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Mercury Exposure Levels from Amalgam
Dental fillings; Documentation of
Mechanisms by which Mercury causes over
40 Chronic Health Conditions; Results of
Replacement of Amalgam fillings; and
Occupational Effects on Dental Staff
By Bernard Windham

Mercury Exposure Levels from Amalgam Dental Fillings; Documentation of Mechanisms by Which
Mercury Causes over 40 Chronic Health Conditions; Results of Replacement of Amalgam Fillings;
and Occupational Effects on Dental Staff
Bernard Windham, Editor- Chemical Engineer 12164 Whitehouse Road
Tallahassee, FL,323 11
1. Introduction
Il. Toxicity and Health Effects of Mercury
III. Systemic Mercury Intake Levels from Amalgam Filling Exposure
IV. Immune System Effects and Autoimmune Disease
V. Medical Studies Finding Health Problems Related to Amalgam Fillings
VI. Documented Results of Removal of Amalgam Fillings
VII. Tests for Mercury Level and Toxicity and Treatments
VIII. Health Effects from Dental Staff Exposure to Mercury
IX. Scientific Panel and Government Bodies That Have Found Amalgam Fillings Unsafe
Toxic metals such as mercury, lead, cadmium, etc. have been documented to be neurotoxic,
immunotoxic, reproductive/developmental toxins that according to U.S. Government agencies cause
adverse health effects and learning disabilities to millions in the U.S. each year, especially children
and the elderly( 105,160). Exposure of humans and animals to toxic metals such as mercury, cadmium,
lead, copper, aluminum, arsenic, chromium, manganese, etc. is widespread and in many areas
increasing. . The U.S. Center for Disease Control(276) ranks toxic metals as the number one
environmental health threat to children. According to an EPA/ATSDR assessment,the toxic metals
mercury, lead, arsenic, and cadmium are all ranked in the top 7 toxics having the most adverse health
effects on the public based on toxicity and current exposure levels in the U.S., with nickel and
chromium also highly listed. A National Academy of Sciences report of July 2000 and other
studies(39,125) found that even small levels of mercury in fish or levels of mercury in the blood of
women below 10 micrograms per liter(ug/l) appear to result in developmental effects, and represent
unacceptable risks of birth defects and developmental effects in infants.
10 ug/l is the upper
level of mercury exposure recommended by the German Commission on Human Biomonitoring
in the blood(39).
The main factors determining whether chronic conditions are induced by metals appear to be
exposure and genetic susceptability, which determines individuals immune sensitivity and ability to
detoxify metals(405). Very low levels of exposure have been found to seriously affect relatively large
groups of individuals who are immune sensitive to toxic metals, or have an inability to detoxify metals
due to such as deficient sulfoxidation or metallothionein function or other inhibited enzymatic
processes related to detoxification or excretion of metals. For those with chronic conditions, fatigue
regardless of the underlying disease is primarily associated with hypersensitivity to inorganic and
organic mercury, nickel, and gold(369,382).
While there are large numbers of neurological and immune conditions among adults, the
incidence of neurotoxic or immune reactive conditions in infants such as autism, schizophrenia,
ADD, dyslexia, learning disabilities, etc. have been increasing especially rapidly in recent years
(2,409,441). A recent report by the National Research Council found that 50% of all pregnancies
in the U.S. are now resulting in prenatal or postnatal mortality, significant birth defects,
developmental neurological or immune conditions, or otherwise chronically unhealthy babies(441).
Exposure to toxic chemicals or environmental factors appear to be a factor in as much as 28 percent
of the 4 million children born each year-(44l), with 1 in 6 having one of the neurological conditions

previously listed. EPA estimates that over 3 million of these are related to lead or mercury
toxicity(2,125,276,409). A study at the U.S. CDC found “statistically significant associations”
between certain neurologic developmental disorders such as attention deficit disorder(ADD) and
autism with exposure to mercury from thimerosal-containing vaccines before the age of 6
While there is considerable commonality to the health effects commonly caused by these toxic
metals, and effects are cumulative and synergistic in many cases, this paper will concentrate on the
health effects of elemental mercury from amalgam fillings. Studies have found considerable genetic
variability in susceptibility to toxic metals as well. The public appears to be generally unaware that
considerable scientific evidence supports that mercury is the metal causing the most widespread
adversehealth effects to the public, and amalgam fillings have been well documented to be the number
one source of exposure of mercury to most people, with exposure levels often exceeding Government
health guidelines and levels documented to cause adverse health effects.
Toxicity and Health Effects of Mercury
Dental amalgam contains about 50 % mercury, as well as other toxic metals such as
tin,copper,nickel, palladium, etc. The average filling has 1 gram of mercury and leaks mercury vapor
continuously due to mercury’s low vapor pressure along with loss due to galvanic action of mercury
with dissimilar metals in the mouth (182,192,292,348,349,525), resulting in significant exposure for
most with amalgam fillings(see Section III). Mercury vapor is transmitted rapidly throughout the
body, easily crosses cell membranes, and like organic methyl mercury has significant toxic effects at
much lower levels of exposure than other inorganic mercury forms (38,281,287,304,329). The OSHA
level for mercury vapor in air is 50% lower than for organic mercury in air. According to the U.S.
EPA & ATSDR, mercury is among the top 3 toxic substances adversely affecting large numbers of
people(2 17), and amalgam is the number one source of exposure for most people(see III).
Mercury is the most toxic of the toxic metals. Mercury (vapor) is carried by the blood to cells
in all organs of the body where it:
(a) is cytotoxic(kills cells) (2,2 1,27,36,56,147,14&l 50,160,2 10,259,295,333/333)
(b) penetrates and damages the blood brain barrier(3 1 I), resulting in accumulation of mercury and
other toxic substances in the brain( 14,20,21b,25,85,99,175,273,301,305,/149,262,274); also
accumulates in the motor function areas of the brain and CNS(48,175,29 1,327,329).
0 is neurotoxic(kills brain and nerve cells): damages brain cells and nerve cells (19,27,34,36, 43,
69,70, 147,148,175,207,211,273,291,295,327,329,301,303,305,395/39,262,274,303); generates high
levels of reactive oxygen species(ROS) and oxidative stress, depletes glutathione and thiols causing
increased neurotoxicity from interactions of ROS, glutamate, and dopamine (13,56,98,102,126,
145,169,170, 184,2 13,2 19,250,257,259,286,290,291,302,324,326,329,424,442,496); kills or inhibits
production of brain tubulin cells (66,67,16 1,166,207,300); inhibits production of neurotransmitters
bY inhibiting: calcium-dependent neurotransmitter release(372,432), dihydroteridine reductase
(27,122,257,333), nitric oxide synthase(259), blocking neurotransmitter amino acids (4 12), and
effecting phenylalanine, serotonin, tyrosine and tryptophan transport to neurons
(34,122,126,257,285,288,333,372,374,4 12/255,333)
(d) is immunotoxic(damages and inhibits immune T-cells, B-cells, neutrophil function, etc.)
7/272) and induces ANA
antibodies and autoimmune disease (38,43,45,59,60,118,18 1,
(e) is nepthrotoxic(toxic to kidneys) (14,20,203,209~,223,254,260,268,334,438)
(f) is endocrine system-disrupting chemical(accumulates in pituitary gland and damages or inhibits

276e.39.509/241).20/4.40).228.). 338.35. adrenal gland function(84.35. viral.37.chronic fatigue syndrome(CFS). sarcolemma.264.459.85.38.347.273.105.329. and disrupts enzyme production processes at very low levels of exposure (9.10.375.. damages DNA(296.327.381).38.265.366.19.212.70. lupus.112.31.296. zinc and Vit B 12 (43.232. causes birth defects (23.8 8 8 8 1 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 4 I 8 8 8 8 8 pituitary glands hormonal functions at very low levels (9.33.350. causesimmune system damage resulting in allergies. 348.90.3.427).226. a suspected major factor in stomach ulcers and stomach cancer(256) and candida albicans.446/272) and neutrophil functional impairment(285.459.26.35). incompletely digested complexes in the blood(222.433.287.445.59.84.304. and increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (35.369/274).339.159.schleraderma(468).86. damage to sarcoplasmic reticula..367.338.338c.510.38. impairs astrocyte function. tachycardia.38.75.308.119.35) and accumulation of heliobacter pylori. inhibits cytochrome P450Areme synthesis(84. asthma.381. causes interruption of the cytochromeC oxidase systern/ATP energy function (43.etc.20.263. thyroid gland function (50. causes learning disabilities and impairment.154.186. reproductive and developmental toxin ( (g) exposure to mercury vapor (or methyl mercury) causes rapid transmittal through the placenta to the fetus (20.~. and reduction in IQ (1.160. and porphyrins in urine ( increased antibiotic resistance( as well as poor nutrient absorption.511/4.59. reduces bloods ability to transport oxygen to fetus and transport of essential nutrients including amino acids. causes infertility (4.39) causes cardiovascular damage and disease: including damage to vascular endothelial cells.132. resulting in 09 damage to stomach lining which along with mercury’s ability to bind to SH hydroxyl radical in cell membranes alters permeability(338. prenatal/early postnatal exposure affects level of nerve growth factor in the brain.1 IO. mercury causes significant destruction of stomach and intestine epithelial cells.509/39).327. thymus gland function(5 13).35/149).389.25. 35) .and multiple sensitivities(MCS) (8.285c.I~.241. high blood pressure.367.361.351. and contractile well as altering molecular (h) (0 6) (w (1) .392.161. (0) forming strong bonds with and modification of the-SH groups of proteins causes mitochondrial release of calcium ( causes reduced iodine uptake & hypothyroidism (50.35).3 11.175.365.348.23.260) (m) inhibition of immune system facilitates increased damage by bacterial.35/4. imbalances in development of brain (38.21c) and adversely alters bacterial populations in the intestines causing leaky gut syndrome with toxic.226. glucose.61 .131.212.382.357).355. 388. and inhibits DNA & RNA synthesis (114.55.2 12. (4.).308).162). depresses enzyme isocitric dehydrogenase (ICD) in fetus.42.110.53). and fungal infections (17.313. 382. lowers sperm counts and reduces motility.306.175.117.361.2 and blocks enzymes needed to convert porphyrins to adenosine tri phosphate(ATP) causing progressive porphyrinuria.339.25 1. causes menstrual disturbances (9.160.338. damages sperm.131.357. digestive problems. resulting in low energy.129.etc. increased white cell count.263.22.369.404. 95. magnesium.104. decreased oxyhemoglobin level.146). 255.175. 160.2 12.162).42) and significant developmental effects-much more damage to the fetus than for maternal exposure to inorganic mercury and at lower exposure levels than for organic mercury(287.

