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Turkey_A New Method for Noise Elimination From Measured Frequency Response Functions

FRF

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RESPONSE FUNCTIONS

K. Y. SANLITURK1 AND O. CAKAR

Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

80191 Gumussuyu, Istanbul, TURKEY

E-mail: sanliturk@itu.edu.tr

It is inevitable that measured signals are contaminated with noise when a data acquisition

system is used for an experimental measurement. It is also well known in modal testing that the

quality of measured Frequency Response Functions (FRFs) is adversely affected by noise

originating from test environment as well as electronic devices. This situation often leads to

serious difficulties in many applications as they require high quality FRF data. This paper

presents a new method based on Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) for the elimination of

noise from measured FRFs so as to improve the quality of the measured data. It is believed that

method will enhance the accuracy as well as the success rate of various applications that rely on

measured FRFs.

1. INTRODUCTION

Measured Frequency Response Functions (FRFs) are used for many purposes including:

verification of the theoretical models, model updating, structural modification, determination of

excitation forces, fault detection as well as solving general vibration and noise problems. Apart

from a few exceptions, it is extremely desirable to acquire high quality data from vibration tests

for many areas of applications. In fact, high quality FRF data are demanded in almost any

application involving matrix inversion and/or differencing operation. However, there are some

1 / 24

unavoidable experimental errors and error sources originating from the experimental set-up itself

[1-4]. One of the unavoidable error sources that reduce the quality of the measured FRFs

significantly is the so-called noise. The nature of the contamination categorized as noise is

rather complex as the contributing factors are diverse and complicated. Some of the dominant

noise sources are thought to originate from test environment including non-linear effects,

extraneous structural noise as well as noise in electronic devices. Some practical examples that

might contribute to the contamination of the measured data are: (i) nearby equipments such as air

conditioners, elevators and pumps, particularly when they are turned on and off, (ii) radio

stations, computers and other electronic equipments creating noise in all practical frequency

ranges, (iii) the AC power line contributing noise to measured data usually at 50 or 60 Hz, (iv) the

loose connections and twine of the transduction cables. As a result, creating a noise-free

measurement environment is seldom practical. Although there are simple techniques such as

averaging, filtering and shielding for reducing noise levels during the measurement process as

well as the use of different FRF estimators for system identification purposes, e.g. such as H1 and

H2, it is impossible to perform noise-free measurements. In many applications, especially for

those using the measured FRFs directly, the level of noise in the measured data determines the

reliability and the success of the analyses. It is therefore highly desirable to eliminate or minimise

these contaminations from measured FRFs [46] before they are used for further applications.

The effect of noisy data on the success of many applications using measured FRFs has been an

important subject of search in vibration engineering. Pickrel [7] focused on the assessment of the

quality of the data and used the singular value decomposition (SVD) technique to estimate the

effects of frequency band, number of measurement locations and signal to noise ratio in measured

response data. Various improved techniques, usually based on SVD, have been developed to

2 / 24

reduce the vulnerability of individual applications to noisy FRFs including; modal parameter

estimations [8-10], structural coupling/modification where reliable inversion of a matrix is

required [11-16], model updating where model parameters are adjusted using modal or FRF data

[17] and optimum test planning for modal testing [18]. It is interesting to note, however, that the

subject of elimination/minimisation of noise from measured FRFs has not attracted enough

attention that it deserves. It is believed that minimising the noise content in FRFs after the

measurements are made can significantly improve the quality of the measured data, hence can

increase the reliability and the success rate of many applications that rely on measured FRFs. An

earlier work done by the authors of this paper [19] concentrated on the elimination of noise from

a set of measured FRFs by utilising SVD technique. The effectiveness of the method was

illustrated using a simulated test case where additive and multiplicative types of noise were added

to otherwise clean data. It was found that the method was fairly successful although there were

some. It is also worth mentioning that the method in [19] required the use of multiple FRFs and

the effectiveness was dependent on the number of FRFs used during the noise elimination

process.

