c t i o n s a r e based on relative movements o f t h e main p l a t e s


and b u t t s t r a p s . Elongation of either the main p l a t e s o r
b u t t a t r a p s ; depending upon t h e l o cation o f i n s t r u m e n t s
u s e d t o measure Joint m o m e n t a , was i n c l u d e d i n measurem e n t ~o b t a i n e d during the t e s t s .
JMflections were cornp u t e d by s u b t r a c t i n g Such elonGation ( c o n s i d e r e d t o be
PL,/AZ) from the mst measurements. A more d e t a i l e d explan a t i o n of t h e methods ernployeil 2 8 given i n appendix D.
Curves of' J 3 i n t Load Against B o l t Laad

The main r e s u l t s o f t h i s investigation are presented


i n t h e f o r m of curves of joint-load a g a i n s t b o l t load
shown i n f i g u r e s 5 trr 15. These curves show the l o a d
h i s t o r y o f each b o l t - m d i n d i c a t e the behavior t h a t m a y
be expected o f b o l t s l o a d e d under c o n d i t i o n s similar t o
t h o ~ eof the t e s t s .

E l a s t i c behaVLQr o f t - e s t 6peclmens.- &Figures 5 tm-9


show b o l t - l o a d values determined from the l o a d i n g tests
i n the e l a s t i c range; The curves accompanying t h plotted
points r e p r e s e n t experimental curves f o r the same b o l t s
o b t a i n e d f r o m the t e s t s t o f a i l u r e . During the t o s t F n g
of specimen A - 3 , t h e s t r a i n gagas a t the c e n t s r of the
j o i n t on one b u t t strap became loosened.
As a result,
the values of f S , R2, and R3 could n o t be determined;
hence, o n l y t h e curves for R 1 and R4 a r e shown in
figury! 6. Replacement of the i n o p e r a t i v e cages was made
p r i o r t o the testing o f specimen A-3 t o f t t i l u r e .
Inspection of figures 5 t o 9 shows that there i s 8ood agrecment
among t h e . r e p e a t e d bolt loads and between the8e l o a d s k n d
the c'srves from t e s t s tu-failure.
Figures 10 t o 12 give the r e s u l t s o f t e s t i n g the
opeciinens of group A to failure. B o t h theory-(appendix C )

NACA TN 170.

1051

1-3

and ths conventional method o f a n a l y s i s ( t h a t is, t h e


assumption of equal l o a d s c a r r i e d by the b o l t s ) i n d i c a t e
t h a t t h e P-R curves should be r e p r e s e n t e d by the e q u a t i o n
R =0.5OOP.
This curve is not shown, however, as I t was
considered m o r e i n f o r m a t i v e to give t h e experimental
I n every case, t h o e q u a t i o n
curves and t h e i r equations.
g i v e n for a c w v e applies t o the i n i t i a l s t r a i g h t - l i n e
Dortion o f the curve. I n g e n e r a l , it may be s e e n t h a t
deviatfons of 3 to 11 p e r c e n t from an equal d i s t r i b u t i o n
of l o a d t o t h e b o l t s occurred i n t h e t w o - b o l t . j o i n t s .
T h e maximum deviation f r o m equality of b o l t l o a d s occurred
i n the r i g h t end of specimen A - 2 , wherein t h e fourth bolt
supported about 29 p e r c e n t more load than indiceted by
e i t h e r the e l a s t i c o r tile conventional a n a l y s i s . It
appears t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s between loads c a r r i e d b y the t w o
bolts i n one end of a joint were due t o f a 5 r f c a t i o n ine. q u a l i t i e s ana v a r i a b i l i t y o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s of t h e bolts.
Considerable v a r i a t i o n of b o l t c h s r a c t e r i s t l c s w a s shown
by results of t h e a u x i l i a r y shear t e s t s ; that 1 5 ; 3 6 l t s which were presumably i d e n t i c a l and uader t h e same l o e d i n g
conditions d e f l e c t e d amounts i n t h e e l a s t i c range that
d i f f e r e d by as much as 35 percent, and double-shear
strengtk-s were found t o r a r g e from 5 t o 3 2 p e r c e h t g r e a t e r
than s t f p u l a t e d by the s p e c i f i c a t i o n i n reTerence 8.
(See
table 2,)
Figures 13 to 15 show b o l t loads t h a t wsre o b t a i n e d
f m m t e s t s t o f a i l u r e of the specimens of group B and a r e
p l o t t e d f o r comparison with a n a l y t i c a l curves, which a r e
shown only up t o t h a t load above which they- no longer may
be considered appl9cable.
The a n a l y t i c a l expressions
given i n t h e f i g u r e s were obtained by use o f e q u a t i o n (1);
t h e manner i n which they were determined and saxple calculations a r e g i v e n i n appendix C.

For the t h r e e - b o l t j o i n t s , the P-R curves (figs. 13


to 1 5 ) clearly show t h e i n e q u a l i t y o f b o l t l o a d s within
t h e e l a s t i c range. The end b o l t s (1, 3 , 4, and 6 ) c a r r i e d
loads t h a t d i f f e r e d from the a n a l y t i c a l l y determined bolt
loads by axmunts ranging f r o m 3 t o 10 p e r c e n t of the anal y t i c a l values.
I n some i n s t a n c e s d i f f e r e n c e s o f about
20 percent were found but a r e considered t o be of little
importance as t h e y occurred a t b o l t loads below o n e - t h i r d
o f t h e c r i t i c a l bolt load Rep. The middle bolts ( 2 and
5 ) supported l o a d s t h a t d i f f e r e d fram t h e a n a l y t i c a l b o l t
loads by amounts ranging f r s m 5 t o 20 p e r c e n t o f t h e anal y t i c a l values. Loads o n t h e middle b o l t s , however, were

..
'.

.. .

- ..: : .
.. . .-' :. ,. - ,

.I..

. . .

'

NACA TN N O . 1051

14

l e s s than those on t h e end b o l t s i n a l l cases and, conseq u e n t l y , a r e nDt of so much i n t e r e s t a s t h e end-bolt


loads. I n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f values of R 1 and R 6 ,
t h e probable e x p e r i m e n t a l e r r o r i s e s t i m a t e d t o be about
5 p e r c e n t , i f t h e e f f e c t s o f l a t e r a l bendin o f the b u t t
s t r a p s a r e excluded. Loads on b o l t s 2 , 3 , , and 5 were
found i n d i r e c t l y and t h e probable e x p e r i m e n t a l e r r o r was
about 10 p e r c e n t . Xost of the 2 i s c r c p a n c i e s between
experimental and a n a l y t i c a l b o l t l o a d s t h e r e f o r e cannot
be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from e x p e r i m e n t a l e r r o r .

I n e l a s t i c b e h a v i o r o f t e s t specimens.- The upper


l i m i t of e l a s t i c a c t i o n of a t e s t specimen i s marked i n
f i g u r e s 10 t o 15 as t h e c r i t i c a l b o l t l o a d Rcr. Above
Rcr a j o i n t a s a whole i s c o n s i d e r e d t o behave i n e l a s t i c a l l y although, a t loads approaching and above Rcr and
i n some ceses from Rcr t=,j o i n t f a i l u r e , t h e r e p r o b a b l y
is a complex b e h a v i o r w i t h some componehts y i e l d i n g i n
h i g h l y s t r e s s e d r e g i o n s and. with c o n t i n u e d e l a s t i c a c t i o n
of o t h e r components. The c r i t i c a l b o l t l o a d s Rcr and
t h e e m p i r i c a l curves shown i n f i g u r e s 13 t o 15 were
d e r i v e d from t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s and a r e e x p l a i n e d
i n the following s e c t i o n .

The t e s t r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t y i e l d i n g of t h e
p l a t e s i n b e a r i n g under t h e most h e a v i l y loaded b o l t s ,
y i e l d i n g o f t h e s e b o l t s i n shear and bending, o r a conbin a t i o n of b o t h caused a proc-ess o f b o l t - l o a d e q u a l i z a t i o n
t o t a k e p l a c e between Rcr and j o i n t f a l l u r e which
r e s u l t e d i n an approximately e q u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of l o a d
among t h e b o l t s a t j o i n t f a i l u r e . J o i n t behavior o f t h i s
n a t u r e accounts f o r t h e f i n d i n g s of e a r l y i n v e s t i g a t o r s
who made u l t i m a t e - s t r e n g t h . t e s t s o f r i v e t e d j o i n t s and
r e p o r t e d t h a t l o a d was a b o u t e q u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d among
the r i v e t s .
The e q u a l i z a t i o n o f b o l t loads is b e s t i l l u s t r a t e d
i n f i g u r e 15, which shows t h e behavior of t h e t h r e e - b o l t
j o i n t , specimen B-3. Comparison of measured b o l t loads
with values o b t a i n e d f r o m the e m p i r i c a l curves o f f i g u r e 15 shows t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l b o l t l o a d s a r e w i t h i n
percent of tne e m p i r i c a l values w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of
t h e P-R2 curve, f o r which t h e m a x i m u m d i f f e r e n c e i s
about 8 p e r c e n t . Although the f a i l u r e o f specimen B-3
was caused by f a i l u r e o f t h e b u t t s t r a p s i n t e n s i o n , i t
may be seen t h a t t h e b o l t l o a d s were approximately e q u a l

ruca-

TS

YO.

15

1051

f e i l u r e of t h e a?ecizIen. An e q i P 1 2 i s t r i b U t i O n of
1 0 ~ at o t h e b o l t s a t joint; f a i l u r e i s e l s e i n d i c a t e d b;T
r e s u l t s 0:' t h e t e s t s i n xhich s p e c i x e n f c i l u - e was due
t g siAear.'r,E 3f' tk-e b o l t s .
39acirr.ens A - 1 , A - 2 , End 3-2
Pt