Another study of pregnant women who suffer from hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) found a four-times greater risk for miscarriage during the second trimester than those who don’t.252.459. Mercury also damages the blood brain barrier and facilitates penetration of the brain by other toxic metals and substances(311). Such hormonal secretions are affected at levels of mercury exposure much lower than the acute toxicity effects normally tested.366. and women with untreated thyroid deficiency were four-times more likely to have a child with a developmental disabilities and lower I. Hypothyroidism is a well documented cause of mental retardation.20.338).Mercury has been well documented to be an endocrine system disrupting chemical in animals and people.274. 3. Mercury damage thus commonly results in poor bodily temperature control. as previously confirmed by hormonal/reproductive problems in animal populations( 8 to 10 % of untreated women were found to have thyroid imbalances so the actual level of hypothyroidism is higher commonly recognized(508). damage of thyroid RNA(458). Low first trimester levels of free T4 and positive levels of anti-TP antibodies in the mother during pregnancy have been found to result significantly reduces lQS(509). (50). maternal hypothyroidism appears to play a role in at least 15% of children whose IQS are more than I standard deviation below the mean. Based on study findings. and reduced glutathione availability (necessary for detoxification)( 13. Studies have also established a “clear association” between the presence of thyroid antibodies and spontaneous abortions(511).254). autoimmune thyroiditis and impairment of conversion of thyroid T4 hormone to the active T3 form(369. Levels of recurrent abortions in a population with positive levels of thyroid antibodies in one study were 40%. 327.111.360. damaged sulfur oxidation processes(33. thyroid gland. in addition to many problems caused by hormonal imbalances such as depression.91). hypothalamus. inhibited glucose transfer and uptake(338. Studies have documented that mercury causeshypothyroidism(50. The pituitary gland controls many of the body’s endocrine system functions and secretes hormones that control most bodily processes.273. 369) Thus mercury has a greater effect on the functions of these areas. including the immune system and reproductive systems.382. and occipital cortex in direct proportion to the number and extent of dental amalgam surfaces (1. One study found mercury levels in the pituitary gland ranged from 6.50).348.14.194. Even larger percentages of women had elevated levels of antithyroglobulin(anti-TG) or antithyroid peroxidase antibody(anti-TP).41O-412) resulting in improper cysteine regulation( 194).25. Studies indicate that slight imbalances of thyroid hormones in expectant mothers can cause permanent neuropsychiatric damage in the developing fetus(509.35).126. 5 times the normal rate(511).405. Women with the highest levels of thyroid-stimulating-hormone(TSH) and lowest free levels of thyroxine I7 weeks into their pregnancies were significantly more likely to have children who tested at least one standard deviation below normal on an IQ test taken at age 8.3 to 77 ppb(85).38 1).54). while . millions of children. Mercury blocks thyroid hormone production by occupying iodine binding sites and inhibiting hormone action even when the measured thyroid level appears to be in proper range(35).338.Q.99.(p) function of amino acids and damaging enzymatic process(33.211. Mercury (especially mercury vapor) rapidly crosses the blood brain barrier and is stored preferentially in the pituitary gland. thyroid gland. and many hormonal functions at very low levels of exposure .96. enzyme production processes.16. According to survey tests. Hypothyroidism is also known to be a major factor in cardiovascular disease(510).50. disrupting function of the pituitary gland.194.287. HgC12 inhibits aquaporin-mediated water transport in red blood cells(479). Hypothyroidism is a well documented risk factor in spontaneous abortions and infertility(9). The thyroid and hypothalamus regulate body temperature and many metabolic processes including enzymatic processes that when inhibited result in higher dental decay(35) .61.

Supplementary oxytocin extract has been found to alleviate many of these mood problems(35). Mercury at very low concentrations has been seen to impair some lymphocytic functions causing subclinical manifestations in exposed workers.432). Amalgam fillings.296.392/l 49).145.272.114. Inhibition of thymus function can thus affect proper development of the immune and lymphatic systems. alteration of protein structure (33.43. and immune system damage (34. I I I . Pyruvate and glycolysis problems are often seen in mercury toxic children being treated for autism(409).38. and increases fertility(35. inhibition of glutathione peroxidase enzyme( 13.194. endometriosis.I 14. MS. Part of the toxic effects of mercury. stimulate DNA synthesis of both immature and mature thymocytes at low levels of exposure.453. Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species(ROS) have been implicated as major factors in neurological disorders including stroke. There was a particular association between the T-cell defects and inhibition of thymic pyruvate kinase.194.254.496). nickel and gold crowns are major factors in reducing pituitary function(35.4 1.etc.355). Mercury inhibits sulfur ligands in MT and in the case of intestinal cell membranes inactivates MT that normally bind cuprous ions(477).169.). MND.464).175. lead. depression.98.252/l 14). so chronic exposure can have long term effects(5 13b). thus .489. endothelial cell damage(202). inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis(4.254. etc. Lymphocyte differentiation.).496).111. Metalloprotein(MT) are involved in metals transport and detoxiflcation(442. etc.142. ALS.226.9).CFS.96. This appears to be a factor in deregulation of basic cellular events and in autoimmunity caused by mercury. and appear to be a major factor in suicide of teenagers and other vulnerable groups.494-496). micromolar levels of mercuric ions specifically blocked synthesis of ribosomal RNA. induction of free radical formation( 13.305. The thymus gland plays a significant part in the establishment of the immune system and lymphatic system from the 12* week of gestation until puberty. Mercury induced lipid peroxidation has been found to be a major factor in mercury’s neurotoxicity.462.207b.252.50.1 I I I 1 I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I 1 another(348) found the mean level to be 30ppb.496). alteration of the transport of calcium(333. along with leading to decreased levels of glutathione peroxidation and superoxide dismustase(SOD)( 13. the rate-limiting enzyme for glycolysis(5 13~).). disabling the necessary enzymatic processes.84.338.263.369.42.424. The normalization of pituitary function also often normalizes menstrual cycle problems.cadmium. This may explain why dentists have much higher levels of emotional problems. causing fibrillarin relocation from the nucleolus to the ncleoplasm in epitheial cells as a consequence of the blockade of ribosomal RNA synthesis.126).347. Alzheimer’s.FM. PD. (13. Mercury’s biochemical damage at the cellular level include DNA damage.339.254. The immunological defects were consistent with altered T-cell function as evidenced by decreases in both T-cell mitogen and mixed leukocyte responses. inhibition glucose transport(338.levels found to be neurotoxic and cytotoxic in animal studies. 4. are through their replacing essential minerals such as zinc at their sites in enzymes. Animal studies have shown mercury significantly inhibits thymulin production at very low micromolar levels of The metal allergens mercuric chloride and nickel sulfate were found to exposure(5 13a). maturation and peripheral functions are affected by the thymic protein hormone thymulin.56. along with replacement of metals in the mouth(Section VI.264. abnormal migration of neurons in the cerebral cortex( 149). and of function and other of enzyme essential nutrients(96. suicide.325.38.4 1O-4 12).etc(Section VIIl. Low levels of pituitary function are associated with depression and suicidal thoughts. Some of the effect on depression is related to mercury’s effect of reducing the level of posterior pituitary hormone(oxytocin). depletion of cellular glutathione(necessary for detoxification processes) (111. The pituitary glands of a group of dentists had 800 times more mercury than controls(99).254). There were specific immunotoxic and biochemical alterations in lymphoid organs of mice treated at the lower doses of mercury.3 16.329.442-444. Also.

enzymatic processes involving vitamins B6 and B 12(41 S).498).3 13).275).442. effects on the cytochrome-C energy processes (43.226.305.412) as well as of xanthine oxidase(439). Additional cellular level enzymatic effects of mercury’s binding with proteins include blockage of sulfur oxidation processes(33. eczema and psoriasis (323. and that supplenting both thyrotropinreleasing hormone and growth control hormone is more effective at increasing all of these hormone levels in the patient(499). It has also been found that in chronically ill patients the levels of pituitary and thyroid hormones that control many bodily processes are low.147.194.232. 22% tested positive for inorganic mercury and 8% for methyl mercury . 33.149). but males have been found more responsive to this factor than women(497).160).132.33). Elimination of milk products from the diet has been found to improve the condition. Another neurological effect of mercury that occurs at very low levels is inhibition of nerve growth factors.464).330.446.495).3 13.255. Such populations have also been found to have high levels of mercury and to recover after mercury detox(413.234. This is a level that is common in the population with several amalgam fillings or other exposures(500). Exposure to mercury results in changes in metalloprotein compounds that have genetic effects. along with mercury’s adverse effects on cellular mineral levels . As mercury levels are reduced the protein binding is reduced and improvement in the enzymatic process occurs.419.468. and adrenal stress response systems.296. Mercury vapor is lipid soluable Only a few micrograms of mercury and has an affinity for red blood cells and CNS ceIIs(2 1a). IGF-I controls the survival of spinal motor neruons affected in ALS during development as well as later in Iife(497.95. 445.412).330.331.464. (11) A direct mechanism involving mercury’s inhibition of cellular enzymatic processes by binding with the hydroxyl radical(SH) in amino acids appears to be a major part of the connection to allergic/immune reactive conditions such as autism(408-414.442.476.156.152. and allergies (26.385.369.455.439. Prenatal or neonatal exposures have been found to have life long effects on nerve function and susceptability to toxic effects.allowing buildup of copper to toxic levels in many and malfunction of the ZnKu SOD function.342.46. having both structural and catalytic effects on gene expression( 114.60. lupus 3.338~. enzymatic processes.375.114.477. metal-specific homeostasis. Insulin-like-growth factor I (IGF-I) are positively correlated with growth hormone levels and have been found to be the best easily measured marker for levels of growth hormone.60.313.468). ScIeroderma(468).468).241.33 1. for which deficiencies result in nerve degeneration.498). Significant physiological changes occur when metal ion concentrations exceed threshold levels.35). metabolism.84. IGF-I and insulin levels have been found to be reduced in ALS pateients with evidence this is a factor in ALS(497. For example mercury has been found to strongly inhibit the activity of dipeptyl peptidase (DPP IV) which is required in the digestion of the milk protein casein(411. schizophrenia(409.271. Several clinical trials have found IGF-I treatment is effective at reducing the damage and slowing the progression of ALS and Alzheimer’s with no medically important adverse effects(498).410). Of a population of over 3000 tested by the immune lymphocyte reactivity test(MELISA.60. Studies involving a large sample of autistic and schizophrenic patients found that over 90 % of those tested had high levels of the milk protein betacasomorphin-7 in their blood and urine and defective enzymatic processes for digesting milk protein(410).60.464. Prenatal mercury vapor expsoure that results in levels of only 4 parts per billion in newborn rat brains was found to cause decreases in nerve growth factor and other effects(305). Such MT formation also appears to have a relation to autoimmune reactions in significant numbers of people (114. Some of the processes affected by such MT control of genes include cellular respiration. severely disturb cellular function and inhibits nerve growth (175.