This current paper is an extension of the authors previous work and presents a new method

for the elimination of noise from measured FRFs. The method presented in this paper eliminates

all the drawbacks and limitations of the previous work in the sense that a single FRF can be

processed and, more importantly, it works in practice as demonstrated experimentally. This is

achieved by utilising the Hankel matrix theory combined with SVD decomposition as described

in the next section. To the best of authors knowledge this paper is the first employing this

approach for noise elimination from measured FRFs.

3 / 24

The starting point for the new method presented here is a single FRF. Let Hpq()={Hpq (1),

Hpq (2), , Hpq (L)} be measured FRF relating the response co-ordinate p to the excitation coordinate q at LIUHTXHQF\SRLQWV DQGOHWLWEHGHQRWHGDVHpq() =H={H1, H2, H3, , HL} for

brevity. The FRF data can be sequentially filled to form a complex Hankel matrix as:

H1

H

[ A] m xn = 2

M

H m

H2

H3

M

H m +1

L H n

L H n +1

O

M

L HL

(1)

where m+n-1=L and Aij=Hi+j-1. An alternative to Eq.(1), the Hankel matrix can also be formed

using the Impulse Response Function (IRF) denoted by hpq(t)=h={h1, h2, h3, , hs} where IRF is

the inverse Fourier Transform of H, i.e., h=FT-1(H) and s = 2L. In this case the Hankel matrix is

real and of the form:

[ A] mxn

h1

h

= 2

M

hm

h2

h3

M

hm+1

L hn

L hn +1

O M

L hs

(2)

where a similar relationship holds, i.e., m+n-1=s and Aij=hi+j-1 although the size is doubled. It

should be noted Hankel matrix is also utilised elsewhere in speech and audio applications as well

as for signal estimation from noisy data, [20-25].

It is shown later in the paper that the performance of the noise elimination method is affected

depending on whether H or h is used in constructing the Hankel matrix. However, unless stated

4 / 24

otherwise, the rest of the formulation is independent of which type of the system property is used,

hence the notations in Eq.(2) are used without any loss of generality.

It is known that the SVD is a very powerful tool in linear matrix theory, and has been used

extensively in many fields of engineering [20-27], in particular as a means of estimating the rank

of rectangular matrices [28-30]. SVD technique is also utilised in this paper primarily for the

estimation of the rank of the matrix [A] in the process of noise elimination from measured FRFs.

SVD of an mxn matrix [A] is given by;

[ A] mxn = [U ] mxm [] mxn [V ]Tnxn

(3)

where [U] and [V] are orthogonal matrices, [] is the real diagonal matrix whose diagonal

elements i are called as singular values of [A] and []T denotes transpose of a matrix ([]T should

be interpreted as complex conjugate transpose if the matrix is complex). Singular values are

assumed to be arranged in descending order without any loss of generality, i.e.,

1 2 L R 0 , R = min{m, n}. The matrix [A] is said to be singular if one or more of the

last singular values are zero or nearly singular when one or more of them arHEHORZDWKUHVKROG

. Theoretically, the number of non-zero singular values, r, determine the rank of this matrix, i.e.,

i > ;

i = 1, ... , r

i ;

i = r + 1, ... , R

(4)

When the matrix [A] contains measured FRFs (or its time-domain counterpart IRF)

contaminated with noise, it can reasonably be assumed that the limit for the rank of [A] will be

due to noise and other errors in the measured data. This leads to expressing the matrix [A] as

5 / 24

[ A] = [ A ] + [ N ] = [U r

U 0 ] r

0

0 VrT

0 V0T

(5)

where [ A ] and [N] represent uncontaminated data and noise matrices respectively, r contains

significant singular values (i , i=1, , r) representing uncontaminated data space and 0

contains small singular values below a threshold (i , i=r+1, , R) representing the noise space.

The properties of the singular values mentioned above is utilised in this paper to separate the

meaningful data from noise in measured FRF or IRF. First, r is estimated by careful examination

of the relative values of singular values. Then, i are set to zero for i>r and finally an estimate of

noise-free matrix [ A ] is calculated by using only the first r columns of [U], [] and [V], i.e.,

[ A ] = [U r ][ r ][Vr ]T

(6)

Essentially, the rank is an indicator of the number of independent characteristics in the data.