f s i l e d i n this me.nner. iwoyrqqe b o l t los5.s a t f c i l - i r a of


tl-mse, sqacinens egree c l o c e l j End a r e a l s o i n ac,reement
w i t h x o s t of t h e u l t i m a t e loads f o u n d i n t h e auxi1ier:T
s h ~ tre s t s 3f s i n - l e b o l t s . velues cf the S o l t l z r d s
just rentiDr.ed e r e Given f c r comaFiscr? i n t a b l e 3 . F o r
L
-53 t c l i ; s t ' r , e t f F i l e d i n s ? , z v ( 3 ami L L ) ir, s.,sci,?i.er.A - r ,
f i n c l ;L9.qsme:nents were obtained P t 8 jnint l o a ? LLC zcilnJs
belox t'iie u l t i m a t e , axd the halt lotids 3? and 5lk were
w i t h i n 5 Dercent o f e q u a l i t y xhen the f i n a l measureaents
"ere t a k s n , ( s e e fit. 11.) ?he e q u a l i z a t i o n of b o l t
above TCp 13 a l s o e f f e c t i v e l y shown
lcsds 2and
RL
3
S
i
n
c
e
b o l t s 1 aid z i n svecirnen A-1f a i l e d
i n f i g u r e 11.
i n sk-e-sr, i t i s cf i n t e m s t t o c o t e f r o - f i g u r e 1
L
7 chat
t o the j o i n t e x t e n s i m of t;ie curves for 31 and R
r a i l u r e l i n e i n d i c a t e s t n o t hese bolt f c ~ a d sivdre y i t h i n
n e r c e n t of e q u e l i t y a t t h e t i m e of f s i l u r e , I n s ? e e i nens A - 1 2nd A - 2 t n e d i s t r i b u t i c n of l c a d t o r k e bolts
t?.st d i d n o t fail ( 3 end 4 f o r s3ecirien A - 1 , and 1 zinc; 2
f r , r s?ss:ir.ian A - 2 ) d l d not a.:?ro&ch e q u a l i t 7 t o t k e 3x.e
exr;snt t i s was t h e c a s e f o r t h e bolts t!:a.t f a i l * < . 3.e
car-zes f w l o a d on t h e , b o l t s t h a t d i d noz f A i l ( f i g s . 10
end 1.1) d i v e r g e d f r o r s e q u d i t y a t f3:la-e o f sseci-zms A - l
~ r x iA-2 Cy a S m t 13 2nd 9 ? e r s = ? n t , r c s s 3 c t i v e l g .
I n view
cf t h e v s r i h S l e ' c o l t chmacte:isi,ics
s o i n 3 5 out i n t b
? r e c e a i n s s e c t i o n , hcviever, l i t t l e i ~ ~ c ~ 3 a n
i sc ae t t a c h e d
t o t h i s dlveraence. I n g e n e r a l , s_?ecimen A-3 Sehr.ved. es
e x m c t e d , end i t aI)Deers from t h e curves i n f i g u r e 1 2
t h a t tt;e b o l t loeds were a y r o x i i x a t e l g e q u a l a t f e i l c r e

- .

I;

of the j o i m t .

z;

1
i

I n f i g u r e s le?and
(s?3!c.,ixens 3-1 and 9-2, respect i v e l y ) , t h e 9 . 3 i n t s above Rcr
s h c : ~ t t e e f f e c t of l s t e T a l
bendirq of t h e b u t t s t r m s t o such 811 extvent t h s t no
crsdencs is, g i v e n theni 8 s a t r u e r e - > r e s e n t e t i o n c? cke
bolt-load relstionships.
Although t h e s e q o i n t s were comclited i n t h e s m e m n n e r as the otkims, t h e m e n s o f
c o - r e c t i o n d i d n o t f u l l y account f o r t h e bending a t h i g n
loads; t h e p o i n t s were p l o t c e d , as were tne ?s-curves,
t o show the n a t u r e of e r r o r s a r i s i n g from t h i s source.
The f a c t t h a t f a i l u r e of specimen 5-2 was due t; s h e w
f e i l u r e of bolts 1, 2, and 5 , ilowever, i s f o r c e f u l e v i dence t h a t t h e s e bolts were about e q u a l l y loaded e t t h e t i m e of failure, because t h e averege b o l t l o a d a t f a i l u r e
I

NACA TN NO. 1051

is i n good agreemgnt w i t h aimiLar b o l t - l o a d values feund


i n other t e s t s .
(See t a h l e 3 * } Specimen A - 1 a c t e d somew h a t d i f f e r e n t l y above RGp than t h e o t h e r specimens,
but it may be aeon in f i g u r e 10 t h a t t h e g e n e r a l tendoncy
was toward e q u a l i z a t l a n o f bolt l o a d s a t j o i n t f a i l u r e .
A t t e n t i o n i s c a l l e d t o t h e t e s t conditio-:
specimen A - 1
w a s t e s t e d i n wedge g r i p s , and bending of the j o i n t as a
unit,rlevealed by s t r a i n gages on the main p l a t e s , e x i s t e d
t o an u n d e s i r a b l e e x t e n t . Perhaps averaging the s t r a i n
meaaurt9ments d i d n o t f u l l y compensate for this e f f e c t an?
gave am i n d e t e r m i n a b l e error In the computation o f bolt
loads.
The u s e of Templin grips precluded bendlng of t h e
e n t i r e specimen sufficiently to lend assurance of a n e g l i g i b l a e f f e c t on t h e r e m a i n i a specimens,
The f a c t t h a t a l l b o l t s in the two-bolt specimens
d i d n o t c a r r y e q u a l loads was probably due to i n e q u a l i t i e s
i n f a b r i c a t i o n and variation in t h e b o l t s . Because theee
s?ecimens c o n t a i n e d only two bolts, t h e importance o f euch
conditfons was magnified i n the two-bolt j o i n t s but was
less d i s t u r b i n g i n t h e three-bolt mjojnts, Far p r a c t i c a l
purp03es, however, t h e r e waa a uniform d i s t r i b u t i o n of
l o a d among t h e bolts o f each t e s t specimen a t f a i l u r e .
C i * l t i c a l bolt- l o a d s and b a e i s of e m p i r i c a l curve8.The gerieral behavior of specinens A - 1 , A - 2 , and B-3 as
d e p i c t e d i n f i g u r e s IO, 11, and 1 5 s u g g e s t s t h a t the upper
l l m i t - o f e l a s t i c a c t i o n of a j o i n t s u b j e c t t o s t a t i c
loading c a n be termed t h e ' t c r i t i c a l bolt l o a d ' ' Rcr.
The
c r i t i c a . 1 b o l t l o a d i s d e p e n d e n t upon t h e f a c t o r s t h a t
c o n t r i b u t e i n b r i n g i n g about e q u a l i z a t i o n of bolt loads,
which a r e y i e l d i n g of t h e p l a t e s i n b e a r i n g under t h e most
heavily loaded bolts and y l e l d i r q of t h e s e b o l t s , Such
y i e l l i n g I s dependent upon the mechanical properties,
dimensions, geometric form, and manner of loading of the
p l a t e s and b o l t s .
From these c o n s i d e r a t l o n s , t h e c r i t F i s d e f i n e d as t h a t b o l t load a t which
c a l bolt l o a d Rcr
y i e l d i n g o f the p l a t e s o r bolt o r a combination o f b a t h
nccm-3 to s t a r t t h e a c t i o n of bolt-load e q u a l i z a t i o n .
The o r i t i c a l b o l t laad i s found from an experimental curve
as t h e value of R a t t h e i n t e r s e c t u n of the s t r a i g h t l i n e p o r t i o n of the lower p a r t of t h e P-R curve with t h a t
of t h o upper part and i s determined f r q m t h e curve f o r
the bolt t h a t c a r r i e d t h e g r e a t e s t load when y i e l d i n g
occurre3. T!ie method i s I l l u s t r a t e d i n figures 17(:) arid
11@!. E v a l u a t i o n o f R,,
far purposes o f d e s i g n o r annlys i s requires d a t a i n r e g a r d to t h e a p p r o p r i a t e plat- and

.._

NACA TN NO.

1051

.. .

17

..

b s l t bearing s t r e f t g t b s and s-hesr s t r e n g t h s o f b o l t s .

t h e t e s t specimens, l o a d s and strgs'ses at


U P 8 a r e given In t a b l e 3 .

For

_.

R&r- a n d - f a i l - . -

.
..

Zmpirical curves f o r t h e - t h r e e - b o l t . joints a r e based


o n the observati'on t h a t - f h e general tr'end of t h e b o l t loads above R,,
was toward e q u a l i t y a t f a i l u r e of the
j o i n t s . T h e curves. we.re obtaLne5 - f o r t h e end b o l t s - b y
drawing a s t r a i g h t l i n e CorinecTirig t h e p o i n t r-epF<seXt1ng
R,r
w i t h -t h e p- 6 h. t__ .plotted f o r the average bolt l o a d .a t_ _
j o i n t f a i l u r e . me p o i n t repre.senting .R,ir. Was determlned as the i n t e r s e c t i o n of t h e vertical l i n e - t h a t -.
l o c a t e s Rc,
along t h e R-axis w i t h the a n a l y t i c a l curve
.._-_
o b t a i n e d from t h e elastic a n a l y s i s . The average b o l t
l o a d a t f a i l u r e was computed a s t'ne u l t i m a t e j o i n t load
d i v i d e d by t h e ~ u m S e rof b o l t s t h a t s u p p o r t e d t h e jaint
load. C u r v e s f o r t h e middle b o l t a . ( 2 and 5 ) w e r e obtaiaed
-f r o m conditions: of symmetry and e q u i l t b r-_
i u m. ; . t h a t 1.s; .R2 = P - .
.
-.
' -

.-

. ..

. .

I n order t o determine e m p i r i c a l curves f o r s u a c i merrs B-1 and B-2, d a t a f r o m t h e t e s t s of *specimens A - 1


and A - 2 were used. Because of t h e c u r v a t u r e - o f the u p w r
p a r t s of' t h e P-R curves for specimens B - 1 and B-2 *(figs.1'3
and l4), R,,
could n o t be determined for s l t h e r s p e c i The value of R,,
shown in f i g u r e 13 f o r sjTeGirr;en
men.
13-1 wa3 comnuted f r o m the average of b e a r i n g stregaes c a l c u l a t e d f o r the c r i t i c a l b o l t load3 af specimens A-1
an2 A - 2 .
InasmEch as t h e p l a t e s o f specimen B-2 w e r e of
the same t h i c k n e s s as t h o s e of specimen A - 2 , t h e two
specimens s b u l d have had t h e same velua o f Rcr; f o r
t h i s r e a s o n , t h e v a l u e shown In figure &!t i s t h e same a a
t h e value o b t a i n e d f r o m the t e s t r e s u l t s for specimen X-2.
Empirical curves for specimens B-1 arid 5-2 were con- s t r u c t e d w i t h t h e v a l u e s o f Scr t h u s found as the
s t a r t i n g p o i n t s and t h e average b o l t loads at f a i l u r e
_ .
- - --- =.
as t h e end p o i n t s .
-

The b o l t - l o a d - e q u a l i z a t i o n proceas p r o b a b l y s t a r t s .
before Rc,
i s reached; b u t R c r , as used herein, proi v l d e s a b f i n a b l e l i m i t f o r t h e t r a n s i t i o n frm formulas
based o n the assum2tion .of e l a s t i c 'behavior t o empiI-icEl
ex?ressions
Such empirical expressiorx are -af F r a c t l c a l
i n t e r e s t a3 a basis f o r d e s i g n a t l i m i t l o a d , because
such design g e n e r a l l y ccmes wlthin t h e ra-nge b e t m e n Rcr

-__

.-

and failure a>d current design methods make no allowance


f o r t h e unequal d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l o a d amon% the b o l t s khat
e x i s t s w i t h i n t h e g r e a t e r p a r t - o f t h i s range. The process
o f b o l t - l o a d equalization i s undoubtedly more complicat-d
f o r jolnts containfng more b o l t s In l i n e than the specimens of the p r e s e n t t e s t s . As a result, i t Ls improbable
for
t h a t : r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r e m p i r i c a l curves above Rc,
multlrow j o i n t s are as simple as those found i n the
present t e s t s .
It appears probable t h a t f a i l u r e of t b
j n i t i i 3 1 b o l t s i n a multlrow joint may occur b e f o r e the
process o f e q u a l i z a t i o n is completed and may thus cause
joint failure at a load a p p r e c i a b l y less t h a n t h e sum o f
t h e i ! t i m a + P S t P P P ! t . h S o r t.hs i n c l l v i d u a l h o l t s ,

_.