27. minks.160). Over half the rivers and lakes in Florida have such health warnings banning or limiting eating of fish.9 19. Other studies have found similar results(5 12). seals. mercury has other documented hormonal effects including effects on the reproductive system resulting in lowered sperm counts.433.288.3 13.381. as part of the total of over 50. In addition to having estrogenic effects. aberrant chromosome numbers rather than the normal 46.of calcium.290.4 32.37.465.503b.96. since mouth bacteria and other organisms in the body methylate inorganic mercury to organic mercury(5 1.272). damaged DNA. 386.273). the majority of the rest cannot reproduce. Some wading birds and Florida panthers that eat birds and animals that eat fish containing very low levels of mercury(about 1 part per million) have died from chronic mercury poisoning (104.333.175. This may explain why dentists have much higher levels of emotional problems. Bacteria also oxidize mercury vapor to the water soluble. allergies.3 13.3 14. only l/2 gram is required to contaminate a IO acre lake to the extent that a health warning would be issued by the government to not eat the fish( 15 I.85.45 1.225. suicide. The average male Florida panther has higher estrogen levels than females.2).25.. Wisconsin has fish consumption warnings for over 250 lakes and rivers and Minnesota even more. polar bears. And along with these blockages of cellular enzymatic processes.506. and acety1cho1inesterase(35.23.367. asthma. chromosome breaks. .14 1. Similar is true of some other animals at the top of the food chain like alligators.432.365. and sensitivity to other lesser allergens.484). and most other states and 4 Canadian provinces have similar health wamings(2). ionic form Hg(I1) (431).10. and lowered testosterone levels in males and menstrual disturbances and infertility in women(4.38).427. zinc. magnesium. river miles. Low levels of pituitary function are associated with depression and suicidal thoughts. serotonin. ovaries. But the effect on the immune system of exposure to various toxic substances such as toxic metals and environmental pollutants has also been found to have additive or synergistic effects and to be a factor in increasing eczema. defective sperm cells. mercury has been found to cause additional neurological and immune system effects in many through immune/autoimmune reactions (60.etc(Section .8 1. and lithium (43. 6. and organochlorine compounds (4 13.372.38. which are affected by mercury and other hormone disrupting chemicals.3 1.S.140.38). All Great Lakes as well as many coastal bays and estuaries and large numbers of salt water fish carry similar health warnings.35.105. I 60. the brain is also organic (220. A clinical study found that methyl mercury in saliva is significantly higher in those with amalgam fillings than those without.107.159. The pituitary glands of a group of dentists had 800 times more mercury than controls(99). etc. testes.296. Since mercury is an estrogenic chemical and reproductive toxin.198. Most doctors treating such conditions also usually recommend supplementing the deficient essential minerals previously noted that mercury affects. often obtaining a hair element test to determine imbalances and needs(386..21).Because of the extreme toxicity of mercury. S.4 15).9.412).275.000 such lakes with warnings(2) and 7% of all U. Most of the children tested for toxic exposures have found high or reactive levels of Much mercury in saliva and other toxic metals.125. depression. Mercury accumulates in the pituitary glands. beluga and orca whales.20.512). Some of the effect on depression is related to mercury’s effect of reducing the level of posterior pituitary hormone(oxytocin). and prostrate gland(35.99. due to the estrogenic properties of mercury( 105.1 60). and increased neurological problems related to lowered levels of neurotransmitters dopamine. noreprenephrine.305. and appear to be a major factor in suicide of teenagers and other vulnerable groups. and correlated with the number of amalgam fillings(506).395.

having low pressure and being subject to galvanic action with other metals in an oral environment(lS2. cadmium.525). A study in Sweden found significant occupational and environmental exposures at crematoria.35. 11a. A Japanese study estimated mercury emissions from a small crematorium there as 26 grams per day(421).). The amount of mercury released by a gold alloy bridge over amalgam over a 10 year period was measured to be approx.2la. cremation released over 65 kilograms of mercury per year as emissions. This is in addition to air emissions.9). and behavioral effects have been found from mercury vapor at much lower levels than for exposure to methyl mercury(287. often exceeding site air mercury standards(420). learning ability. and also in mental patients and criminals behavior(3.192.304. Large numbers of animal studieshave documented that genetically susceptible strains are more affected by xenobiotic exposures than less susceptible strains (234.526.383. mercury standards).105.369.7e.329).). The normalization of pituitary function also often normalizes menstrual cycle problems. while another Swiss study found mercury levels during cremation of a person with amalgam fillings as high as 200 micrograms per cubic meter(considerably higher than U. so that within 10 years up to half has been found to have been transferred to the body of the host( l&34. Additionally cremation of those with amalgam fillings adds to air emissions and deposition onto land and lakes. Similarly for inhibition of some essential cellular processes(333. endometriosis. Suplementary oxytocin extract has been found to alleviate many of these mood problems(35).22-24.85. Some genetic types are susceptible to mercury induced autoimmunity and some are resistant and thus much less affected(234.304).etc.376e.23 1. Studies have found that levels of exposure to the toxic metals mercury. 8. 10.425. The amount of mercury in the mouth of a person with fillings was on average 2.).1 82.348.etc. & section III).311) and placenta of pregnant women (20.Amalgam fillings. along with replacement of metals in the mouth(Section VI.230b. enough to contaminate 5 ten acre lakes to the extent there would be dangerous levels in fish(151). 101 milligrams(mg)(60% of total) or 30 micrograms per day(18). and the average adult had at least 5 grams of mercury in fillings(unless most has vaporized).338.336. One study found dental offices discharge into waste water between 65 and 842 milligrams per dentist per day(231).27.349.etc.2ld).S.28 1.287.336. Mercury in solid form is not stable.38. A study in Switzerland found that in that small country.183. 3 11. Studies found that mercury causes or accelerates various systemic conditions in a strain dependent . and increases fertility(35. and since the requirement to install selenium filters mercury emission levels in crematoria have been reduced 85%(422). Running shoes with ‘/2 gram of mercury in the heels were banned by several states. An average amalgam filling contains over % gram of mercury.). according to the World Health Organization and other studies (38. Mercury vapor rapidly crosses the blood-brain barrier( 14. function(35. Elemental mercury vapor is more rapidly transmitted throughout the body than most other forms of mercury and has more much toxic effects on the CNS and other parts of the body than inorganic mercury due to its much greater capacity to cross cell membranes.292.308.361) Developmental.5 grams. 162. and lead have major effects on classroom behavior.50. because the amount of mercury was considered dangerous to public health and created a serious disposal problem. Studies have found that both genetic susceptibility and environmental exposures are a factor in xenobiotic related effects and disease propagation(2 1d. nickel and gold crowns are major factors in reducing pituitary VIII. 7. Mercury from dental offices and human waste from people with amalgam fillings has much higher levels and is a major source of mercury in Florida waters. 9. learning.186. section III).160).360.425.287.82. amounting to several hundred grams per year per office.).

multiple chemical sensitivity and chronic fatigue syndromes are identical to those of chronic mercurialism and remit after removal of amalgam combined with appropriate supplementation and gave evidence to implicate amalgam as the only underlying etiologic factor that is common to all(404). personality.285. whereas those with type APOE.18l. Other studies(285b.128. Other studies have also found a connection between mercury with peripheral neuropathy and pareshesia(I 90. lability. Another genetic difference found in animals and humans is cellular retention differences for metals related to the ability to excrete mercury(426).395c).449. Occupational exposure studies have found mercury impairs the body’s ability to kill Candida albicans by impairment of the Iytic activity of neutrophils and myeloperoxidase in workers whose mercury excretion levels are withing current safety Iimits(285.7 ug/ g creatinine had long lasting increases in humoral immunological stimulation of IgG. For example it has been found that individuals with genetic blood factor type APOE. resulting in susceptibility to chronic autoimmune conditions such as Alzheimer’s. polyneuropathy. Vit B6. increased tremor. Also when a condition has been initiated and exposure levels decline.405).60. decreased coordination.395) found that workers exposed at high levels at least 20 years previous(urine peak levels above 600 ug/L demonstrated significantly decreased strength.manner. fatigue.with effects on memory at very low exposure . Significant correlations between increasing urine mercury concentrations and prolonged motor and sensory distal Iatencies were established(285g).are intermediate to the other 2 types(437.467).readily excrete mercury and are less susceptible. A population of plant workers with average mercury excretion of 20 ug/ g creatinine was found to have long lasting impairment of neutrophil function(285. One genetic factor in Hg induced autoimmunity is major histocompatibility complex(MHC) linked.285. paresthesia. Another group of workers with average excretion rates of 24. with the potential of inducing type II diabetes .). the cells responsible for insulin production can be cytokines( 152. Such levels of mercury exposure were also found to inhibit cellular respiratory burst. with significant reductions in insulin need after replacement of amalgam filings and normalizing of blood sugar(35). and IgM levels. not excrete mercury readily and bioaccumulate mercury.404b). as early as age 40. and that lower levels of exposure adversely affect some strains but not others. and other neruological condtions(502) Another study found that many of the symptoms and signs of chronic candid&is.404). Elemental mercury can affect both motor and sensory peripheral nerve conduction and the degree of involvement is related to time-integrated urine mercury concentrations. etc. and folic acid supplementation to alleviate peripheral neuropathies.342.etc.234c. resulting in more inflammatory damage.35). Other studies(285c) found that mercury at levels below the current occupational safety limit causes adverse effects on mood.7 1bd. Higher levels have been found to cause more serious neurological problems (119. tin&us. Thirty percent of dentists with more than average exposure were found to have neuropathies and visuogrphic dysfimction(395). etc. autoimmune antibodies also decline in animals or humans(233. decreased sensation. etc. Long term occupational exposure to low levels of mercury can induce slight cognitive deficits. including inducing of autoimmunity. Parkinson’s. decreased stress tolerance. Both immune cell type Thl and Th2 cytokine responses are involved in autoimmunity(425c). pain. 11. Another study(59) found such impairment of neutrophils decreasesthe body’s ability to combat viruses such as those that cause heart damage. IgA.g.502. Mercury inhibits production of insulin and is a factor in diabetes and hypoglycemia. and memory. Several doctors have found thiamin(B3). Mercury has been found to affect both Thl and Th2 cytokines causing an increase in inflammatory TIQ In the pancreas.404.even in otherwise healthy individuals with no other risk factors for diabetes(501).I60. damaged or destroyed by the chronic high levels of cytokines. The incidence of autoimmune conditions have increased to the extent this is now one of the leading causes of death among women(450). Those with type APOE.