However, the main problem in practice is the estimation of the noise threshold , i.e., the effective

rank of the matrix [A]. One way to overcome this problem is to plot the normalised singular

values and to choose the appropriate rank when the normalized singular values approach an

asymptote [7, 10], an approach which is also adopted in this paper. Once the rank of [A] is

established, signal to noise ratio can also be estimated [7, 27, 29] as

r

SNR = i /

i =1

i = r +1

(7)

6 / 24

It should be noted that the elimination of small singular values from [A] results in a matrix

[ A ] which is of non-Hankel form. Consequently, the content of the matrix [ A ] needs to be

transformed back to a vector form so as to obtain the uncontaminated data. This is achieved by

arithmetic averaging along the anti-diagonals of [ A ]. If the IRF vector h of length s is used to

construct the [A] matrix the ith element of the noise-free IRF vector h can be reconstructed as:

hi =

k

1

Ai j +1, j

k l + 1 j =l

(8)

where l=max(1, i-m+1) and k = min(n, i). Then the vector h is transformed back to the frequency

domain via Fourier Transform, i.e., H =FT( h ). However, if the FRF vector H of length L is used

to construct the [A] matrix, the filtered FRF can be reconstructed directly as

Hi =

k

1

Ai j +1, j

k l + 1 j =l

(9)

3.1 OVERVIEW

It is worth restating that the proposed method is applicable whether FRF or IRF is used while

constructing the matrix [A] for the elimination of noise from measured FRF. It may seem at first

sight, however, that using IRF requires both inverse Fourier Transform (FT-1) and then Fourier

Transform (FT) in order to obtain a filtered FRF, hence introducing unnecessary computations

7 / 24

compared to using FRF data directly. After performing extensive assessment of these two

alternatives, it has been found that this argument is not justified. In other words, using IRF via

inverse FT as a starting point seems to provide superior performance than utilising FRF directly.

The reason for this can be explained by comparing the performance of these two alternatives in

identifying the noise threshold, , in terms of the singular values of the [A] matrix, this threshold

being the key factor in establishing the effective rank of the system hence, for the separation of

the meaningful data from noise. The actual noise threshold to be used in practice for noise

elimination requires close inspection of the distribution of singular values as demonstrated in the

remaining parts of paper. For the purpose of demonstrating the concept, typical distributions of

singular values obtained using two approaches mentioned above, i.e., FRF or IRF, are presented

in Fig.1. These results are based on measured data. Other results, not presented here, also show

similar trend, suggesting that using IRF leads to easier identification of the rank of the system and

offers better performance for noise elimination. Therefore, without any loss of generality, and for

the sake of brevity, the forthcoming sections address the approach based on IRF only.

Another important aspect of the method is related to the size of the Hankel matrix and it

deserves special attention. For a given data with a sample number of N, a square or a nearly

square Hankel matrix can be constructed. However, it is neither necessary nor desirable to

construct a square or nearly square Hankel matrix for practical applications of the method.

Instead, a rectangular matrix with appropriate selection of the smaller dimension can be used

effectively, provided that the smaller dimension, i.e., the maximum possible rank, is large enough

to represent the system behaviour including the effect of noise. The reason for this is that nearly

square Hankel matrix may require unnecessary computations while inadequate setting of the

maximum possible rank of the system may cause loss of performance. It is expected that if the

8 / 24

dimensions of the Hankel matrix are set properly small singular values will approach an

asymptote, otherwise not. This is demonstrated in Fig.2 where a IRF with a fixed sample number

is processed to obtain singular values corresponding to different settings of the smaller dimension

(referred to as column size here) of the rectangular Hankel matrix. It is seen that if the number of

columns is less than the rank of the system, the Hankel matrix will not be capable of representing

the system; hence it will not be possible to detect/identify the noise threshold. On the other hand,

appropriate settings of the matrix dimensions lead to an asymptote that in turn leads to the

identification of the noise threshold. It is obvious that a square or nearly square Hankel matrix is

preferred if the computation cost is not an issue. However, there may well be a need for using a

smaller number of columns, especially for processing large number of FRFs measured on the

same system. In these situations, a suitable number of columns and the effective rank can be

determined by examining a few FRFs with different matrix dimensions and the same settings can

be applied for the rest of FRFs. It is also worth mentioning that the rank of the Hankel matrix is

related to the number of modes affecting the measured data, i.e., number of modes within the

frequency range of interest plus the number of residual modes. In fact, it has been found that the

rank, i.e., the number of singular values greater than the noise threshold, is expected to be twice

the number of modes influencing the FRF when IRF is used in the formulation.