Curves of 'Bolt Load A s a i n s L D e f l e c t l o n

I l e f l e c t i o n of b o l t s i n specimens of groups A and B . Curvezi of bolt l o a d p l o t t e d a g a i n s H e f l e c t i o n a r e pre-

sented i n figure 16. The curves of f i g u r a 16(a) shgw


averq;e d e f l e c t i o n s 6av of' t h e t w o central b o l t s , one
on each side of t h e gap between main p l a t e s , I n each
specimen of groups A and B. I n plotting the curves o f
13 agE:inst ea,,,
t & v a l u e s o f R were t h m e cornputad
from a t r a l n d a t a and used t o p l o t the P-R curves. Curves
o b t a k e d by m e m s of e q u a t i o n ( 3 1 , 6 =
are p l o t t e d
for ccmparison with the experimental c u r v e s ; and d e f l e c t i o n s corresponding bo the values of Rcr determined
f r o m the P-R curve3 are shown.

F,

I t may be s e e n In figure I,6(a) far t h e specimens of


groups A and B t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , b o l t d e f l e c t i o n l n c r e a s e d
w a s reached.
r a p i d l y a f t e r the c r l t l c a l b o l t l o a d Rc,
Below Rep t h e r e i s e x c e l l e n t agreement between the
e x m r i m c n t a l curves f o r specimens A - 2 and 3-2, which i e
i n conformance with theory s i n c e b o t h specimens were of
the same t h i c k n e s s and f a s t e n e d w i t h bolts of the same
s i z e a:nd material. There I s 3ood q r e e n i e n t , moreover,
between the experimental points arid the p l o t of equat i o n ( 3 ) , as t h e g r e a t e s t d i f f e r e n c e f o r e i t h e r specimen
i s about 10 percent of t h e corresponding a n a l y t i c a l value.
For specimen B - 1 , the experimental c u r v e d i v e r g e s from
the c w v e of equatAon ( 3 ) between the o r l g i n and Rcr by
9 m a x i ~ n u mof 45 percent an$ shows a divergence of about30 perc?ent a t Rep. Such d i s p a r i t y i s not s u r p r i s i n g , as

FACA TE NO,

19

1051

t h e a u x i l f a r g t e s t s show that presumably i d e n t i c a l b o l t s


mar d e f l e c t aTounts t h a t differ by as much as 35 p e r c e n t
and t h e two methods u s e d i n the d e t e r n i n a t i o n o f ,,6
y i e l d r e s u l t s that may d i f f e r by approximately 15 percent:
The experlmental d e f l e c t i o n a t Rcr
f o r specimen A - 1 w a s
about 36 p e r c e n t greater t h a n the value campued
by rnecrns
- _ _ _3
o f equation ( 3 ) ; eQd between t h e o r i g i n and about e
c r
J

the d i f f e r e n c e s wepe between 10 and 20 p e r c e n t .

A-3,

--

T h e e x p r i m e n t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r s7ecimens B-3 and


as shown i n figure 16(a), a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by d e f i -

n i t e l y curved lines. Apaarently t h e s t r a i g h t line r e p r e s e n t i n g e q u a t i o n ( 3 ) is andosous t o t h e s e c a n t l i n e used


in d e t e r a i n a t i o n s of t h e secant modulus of e l a s t i c i t y for
materials having n o n l i n e a r s t r e s s - s t r a i n curves. Up t o
e. b o l t laad of one-fourth O F the average b o l t - l o a d at
f a i l u r e , t h e rneasured d e f l e c t i o n s were approximately
73 percent less t h a 9 t h e a c a l r t i c a l values; and at oneh a l f the average b o l t l o a d a t failure, ebout !+5 p e r c e n t
less. - T h e curve f o r specimen 9-3 c r o s s e s the a n a l y t i c a l
curve a t about 0.8 of t h e average bolt load 8 % f a i l b e ;
and the cupve f o r specimen A - 3 , at about 6 - 6 5 .
D e f l e c t i o n of b o l t s i n auxiliary ( s t e e l ) specimens.The b o l t load a g a i n s t d e f l e c t i o n (R-6) r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r
b o l t s i n two specimens f o r the auxiliary s h e a r t e s t s _ a r e
shown 3.n figure 16(b.). From these r e l a t i o n s h i p s a corn--'
p a r f s o n is made between t w o methods f o r the expePImenta1
determination of average b e l t deflection, and d e f l e c t i o n
characterlstics of bolts loaded under the same c o n d l t l o n s
.
a r e compared. The R-61 end R-62 curves shotv' d e f l e c t i o m that w e r e determined s e p a r a t e l y f o r each b o l t .
Deflections 61 and 6 2 %-ere averazed a n d - ~ ep l o t t e d
f o r comparison w i t h values o f 68v, which were complted - from d a t a f o r s-preading o f the gap between m a i n p l a t e s ;
and curves o b t a i n e d f r o m e q u a t i o n ( 3 ) a r e shown for Cornparison.wlth the experimental reg!ul_$s.
= I n figure l d ( b ) , t h e experirmental d
- e.f l e c t i o n s 61
of b o l t 1 I n speclmen 1 and 62 and 6,,
of t h e b j l t s
i n specimen 2 agree w i t h values c a l c u l a t e d by means of
e q u a t i o n ( 3 ) within 3 percent belo= 2 = 5 k i p s . The
measured d e f l e c t i o n s 6 2 and
of t h e b o l t s in-speci-_
men 1 were approximately 25 percent l e s s a n d - t h e d e f l e g t5on.S 61 of bolt 1 i n specimen 2 were about 35 p e r c e n t

e,,

_.

.,-

..

-*--

NACA TN NO. 1051

20

g r e a t e r than values of d e f l e c t i o n determined f r o m aquat i o n ( 3 ) . The averages o f 61 and 62 were about


15 p e r c e n t - l e s s for specimen 1 and about 15 p e r c e n t
g r e a t e : ~f o r specimen 2 than d e f l e c t i o n s computed by means
o f e q u a t i o n ( 3 ) , and both s e t s of average d e f l e c t i o n s
were f:?om 10 t o 1-5 p e r c e n t l e s s than corresponding values
of 6a.p;
w h i c h were based on measurements of gap movement. --

_.

;i

Discussion o f results i n r e l a t i o n to t h e R-6 c u r v e 8 . It i s y r e e n from t h e deflection curves ( f i g . 1 6 ) t h a t R C r ,


as determined f r o m t h e P-R c&ves, was t h e l o a d c a r r i e d
by a bolt near the beginning o f appreciable y i e l d of the
bolts o f p l a t e s o r b o t h .
I t may also be n o t e d t h a t a
g r e a t e r r a t e of d e f l e c ? ; i o n of t h e b o l t s i n t h e steel
sp8oime:ns occurred above a load of 5 k i p s whereas in the
aluminum specimens this a c t i o n always commenced a t -lower
l o a d s . Such a c t i o n is due t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e bearing

b e h e v i m of t h e t w o m a t e r i a l s .

.-

Fcr the comparatively thin specimens, A - 3 and B-3


D = 1.54 and 1.33, r e s p e c t i v e l y , the rela( r o r wkich
"P
t i o n s h i p s between load and d e f l e c t i o n were n o n l i n e a r ; f o r
I? = o m ) ,
t h e t h i c k specimens, A - 2 and B-2 f o r which 5

approximate
linearity was shown t o about 60 p e r c e n t of
t h e u l t i m a t e b o l t load; and f o r t h e speclmens of balanced
d e s i g n , A - 1 and B-1 for w h i c h
= 0.80 and 0.67,

respectively
approximate linearity e x i s t e d t o aboue
50 p e r c e n t of t h e average b o l t l o a d a t f a i l u r e .
Probably
t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n behavior of b o l t s i n t h e v a r i o u s s p e c i The effects of
mens may be a t t r i b u t e d t o bearing a c t i o n .
bearing vary with the bearing p r o p e r t l e s und the r e l a t i v o
dimensians of the b o l t s and p l a t e e , and b o l t d e f l e c t i o n
= 1.33 ant! 1.54) was largelyi n the thin specimena

(e

dependwst- upon bearing action. The observed nonlinear


r e 1 a t i o : m h i p f o r deflection o f the b o l t 6 i n s p e c h e n Y - 3
e x p l a i n s , f o r the most p a r t , the s l i g h t l y curved shape of
t h e P-R v a r h t l o n f o r specimen B-3 (fig. L5). I n the
c a l c u l a t i o n o f bolt-deflection by e q u a t i o n ( 3 ) t h e bearing
terms i n t h e e x p r e s s i o n f o r C have l e s s i n f l u e n c e on
the r e s u l t s f o r a c o n s t a n t b o l t size i n specimens w i t h

.
b

2
.

NACA TN NO.

thick plates

(&
\ ??

1051

.~

(t"p- = 0.50

= 1.33 and 1.54).

t o 0.80

21

than w i t h t h i n p l a t e s

It appears, f u r t h e r m o r e , f o r the

1
= 0.50 t o .0.80

t h i c k specimens

t h a t equation ( 3 )

f u r n i s h e s as s a t i 2 f z c t o r y an approximation of d e f l e c t i o n
tis measured v a l u e s , because o f the variation in the
bolts and u n c e r t a i n t y t h a t e v i d e n t l y s t t e n d s t h e experim e n t a l detarmlnation of b l t d e f l e c t i o n . Also, d e s p i t a
t h e n o n l i n e a r i t y of
R-6 curves f o r the t h i n s p e c h a n s ,
t h e assumption of e- l i n e a r r e l a t i o n between b o l t l o a d
and deflection w a s s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r use i n condunction
with e q u a t l o n (1) to esthSlish P-R
curves for speci-

F o r t u n a t e l y , t h e a n a l g t i c a l l y determined bo It- load


r o l a t i o n s h i p s are r e l a t i v e l y insensitive t o a p p r e c i a b l e
changes in magnitude o f t h e b o l t c o n s t a n t C o r tha p l a t e
c o n s t a n t K; n e v e r t h e l e s s , f u r t h e r i n v e s t i & a t i o n o f these
factors is n e c e s s a r y . The e f f e c t o f b e a r i n g -8
9 large
I n f l u e n c e on the magnitude of C , mil the p r e s e n t test
r e s u l t s that are g i v e n as R-6
curves p o i n t to g r e a t e r
u n c e r t a i n t y o f t h e adequacy o f the b e w i n g t e r n s th&n
other t e r n s i n t h e e x p r e s s i o n f o r C .
In a d d i t i o n ,
f u r t h e r study o f K is d e s i r a b l e , a8 short pitch may
cause behavior t h a t would make the actual b o l t lo&&
more dependent upon t h i s f a c t o r than is l'ndiccrtzd by
p r e s e n t knowledge

CONCLUSIONS

The f o l l c w i n g conclLsions are drawn fram the results


of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n and a p p l y t o symmetrical b u t t j ~ i n t s
made of &S-T aluminum-alloy p l a t e s joined by t w o o r t h r e e
wring-fitted d l o y - s t e e l bolts of the same s i z e with the
b o l t s i n a s i n g l e l i n e i n t h e l i n e of a p p l i e d s t a t i c l o a d t

1. For j o i n t a i n which the t o t a l l o a d i s imposed Qn


t h r e e b o l t s , t h e bolt l o a d s are n o t equal i n t h e e l a s t i c
r a n g e , as assumed i n c o n v e n t i o n a l analysis, and can ba
c a l c u l a t e d w i t h i n about 10 p e r c e n t by Ice-ans o f the expreas i o n s p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s paper.
2. Above the e l a s t i c range, a process of bolt-load
e q u a l i z a t i o n takea p l a c e as a r e s u l t of y i e l d i n g o f tkia

_ _
-

_...
..