199.303.199).352. based on the average levels found per number of fillings and using daily saliva volumes of 890 ml for unstimulated saliva flow and 80 ml for stimulated flow (estimated from measurements made in the study and comparisons to other studies). The tolerable daily exnosure level for mercury developed in a report for Health Canada is . with the average after chewing being 3 times this level. The upper level of mercury exposure recommended by the German Commission on Human Biomonitoring is 10 micrograms per liter in the blood(39).192. The FDA limit for mercury in seafood is 1 ppm. persons with amalgam fillings was measured(199). 85. some of both types are present in the body.3 @kg body weight/day(217).335.241.37..371. (see further details continued) A large study was carried out at the Univ.26. but adverse effects such as increases in blood pressure and cognitive effects have been documented as low as I ug/L. The U. 14 ug for the ATSDR acute oral toxicicity standard. It also gives the 84th percentile mercury exposure from saliva for the 20. and even more so for those with more than 4 fillings. III.36.3 1.S. The WHO limit for women of childbearing age at which there is a significant risk of developmental disabilities in fetal exposure is 10 ppm in hair or 40 ug/L in mother’s blood( 183) 2.209. ATSDR health standard(MRL) for mercury vapor is 0. Note that 16% of all of those tested with 4 amalgam fillings had daily exposure from their amalgam fillings of over 17 ug per day. 1 % had unstimulated levels over 200 ug/L.18.2 ug/ M3 of air. 42 @day. air per day. this amounts to an exposure of 4 or 6 ug/day for the 2 elemental mercury standards.525. with a warning at ‘/2 ppm (125).182. Systemic Mercury Intake Level from Amalgam Fillings 1.361.371). tested by number of fillings. The daily total exposure of mercury from fillings is from 3 to 1000 micrograms per day.179. with the average exposure being above 10 micrograms per day and the average uptake over 5 @day (183.436.332. The level of mercury in unstimulated saliva was found to average 11. Table: Average daily mercury exposure in saliva by number of amalgam tillings( 199) .levels.338~/241). and 10 % had unstimulated mercury saliva levels of over 100 Q/L. Several were found to have mercury levels over 1100 q/L.142. The level of mercury in saliva has been found to be proportional to the number of amalgam fillings.199.83. The older World Health Organization( 183) mercury health guideline(PTW1) is 300 ug per week total exposure or approx. The EPA drinking water standard for mercury is 2ppb( 125). and the MRL For the average adult breathing 20 M3 of for methyl mercury is 0. More studies found that long term exposure causes increased micronuclei in lymphocytes and significantly increased IgE levels at exposures below current safety levels(128).19. Mercury in the presence of other metals in the oral environment undergoes galvanic action. or approx.183. Mercury in solid form is not stable due to low vapor pressure and evaporates continuously from in the mouth.6 ug Hg/L. Since mercury is methylized in the body. Of Tubingen Health Clinic in which the level of mercury in saliva of 20.3 micrograms per cubic meter of sir(2).79.etc. The U. causing movement out of amalgam and into the oral mucosa and saliva( 174.100. as well as maternal linked to retardation( 1 IO) and birth mental being exposure defects(23. with impacts higher in low birth weight babies(39).335. The EPA health guideline for methyl mercury is 0.299.014 micrograms/kilogram body weight(ug/kg) or approximately 1 ug/day for average adult(2 17).).1 ug/kg body weight per day or 7 ug for the average adult(2). The following table gives the average daily mercury exposure from saliva alone for those tested. and generally was higher for those with more fillings. being transferred over a period of time to the host(l5amalgam fillings 19. EPA Health Standard for elemental mercury exposure(vapor) is 0.

It found that the majority of excretion is through feces.5 I1 12. Chewing gum or drinking hot liquids can result in 10 to 100 times normal levels of mercury exposure from amalgams during that period( 15.7 ug/L (292c). etc. with average mercury level in unstimulated saliva of 29 ug/L( 1S). The Tubingen study did not assessthe significant exposure route of intraoral air and lungs.8 48. The average for those with 4 or less fillings was 8 ug/L( 18). The main exposure paths for mercury from amalgam fillings are absorption by the lungs from intraoral air. Another large German study(352) found significantly higher levels than the study summarized here.. 3.94. The authors of the Tubingen study calculated that based on the test results with estimates of mercury from food and oral air included. EPA and ATSDR health guideline for mercury(2.348. there is considerable variability for a given number of fillings. while a Norwegian study found the average level in oral air to be 0. bruxism.209. Daily excretion .5 35 41.6 61.209.6 50.4 64.79.5 43.4 16.etc.95).5 Saliva tests for mercury are commonly performed in Europe. 32.179. for subjects with number of filling surfaces ranging from 18 to 82.5 8 9.335.31.211.4 14 15. gums. whether person chews gum or drinks hot liquids.3 19. without consideration of exposure from food. with some with exposure levels over 1000 ug/day.317.9b. with age of filling being much less significant(3 l9b). vapor absorbed by saliva or swallowed. While it will be seen that there is a significant correlation between exposure levels and number of amalgam surfaces and exposure generally increases as number of fillings increases.8 24.182.3 46.216.3 84th percentile(ug) 17 23.).Number of fillings: 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Av. Most of those whose intraoral air mercury levels were measured exceeded Gov’t health guidelines for workplace exposure(2). Some of the factors that will be seen to influence this variability include composition of the amalgam.436) The sublingual venal olfactory. olfactory.77. and neural path transfer of mercury absorbed by oral mucosa.17. and 175 ug/day(352).18. and many other studies have been carried out with generally comparable results(292. Different filling composition/manufacturer can also make a difference in exposure levels( as will be firther discussed).83.7 56. and some individuals have been found to have intraoral air mercury levels above 400 ug/ M3 (3 19). sublingual venal. (6.34.335. type of tooth paste used.133. A study at Stockholm Univ. Three studies that looked at a population with more than 12 fillings found generally higher levels than this study.3 22.174. oral environmental factors such as acidity. and neural pathways are direct pathways to the brain and CNS bypassing the liver’s detox iystem and appear to represent major pathways of exposure(34) based on the high levels of mercury vapor and methyl mercury found in saliva and oral cavity of those with amalgam. One study that looked at this estimated a daily average burden of 20 ug from ionized mercury from amalgam fillings absorbed through the lungs( I9 I). and membrane.8 21. Daily exposure from intraoral air ranged from 20 to 125 ug of mercury vapor.352).79.5 26 30.319.9 18. As can be seen most people with several fillings have daily exposure exceeding the Health Canada TDE and the U. amalgam particles swallowed. Daily Hg(ug) 6.364. etc.S. Other studies found similar resuIts(83. over 40 % of those tested in the study received daily mercury exposurehigher than the WHO standard(PTWI).8 ug/M3(176).199.3 15. for persons with from 18 to 82 filling surfaces. and many tested in past studies have exceeded the older and higher WHO guideline for mercury( 183). etc.35). Another study at a Swedish University(335) measured intraoral air mercury levels from fiIlings of from 20 to 125 ug per day.(335) made an effort to determine the respective parts in exposure made by these paths. The studies also determined that the number of fillings is the most important factor related to mercury level. and that the majority of mercury exposure was from elemental vapor.222.

compared to the reference average level for those without amalgam fillings of .55 ug5.etc.348).19. Elemental mercury swallowed in saliva can be absorbed in the digestive tract by the blood or bound in sulfhydryl compounds and excreted through the feces. As is known from autopsy studies for those with chronic exposure such as amalgam fillings mercury (1.likely originating as vapor. and oral mucosa( 174. The range of mercury excreted in urine per day by those with amalgams is usually less than 15 ug(6.02 mg/kg(528). but approx 60% of swallowed mercury vapor is absorbed(292. The average in those with amalgam was 4.273.348. and also cellular membranes into major organs such as the heart since the oxidation rate of HgO though relatively fast is slower than the time required by pumped blood to reach these organs(290. 20 % of swallowed mercury sulfhydryl compounds are absorbed in the digestive tract.20.3 11.liver.335. at much higher levels than inorganic mercury and also higher levels than organic mercury.85).335.252). but some patients are much higher(93). once in cells they form inorganic mercury that does not readily cross cell membranes or the blood brain barrier readily and is responsible for the majority of toxicity effects. Thus the level in the brain and heart is higher after exposure to Hg vapor than for other forms(360. Approx. Elemental mercury vapor is transmitted throughout the body via the blood and readily enters cells and crosses the blood-brain barrier.S. EPA maximum limit for mercury in drinking water(2 18). This level of mercury gives a daily excretion of over 30 micrograms per day.436) with the half life in the brain being over 20 years. In a population of women tested In the Middle East(254). At least 80% of particle mercury is excreted.327.S.16. kidneys(85.3 1.274.)e. Other labs found similar results(386).370). .192. Their study and others reviewed found that at least 80% of mercury vapor reaching the lungs is absorbed and enters the blood from which it is taken to all other parts of the body(335. with fillings appearing to be responsible for over 75% of total mercury. mean= 7 ug/L.etc. with 93% being inorganic mercury. The feces mercury was essentially all inorganic with particles making up at most 25%.49. while another study(363) found on average 77% of the mercury in the occipital cortex was inorganic. The reference average level of mercury in feces(dry weight) for those tested at Doctors Data Lab with amalgam fillings is .386. military population(49) with an average of 19. The primary detoxification/excretion pathway for mercury absorbed by the body is as mercury-glutathione compounds through the liver/bile loop to feces( 111.205.370).361). the number of fillings was highly correlated with the mercury level in urine.36.329. and the majority being mercury sulfuhydryl compounds.83.287.34. 80% of swallowed methyl mercury is absorbed(335. 85.138. with most of the rest being converted to inorganic forms apparently.18.19.115. (I 4.79. The average level of those with over 49 surfaces was over 8 times that of controls. A review determined that approx.25. Significant levels are able to cross the blood brain barrier.) Most with several amalgams had daily fecal excretion levels over 50 @day. and the placenta of pregnant women(38. but some mercury is also excreted though the kidneys in urine and in sweat.273).5 times that of controls and more than the U. being more variable than other paths.26 mg/kg.14.80.15. 196. I ug/L. (13 times that of the population w/o amalgam). The same study found that the average blood level was 2. From the study results it was found that each 10 amalgam surfaces increased urine mercury by approx.349.9 amalgam surfaces and range of 0 to 60 surfaces found the average urine level was 3.363).199. While mercury vapor and methyl Hg readily cross cell membranes and the blood-brain barrier. Nutrient transport and renal function were also found to be adversely affected by higher levels of mercury in the urine.).348)).through feces amountedto from 30 to 190 ug of mercury.83. Other studies had similar findings(6. placenta. A large NIDH study of the U.77. also bioaccumulates in the brain/CNS (301. with 79 % being organic mercury.1 ug5. A study of mercury species found blood mercury was 89% organic and urine mercury was 87% inorganic(349b).18.94). The total mercury level had a significant correlation to the number of amalgam fillings.