This is

FRF including all the modes is generated, noise is artificially added and normalised singular

values are plotted. It is seen that the distribution of singular values shows an asymptote after the

20th singular values (twice the number of modes), the rest of which represent noise. This

provides some guidelines, suggesting that the smaller dimension of the Hankel matrix (number of

columns here) should be about an order of magnitude greater than twice the number of modes

9 / 24

influencing the FRF for successful application of the method. In what follows, the applicability

of the method is demonstrated using both simulated as well as measured data.

The results presented in this section are based on a numerical simulation in the sense that the

FRFs are generated theoretically using the modal data obtained from a 3-dimensional Finite

Element model of a structure and noise is artificially added to otherwise clean FRFs. The modal

data contained 14 modes in addition to the rigid body modes. FRFs were generated within a

frequency range containing the first 5 non-rigid body modes, but including all the residual effects

represented by other modes in the modal data. The noisy FRFs referred to as measured in this

section are simulated by numerically adding additive white noise or multiplicative noise to the

real and imaginary parts of the exact (noise-free) FRFs. The additive white noise is scaled such

that its mean deviation is the stated percentage of the mean magnitude of the individual FRF. On

the other hand, multiplicative noise is simulated by multiplying the real and imaginary parts of

each FRF with random numbers, the mean deviation of which is the stated percentage of the

mean magnitude of the noise-free FRF. As stated before, an individual FRF was first transformed

into time-domain using inverse FT yielding the corresponding IRF with a sample size of 2046 for

this particular example. This could lead to a nearly square Hankel matrix with a maximum

column number of 1023. However, it was found that Hankel matrix with 200 columns was

satisfactory in this case. Figs.4 and 5 show normalized singular values corresponding to a

particular FRF with different levels of additive and multiplicative noise, respectively. It is seen

that identification of the noise threshold is quite straightforward when the noise is of additive type

although it is not so obvious if the noise is of multiplicative type. This is not surprising since the

10 / 24

multiplicative noise has a degree of systematic error nature; hence it is the most difficult noise

type to eliminate. In the case of additive noise, the rank of the system is set to 12 and the filtered

IRF and then FRF are computed. The results presented in Fig.6 show excellent performance.

The situation in the case of multiplicative noise, however, is somewhat complicated due to the

reasons mentioned above. The noise threshold should be chosen with extra caution in this case as

inadequate selection can easily result in loss of meaningful data. If the noise threshold is set to a

value that is too small, less amount of noise is eliminated. On the other hand, if it is too large,

valuable information might be lost. Fig.7 presents results corresponding to 5% and 10%

multiplicative noise levels, the rank being set to 30 in both cases. The method can be considered

fairly successful again although some level of noise still remains and the FRF data around

antiresonances are adversely affected by some degree. Fortunately, this type of noise does not

seem to be so common in reality.

The performance of the proposed method is also investigated using real measurements. As the

application of the method requires only the FRF data, experimental results are presented here

without detailed description of the test structure or the experimental set-up.

The noise elimination method is applied to the measured FRF presented in Fig.8a showing

visible level of noise. This particular FRF was measured using a free-free L-shaped plate that has

15 modes within the frequency range 0-400 Hz. A Hankel matrix with 400 columns was formed

and singular values presented in Fig.8b were obtained. As can be seen, the amplitudes of the

singular values level off around 50th singular value which is a clear indication of the noise

11 / 24

threshold as well as the effective rank of this FRF. Fig.8c compares filtered FRF with the raw

data demonstrating the success of the method.

Second example is a measured FRF of a cantilever plate, frequency range being 0 to 800 Hz

with 1 Hz increment. The normalized singular values in Fig.9a were obtained by forming a

Hankel matrix with a column size of 300.

good example to demonstrate the fact that effective rank of the data matrix may not be so

obvious. In these cases, the best approach could be trying a few possible candidates and then

deciding the rank. The particular filtered FRF presented in Fig.9b, where both modulus and phase

information are plotted, were obtained by setting the rank to 47 and results can be considered

excellent again. The noise is effectively eliminated.