22

IJACA TN ND

I _

1.051
.
I

D l a t e a in baarir-3, y1eidin-j of the b o l t s in shear and


b e n d i r g , or a camblnaticn of' h o t n ; for p r a c t i c a l purposes,
this action causes the b o l t s to s u p p o r t e q u a l l o a d s when

joint-failurc

. ..
...

. . . .
....:

OCCUPS.

_.

3 . Above t h e e l a s t i c r m i e , 6390, t.he a n h l y t f c a l


curves can b e e x t e c d e l l fn an e r r , l r i c a l mmner an? this
e x t e r n i o n may be used to pLwvide a b a s i s fp3 1Lmit;'-load
design.

4.

F o r ' j - o i n h in which-the t o t a l l o a d is imposed on


two b o l t s , the d i e t r i h k i o n of- load to the b o l t s a t the
ultimate joint l a a d is less a f f e c t e d b y fabpication ineq u a l i t i e s and v a r i a b i l i t y .sf materials t h a n i s the d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the e l a s t i c range.
-

* c

Langley ? & m o r i a 1 Awonxu t i c a l L a b o r a t o r y


N s i i o n a i A d v i s o r y C o i ~ n i t t e sZ'oi- Aeroriaut'lcs
Langley F h l d , Va., December 20, l?k?
: -

.-,

NACA TX No, 1051

23
APPENDIX A

DEVELOPI 3lJ'T OF XALYTICAL EXPmSSIOm USED IK


DETERIdIIUTION OF BOLT LOADS F3R ELASTIC
SEEAVIOR OF SYMXSTIIICAZ BUTT J O I N T S

General ~ o l t - L o a dB e l a t f o n s h i p
D e f i n i t i o n s and aseunptions.- The type of b o l t e d

c o n n e c t i m a e a l t w i t h h e r e i n i s t e r x e d a tfsyn;metrical
b u t t j o i n t . I f In order t o clarify t h e nieaning of this
p h r a s e , the joFnt arrangement i s d e f i n e d by t h e following ____
.
conditions :
(1) The b u t t s t r a p s must be of t h e saGe thic'mess
and m a t e r i a l .
( A b u t t s t r a p and the miin ? l a t e mag be of
d i f f e r e n t m a t e r l a l s and may have any thic'kness r a t i o . )

(2) The b o l t ? a t t e r n must be s y l r x e t r i c a l a3out; the


l o n g i t u d i n a l c e n t e r l i n e of the j o i n t .
(The p a t t e r n nay
be unsgmrnetrlcal about t h e t r a n s v e r s e center line lying
i n the ga:, between main p l a t e s ; such a case c o n s t i t u t e s
t w o seperate problems in t h e d e t e r m i n s t i o n of l o a d s
c a r r i e d b 7 b o l t s i n the t w o h a l v e s of the j o i n t . )

( 3 ) Bolts i n t h e sw!e t r a n s v e r s e row must be of the


s a n e size a n d m a t e r i a l b u t need not be t a e same as t!ioSe
in any other r o w .
In the analysis of a j o i n t as a s t a t i c a l l y indeterminate structure, t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s t h a t m i a t
be known o r e s s m e d .
For the present solution, the
following asswnytions are made:
-_ __
.

(1) The r a t i o of

- _ _ _-

.-

-- .-

s t r e s s t o s t r a i n 1s c o n s t a n t .

-_

( 2 ) T h e stress is uniformly d i s t r i b z t e d over the _ _


c r o s s - s e c t i c n s of main plates and b u t t s t r a p s .

(3)

-_

The effect of f r i c t i o n is n e g l i g i b l e .

(4) The bolts f'tt t h e holes i n i t i a l l y , and the


m s t s r i a l in the infledfate v i c i n i t y af t n e holes is not
damaged o r s t r e s s e d in making t h e holes or b s e y t i n g_ - t h e
bolts

--

___i

- .

24

N ~ C ATR NO. 1051

( 5 ) The r e l a t i o n s h i p between bolt d e f l e c t i s n and


bolt load i s l i n e a r I n the e l a s t i c range and may be
CR
expressed as 6 = 2, i n which C is a b o l t c o n s t a n t
t o be determined subsequently.
k n a l v s i s of a v m e t r l c a l butt l o i n k f s s k e n e d b v b o l t s
in a s.Lngle line i n l i n e of a p p l l e d load.- B r i e f l y , scluthe problem consists o f the following s t e p s :
A f t e r :Load is a p p l i e d , a p a r t o f the j o i n t - between b o l t 8
i and 1 + I w i t h i n t h e j o l n t i a - c o n s i d e r e d ( f i g . 18),
and t h e length p f A.,,
along tkre main p l a t e between the
t w o bo:Lts 13 added to t h e d e f l e c t i o n of bolt
1 + 1 and
eq-uateri to b L i e L O L % L I . L p +
the b ~ t =
t traps
between t h e two b o l t s p l u s the deflection of b o l t i .
The deformations a r e expressed as function6 o f t h e loa3
and delormatlon c h s r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the p l a t e s and b o l t s ,
The r e s u l t i n g equation is solved f o r the b o l t l o a 3 R i + l
in ternis or? the b o i t l o a d R i ,
the j o i n t l o a d P, ane
t h e e l a s t i c c o n s t a n t s o f the p l a t e s and bolts.

1 ---LL

It; may be s e e n i n figure 19 t h a t

From a s s m u t i o n ( 5 ) ,
n

The load i n t h e main D l a t e between b o l t s i and 1 3- I


is equal t o t h e j o i n t l o a d P ninus the sum of t h e l o a d s

on alL.bolts

2R

preceding the p a r t o f t h e joint u n d s r

c o n s i d e r a t i o n ; that is,

Load i n main p l a t e s betweer, bolts

and

i + 1= P

-t1

.--

I,--

..

NACA T N No.

25

1051

The loads ir? t h e b u t t s t r a 2 s between bolts 1 and


i + 1 are equal t o the sum of the l o a d s transmitted t o
t h e butt straps by all b o l t s preceding the section under
c o n s i d e r a t i o n ; and since there are t w o b u t t s t r a p s , - a
I
Load i n one b u t t s t r a p between b o l t s 1 and i + 1 = - e
R
2 -

- ._

W i t h thesa r e l a t i o n s -and the secocd assumption, the


p l a t e deformations m a y be w r i t t e n- as
-

Let

P
bt,E - K,

..

..

The plate deformations may then be w r i t t e n

S
u b s t i t u t i n g e x p e s s i o n s ( A 2 ) and ( A 3 )
gives

i n t o e q u a t i o n (Al).--_
~

....

..
rrim

26

.. .
. ...

TN NO. 1051

Nurxwical work is f a c i l i t a t e d by l e t t i n s

Rewrtte e q u a t i o n

(a)
Yi-

xquation ( A ? ) is t k e q e n n r a l rslsti~nshi->
hetsllean
t;-,e loads on any- two succe-s-sivs bolts. I n t h e rorr-i shown,
t h i 5 equation is r e a d l l 3 - adaztable to numerical c a l c u l s t j or? w i t h o u t o b t a i n i n g general. forrLulas for loads carried
u y ; i i d i v i t i u a l L o i t v of tiie joint.
if c i e e m c a x - e f e r a b i e ,
e q u a t i o n ( A S ) nev be used ta det-err.line general expressioris f o r i n d i v i d u a l bolt loads. The n m e r i c a l procedure
is i l l u s t r a k e d in apmndlx By and general forxulas for
loads on the b o l t s o f the t h r e e - b o l t test s?ecimens are
snown in appendix C.

1-_-

* -

A case that occurs frequently is t h a t i n v.hich the


b o l t s a r e a l l of t h e same m a t e r i a l and size and the b u t t
s t r a n s a r e of t h e sm-e material as t h e main ? l a t e w U i i R
t h i c k n e s s e q u a l t o one-half- that o f the n a i n , l a t e .
Then

ci =
and

Ci+l

_..
.. .-

= c

..

(Ab)
?
..

i
i

(A6) a p p l i e s t o the specimens of the t e s t s


r-egoorked i n t h i s 3aper.

Equat'on

A n a l y s i s o f symnetricel butt j o i n t - f e s t e n e d b ? T b o l t s
i n seireral l i n e 8 parallel t o a331isd l o a d . - A solution 01'
m i n e r a l case i l l u s t r a t e d i n figure 19 Eay be obtained
i f , in a d d i t l o n t o t h e assumptions rnade in t h e f i 2 s t saction of this aDnendix, It is asaurred t h a t t h e b o l t s i n

any trlansverse rcw i a r e loaded equally.


I n a manner
s i m i l m t o t h a t in w h i c h e q u a t i o n ( A ? ) w a s o b t a n e d , it
m y be shown that

27

NACA TN noe 1051

It i s probable t h a t less- accuracy would be r e a l i z e d i n


t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of equtition (A71 in t h e a n a l y s i s of
j o i n t s o f the type i l l u s t r a t e d i n ff'gure 19 t h a n i n ' t h e
a n a l y s i s o f j o i n t s o f t h e type shown i n f i g u r e 17. PosrieF
( r e f e r e n c e 4) developed a r e l a t i o n s h i p for lap j D i n t s
s i m i l a r t o e q u a t i o n (A?) f r o m a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f p l a t e
deformations i n t e n s i o n a d i n b e a r i n 3 o,f -the plates under
t h e bolts o r r i v e t s .
I n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f b o l t co'ns t a n t s , Posner n e g l e c t e d t h e e f f e c t s o f s x e a r f r y , bending,
and bearing of the b o l t s . As a r e s u l t , for any given bolt
p a t t e r n and j o i n t width, P o s n e r f s s o l u t i o n y i e l d s i d e n t i c a l r e s u l t s f o r a l l bolt s i z e s o r f o r a l l p l a t e t h i c k n e s s e s when t h e t h i c k n e s s r a t i o a f the lap?ed plates is
constant. The s o l u t i o n contained kerein, which i s i n
agreement with the t e s t r e s u l t s , shows t h a t such a cond i t i o n does not e x i s t f o r b u t t j o i n t s .