47.61.382.5 grams(500.183.17.35. Mercury vapor from amalgam is the single largest source of svstemic mercury intake for persons with amalgam fillings.I I I Thus inorganic mercury in the brain has a very long half life(85.35. disease. which have been found to accumulate in the oral mucosa as granules along collagen bundles.94. After filling replacement levels of mercury in the blood.29.79. in addition to migration to other parts of the body(200.2 11. and acini of minor salivary glands. Studies have shown that mercury in the gums such as from root caps for root canaled teeth result in chronic inflammation. and fibroblasts.36. These levels are among the highest levels ever measured in tissues of living organisms. and are the result of flow of mercury into the mucous membrane because of galvanic currents with the mucous membrane serving as cathode and amalgam as cathode( 192). and dental materials researchers advise against having amalgam in the mouth with other metals such as gold(446.g.91).57. multinucleated giant cells. electrical higher and levels much mercury levels in tissues. Having dissimilar metals in the teeth(e.204).503b.35). elastic fibers. Peopole who tested hypothyroid usually have significantly higher levels of homocysteine and cholesterol.etc. Dept. Concentrationsof mercury in oral mucosa for a population of patients with 6 or more amalgam fillings taken during oral surgery were 20 times the level of controls(l74).77-83.25. and (182. with levels in roots tips as high as 4 1 ppm( 192).25. The average amalgam filling has approximately 0. Studies have shown mercury travels from amalgam into dentin. which are documented to be commonly caused by Thyroid mercury(369. Of Health/EPA drinking water limit for mercury which is 2 parts per billion(2 18). or animals that died from mercury poisoning. Mercury levels in saliva and feces usually decline between 80 to 95% (79. (14. imbalances.303).130.48). blood vessels. ranging from 50 to 90 % of total exposure.274. and feces typically temporarily are increased for a few days.OOOug) of mercury.47.167. There is in most cases chronic inflammatory response or macrophagic reaction the metals(47).S.459.50. urine. It is well documented that amalgam fillings are a major factor . have been found to play a major role in chronic heart conditions such as clogged arteries and chronic heart failure(5 IO).332.386) 5.30.27. but levels usually decline in blood and urine within 6 months to from 60 to 85% of the original levels(57. endothelial cells.35.129. 196. These levels are much higher than the FDA/EPA action level for prohibiting use of food with over 1 ppm mercury. 4. Likewise the level is tremendously over the U.35).273. Mercury and silver from fillings can be seen in the tissues as amalgam “tatoos”.390. As much as 50% of mercury in fillings has been found to have vaporized after 5 years and 80% by 20 years(182.). which are documented factors in heart also had high Ievels of 50% of those testing hypothyroid. dental school texts.348. averaging about 80% of total systemic intake. and the gums.216.335.19. Average mercury levels are often 1000 ppm near a gold cap on an amalgam filling due to higher currents when gold is in contact with amalgam (30.273. vapor currents. exceeding the highest levels found in chronically exposed chloralkali workers.-gold and mercury) causes galvanic action. membranes.196. These are also known factors in developing arteriosclerotic vascular disease.303.100) Average mercury levels in gum tissue near amalgam fillings are about 200 ppm.48.89. hyperhomocystemic or and 90% either were homocysteine(hyperhomocysteinenic) hypercholesterolemic(5 10). Amalgam manufacturers. usually in the form of a foreign body granuloma with multinucleated giant cells of the foreign body and Langhans types( 192). striated muscle fibers.525. German oral surgeons have found levels in the jaw bone under large amalgam fillings or gold crowns over amalgam as high as 5760 ppm with an average of 800 ppm(436).292. but many dentists ignore the warnings.16. Government health agencies such as Health Canada.349. nerve sheaths.82.19. root tips.196. Dark granules are also present intracellularly within macrophages. those who died in Minamata.138.).

Recent studies have concluded that becausethe high mercury release levels of modem amalgams.211.19. 7.35.366) 09 (I) liver( 14. The level of mercury and copper released from high copper amalgam is as much as 50 times that of low copper amalgams( 19 1). . Numerous other studies also support this finding(Section IV). and copper which also have toxic effects.112.21 l)(usually not as strong as other measures) @I urine mercury level ( oral gum tissue inflamation. comparable to the similar enzymatic disruptions caused by mercury and previously discussed(35.115. mercury poisoning from amalgam fillings is widespread throughout the population”( while alloys containing copper or iron were very corrosive in acid environments(297).348. 10 ug/day.138. 138. The periodontal ligament of extracted teeth is often not fully removed and results in incomplete jawbone regrowth resulting in a pocket where mouth bacteria in anaerobic conditions along with similar conditions in the dead tooth produce extreme toxins similar to botulism which like mercury are extremely toxic and disruptive to necessarybody enzymatic processes at the cellular level.335) saliva and oral mucosa( 18. the median daily exposure for those with fillings through saliva was approx. rhombencephalon. more neurotoxic than with organic tin compounds formed in the body being even mercury(5 Studies have consistently found modem high copper non gamma-two amalgams have a high negative current and much greater release of mercury vapor than conventional silver amalgams and are more cytotoxic (35.77. Clinics have found the increased toxicity and higher exposures to be factors in increased incidence of chronic degenerative diseases(35.20.3 17) (4 feces mercury (25.18.199. dorsal (i> root ganglia.273/274) (g) brain occipital cortex (14. and 1% had over 160 ug/day( 199).21 ab.79.23 1.297). While the non gamma-two amalgams were developed to be less corrosive and less prone to marginal fractures than conventional silver amalgams.100.298.254. In a large German study. A person with amalgam fillings has daily systemic intake from mercury vapor of between 3 and 70 micrograms of mercury.348. tin. they have been found to be instable in a different mechanism when subjected to wear/polishing/ chewing/ brushing: they form droplets of mercury on the surface of the amalgams( 182.2 11. Amalgam also releasessignificant amounts of silver.85.7d etc.366/274) renal(kidney) cortex( 14.85. 4% of those with fillings had daily exposurethrough saliva of over 80 ug/day. 3 gingivitis. The number of amalgam surfaces has a statistically significant correlation to : (a) blood plasma mercury level (17.292. 6.335). cerebellum. 15.3 15.238).76.83.386) 69 (f) pituitary gland (19.16. Alloys containing tin such as amalgam were found to have the highest galvanic corrosion rates.34.182. and bone loss( related to maternal fillings.176. The methods and results of the Tubingen study( 199) were similar to those of other German studies(292.79.335.2 11.437).79.138.299).117.442.186.335) 0 oral air( bleeding. This has also been found to be a factor in the much higher release of mercury vapor by the modem non gamma-two amalgams. with the average being at least 7 micrograms per day (18.222.335).) (k) fetal and infant liver/brain levels(61 .222. The component mix in amalgams has also been found to be an important factor in mercury vapor emissions. and anterior horn motor neurons (48.315.etc).19.366) motor function areas of the brain & CNS: brain stem.262).85.22.

(34.292.36. Mercury level in saliva has been found to give much better indication of body levels than blood or urine levels(36).25.273.327).209.16.292. After chewing. and occipital cortex in direct proportion to the number and extent of amalgam surfaces (14. ATSDR and EPA health guideline levels (2.7 ppb(85).348.183).34.209).350).etc. 9. and using fluoride toothpaste significantly increase the intake(15. lymph.Total intake is proportional to the number and extent of amalgam surfaces.34.and a large German study( 199) found median exposure through saliva alone for those with fillings to be about 10 @day. The range in one study was 2. in(35)).85. Other studies have found similar amounts( 18.222.199. and also crosses the blood-brain barrier readily.138.317.3 15).211.93) 8. Once mercury vapor or methyl mercury are converted to inorganic mercury in cells or the brain.20.4 to 28.98. with many having several fillings with over 10 times that level.3 18). A Swedish study estimated the total amount mercury swallowed per day from intra-oral vapor was 10 micrograms per day( 177). and candida albicans in the mouth and intestines(5 1.18. but health effects have been observed in patients in the upper part of this range.17. drinking hot liquids.199.327. and S.etc. (20.S. Mercury also is transported along the axons of nerve fibers (5.sanguis were all found to methylate mercury(81). Teeth are living tissue and have massive communication with the rest of the body via blood.329).35. brushing or polishing.137.1 ug/kg body weight/day( 199). Methyl mercury is 10 times more potent in causing genetic damage than any other known chemical (Ramel.83.( 14.199.3 17.35. Mercury has a long half life in the body and over 20 years in the brain.349.182.) 13.348. Methyl mercury is more toxic to some body processes than inorganic mercury.31.3 18) The average blood level for one large population was 5 ug/l( 176).S. 303.319.mutans.38. The median daily exposure through saliva for those with 10 or more fillings was over 10 times that of those with no fXlings( 199. and the average level of exposure was 29 @day for those with at least 12 occlusal surfaces(18). Some mercury entering nasal passages is absorbed directly into the olfactory lobe and brain without coming from blood(34. I 1. The blood and urine mercury load of a person with amalgam fillings is often 5 times that of a similar person without.83.134-137. the mercury does not readily cross cell membranes or the blood-brain barrier. Vapor emissionsrange up to 200 ug/M3 (35) and are much higher after chewing( 15.315.319).506). Mercury vapor (and bacteria in teeth ) have paths to the rest of the body.183.82. Thus mercury has a very long half life in the brain.274.38. EPA health guideline level(199) of 0. Normal blood levels are less than 20 ppb.182. 12.225.80. Most people with fillings have daily exposure levels exceeding the U. Mercury from amalgam is methylated by bacteria. those with amalgams had levels over 50 times higher than those without.348. Mercury (especially mercury vapor) rapidly crosses the blood brain barrier and is stored preferentially in the pituitary gland( 14. and nerves. N-acetylcysteine . The level of organic mercury in saliva is significantly related to the number of amalgam fillings(506).25.) German studiesof mercury loss from vapor in unstimulated saliva found the saliva of those with amalgams had at least 5 times as much mercury as for controls( 138. and chronic low level intake results in a slow accumulation in body tissues. Oral bacteria streptococommus mitior. At least 30% of those having amalgam fillings tested in a large German study had ingested mercury levels exceeding the WHO PTWI mercury standard of 43 ug/day (199.79.8 1.183. and one study found on average that 77% of the mercury in the occipital cortex was inorganic(363). hypothalamus(348c).99.503b. and over 50% of those with 6 or more fillings had daily exposures more than the U. 10. adrenal gland. galvanic electric currents(35).100. thyroid gland(99).211. 292.366) Thus mercury has a greater effect on the functions of these areas.136. High levels of Vit B12 in the system also have been found to result in increased methyl mercury concentrations in the liver and brain(51).217.S. but other factors such as chewing gum.335. 15.

The highest level is in the pituitary gland of the fetus which affects development of the endocrine system.126).61 .119c. asthma(8.34.9 ug/L. 14.212.503.38. The U.165. chronic skin problems. meconium.2 to 6. gastrointestinal problems(2lc). chronic skin problems. and much higher levels in saliva after chewing.528).162. liver. Amalgam results in chronic exposure .287).361) The level of mercury in umbilical cord blood.279).304.304. The level of total mercury in nursing infants was significantly correlated to total mercury level in maternal hair(22. cardiovascular problems. Milk increases the bioavailability of mercury( 112.148.75. plugged ears. and placenta was higher than that in mother’s blood (22.386.) Mercury from amalgam in the blood of pregnant women crosses the placenta and appears in amniotic fluid and fetal blood.59. and in a Norwegian group with average age 12 there was a significant correlation between urine mercury level and number of amalgam fillings( 167).2IO. Several authors suggest use of early mother’s milk as a screen for potential problems since it is correlated both to maternal and infant mercury levels. guidelines(38. 10 times that of amalgam-free mothers.28I .268-270. Immune System Effects and Autoimmune Disease 1.338). 287. hyperventilation. A group of German children with amalgam fillings had urine mercury level 4 times that of a control group without amalgams(76).264. chest pain.61.109. Mercury is transferred mainly by binding to amino acids like albumin(339).186.112. and pituitary gland soon after placement (20. Fertile women should not be exposed to vapor levels above government health 304).38. stuffy nose.2 mcg/M3 (2. IV. and also with the level in mother’s milk (19.61. From clinical experience some of the symptoms of mercury sensitivity/mercury poisoning include chronic fatigue.S. 186.3 1.348. 17.186). and developmental behavioral effects from vapor have been found at levels considerably below that required for similar effects by methyl mercury (20.186. (20. chills.304. There is a significant correlation between number of amalgam fillings of the mother and the level of the fetus and older infants(20. 3 13.22.304).366). immune and autoimmune diseases. The saliva and feces of children with amalgams have approximately 10 times the level of mercury as children without(25. and many thousands who have had amalgam fillings removed(most) have had health problems and symptoms alleviated or greatly improved(see Section VI). insomnia. headaches. irritability.291.36. and many types of neurological problems(21.23. dizziness. ATSDR mercury health MRL of 0.22.304.282). ringing ears.504. new born.l82.70.35. 246.etc. One study found a 60% increase in average cord blood mercury level between 1980 and 1990 in Japan(186).).6 1.290. muscle weakness.9l. The milk sampled ranged from 0.217).61. spacy feeling.182.(NAC) has been found to be effective at increasing glutathione levels and chelating methyl mercury(54.or have amalgams placed or removed during pregnancy (20.36. diabetes(35). frequent urination. and young children is directly proportional to the number of amalgam surfaces in the mother’s mouth. Many thousands of people with symptoms of mercury toxicity have been found in tests to have high levels of mercury.508-5 IO).3 15. with milk from mothers with 7 or more fillings having levels in milk approx.199. metallic taste. Levels for exposure to mercury vapor has been found to be approx 10 times that for maternal exposure to an equivalent dose of inorganic mercury(28 1.391) and mercury is often stored in breast milk and the fetus at much higher levels than that in the mother’s tissues ( The fetal mercury content after maternal inhalation of mercury vapor was found to be higher than in the mother( 4.23. The level of mercury in maternal hair was significantly correlated to level of mercury in nursing infants(279). dry crusts in nose.304).339.210.204.343. rhinitis. The level of mercury in breast milk was found to be significantly correlated with the number of amalgam fillings(61).255.26.20).23 1.23. Dental amalgams are the main source of mercury in breast milk( 112.23.etc. The level of mercury in the tissue of the fetus.112.

