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MDB 3073

Manufacturing Technology 2

Week 4
Sheet Metal Forming Processes

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Introduction
and lower forces than bulk forming
2. Almost all sheet metal forming is considered to be
secondary processing
3. The main categories of sheet metal forming are
Shearing
Bending
Drawing

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Shearing

Shearing is a sheet metal

to shear stress, generally
using a punch and die.
Shearing generally starts
with the formation of
cracks on both the top
&bottom edges of w/p

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(a) Schematic illustration of shearing with a punch and die,

indicating some of the process variables.
(b) a punched hole and (c) the slug;

Blanking and punching

Blanking and punching are similar sheet metal cutting operations that
involve cutting the sheet metal along a closed outline.
If the part that is cut out is the desired product, the operation is called blanking
and the product is called blank.
If the remaining stock is the desired part, the operation is called punching. Both
operations are illustrated on the example of producing a washer

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Shearing

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Cutting sheet metal, plates, bars, and tubing into pieces

using punch and die subjecting to shear stress.
Variables are punch force, speed, edge condition of the
sheet, materials, corner radii, punch-die clearance and
lubrication.

Shearing
As clearance increases, edges rougher and deformation
zone larger. (material tends to be pulled into die rather
than sheared)
Clearances usually range between 2 10 % of sheet
thickness

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Shearing
Punch force
The punch force is product of shear strength of sheet
metal and cross-sectional area being sheared.
Maximum punch force is

Fmax 0.7UTS tL

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UTS = ultimate tensile strength

t = thickness
L = total length of the sheared edge

Due to plastic deformation, friction, and cracks, the

punch-force vs. stroke curves can take on various
shapes.

Example
Calculation of maximum punch force
Estimate the force required in punching a 25-mm diameter hole through a
1.8-mm-thick 5052-O aluminium sheet at room temperature.

Solution
UTS for this alloy is 190 MPa.
F 0.71.8 25190 18800 N

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Shearing operations
Common shearing operations are:
1. Die cutting
Parts produced have various uses:
a) Perforating
b) Parting
c) Notching
d) Slitting
e) Lancing

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Shearing operations
2. Fine blanking
Can produce very smooth and square edges.

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Shearing operations
3. Slitting.
Carried out with a pair of circular blades.
2 types of slitting equipment:
1. driven type, the blades are powered
2. pull-through type, the strip is pulled through idling

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Bending
Bending is defined as the straining of the sheet metal
around a straight edge

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Used to form parts and impart stiffness.

Bend allowance is the length of neutral axis in bend
area and used to find blank length for a bent part.
Bend allowance is given as Lb R kt = bend angle
k = constant
t = sheet thickness

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Studies shows that there is a inverse relationship

between bendability and tensile reduction of area(r), of
the material.
50
Rmin T (

1)

Factors affecting bendability

Bendability increased by increasing its tensile reduction
of area.
As length increases,
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Springback
Plastic deformation is followed by some elastic recovery
when load is removed. (called springback)
Final bend angle after spring back is smaller than the
angle to which sheet was bent
Negative springback in V-die

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Compensation for springback

Overbending ( fig. a,b)
Coin the bend area by
subjecting it to highly
localaized compressive
stresses (fig. c ,d)
Stretch bending (fig 1-3)

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Forces

Bending force is a function of the materials strength,

length and thickness of the part.
General expression for the maximum bending force is

Fmax

UTS LT 2
k

W
K ranges from 0.3 / 1.3 depending on die

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Tube bending

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Tubes can be plugged with various flexible internal

mandrels.

Deep Drawing
Drawing is a sheet-metal operation to make hollow-shaped parts
from a sheet blank

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Deep Drawing

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Flat sheet-metal blank is pressed, using punch, into the

die cavity.
Bank is held in place with a blankholder under a certain
force.

Deep Drawing

Figure: Basic sheet metalworking operations: (b) drawing

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Deep Drawing
Variables in deep drawing are:
1. Properties of the sheet metal.
2. Ratio of the blank diameter to the punch diameter.
3. Sheet thickness.
4. Clearance between the punch and the die.
5. Corner radii of the punch and die.
6. Blankholder force.
7. Speed of the punch.
8. Friction at the punch, die and workpiece interfaces.
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Deep Drawing

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During the deep-drawing, the movement of the blank

into the die cavity induces hoop stresses in the flange.
This stress tend to cause the flange to wrinkle during
drawing
Stresses increase with an increasing Do/Dp ratio and can

Deep drawability (limiting drawing ratio)

LDR is defined as the max ratio of blank diameter to
punch diameter that can be drawn without failure,
w0
Do/Dp.

ln

w f

w
Normal anisotropy of the sheet metal is
R

R value of a specimen cut from rooled sheet will

depends on its orientation w.r.t rolling direction of
sheet
R0 2 R45 R90
R

Average R value is
4
where the subscripts refer to angular orientation

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t0
ln
t
f

Earing
In deep drawing, the edges of cups may become wavy
(called earing)
Planar anisotropy causes ears to form in drawn cups.
The controlling parameters:
1. alloying elements
2. processing temperatures
3. annealing cycles after processing
4. thickness reduction in rolling
5. cross (biaxial) rolling of plates to make sheets
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Deep drawability
Maximum punch force
Work consists of deformation, redundant, frictional and
ironing.
Approximate formula for the maximum punch force is
Fmax

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D0

D p T UTS
0.7
D

The punch force is supported by the cup wall.

Tearing occurs when force is excessive.

Deep-Drawing practice
Considerations in deep drawing:
3. Blankholder pressure
4. Redrawing
5. Drawing without a blankholder
6. Tooling and equipment
7. Lubrication

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Deep-Drawing practice

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(a) Schematic illustration of a draw bead.

(b) Metal flow during the drawing of a box-shaped part while using beads to
control the movement of the material.
(c) Deformation of circular grids in the flange in deep drawing.

Example
A cup is being drawn from a sheet metal that has a
normal anisotropy of 3.Estimate the maximum ratio of
cup height to cup diameter that can be drawn
successfully in a single draw. Assume that the thickness
of the sheet throughout the cup remains the same as the
original blank thickness and limited drawing ratio of 2.68
Since, volume of the sheet metal in cup is equal to volume of blank

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Example contd.

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Thank you

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