Determination o f B o l t Constant C

F a c t o r s a f f e c , t i n q C . - I n t h e development of t h e
g e n e r a l b o l t - l o a d r e l a t i o n s h i p , it was assumed t h a t a
l i n e a r r e l a t i o n e x i s t s between b o l t d e f l e c t . i o n and b o l t
The r e l a t i o n i s s t a t e d as
l o a d i n the e l a s t i c range.
6 = -CR
2

F r o m eqURti0n ( A s ) i t may be s e e n t h a t C i s a f f e c t e d
by t h e factors t h a t i n f l u e n c e d e f l e c t i o n . These f a c k o r s
a r e s h e a r i w , bending, and b e a r i n g o f the b o l t ; and, aa
C is u s e d h e r e i n , t h e l o c a l i z e d effect o f bearing of' t h e
C.
p l a t e s is i n c l u d e d i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of

Since the b o l t i s loaded and a c t s i n a h i g h l y complex manner, t h e d e f l e c t i o n is n o t r e a d i l y determined.


A s o l u t i o n f o r C w i l l b e o b t a i n e d by assuming the bel
t o be a flxeii-end beam loaded as shown i n figure 20. As
related t o this assumption, i t should be remembered t h a t
t h e theory of e l a s t i c i t y shcws t h a t t h e b a s i c assumptions
underlying conventional beam a n a l y s i s e r e v i o l a t e d - when
s u c h a n a l y s i s i s appliee t o t h i s case. A more r e f i n e d

28

NACA TN NO. 1051

-.

.C

s..-

s o l u t i o n appears unwarranted, however, i n view oi' the


unce:.tainties i n t r o d u c e d by the p r a c t i c a l condl t l o n s of
joint c o n s t r u c t i o n . Furthermore, the n a t u r e of' t h e p m b lem i%nd pi-esent experimental r e n u l t s i n d i c a t e that-a
h i g h l y exact determinhtion of c is probubly unnecesaary.
Exprtsasions o b t a i n e d on t h e b a s i s of the foregoing and
subsequent assumptions, however, r e q u i r e experimental
checking o v e r a wide rsnge o f j o i n t - a r r a n g e m e n t s before
t h e y may be considered generally a c c e p t a b l e .
Effect-of t
i
h
e
a
r
a
.
- The
deflection caused by shear, bending, o r bearing l a determined separately and equated t o tin expression of the form
of equation ( A B ) t o o b t a i n the p a r t uf' C that may be
a t t r i b u t e d t o each e f f e c t . Dorlection i s measurea r o i a t i v e t o 8 l i n e that passes through the c e n t r o i d s sf the
end c:ross s e c t i o n s o f the bolt, an8 shearing and bending
Anfl5.c.t.jnn.s

sre fonnr3 at the r.cnt.er of

the span.

The

unit bearing d e f o r i n a t i o n i s d e f i n e d as a percentage of'


t h e bait diameter, and bearing atrevs i s computed i n &
'e
usual. manner as R/tD.
Tho bssring modulus of the b o l t
Qbl. i e assumed equal t o the ccmpreasive modulus of the
bolt m a t e r i a l . I t is then found f o r shear that

where a is a constant dependin upon. tho shape o f the


c r o s s s s c t i o n and is equal to 4A f o r a cir-cular sect-ion.
Thus

._~.
-

For bending,

For b e a r i n g ,
.
i
.

.
8

KACA TN NO.

1051

29

E f f e c t of b e a r i n g o f p l a t e . - The aasum?tion o f a
uniform d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s t r e s s i n t h e p l a t e s g i v e s satisf a c t o r y r e s u l t s when an average e l o n g a t i o n is t h e q u a n t i t y
t o be determined. Such an assumption, however, does n o t
t a k e i n t o account t h e l a c a l i z e d e f f e c t of bearing_-ufL'he
b o l t on the p l a t e s .
T h i s effect is o f g r e a t e r importance
..
w5en the bolt is o f a harder m a t e r i a l w i t h apprecTsblg
g r e a t e r bearing s t r e n g t h t h a n t h e p l a t e t h a n when the
p l a t e i s h a r d e r , This s t a t e m e n t may be c l a r i f i e d by a
c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the behavior o f a b o l t and a plate under
b e a r i n g load. T h e m a t e r i a l of the p l a t e can f l o w outward
a t t h e edges o f the h Q l e and theTeby'permit f u r t h e r
b e a r i n g deformation. This a c t i o n produces a bulging of
t h e p l a t e under t h e bolt, a n example 02 w h i c h may b e s e e n
by i n s p e c t i o n of specimen A - 1 i n figyre 3 .
The bulging
induces a secondary e f f e c t by i n c r e a s i n g the b e a r i n g a r e a
which in t u r n t e n d s t o p r o v i d e g r e a t e r r e s i s t a n c e t o
b e a r i n 3 deformation.
The material of t h e b o l t is m o r e
confined than t h a t o f t h e ?late; consequently, t3e bolt
must deform more by EL process o f compaction t h a n by flow
of the contact surfeces.
It folIows t h a t the two cond i t l o n s r e p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f t h e b e a r i n g problem and h a t beariof t h e p l a t e is more critical when
t h e m a t e r i a l o f t h e b o l t is a s hard as - F E Z F d e r >ha%
t h a t o f the p l a t e , which is g e n e r a l l y t h e p r e v a i l i w con-ditlon i n airplane structures. Spstein (reference ?)
a r r i v e d a t s i m i l a r conclusions in regard t o the b e w i n g
a c t i o n s of t h e b o l t and p l a t e a s a r e s u l t o f h i s i n v e s t l g a t i o n of b e a r i n g s t r e n g t h . Therefore, i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f p l a t e deformations, provision must b e m a d e t o
i n c l u d e b e a r i n g deformation o f t h e plates. Although
bearing dezormation f a a f u n c t i o n of t h e dimensions and
e l a s t i c p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e plates as well as the l o a d ,
t h i s deformation can be e s t i m a t e d m r e r e a d i l y i n t e r m s
of b o l t behavior.
For t h i s r e a s o n , the r e s u l t i w correct i o n is a p p l i e d t o t h e b o l t c o n s t a n t C r a t h e r t h a n t o
t h e p l a t e c o n s t a n t s Kp and Ks.

The u n i t b e a r i r g deformation o f a p l a t e is d e f i n e d
as a percentage o f the h o l e diameter, and t h e diameter
o f t h e h o l e I s assumed equal t o t h a t of t h e b o l t , Bearing
s t r e s s i s computed i n t h e u s u a l manner as R / t D .
In the
manner used i n c o n n e c t i o n with shearing, bending, and
becaring of the b o l t , i t is found t h a t - _
_-

.._
.

and 'pap
8118 the b e a r i n g moduli. of the
plat-,
which are assumed equal t o ths compressive moduli
of t h e p l a t e m a t e r i a l s i n the calculation Or C.
Egbr

where

Combination of terms. The bolt-constant


C
be deF3J?rnined by adding expressions (A10) ( A l l )

and (A:L3)

may now
(A12)

c =

8t,3 + 16G2tp + 8t,tp2 + 5 3

c =

_.

..

. .

. -.

. . .

....

. ..

...

and if

---

...

L.<-...

.-

NACA TN No. 1051

31

-*bbEPbr

- k4

e q u a t i o n ( A l 5 ) m a y be w r i t t e n
n

Expressions for C f o r s p e c i f i c con:binations o f


materials.The following expressions a r e l L n i t e d t o the
case where

tP
t, - :
2

Case I. If average values of e n e r a l l y quoted moduli


of the s t r u c t u r a l aluminum alloys &-T,
179-T, *-T,
25S-T, and 75s-T are used, the values of k are within
1 p e r c e n t of t h e following:
kl = 2.66

and
k2 = k3 =

k4 =

For any combSn8.tion of b o l t s and p l a t e s of these m a t e rials, therefore,

c=tpEbb

Case 11.

re(zy

(f1)
t \2

~ . l - 2
+

F o r s t e e l p l a t e s and bolts,

7
11
b

(Alj)

and

CEse T I I .

For 01unimu;l p l a t e s and steel b o l t c ,

and

I n which 10,600 lrai is an average value of the conpressive


z o d u l i of the previously zenti o ~ e dalu;rLinwn alloys. The
.?xDressionfor C is

:...
.Zar!e N. For almdnum i.:&in p l a t e , s t s o l butt straps,
and s t e e l b o l t s ,

and

NACA TX NO

and

-. 1051

RCase
l w i n uV.
cl

33

b Fo ol tr s ,~ l u ; n i r z u mmain p l a t e , s t e e l b u t t s t r a p s , - -

= 2.66

ICl

kZ = 0.56

The p r s c e d i n g ex?resslora can be g e n e r a l l y . a , ? p l i o d


by r e p l a c i n g tp r i t h a b ~ p o t l i ? t i c a l t h i c k n e s s e q u & l t o
nile-half t h e t o t a ? . thickness Gf t2;e T l a t e s ; t h a - t is,
.

k3

(A21)

k4.j

Qecause of the aqproximate n e t u r e o f tne e x p r e s s i o n f o r


t hset i further
e ra ey nbe
t i readily
n e q u a t i 4eterYLced
on ( A 2 z F
C
is, j u
f i e d arid a7proximetion
values of ,,C i n l m
% h a t do n o t differ t o o much f r o m t h o s e c a l o u l a t e d from
equation
A b ) extreme
.
I n order
t h ewdifferances
Involved, ( the
caset o
of exazcine
t,
a s chosen m d - tP
t.ze comparison is give3 i n t a b l e
Table k shows t h a t
is
from
2
t
o
19
2
e
r
c
e
n
t
less
than
I; for any
av
. _ value
of "/tp

4.

34
APP3ND.IX R

-.

_.

I n order t o i l l u s t r a t s the a p p l l c a t - i o n o f equation ( A ? ) in numerical C & l C l i l a t i a R S , solutlon of the


f o l l o w i n g example is g:ven,
Consider a five-bolt j o i n t
( f i g . 18) made up o f t b f o ~ l o w i n gcomponents:
Steel bolts:

&S-T
.-

plates :

t!, = 5/16 in.


.

...

t-,= 3/16 in.


p = 1 in.
b

= 2 in.
10,500

ksi

___

S i n c e Ci+1 = Ci, equation ( A 5 ) may be w r i t t e n , from equat i o n (l),

..

NACA TN XO.