and autoimmunity( 181.442). eczema.405).226.165). impairing cellular respiration and cellular energy. damaging and decreasing the dimension of mitochondria. Workers occupationally exposed to mercury at levels within guidelines have been found to have impairment of lytic activity of neutrophils and reduced ability of neutrophils to kill invaders such as candida(285. Candida overgrowth results in production of the highly toxic canditoxin and ethanol which are known to cause fatigue. allergic diseases such as eczema and lupus (234. and hormones.rather than acute exposure and accumulation in body organs over time.404. All types of cells exhibited a dose dependent reduction in cellular glutathione when exposed to mercury. Development of Th2 type immune responses deactivate such defenses(404b). Both mercuric and methyl mercury chlorides caused dose dependent reduction in immune B-cell production. inhibiting generation of GSH by lymphocytes and monocytes(252). so most health effects are of the chronic rather than acute in nature.285).31. Another amalgam effect found is increase in the average blood white cell count significantly (35). in the range of 10 to 25 ug/L.405. coenzymes.3 but serious health problems have been documented to be related to amalgam and researchershave attributed some deaths as due to amalgam (356. Mercury induced autoimmunity in animals and humans has been found to be associated with mercury’s expression of major histocompatibility complex(MHC) class II genes(314.43). (3 16) B-cell expression of IgE receptors were significantly reduced(3 16.32. Mercury caused adverse effects on both neutrophil and macrophage function and after depletion of thiol reserves.323. Mercury also inhibited B-cell and T-cell RNA and DNA synthesis. Thus some of the main mechanisms of toxic effects of metals include cytotoxicity. with a rapid and sustained elevation in intracellular levels of calcium induced(3 16. causing destruction of cytoplasmic organelles with loss of cell membrane integrity. Both forms are immontoxic and cytotoxic ant very low levels seen in individuals.165. HgC12 also inhibits aquaporin-mediated water transport in red blood cells(479) as well as oxygen transport by hemoglobin(232). anemia. along with OH.38.296.313. NH2. From animal studies it has been determined that mercury damages T-cells by generating reactive oxygen species(ROS).338. MS. Low doses also induced autoimmuntiy in some species( 18 1.355342. Mercury inhibits macrophage and neutrophil defense against candida by its affects on Thl and Th2 cytokine effects( 18 1.425c). One study found that insertion of amalgam fillings or nickel dental materials causes a suppression of the number of T-lymphocytes(270).3 14. immunotoxicity.333). Low T4/T8 ratio has been found to be a factor in lupus. T-cells were susceptible to Hg induced cellular death (apoptosis).131.27.285. causing activation of glial cells to produce superoxide and nitric oxide. and generationof lipid peroxides or free radicals.272. impaired cellular respiration.which result in neurotoxicity. and impairs the T-4/T-8 ratio.129. gastrointestinal/metabolic effects.270.314.18l.60. toxicity. depleting the thiol reserves of cells. and inactivating or inhibiting enzyme or coenzyme systems or hormones involving the sulphydrol protein (SH)groups( 18 1. inhibition of enzymes. and low doses also induce aggregation of cell surface proteins and dramatic tyrosine phosporlation of cellular proteins related to asthma. .(226. changes in cellular membrane permeability.369).245). Mercury vapor exposure at very low levels adversely affects the immune system (17.424. hormonal effects. The inhibition of these tinctions by 50 % occurred rapidly at very low levels.118.129. and glomerulonephritis. and immune reactivity or autoimmunity. and Cl groups in proteins. Immune Thl cells inhibit candida by cytokine related activation of macrophages and neutrophils. inflammatory bowel disease.35). 2.369.405. and depressive symptoms(460).404). binding with mitochondria. inhibiting ability to secrete interleukin IL-1 and IL-2R.355) Interferon syntheses was reduced in a concentration dependent manner with either mercury or methyl mercury as well as other immune functions(l31).

355. Copper is an essential trace metal which plays a fundamental role in the biochemistry of the nervous system(489. Mutations in the copper/zinc enzyme superoxide dismustase(SOD) have been shown to be a major factor in the motor neuron degeneration in conditions like familial ALS and similar effects on Cu/Zn SOD to be a factor in other conditions such as autism.496.463). camosine.25 1. Both mercuric and methyl mercury were equally highly toxic at the cellular level and in causing cell volume reductions( 13 1). Amalgam fillings have also been found to be positively associated with mouth cancer(206. The low Zn levels result in deficient CuZnSuperoxide dismustase (CuZnSOD).52 I). Vit E. Some of the antioxidants were also found to have protective effects through increasing catalase and SOD action. Exposure to mercury vapor causes decreased zinc and methionine availability. whose deficiencies are known to cause significant neurological effects(461.283). lipoic acid. Body mercury burden was found to play a role in resistant infections such as Chlamydia trachomatis and herpes family viral infections. which in turn leads to increased levels of superoxide due to toxic metal exposure. 38% to Au and 40% to Pd They removed LST positive dental metals from the oral cavities of patients. White cell levels decline after total dental revision(TDR) and some have . gingko biloba.144. Mercury by its effect of weakening the immune system contributes to increased chronic diseases and cancer(91.). and non-familial ALS(489. However methyl mercury inhibits macrophage functions such as migration and phagocytosis at lower levels.143. Large numbers of people undergoing amalgam removal have clinically demonstrated significant improvements in the immune system parameters discussed here and recovery and significant improvement in immune system problems in most cases surveyed(Section VI). I 19) These effects can be reduced by zinc suppIementation(464. 5. Similar results have been found for treatment of cancer(35). This is in addition to mercury’s effect on metallothionein and copper homeostasis as previously discussed(477). it was found many cases can only be effectively treated by antibiotics after removal of body mercury burden(cilantro tablets were used with followup antibiotics)(25 1.237. Coenzyme QlO.464). Antigen specific LST-test was performed on a large number of patients with atopic eczema(323).180. Nacetylcysteine. Mercury from amalgam fillings has also been found to cause increase in white blood cells and in some cases to result in leukemia(35.38). depressesrates of methylation. Mercury from amalgam interferes with production of cytokines that activate macrophage and neutrophils. Similar results have been obtained at other cIinics(455). which have been found to affect glutamate mediated excitability and apoptosis of nerve cells and effects on mitochondria(495.38.495. as well as supplementation with antioxidants and nitric oxide-suppressing agents and peroxynitrite scavengers such as Vit C.180.494. etc. 4.234. Mercury also blocks the immune function of magnesium and zinc (198.489).464. Parkinson’s.(444.469. disabling early control of viruses and leading to enhanced infection(l31.495).etc.25 1. Ceruloplasmin in plasma can be similarly affected by copper metabolism disfunction.13 1).222. like SOD function.43. 87% showed LST positive reactions to Hg. 3.495.239. 87% to Ni. and increased free radicals-all factors in increased susceptibility to cancer(l4.1 I 1).496.237.25 1).35. This condition can result in zinc deficient SOD and oxidative damage involving nitric oxide. Animal studies have confirmed that mercury increases effects of the herpes simplex vet-is type 2 for example( 13 I).38.256. Several chronic neurological conditions involving copper metabolic disorders are well documented like Wilson’s Diseaseand Menkes Disease. Alzheimer’s. and is often a factor in neurodegeneration(489).34.using T-cells of peripheral blood. peroxynitrite.427.The increased white count usually normalizes after amalgam removal.464. Improvement of symptoms was obtained in 82% (160/l 96) of the patients within l-10 months. Several studies found adverse health effects at mercury vapor levels of 1 to 5 mcg/M3 (35). while reducing lipid peroxidations(494a). and lipid peroxidation(495.

and higher levels of excretion of choline. Similarly nickel crowns and gold crowns over amalgam have been found to be a factor in lupus(456. A high percentageof patients with oral mucosal problems along with other autoimmune problems such as CFS have significant immune reactions to mercury.232. 87. including to mercury preservatives such as thimerosal. toxic. and cause DNA malformations(35.82. cadmium(63%).119.456).468). and glycine in CFS. Toxic/allergic reactions to metals such as mercury often result in lichen planus lesions in oral mucosa or gums and play a roll in pathogenesis of periodontal disease.43. replacement of metal crowns over amalgam. A high correlation has been found between patients subjectively diagnosed with CNS & systemic symptoms suggestive of mercury intoxication and immune reactivity to inorganic mercury(MELISA test. This also results in inflammatory processes that cause muscle tissue damage and result in higher levels of urinary excretion of creatinine .3 13). including effects on vitro production of tumor necrosis factor TNF alfa and reductions in interleukin-1 .375. People with chronic and immune reactive problems are increasing finding dental materials are a factor in their problems and getting biocompatiblity tests run to test their immune reactivity to the various dental materials used.60.160) as well as with MRI positive patients for brain damage. antimony(36%). These effects along with reductions in red blood cells oxygen carrying capability often result in fatigue and reduced energy levels as well as neurological effects (35. extraction of root canaled teeth. Mercury also interrupts the cytochrome C oxidase system.90.140. mercury(93%). arsenic(86%). palladium(32%). 94% of such patients had significant immune reactions to inorganic mercury(MELISA test) and 72% had immune reactions to low concentrations of HgCl2(<0. lead(68%).5 ug/ml). 61% also had .212.V.235. 7. (13 I.1 I 8.84. Controls without CNS problems did not have such positive correlations.168. CFS and Fibromyalgia patients have also been found to commonly have abnormal enzymatic processes that affect among other things the sodium-potassium ATPase energy channels(473). nickel(98%). Among a group of patients testing positive as allergic to mercury.141.78. Mercury. Tests have found a significant portion of people to be in this category and thus more affected by exposure to amalgam than others(see section V).recovered from leukemia after removal of amalgam fillings in a very short time(35. blocking the ATP energy function (35. and treatment of cavitations where necessary(35).133. for which mercury is a known cause(43.130.288).1 52) Nickel and beryllium are 2 other metals commonly used in dentistry that are very carcinogenic. Nickel ceramic crowns and root canals have also been found to be a factor in some breast cancer and some have recovered after TDR. which includes amalgam replacement. the following percentages were immune reactive to the following metals that have very common exposures: aluminum(91%).182. ATCH indicative of hypothalamic deficiency such as relative glucocorticoid deficiency(472).212. tin(32%).342. and nickel(46.palladium.60.81. 6. chromium(83%).86. gold.338~).468).456. and trimethyl amine oxide in FM(474). palladium.nickel. taurine.313).101. choline.232.3 13. citrate.369.75.202. low level mercury exposure was found to causeadverse immune system response. silver(25%). beryllium(74%).229) and Belle’s Palsy from which some have recovered after TDR and Felderkrais exercises(35). nickel crowns. Removal of amalgam fillings usually results in cure of such lesions(60. and gold induce autoimmunity in genetically predisposed or highly exposed individuals(3 14. The majority of those with CFS having SPECT scans were found to have 5 times more areas of regional brain damage and reduced blood flow in the cerebral areas (47 1).342.118. zinc(33%).118.94. cobalt(78%).l SO).35.313. copper(32%). Of the many thousands who have had the Clifford immune reactivity test(445).90. The majority studied were also found to have increased Th2 inflammatory cytokine activity and a blunted DHEA response curve to I. A high percentage of such patients test immune reactive to many of the toxic metals.234.