The measured and the filtered FRFs in Fig. 10 belong to a fan casing and the distribution of the

singular values for this case is already presented in Fig.2 in order to illustrate the effect of the

number of columns when forming the Hankel matrix. The comparison of the raw and the filtered

FRFs shows once again that method works effectively in the case of measured data too.

4. CONGLUDING REMARKS

A new method has been proposed in this paper for the removal of noise from measured

Frequency Response Functions (FRF). The method can be applied to FRF directly, or its timedomain counterpart - Impulse Response Function (IRF) - although the second alternative appears

to provide superior performance. When noise is to be removed from IRF, the steps involved can

be summarised as: (i) conversion of the FRF into IRF, (ii) formation of a Hankel type matrix

containing IRF data, (iii) utilizing SVD technique for the assessment of the data quality and

12 / 24

removing noise and (iv) transformation of the processed IRF back to the frequency-domain so as

to obtain filtered FRF.

The method has been applied to both simulated and experimental data in order to assess the

effectiveness in eliminating the noise content. It has been found that the method is very effective

in both cases in the sense that the noise level after the filtering process is much lower than that of

the original data. It is therefore concluded that the noise removal method presented in this paper

can be used to provide more reliable data to other applications that require high quality data in the

form of FRFs. Finally, it should be noted that valuable information in the data might be lost if the

effective rank of the system is not set properly. In case the distribution of the singular values of

the system does not provide reliable guidance, a possible way of avoiding this danger is to repeat

the analysis a few times with different levels of noise threshold until acceptable results are

obtained.

5. REFERENCES

1. K. Marudachalam and A.L. Wicks 1991 Proceedings of the 9th International Modal Analysis

Conference 1522-1527. An Attempt to Quantify The Errors in The Experimental Modal

Analysis.

2. H. Jung and D.J. Ewins 1992 Proceedings of the 10th International Modal Analysis

Conference 421-429. On the Use of Simulated Experimental Data for Evaluation of Modal

Analysis Methods.

3. L.D. Mitchell 1994 Sound and Vibration, November, 10-16. Modal Test Methods-Quality,

Quantity and Unobtainable.

4. S.O. Fahey and A.L. Wicks 2000 Experimental Techniques 24(2), 40-43. Noise Sources in

Mechanical Measurements.

13 / 24

5. D.J. Ewins 2000 Modal Testing: Theory, Practice and Applications, Second Ed., RSP.

6. K.G. McConnell 1995 Vibration Testing, Theory and Practice. John Willey & Sons, Inc.

7. C.R. Pickrel, 1996 Proc. 2nd. Int. Conference on Structural Dynamics Modeling, Test

Analysis and Correlation DTA/NAFEMS, 89-100. Estimating The Rank of Measured

Response Data Using SVD and Principal Response Functions.

8. J.N. Juang and R.S. Pappa, 1986 J. Guidance, Control and Dynamics 9(3), 294-303. Effects

of Noise on Modal Parameters Identified by The Eigensystem Realization Algorithm.

9. K. Liu 1996 Journal of Sound and Vibration, 186(2), 185-195. Modal Parameter Estimation

Using The State Space Method.

10. R.J. Allemang and D.L. Brown 1998 Journal of Sound and Vibration, 211(3), 301-322. A

Unified Matrix Polynomial Approach to Modal Identification.

11. W.M. To and D.J. Ewins, 1995 Journal of Sound and Vibration, 186(2), 185-195. The Role

of The Generalized Inverse in Structural Dynamics.

12. D. Otte, J. Leuridan, H. Grangier and R. Aquilina 1990 Proceedings of the 8th International

Modal Analysis Conference, 213-220. Coupling of Structures Using Measured FRF s by

Means of SVD-Based Data Reduction Techniques.

13. D. Otte, J. Leuridan, H. Grangier and R. Aquilina 1991 Proceedings of the 9th International

Modal Analysis Conference, 909-918. Prediction of The Dynamics of Structural Assemblies

Using Measured FRF-Data: Some Improved Data Enhancement Techniques.