1051

35

The bolt constant nay be d e t e r d n e d from e q u a t i o n (A18)


by r e F l a c i n g t p With t a v ;
then

and

_-

S t a r t i n g w i t h the second b o l t , s u c c e s e i v e expressions


f c r each u~aknownbolt load a r e - w r i t t e n i n terms of Til
by
means Qf e q u a t i o n (~1):

36

NACA TN 30. 2051

and t -h o r e f o r o

34 =
y5 =

2.778

I+*&o

0.256~

x 0.256~

A r i t h m t i c a l check:

+
.. "

0 . 5 5 7 ~= 0 . 1 7 3 ~

..

o.y6? = 0.223~
= 1.001p

P = >R

:In t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l rxethod of analysis, it is R S E r X i e d


t h e t 13ach bolt c a r r i e s the same load, tfiat fs, R = 0.2C?Op.
C:ornpei*ing the forzyolng r e s u l t s with t h i s value shows
t h a t i;he end b o l t s are overloaded and t%e i n t e r i o r b o l t s
c a r r y l e s s l o a d t h a n they are u s u c l l y conssidered to
suop ox*t
Thus,

-__

Rl/R

..

= 1.28

!?2/R = 0.93
H7/R = 0.30
R~/R =
S5/E

0.37

= 1.111.

... -

.
.

.
_i

NACA TN

NO.

37

1051
APPENDIX C

GENERAL EQUATIONS FOR AND CALCULATION OF BOLT


LOADS FOR SPECIMENS OF GROUPS

AND

Equation ( A 6 ) applies t o t h e calculation o f t h e


loads c a r r i e d by the i n d i v i d u a l b o l t s ' of' specimens of
groups A and -B- since 2Kp = K,
and the b o l t s are
a l l of the same size and m a t e r i a l , T h e expression is

General equations.- For any two-bolt j o i n t when


and t h e b o l t s a r e of t h e same s i z e and m a t e r i a l ,
From equation (Cl)
it can be shown that R1 = R 2 = P/2.

2K, = KS

Since

and

therefore
,

Equation (C3) a p p l i e s t o t h e three specimens of group


A, s i n c e all f u l f i l l the necessary c o n d i t i o n s .

__

For t?m j o i n t s of group


app 13' :
From s y m e try

R1

3,

the follo:vIn,rr equations

= R3

P = x R = 2R1 + R 2
Substituting equation ( C Z ) i n t o (C4-> g l v e s

_ __ _

..

and

S u b s t i t u t i o n of equatZon (C5) into

'Ty?3ical calculations f o r j o i n t o f grouy,


B-1.

speciinen

.. _.

... .

B,

Frm t a b l o 1,
p

2 in.
I

h = 1- in.

tp =

0.374.

in.

For the b o l t s ,
1

4 in*

39
1
( 1 . ~ ~ ) ( 0 ~ ~ 1 8 ~ ) ( 1 0 , 1225
~00)

Ks - bt,E
tP =
-

--

-,P

1.5

.-

.._ .

From e q u a t i o n ( A l 3 )
I

c =

0.15,

tpBbb

D .

Substituting in t h i s expression t h e values of


and t r / D
gives

tp, Eb3,
-.

From e q u R t i o n ( c 5 )

= (2.94
52.84

R1

and f r o m e q u a t i o n

The values of

+ )1

( ~ 6 )

f o r s2ecin;ens B-2 and 9-3 w w e

f m n d in l i k e manner, and the e l a s t i c constants and ratio-s


R/P
f o r all syecimens a r e shown in table 5 .

..

___

- ..

e=.

.. -.

NACA TN NL

__-

1051

.%k-avior of Spec i m e c s
S t r e s s d i s t r i b u t i o n in D 1 e t e s . -

In t t i e a n a l y s i s

? i v e n I r i appec.dix A, Cvne & t r o s e in t h e p l a t e s i s assume2


t-cbt? lulif'orwly d i s t r i b u t e d .
The photoelastic s k u d i e s
oi' Co!ser m d P i l o n (reference 9 ) arici Frocht ( r e f e r - .

ance lo), however, show t h a t a n o n u n L f o r x stress


d i s t r i b u t i o r i -exists i n t k e p l a t e 3 of b o l t e d j o i n t s .
In t , l l e r d d u c t l o n of tet34:. data, ?lake l o a d s w o r e calcul n t l o t l on t h e ess-mmtion of a . m r ~ f ' o l ? ; , - d r s t r i b u t i o n
of
s-ireas; the stress was c m p u t e d from an average s t z a i n ,
ivtilch was d e t e r x i n e d . RS the a-f.thinetica1 awerage of
'i:3ree, s - k E . i z r 3 measured on t h e Gage l i n e s sho-m in
fiquie 17. In order t o stud? tha r;lPT;r?er in :M-ch tke
t;?ne stress d i s t r i 5 u t f o n aff'sctad t h e .act.iqil 3olt l o a d s
B i l d t:i.le c a l c u k t e d ? l a t e loada, A Srief discvmsion is
ziven in csmiiection v r i t i l the obazi-xied st,naIzs
.. .

It w a s observed t h a t t h e o t r a i n d i s t r i b z t i o c
vsi-ied with load (fie. 17). A t . l m Loads t k s st.rain
d l s t P i b u t i o n as aoqroxi:xtel;r uniform; but, RS the
j'>?-?:f- load WAY incrsese-3, atzeins- p c i m3a.surG oa gage
..
l i n a 1 I n c r e w e d at 8 faster Fate than t h e strains c2
n,eEtsured on ?age l l n e 2, d!.r8ctly i n l i n a w i t h k c b o l t s .
Althcugh 1 i n c r e a s e d m x e r-ayldly wlSh l o a d than 2
Et a11 s e c t i o n s , the m o m t and -rate. cf i n c r e a s s varied
conszdeFably P r o n s e c t i o n tc section of a s p o c i u n .
All s7ecimens e x h i b i t e d simllFrr beiiavlor S u t i t was
somewhat mora pronounced in s2ecTmens A-3 m c l B-fr,
:'ram which the data plotbed in figure 17 were o b t a i n e d .
The r l . o t t e d n o f n t s represent tke avereges of s t r a i n s
measured ivith all gages, which w e r e l o c e t e 6 i n s l E i 1 E p
n o s i t i o n s on t h e b u t t s t r a y .
road-3 t r a i n behavior' of t:ie tyue s h o r n in-figure 17
has been r e p o r t e d nreviously (references 5 and 11).
In r e f e r e n c e 'j several s e t s of stress diEtgra?:s for
rlve?tad and pin-connected jcints ars GIvsn, which
indic.ste the yeme tcndency m-d in BO^ c a s a s show that
ci5rsc'tlu in l a e : w i t 4 the r l v e t a the s t r e s s c h e . p s

__

- -- I

NACA TN

X O ~ 1051

41

f r o m t e n s i o n a t l o w loads t o compression a t h i g h e r loads.


If an irregular s t r a i n d i s t r i b u t i o n based on the diagrams
of r e f e r e n c e 5 is esamned, ? l a t e loads pay be c a l c u l a t e d
and conpared w i t h t h e q l a t e loads c o - T u b e d on the b a s i s
of average s t r a i n ;
the following corn3misons
made
on this b a s i s .
The g r e a t g s t percentage var-le.tion of cieasw-ed
s t r a i n occurred et s e c t i o n 2-2 of specimen A-3 a t a
j o i n t load o f 8.5 k i ? s , where t h e c e n t e r s t r a i n
was anproximately 25 m r c e n t l e s s than the average
The load in t h e b u t t straps- a t - ' t h i s
s t r a i n caV
s e c t i o n comnutsd on t h a assunction of t a e irregular
s t r a i n d i s t r i b u t i o n fq ahout 7 g e r c e n t g r e a t e r than
the l o a d computed on t h e b a s i s of sverage s t r a i n .
The
two methods give l o a d s at a e c t i o n 2-2 t h a t d i f f e r by
about 3 perce-nt f o r specimen B-3 at a j o i n t l o a d of
. ap?rmcin:ately t w o - t n i r d s t n e u l t i m a t e and for specirnei
A-3 a t a b o u t one-half t h e u 1 r ; i m a t e .
A t lower j a i n t
l o a d s the d i f f e r e n c e s a r e n 5 g l i g i b l e . A t s e c t i o n 1-1
the d i f f e r e n c e is l e s s than 2 p e r c e n t i n a l l casea.
At section 3-3 of specimen B-3 the maximum d i f f e r e n c e
i s 3 percent. For t h e remaining specfinens the
differences a t corresponding s e c t i o n s a r e l e s s than
those just cited.

_-

..

...
.

____

It nap be concluded i n regard t o the specimens


of these t e s t s t h a t , a t the sections where s t r a i n
measurements were made, t n e assumption of a uniform
stress d i s t r i b a t i o n 2 r o v i d e s a s a t i s f a c t o r y 1;2ems f o r
t h e c a l c u l a t i o n o f p l e t e loads, The 2 l a t e c o n s t a n t s
Kp
and &, which a r e assumed equal t o p l a t e deformation
per u n i t o f load, a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y deterrained w i t h '
_ -.
c o r r e s T o n d i n g accuracy on t h e basis of t h e s m e
assumption.
The s t r e s s d i s t r i b u t i o n rn-dergoes a very
_.
c o n s i d e r a b l e chanee f r o r . a s e c t i o n rn3.dwa-J between
__
a d j a c e n t b o l t s t o a s e c t i o n through the b o l t hole.
~ g =ht r e s s c o r i c e n t r a t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t i n the v'iciny
of the h o l e , which cause y i e l d i n g of the m a t e r f a l
e e r l y i n t h e l o a d history of a j o i n t and are large-ly
responsible for the a c t i o n illustrated i n f i g u r e 17.
To t a k e such actior_ into account t h e o r e t i c a s l y would
involve c o r r e c t i o r i of t'ce p l a t e c o n s t a n t s Kp and Ksr
which would result i n n m l b e a r curves of J o i n t l o a d
P g a i n t bolt l o a d (P-R) for z l l - b o l t s of a j o i n t . Such
corr.ection i n d i c e t e s t h a t the first bolt c a r r i e s a

_-

__
..-

__

42

-.... .
--

.--

NACA

TN

NO.