gold.382. with most patients also reactive to one or more other metals such as palladium. Other studies have also found relatively high rates of allergic reactions to inorganic mercury and nickel(8 1. Such hypersensitivity has been found most common in those with genetic predisposition to heavy metal sensitivity(342. The improvement in symptoms and lymphocyte reactivity imply that most of the Hg-induced lymphocyte reactivity is allergenic in nature. Scleroderma. A significant portions of the population appear to fall in this category.I 68. lead. palladium. The rates of sensitization were even higher in some groups of CFS patients.382.118.35. Mercury has been found to impair conversion of thyroid T4 hormone to the active T3 form as well as causing autoimmune thyroiditis common to such patients(369. cadmium. Only 2% were worse.385.459. After amalgam removal the immune reactivity to all of these metals other than nickel declined significantly.369.1%. which has been commonly used in root canals and cosmetics(3 13.90. Of a group of 86 patients with CFS symptoms.86. palladium.000 patients tested for lymphocyte reactivity to metals(60. and methyl mercury.342. chemical sensitivities.456). sleep disturbances.453.168b. In general immune activation from toxics such as heavy metals resulting in cytokine release and abnormalities of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis can cause changes in the brain.375).375). and autoimmune thyroidititis. 342. myalgia.369. Fibromyalgia.45g. Although patch tests for mercury allergy are often given for unresolved oral symptoms. cadmium. muscosketal pain. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.35. also often recover or improve significantly after amalgam replacement (12.) Also using mercury in a patch test has resulted in some adverse health effects.I I 1 1 1 I D I I I I 1 I 1 I I 1 I I immune reaction to phenylHg.369. with over 20 % being highly reactive to each of these metals(375).375. The study concluded that immune reactivity to mercury and palladium is common and appears to be allergenic/immune related in nature since immune reactivity declines when exposure levels are reduced. 10% of controls had significant immune reactions to HgCl and 8. Conditions involving allergies.23%. and autoimmunity have been increasing rapidly in recent years(405).453.468). 8.468. gastrointestinal and neurological problems as are seen in CFS.etc.113. etc. fatigue. Of the over 3.3% to palladium.1 l%.369. and oral lichen planus.3 I 3. the patients reactivity to inorganic mercury.445.375. Such symptoms usually improve significantly after amalgam removal. silver. most of the patients tested positive to inorganic mercury and most of such patients health improved significantly and immune reactivity declined after amalgam removal. and severe psychological symptoms(379-382. In a group of patients tested by MELISA before and after amalgam removal at a clinic in Uppsala Sweden.2 12.383). 60) such as profound fatigue.323. epilepsy. Of 50 patients suffering from serious fatigue referred for MELISA test(369). eczema. lupus. inorganic mercury.34%. A group of patients that had amalgams removed because of chronic health problems.35.60. CFS.382. Patients with other systemic neurological or immune symptoms such as arthritis. CFS. this is not generally recommended as a high percentage of such problems are resolved irrespective of the outcome of a patch test(87. and 76% reported significant long term health improvements after 2 years.375).13%.12%.section VI). diabetes. ALS. Such studies have also found that .381. were able to detect subjectively when a patch test used mercury salts in a double blind study(373).50d). For groups with suspected autoimmune diseases such as neurological problems. MS.229. phenol mercury. Other studies of patients suffering from chronic fatigue found similar results(369. the following were the percentages testing positive: nickel.222.60). A high percentage were also reactive to nickel in both groups. such as found more frequently in patients with HLA-DRA antigens(375. gold and phenyl mercury all had highly significant differences from the control group. 78% reported significant health improvements after replacement of amalgam fillings within a relatively short period. and MELISA test found significant reduction in lymphocyte reactivity compared to pre removal tests(342.10 1.1 l%. over 70% had significant immune reaction to inorganic mercury and 50% to nickel.

383. 9. reaction to mercury.Chrons Disease.3 13.168.330.323.129. 13% tested positive for allergy to mercury.234.90. 270. but none in the controls. Tests have found a significant portion of people to be in this category and thus more affected by exposure to amalgam than others.426. Mercury.45. The authors concluded that immune reactions have an important role in development of brain lesions .113.35.234. 10.44.369.225.234. Low level mercury exposure(as well as other toxic metals) including exposure to amalgam fillings has been found to be associated with increased autoimmune diseases (19.33e.404). immune reactions and autoimmunity in animal studies (77.286).118)(270.I I 1 1 I I I I I I I I I B’ I I 1 I deficiencies in detoxification enzymes such as glutathione transfereases cause increased susceptibility to metals and other chemicals(384).342. In a population of dental students tested.35. For MS and lupus patients. which like mercury vapor crosses the blood-brain barrier.465. 44% were positive for allergy to mercury( 156). Such deficiencies can be due to genetic predisposition. Eating fish was not a significant factor between sensitive and non.342.234.269. and gold induce autoimmunity in genetically predisposed or highly exposed individuals(60. but are also known to be caused by acute or chronic toxic exposures. syndrome(CFS) through its effects on ATP and immune system(lymphocute reactivity.78. Medical Studies Finding Health Problems Related to Amalgam Fillings (other than immune) 1. including lupus( 12. lichen planus(86.1 18) as well as with MRI positive patients for brain damage. suicidal thoughts.60.87. Neurological problems are among the most common and serious and include memory loss. CFS patients usually improve and immune reactivity is reduced when amalgam fillings are replaced(342. A patch test was given to a large group of medical students to assess factors that lead to sensitization to mercury(l32).270.35). neutraphil activity. Mercury vapor or Inorganic mercury have been shown in animal studies to induce autoimmune reactions and disease through effects on immune system T cells(226.60.487). Silver also is released from amalgam fillings and stored in the body and has been shown to cause immune complex deposits.229).3 14.9. and also and weakens the damages immune (222. anger and sudden bursts of anger/rage(434. but the sensitized group had a significantly higher average number of amalgam fillings and higher hair mercury levels.) . etc.and amalgam fillings induce immune reactions in many patients (91 .270.33 l. depression.268. lack of strength/force to resolve doubts or resist obsessions or compulsions. a high percentage tested positive to nickel and/or inorganic mercury(MELISA). 293.405).34.233.3 13.480-483.60.226. A high correlation has been found between patients subjectively diagnosed with CNS & systemic symptoms suggestive of mercury intoxication and immune reactivity to inorganic mercury(MELISA test.38. Controls without CNS problems did not have such positive correlations. Chronic immune activation is common in CFS.314). effects on T-cells and B-cells) as well as its promotion of growth of candida albicans in the body and the methylation of inorganic mercury by candida and intestional bacteria to the extremely toxic methyl mercury form. 27.130. Many studies of patients with major neurological diseases have found evidence . 81% of the group with health complaints had pathological MRl results including signs of degeneration of the basal ganglia of the 60% of the symptom group tested positive for immune system brain.nickel.314.palladium.235.3 13). moodiness.sensitized students.3 14.234.425.229. with increase in activated CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells and decreased NK cells(5 18). selfeffacement. endometriosis (1. system 265.215. Mercury exposure through dental fillings appears to be a major factor in chronic fatigue 11. V.268.456).3 14).269.21~/272.

loss of sexual drive. nervousness. “Early manifestations are likely to be subtle and diagnosis difficult: Insomnia.503b) point out that chronic mercurialism is often not recognized by diagnosticians and misdiagnosed as dementia or neurosis or functional psychosis or just “nerves”.210.229.372. Other animal studies on rodents and monkeys have found brain cellular migration disturbances.294. Diagnois of mercury toxicity can be made based on exposure history and 3 or more of such symptoms mercury is known to cause(2 1.482). abnormal glucose tolerance(hypoglycemia). Low serotonin levels and/or hypoglycemia have also been found in the majority of those with impulsive and violent behavior(48 1.33. and Alzheimer’s(see # 25).320.465). Flu shots have mercury and aluminum which both are known to accumulate in the brain over time. (34. Thus chronic exposure to low level mercury vapor can inhibit polymerzation of brain tubulin and creatinine kinase which are essential to formation of microtubules. and low levels cause abnormal brain cell balance and neurological disturbances (280.254). which is a factor in neurological diseases such as depression and Alzheimer’s.305. One study(305) found prenatal mercury vapor exposure decreased NGF concentration in newborn rat’s forebrain at 4 parts per billion(ppb) tissue concentration.amalgam fillings may play a major role in development of conditions such as depression schizophrenia (94. behavioral changes. Epidemiological studies have found that human embryos are also highly susceptible to brain damage from prenatal exposure to mercury. Parkinson’s.212. depression. Another study(134) found general toxicity effects at 1 micromole levels in immature cell cultures.27.294.271. are often mistakenly ascribed to psychogenic causes”. Very high levels of mercury are found in brain memory areas such as the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of patients with diseases with memory related symptoms (l58.295). etc. increased immunoreactivity for glial fibrillary protein at 1 nanamole (0. The exposure levels in these studies are seen in the fetus and newborn babies of mother’s with amalgam fillings or who had work involving amalgam during pregnancy(61).317.453).27. which mercury has also been found to be a cause of. impaired judgment and coordination.222.} Mercury(as well as toxins from root canals and cavitations) interact with brain tubulin and disassemblesmicrotubules that maintain neurite structure(207b. Lithium protects brain cells against excess glutamate and calcium.295. and microglial response at even lower levels.285e. fatigue.264. mild tremor.465. along with reduced learning and adaption capacity after low levels of mercury vapor exposure (149. Studies have confirmed that there are vulnerable . and low folate levels(480-83). One mechanism by which mercury has been found to be a factor in aggressiveness and violence is its documented inhibition of the brain neurotransmitter acetylcholinesterase( 175.333.35.2 ppb) concentration.175.305).437).322.35. Animal studies of developmental effects of mercury on the brain have found significant effects at extremely low exposure levels. Some factors that have been documented in depression are low serotonin levels.109. and other more serious neurological diseases such as MS.107. ALS. Medical texts on neurology (21. decreased mental efficiency. The effects of mercury with other toxic metals have also been found to be synergistic.etc.233.222). A study of people who received flu shots regularly found that if an individual had five consecutive flu shots between 1970 and 1980 (the years studied) his/her chances of getting Alzheimer’s Disease is ten times higher than if they had one or no shots(475). emotional lability. Mercury causes decreased lithium levels. having much more effect than with individual exposure(35). headache.287.207.34. memory problems (212.45 1.212. excitability.56 ). Studies of mercury studies on animals give results similar to that found the Alzheimer brain. levels commonly seen in those with amalgam fillings or in dental staff working with amalgam.295.374.