14. L. Bregant, D. Otte and P. Sas 1995 Proceedings of the 13th International Modal Analysis

Conference, 1592-1597. FRF Substructure Synthesis: Evaluation and Validation of Data

Reduction Methods.

14 / 24

15. T.C., Lim and J. Li, 2000 Journal of Sound and Vibration, 231(4), 1135-1157. A Theoretical

and Computational Study of the FRF-Based Substructuring Technique Applying Enhanced

Least Square and TSVD Approaches.

16. T.P. Gialamas, D.T. Tsahalis, D. Otte, H. Van der Auwaraer and D.A. Manolas, 2001 Applied

Acoustics, 62, 1211-1219. Substructuring Technique: Improvement by means of Singular

Value Decomposition (SVD).

17. M.I. Friswell and J.E.T. Penny 1990 Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 4(5), 377391. Updating Model Parameters from Frequency Domain Data via Reduced Order Models.

18. K. Liu, 1997 Computers & Structures, 63(1), 51-99. Application of SVD in Optimization of

Structural Modal Test.

19. O. Cakar and K.Y. Sanliturk 2002 Proceedings of ESDA2002: 6th Biennial Conference on

Engineering Systems Design and Analysis, Istanbul, Turkey, APM055 on CD. Elimination of

Noise and Transducer Effects From Measured Response Data.

20. S.H. Jensen, P.C. Hansen, and at al.

21. I. Dologlou and G. Carayannis 1991 IEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 39(7), 16811682. Physical Interpretation of Signal Reconstruction from Reduced Rank Matrices.

22. D.W. Tufts and A.A. Shah 1993 IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 41(4), 1716-1721.

Estimation of Signal Waveform from Noisy Data Using Low-Rank Approximation to a Data

Matrix.

23. Per C. Hansen and S.H. Jensen 1998 IEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 46(6), 17371741. FIR Filter Representations of Reduced-Rank Noise Reduction.

15 / 24

24. An-Pan Cherng 1998 Proceedings of the 16th International Modal Analysis Conference, 436442. Formulation of Hankel Singular Values and Singular Vectors in Time Domain.

25. K. Shin, J.K. Hammond and P.R. White 1999 Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing,

13(1), 115-124. Iterative SVD Method For Noise Reduction of Low-Dimensional Chaotic

Time Series.

26. D. Callaerts, B. De Moor and et al., 1990 Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing,

217-224. Comparison of SVD Methods to Extract The Feotal Electrocardiogram from

Cutaneous Electrode Signals.

27. B. De Moor 1993 IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 41(9), 2826-2838. The Singular

Value Decomposition and Long and Short Spaces of Noisy Matrices.

28. G.H. Golub and C.F. Van Loan 1989. Matrix Computations. Second Ed. John Hopkins

University Press.

29. W.H. Press, B.P. Flannery, S.A. Teukolosky and W.T. Vetterling 1988. Numerical Recipes in

C: The Art of Scientific Computing. Cambridge Univ. Press.

30. M.M. Maia Nuno 1991 Proceedings of the 9th International Modal Analysis Conference,

1515-1521. Fundamentals of Singular Value Decomposition.

16 / 24

Figure1. Comparison of normalized singular values of matrix [A] using FRF and IRF approaches.

(based on measured data on fan casing)

different number of columns (Based on measured data).

17 / 24

Figure 3. Normalized singular values corresponding to a FRF with10% additive noise. (Based on

10 DOF lumped parameter model. Frequency range covers all the modes).

Figure 4. Normalized singular values corresponding to a particular FRF with additive noise.

18 / 24

Figure 5. Normalized singular values corresponding to a particular FRF with multiplicative noise.

Figure 6a . A noisy FRF and the corresponding IRF (10% additive noise).

19 / 24

Figure 6b. Comparison of measured and filtered FRF (10% additive noise).

Figure 6c. Comparison of exact and filtered FRF (10% additive noise)

20 / 24

Figure 7a. Comparison of measured and filtered FRF (5% multiplicative noise).

Figure 7b. Comparison of measured and filtered FRF (10% multiplicative noise)

21 / 24

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