1051

.C

g r e a t e r l o a d then is at Present rletarnined by m e a n s of


any proposed e l a s t i c tlraory.
Previou Investigators
hsve found e x m r h e n t a l l p deteriniried l o a d s on h a f l r s t
b o l t g r e a t e r than t h o s e comyuted by mems of hn e l a s t i c
theory ( r e f e r e n c e s 3, 5, and 6 ) . It w i l l be necesso.rj',
;iowever, to s e c u r e )r,ore Iaforrr-stion about t h e s t r e s s
distribution b e l b r e r e v i s a d values of K - can be
i n c o r o o r a t u d i n t h e theory.
L n t e - r a l b e n d i n g accoqarqinc tranbf'sr fif S o l t
loads t o b a t t s t r a p s . - I n the a n a l p s i s ~ i v e nin
a?perIdlr, A, s b o l t load is a s s m c d to be d i s t r i b : r t e d
uniformly along the b o l t . I t has long be-en recognized,
h
r r ~ .'.
. . u ~ t~h a
~ t, t?ii t ~ l t
is ? i s t p L b u t e d Y O t h a t
tile r i e s u l t a u t of t h o ? o r t i o n t r a n s m i t t o d t o one b u t t
a t r s ? lies w i t h i n tho h a l f - t h i c k n e s s o r the b u t t s t r a p
acljacent t o t h e m a i n p i a t e . As B ? e 3 1 ~ l t , a lateral
bendime, moinext a c t i n z In a ?lano n o r n a l . t w - t h e ?lane
of' the b u t t s t r a p is induced i r t the strap. Thls xmxent
LS resisted p a r t l y by i ' l e x ~ z a l .stiffness sf t h e o t r a ?
and p a r t l y ::b d i r e c t t e r i s l o n ir. t k o b o l t s .
Ifi t h e s e
?:ssts t;he--nut;swere loosenod in order t o miniirdaa
f ' r i c - t i o n a l e f f e c t s m d for this m a s o i l le-teral bending
was l a r g e l y r e s i s t e d by S t i f . f z ; e S S of t L e s t r a p a .

nT",ch

The Dresence of 1 a t e r a . l bending momant in the b u t t


str8,~rha.a
s n e g l i g i b l e effect on the v a l u e s of the
b o l t - l o a d s . Amroxirnats calculations i n d i c a t e thrtt t h i s
L e t e r a 1 bending noment e f r e c t s t h e load on t h e f i r s t
colt t o en e x t e n t of tile order of magnitude of 0 . 2 p e r c e n t i - The p r i n c l p c l d i f f i c u l t y caused by l a t e r a l
bending lies i n th-a i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of strain d a t a .
Secause of t h i s bending e f c e c t , c o r r e c t i o n -.of calculated
p l a t e ' l o a d s is n e c e s s a r y i n soin8 c e s e s ; t h i s , bending
_ is e x p l a i n e d i n t h e f o l l o w i a g section in connection wibh _ _
thoee-specimens f o r which c o r r e c t i o n w a s r e q u i r e d .

.. .

'

The 7resence o f l a t e r a l bending moment y-fi.5 c o I X l r m d


experiment-ally by s t r a h measurements taken on the outer
surfaces of the butt s t r a p s a k t h e c e n t e r s of tcc Joints.
T h a t .moraent e x i s t e d i n a l l cases except thin spsciniens rnay
be v e r i f i e d by reference. t o t a b l e 6. 13 t a b l e 6 t h o
test specimons a r e l i s t e d a c c o r d h g to dccraasgng
t h i c k n e s s of the p l a t ~ sa s evidence-d by I n c r e a s i n g r a t i o s
of' m1.t diameter t o butt-stra? t h i c k n e s s D/tS.
The
tabulated v a i w s are r a t i o s - of int-ernel l o a d t o agmlied
load. I n t e r n a l loads w6re determined at; thrae sect-ions,

. .

.. .

a t e a c h of which i t w a s Lmo'm f r o r i conditions of e q u i l i brium t h a t tLe total ap?lied loa.3 XES resisted. S;r the
;2lates unon which s t r a i r , masure:cents were m a d e . Vairzes
or Pu and pL were c a l c u l a t e d Trox s t r a i z d a t a
o b t e i n s d at s e c t i o n s 3 inches beyoEd the first bolt
in t h e upper and l o w 0 2 x a i n p l a t e s , respectively
( f i e . I ) . Values of ps were c a l c n l a t e d froiz s t r a i n
msesurezents taken on the b u t t s t r a p at t i l e center.s
It m a y be noted from t a b l e o , t h a t
of t h e joints.
P,/P
is l e s s t h a n Pu/P
ana PJP,, in..wh!.ch
. . - ... . .
cas8
each of the l a s t tac a1v:ays bava the aapectecl v a l a e of
unity w i t h l n 2 Yercent. A l s o P,/P
i s f n f l * i e n c e d by
t h e nu-nber of bolts f a s t e r , i n g t h e p l a t e s and d a c r e e s e s
fi-oiri unity as D/ts
d e c r e a s e s . TMS G h a v i o r is . - .
a t t r i b u t e d t o mor3 flexure1 res.htex:ce of tne butt
- .
s t r a p s t o g e t h e r -it5 g r s a t e r bending fief l s c t i o n -of t h e
b o l t s in the t h i c k e r s*3ecixens, which f6 eccor;.7anfed b 7 -.
p e s t e r b o l t - l o a d e c c e n t r i c i t y . Curves- rrf f, a r e shovm iil r i g i r e s RI EL) w d ? ( a ) to 15(a). It ~ a - rbe
sden i n f i g a r e s lo(a) t o 1 3 ( e ) that PJF
is c o r s t . a n t ,
which .is inaLcati-Je of a c o n s t a n t b o l t - l o a d e c c s n k r l c i t y ,
UT t o one-half of tkie u l t i n a t e loEd. T h e ralctions1.i~
c c ~ r e s st o ba linear at higher loac?s, exce?t ;'or .s?ecixsns A-5 and 3-5.
S v i d e n t l y tka.b u t t - s t r s p bonding
i n c r e a s e s a t a g r e h t a r r E t e because. af i n c r e a s i n g b o l t load a c c e n t r i c i t y a t t r i b u t a b l e ta -%he.large- bolt .
. d e f l . e c t i o n s % h E t o c c w et ki&k l o a d s .
Curves cf Pu
and PL m e not ?resented, QS t h e atrairi b8hav20P ras
.flillg i n accord w i t h tl1s.t which 3ollld be predicted at'
s s c t i o n s where these va.3.ues- Bere determined. .. As t h e
f a s t s were ir- ;-.rorqess, it w a s observed t h a t the e f f e c t
of' the e c c e n t r i c l o c a t i o 3 of -2i3 result-=it b o l t l o a d s
c a u s e d zhe free e n d s of tlie b u t t g+.tracs t o move o u t w a r d
firon tn.: nain p l a t e s . I4icvs:Aer-t waa, of cotzr3e, p e r ceptible only E t hi&
logds.
A s i m i l a r behavior h a s
been n o t e d XJ p r e v i o u s i n v e s t t g a t o r s ( r e r e p e n c e 1.21.

In the usual types o f bolted o r r i v e t e d joints,


it kppears l i k e l y t h a t bending of the str83s would-be
r e l i s v e d w ? r e c i a b l T becausa c.f t e n s i o n ln t k e baLts or'
r l v e t s , except a t loads apixoaching t-'8 u l t i m a t a .
As
t h a b o l t s o r r l v s t s undergo larg8 defo=.,rations at- loads .
near t n e u l t i i i a t e , they are u n s b l a to c-arrs t h e t e n s i l e
lozds necessary to r e l l e v e bondin?,.

. .__

__ -

__-.

__._.
.__

. _.

- ---

. .- _-.--- ..
.. .

.
.. -_

.,

. .

.. . .
.
.. .~

..
:
-

._
..

- t..

j.

Calculet-lon cf b o l t loads f r o = s t r e l n d e t a . - 7n
general, t h e l
o
a
d
a
a difference cetwaei, b u t t - s t r a p loads a5 secbioris on each s i d a
of b h e bolt. T h e tensile :nodulus of e l e s c i c i t y u s e d
!fl t h e c a l c u l a t i o n s was
E = 10,:GO
k s i . SZress-etra,n
cillives plotted fron teceile t e s t asta for coupons
-wprosenting t h e p l a t e s w r a t y : > i c a l or A+J-T e l m i r z m
d l o g ; moduli of. e l a s t i c i t y de teralined f r o m these
ci!rves were w i t h i n 2 7 e r c e n t of the recommxied ctecctmd
v a l u a a f 10,500 k s i .
:?or s.,ecimens A-3 8fid 3-3, t h e butt-strap l o c d s
;;ere s a t w t e d as t!?e ? r o e s a r e a of a butt-strer, t i m a
tiio a v e r a p stress. T h e aversgel strsss was consiaered
t c bs eeual t o t h e a r l t h n e S i c a 1 averaae of t h r a e
r?easii?ed s t r a i n s rnultf..rlied by the modulus o f e l a s t i c i t : .
"he l o a d 03 the f i r s t bolt R1 w a s found by adding t h e
5 u t t - : 3 t r m loads a t s o c t i o z 2-2 for snecimen A-3 m d EL
c e c t i o n 3-3 f o r s q e c i n e n B-3 (fis. 17). Load or? t h e .
second b o l t R2 was found by su5tracting R1 f r o m the
sum of t n e b u t t x s t r a a loads et section 1-1 f o r saec2;+:enA-3 and et s e c t i o n 2-2 for syeclnen B-3.
POP 2-3,
l o a d on t h e t h i p d bolt "3 was found by subtracting
Vie q u a n t i t y R1 + R2 f r o x t h e sum of the S u t t - s t r a p
l o a d s P, . et section 1-1. The i*en,ainfng b o l t h m d s

Rb,

,
_ r

.+
. .
. .

&, and
. -

9g

were determinod i n tne ame..clanner.

--.

I:n t h e case oflsgscfxens A - 1 and 6-2, ; i l . R t e leads


::'ore c:etermined a l s o b y t h i s E8tho.d. L s t a F a l osndins
of t h e b u t t stkans., however, necessitated c o r r e - c t i c n
of t h e values. F r o m tile nethod of s t r a i n n a a a t l r a ~ i e n t ;
( b y use of the %ages on the c u t e r SurTaces of t m s t r a p s ) ,
t h e x s g n i t u d e 'of the bendin.? mo:aent sould be eia.Lu-&tedonly 6.t tha s e c t i o n where P,
was d e t e r d z e d .
It w.98
nssurned t h a t the erroIns dus t o bending wers D r o n o r t i o n a l

to

''
P

--

__.

. ..

-.
.. -

1,md c o r r e c t i o n was R:acie by rnulti>lTlng t L e

S u t t - s t r a a loads by P/P,,- a f t e r which t h e b o l t l o a d s


were found i n the manner used for specimen A - f .
;;ith
r e s ' m c t to m e c i a e n s 5-1 and B-2, q u a l i t a t t v e atudiee
triilicated l e . t e r a l bending m o n e n t s of t h e same sign et
sections 1-1 and 5-3 ( f i g . 17) witn monont of op2osfte
7

.-

...-.

-.... =&-

NACA TN X O . 1051

45

.-

s i g n a t s e c t i o n 2-2.

On t h l s basis ar_d t h e sssumption


t h a t the e r r o r s wer9 p r o p o r t i o n a l t o ps
1, t h e b u t t -

s t r a p l o a d s were c o r r e c t e d by x u l t i p l y l n g t h e Ibads a t
s e c t i o n s 1-1 and 3-3 by ?/Ps
ar,d the l o a d s a t s e c -_
t i o n 2-2 by P,/P,
af'ter which t k e bolt l o a d s wdre found
i n t h e lnSnner used T o r specircen B-3.
Although it was
c l e a r that a t mig one j o i n t load ti?e s m s c o r r e c t i o n
f a c t o r d i d n o t apply a t all-s e c t i o n s , s i n c e t b e rr;.onent
v a r i e d along t h e 1engtLs o f the b u t t s t r a p s , due considera t i b n of the s e v e r a l f a c t m s i n v o l v e d i n t h e behevior of
a l l specimens i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e c o r r e c t i o n srocedure
w a s f a i r l y adequate e x c e a t a t nigh loads f o r specLxens B-1
and B-2.
T h e curves of P,
a r e shown i n c o n j u n c t i o n with
the b o l t - l o e a curves i n f i g w e s 5(a) t o 1 5 ( a ) because of
t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p owing to t S e ' u s e o f -Ps i n the
d e t e r n l n a t i o n of c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r s .

- ----

- -_

.-

C e l c u l e t i o n of bolt def l s c t i o n s
In 5( tudylng t h e
load x s f i - i b u t i o n i n b o l t e d o r r i v e t e d j o i n t s a n m b e r
of i n v e s t i g a t o r s have n.ade use of the J * l o a d s l i p urelEtFonshi? o r the d e f l e c t i o n of the r i v e t s o r b o l t s ( r e f e r ences 1, 2, &, and 5 ) . I n the usuel k y p e s of bol5ed j o i n t ,
d e f l e c t i o n of the bolts is n o t menable t o measuremmt,
and t h e procedure t o date has been t o mike i n d i r e c t
determinations on t h e s i d e s of a joint by o b s e r v a t i o n cft h e r e l a t i v e movement of the p l a t e s . Such met:iods,

.
._

__

although approximate, e r e g e n e r a l l y enployed i n t h e


deterlninatfon of b o l t d e f l e c t i o n s ; but t h e accuracy w5th
xhich d e f l e c t i o n s are found cannot be s t a t e d with cert a i n t y . I n t*e nomenclature of t h e ? r e s e n t pa?ar, t h e
d e f l e c t i o n r e lationship i s
6 = CR/2

t D1)

The cox2arison of measured b o l t d e f l e c t i o n s w i t h v a l u e s


determined f r o m e q u a t i o n (Dl) f u r n i s h e s e neans f o r
examination o f t h e v a l i d i t y of t h e e m r e a s i o n for the
b o l t c o n s t a n t c.

The d e f l e c t i o n of b o l t s i n specinens of groups A


and B was determined from d a t a o b t a i n e d during t h e t e s t s
t o failure by measurenent of the spreading of the gar,
between-main p l a t e s a t the c e n t e r of each j o i n t . Total-

.
c

:
i

NACA TIT

NO,

1051

,=-.

XACA TN No. 1051

1. Jenkins, E. S . : 3 a t i o n a l Design of F e s t s n l n g a .
SAE Jour., T r o 1 . 52, no. (3, S e p t . 141$4, 09. 1+21-k2c/,
2. F r w n i k o f f , A. : i4ork of R i v e t s i n Riveted J o i n t s .
T r a m s . A.S .r: . P . , 1701. Q5, 3p. 457-4+3; d i s c a s s i o n ,
~

450-469.

..

.-

5 . Bat'no, Cyril:

The. P a r t i t i o n of t h e Load fri l i i v a t a d


Joints.
J o u r . F r a n k l f n I n s t . , vo7. 1.32, no. 5 ,
Y O ~ . 1316, '.>p. 555-604.

--

4. Posner,

3zr.s C. : 3 1 v e t . s d E'sstcpings
Product Engineeri n g , voi. 15, no. 8 , kq,. 1742, pp. 4.Lp5-453

. .

5 . L o i s s e i l ' f , Leon S., Hest;nanr,,

E. C.,
and Illacre, E. L.:
Joints of S t 3 e l 8i.d
Aiw-dnur?. A l l o y s , Proc. A . S . . C . Z . , v o l . 71, no. 5 ,
3t. 2, (Trms. NO. 103, ~ Y L Ai,i,iarch
),
191:.5,
p?. 13f;3-1397;discussion, :>p. 15?$-lj9$,
X v e t e d and Pin-Corinecteu

Davis, Ra3mond E., :Vooclr-df, G l e n n 5 , , a:?


Davts,
Xarnier E.:
Tenslor. Tests of LE^^ F i i v o t s d J o i n t s .
T r a n s . A.S .c .E., VOI. 105, 1?+0,pp. 1193-1245;
discussion, pp. 1246-137,

7 . Eustein,

Alk,ert:

-.

? e a r i n 3 StreuGtn in .Air?li~neLbsign.
v o l . 2.2, no. 1, ~ ~ 1 21945,
.

Jour: Aero. scj.,,


T)P. 67-E&.

-.

9. Anon.:

Strength of A i m r a t t ~ l e ~ e n t s ..Aric-s,
h l i ? y - N a ~ - C i v i l S o c i i - i t t e e O i l Aircraft 3aqulrerren ts
U. S . oat. i'rintmg Oi'f>ce, O c t . 1932.

9 - Coker, E. G., and F i l o n , L. X . G.:


'

II).

Photoelasticity.

A Treatise on
C m r h r i d g e Fniv. P r e s s , 1'331.

Frocht, Xax Mark: Photoslasticftg,


'Wile7 & Sons, Inc., 1941-

Vol. I.

JohE

11. C h l a r l t o , P a t r i c k T., and D i s k i n , SIxor, 3.: S t r a i n


Ifeasurements and Strength Tssts on the Tension Side
of a Box Beam wxth F l a t Covw?. E & A A X 3 'KO. L;A13b,

_-

L?&.
.-.
'

2 - J-ohnston, Sruce G. : pin-Connected P1at.a- L i n k s . Proc.


A.s.G.E., v e l .
no. 3, parcf; l y j E I , pp. LO1-4S3.

64,

._

NACA TN

NO.

48

1051

8.59
8.20

8.P
7.78
&Xl11y 2

A-1

7.98

A-2

8.02

B-2

8.4

9.74 Up..

gBg:

7.

'

..-.

..

49

NACA

TN

NO.

ioji

..

Cue

Yak

phtm

atraps

b o l t ' %b

.(*.I)

(1)

kl

D/tP

10,500

2.66

11

g , o o o 2.61,

2.bk

2-73 2.73
i
2.73
e36 1

I11

29,000

IV

g,ma 2 4 I

,l0,500

2.66

Zk1-

4(

k5

2.3
2.3

11.1

11.1

11.1

2.3

2.3
2.5

d
t
, s Qo

19.2

16.h

--

NACA

TN No. 1051

-.

D/tp

QrOUp

..

K,

(1)

.'

. 1-1

tP

'.

TAB=

Spech e n s

0.80

RdP
L

0.308

2------

i/432

0.500

-50

.499

1/3%

A-3

1-52

e162

1/296

---0-0

B-1

67

e374

m32

1/1=5

B-2

e50

0501

V355

1/1640

B-3

1-34

.188

1/329

1/607

0.500

------

A-2

500

500

Group 8

50

365
354
378

I;:

.
.

-_

TABLE 6
EFFECT OF BUTT-STRAP BENDING AS SHOWN BY
COMPARISON OF MEASURED INTERNAI; LOADS

ernal l o d
'lied loa

Specimen

PL
P

A-2

1.00

1,000

A-1

1.60

994

995
984

A=3
B-2

3.09

-983

1.000

B-1

1.33

B-3

2-75

1.00

1.000

995
1.015

994
-9%
1.016

994

NATIONAL ADVISORY

COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS

NACA

Fig- 1

r:z===y

D
T
r

'

TN NO. 1051

El

Standard tensile specimen cut


from central portion o f
sheet from which main
plates or butt straps
obtaii

-_

Two-bolt

j o i n t , group A
z

!\I1 bolts, ;-inch heat-treated


(I25 ksi) alloy-steel bolts,

c:lectrical
Figure I.

3t.m.n-gages,

-inch.

Three-bolt joint-; group B


--

- Test

specimens and arrangement of sfrain gages. (Armngement of gags duplicated on opposite face of spcciman.)
-

- --

- _-- -- .-.- - -

4.

. .

NACA

TN No. 1051

Fig. 2

.-

.-

Figure 2 . - General arrangement o f specimen in testing

machine

.-.

.-

NACA TN No. 1051

*
8

NACA TN
*

NO. 1051

Figs. 5a,b,6

L2-4

Bolt load, R, kips

Internal joint load, Ps, kips


(a) Observed

relationship

tietween applied and


internal joint loads.
Figure 5.

- Joint-load

0 Observed relationships between applied


joint load and bolt loads.
and bolt-load curves for loading
in the elastic range.

o f specimen-A-2

.
3.0

Ps determined a t this sectlon


r
i
10
OiiO
G I
F P

Bolt I
%
.- 1.5

Test run

'
7

-2-.3
4

Load

Unload

-Cro failure)

NA'TIONU ADVISORY

M(WTTf.c ro1 UIDlMlc.

-.54

Bolt load, R, kips


Figure6.- Observed relationships between applied joint load and bolt loads
for loading of specimen A-3 in the elastic range.

-a

Fig. 7 e . , b

NACA TN

NO.

1051

9-

:=-t
n

0
YI

.I-l

-B
0
I

t1

.LL

CI,

. . .

r .

..

-..

..

F i g . 8a,b

NACA TN NO. 1051

z.-

-E
0

ia
y.
0

b
c

Q,

Fig.

9a,b
.

._. .

f -

I
-

P
+
.-c
!

e
.-

rr)

L
0

.+I
0

f)

.-

-2

E
0

0
+
C

. .-

NACA

TN No. 1051

Flg. 10a,b

..

Flg. 1:La.b

_.
NACA TN NO.
.

1051'
'-

-_

_.. ..

. --..

. . _.

._._

u:
-

- ._

NACA

TN No. 1051

Fig. 12a,b

...

- .

. .

c
r)
0
c

P
d)

c'

.-c
0

*9

4-

.-L

Fig. l ? i ~ j b.

NACA T-N N o . lO5i

*m

.
0
+

P
I

-.

C
0
0

I
2

.
NACA

TN No. 1051

Fig. 15arb

NACA

TN No. 1051

a
a

*Ti-

f
0
+

'C

%
f

Fig. 16a,b

TN No. 1051

NACA

Group B

Group A specime
8

specimens

Experimental 6
,
"

of bolts 2

7
6

dI

P
.-

Deflection at R,

y 5
d

;
4

-0

e 3
0
&1

6
5

al

734

-0

c 3

Experimental. 6,
Experimental 6,
Experimental bov,
determined from
movement of gap

0
bl

2
#

I
0

Bolt deflection, 6 , in.


(b) Bolt deflections for auxiliary-shear-test specimens ; SAL. 6150 steel
plates and heat -treated (125 ksi) allog4teel bolts.

Figure 16.- Comparison of experimental and anolytical bolt deflections.

--

. . ~..

NACA TN No.

1051

Figs. 18,19

I
.

Figure 18.- Symmetrical butt joint with bolfa in a single line


in t h e line o f applied load.

P
b

-~

Figure 19.- Symmetrical b u t f joint wi+h bolts in several


NATIONAL A D V l S 0 6 lines parallel t o applied load.

COHHllTEE FOR AERONAUTICS

.- .

TN No. 1051

NACA

Fig. 20a=c
.

-~

..

. . ..

. . . . . ... ... ..
-

..

.-._-.-.........

fMF.

MF

II

(a Loading j
.

I
(c) Moment.
Figure 20.- Bolt loading, shear, and
moment diagrams.

. . . . . . . . . .
.