erythism. Spatial and temporal changes in intracellular calcium concentrations are critical for controlling gene expression and neurotransmitter release in neurons(432.43.175. Some conditions found to be related to such toxic exposures include autism. These alterations are not mutually exclusive. Calcium plays a major role in the extreme neurotoxicity of mercury and methyl mercury.305. 2. Some of the resulting conditions include stomatitis.270. A Canadian study found that blood levels of five metals were able to predict with a 98% accuracy which children were learning disabled(3).305). Motor neuron dysfunction and loss in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have been attributed to several different mechanisms.288. Exposure to mercury and 4 other heavy metals tested for in a study of school children accounted for 23% of the variation in test scores for reading. Protein Kinase C (PKC) regulates intracellular and extra cellular signals across neuronal membranes.432. Prenatal/early postnatal exposure to mercury affects level of nerve growth eczema.84. but adverse effects such as increases in blood pressure and cognitive effects have been documented as low as 1 ug/L.K)ATPase in dose dependent manner and inhibits dopamine and noreprenephrine uptake by synaptosomes and nerve impulse transfer(288.56. and both forms of mercury inhibit PKC at micromolar levels.305.38. mitochondrial dysfunction. but neural development extends through adolescence. with impacts higher in low birth weight babies(39).232.285~. Metallic mercury is much more potent than methyl mercury in such actions.453). Mercury alters calcium homeostasis and calcium levels in the brain and affects gene expression and neurotransmitter release through its effects on calcium. Mercury vapor exposure causes impaired cell proliferation in the brain and organs. and increased calcium and altered calcium homeostatis apper to be a common denominator. ADD. Mercury inhibits sodium and potassium (N.210.181.329.338~).259. glutamate excitotoxicity.287.264.10). . schizophrenia. Mercury has an effect on the fetal nervous system at levels far below that considered toxic in adults. Both inhibit cellular calcium ATPase and calcium uptake by brain microsomes at very low levels of exposure (270. etc. 255.511). M ercury also interrupts the cytochrome oxidase system.149). The upper level of mercury exposure recommended by the German Commission on Human Biomonitoring is 10 micrograms per liter in the blood(39).50.The fetal period is most sensitive. lowering immune growth factor IGF-I levels and .279). ADD. resulting in reduced volume for cerebellum and organs and subtle deficiencies(38.I I I I I I I I I 1 I 1 I 1 I I I I I periods during brain and CNS development that are especially sensitive to neurotoxic exposures and affect development processes and results(429).4 12).333. Several studies found that mercury causes learning disabilities and impairment.508. etc. as well as inhibiting phorbal ester binding(43.110. factor(NGF) in the brain and causes brain damage and imbalances in development of the brain (38.175.24/ 39. tremor. oxidative stress and free radical damage.38.2 1. blocking the ATP energy function (35. with 50 % inhibitition in animal studies at 13 ppb(333. They also block or inhibit calcium Lchannel currents in the brain in an irreversible and concentration dependent manner. Exposure of developing neuroblastoma cells to sub-cytotoxic doses of mercuric oxide resulted in lower levels of neurofilament proteins than unexposed cells(305). and neurofilament aggregation and dysfunction of transport mechanisms(507). Mercury vapor or inorganic mercury exposure affects the posterior cingulate cortex and causes major neurological effects with sufficient exposure(428.35).).50.119. both chronically or as a transient condition(458. including increased intracellular calcium. dyslexia. and mercury is documented to commonly cause hypothyroidism. and reduction in lQ(3. and background levels of mercury in mothers correlate significantly with incidence of birth defects and still births (23.338~. Maternal hypothyroidism has been found to cause endocrine system abnormalities in the fetus. spelling and visual motor skills(3).329).432).509. etc.

increases in inflammatory cytokines such as caused by toxic metals trigger increased free radical activity and damage to astrocyte and astrocyte finrction( 152).5 15.343).416.impairing astrocyte fi.4 16. MS has also been found to commonly be related to inflamatory activity in the CNS such as that caused by the reactive oxygen species and cytokine generation caused by mercury and other toxic metals (405.516). and ALS(346. Metals like mercury bind to SH-groups(sulphydry1) in sulfur compounds like amino acids and proteins. which are affected in MS. Mercury lymphocyte reactivity and effects on glutamate in the CNS induce CFS type symptoms including profound tiredness.496) which are responsible for much of the Fibromyalgia symptoms and a factor in neural degeneration in MS and ALS. which results in nitration of tyrosine residues in neurofilaments and manganese Superoxide . and Fibromyalgia by protecting the astrocytes from this destructive process.333.515.496).5% of men(368). Studies have also found mercury and lead cause autoantibodies to neuronal proteins. hemoglobin. MS.496). another amino acid excitory neurotransmitter) cause increased sensitivity to pain . A group of metal exposed MS patients with amalgam fillings were found to have lower levels of red blood cells. This often results in the immune systems T-cells not recognizing them as appropriate nutrients and attacking them(226).369. a type of cell in the brain and CNS with the task of keeping clean the area around nerve cells. gastrointestinal (2 lc) and neurological problems along with other CFS symptoms and Fibromyalgia (342.both found in CFS/Fibromyalgia. and CD8-t supressor immune cells than a group of MS patients with amalgam replaced.152.496). which also causes inflow of calcium. have a function of neutralizing excess glutamate by transforming it to glutamic acid. Glutamate is the most abundant amino acid in the body and in the CNS acts as excitory neurotransmitter (346.226a. Mercury and increased glutamate activate free radical forming processes like xanthine oxidase which produce oxygen radicals and oxidative neurological damage(346. changing the structure of the compound that it is attached to. Mercury has been found to be a common cause of Fibromyalgia(293.478.346.496. This is also a factor in conditions such as CFS.333. hemocrit. and more excurbations of MS than those without(l02a).369. and myelin basic protein(MBP) (269ag. Mercury and cadmium also have been found to intefere with zinc binding to MBP(5 17b) which affects MS symptoms since zinc stabilizes the association of MBP with brain myelin(5 17a). Mercury and other toxic metals inhibit astrocyte function in the brain and CNS( 119.119). Metals by binding to SH radicals in proteins and other such groups can cause autoimmunity by modifying proteins which via T-cells activate B-cells that target the altered proteins inducing autoimmunity as well as causing aberrant MHC 11expression on altered target cells(425de.3 86.346. Parkinson’s.rnction(119. IGF-1 protects against brain and neuronal pathologies like ALS.4 12.497). causing increased glutamate and calcium related neurotoxicity(l19. Nitric oxide related toxicty causedby peroxynitrite formed by the reaction of NO with superoxide anions.375. Immune and autoimmune mechanisms are thus seen to be a major factor in neurotoxicity of metals. musculoskeletal pain.516). as well as higher body temperature. neurofilaments.405. T-cells. If astrocytes are not able to rapidly neutralize excess glutamate. causing swelling and neurotoxic effects( 119.416. Such binding and autoimmune damage has been documented in the fat-rich proteins of the myelin sheaths of the CNS(478) and collagen(405). sleep disturbances. Animal studies have confirmed that increased levels of glutamate(or aspartate. thyroxine.478. then a buildup of glutamate and calcium occurs. Astrocytes are common cells in the CNS involved in the feeding and detox of nerve cells.152.527) .13 l). Antioxidants like lipoic acid which counteract such free radical activity have been found to alleviate symptoms and decrease demyalination(494c). Astrocytes. which based on a Swedish survey occurs in about 12% of women over 35 and 5.142.13).

Some that have been found to be effective include CoQ10(444).333). ginseng.60. 182.160. 3.17. L-camitine. Mercury also accumulates in the heart and (35.199. Organic tin compounds formed from amalgam are even more Studies of groups of patients with amalgam fillings found neurotoxic than mercury (222. There is also evidence that fetal or infant exposure causes delayed neurotoxicity evidenced in serious effect at middle age(255. Vit B6. Extremely toxic anaerobic bacteria from root canals or cavitations formed at incompletely healed tooth extraction sites have also been found to be common factors in Fibromyalgia and other chronic neurological conditions such as Parkinson’s and ALS. and glutamate-induced neurotoxicity involved in ALS(524.000 people.2 12. levels commonly received by those with amalgam fillings(290). memory.494a). One of the studies at a German University( 199) assessed20.34.140. significantly more neurological.262).35. and at 100 ppb can destroy the membrane of red blood cells(35..222.107.43. and omega 3 fatty acids(fish and flaxseed oi1)(417.reducing blood supply to the tissues (34. chest pains.119.437).74. as well as reducing NK-cells in the blood and . and behavioral problems than the control groups. 108.3 10.494e).35 1.212. (3.257. Cavitations have been found in 85% of sites from wisdom tooth extractions tested and 55% of molar extraction sites tested(35.I I I I I I 1 I 1 I I I I I I I I 1 Dimustase(SOD) has been found to cause inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. sleep.232. Neurological effects have been documented at very low levels of exposure(urine Hg< 4 ug/L).453).338c) and impairing These effects often result in fatigue and reduced energy levels astrocyte mnction( 119).108.119.313). hemoglobin irregularities.222.290.370).140.2 12.453). NAC(54.(20 1. choline.201. behavior.202.141. One of the studies conclusions was that a likely major factor for the high ALS rates in Guam and similar areas in the past was chronic dietary deficiency since birth in Ca. nicotine.52 1). The incidence is likely somewhat less in the general population. etc.202.437).21.270c) and damage blood vessels. methyl cobalamine(B 12). Mercury’s effect on pituitary gland vasopressin is a factor in high blood pressure(35).290. Mercury binds to hemoglobin oxygen binding sites in the red blood cells thus reducing oxygen carrying capacity(332. and mood problems(3. memory.109. Mercury also interrupts the cytochrome oxidase system. damages myocardial and heart valves (Turpayev.22.lO7. tachycardia. Medical studies and doctors treating Fibromyalgia have found that supplements which cause a decreasein glutamate or protect against its effects have a positive effect on Fibromyalgia and other chronic neurologic conditions. 258.199.14 (35)) & (59.235.306. ginkgo biloba and pycnogenol(494a).141.34. mood. Mercury also increases cytosolic free calcium levels in lymphocytes in a concentration-dependant manner causing influx from the extracellular medium(270c). vitamins C and E(444. 4. Mg and Zn induced excessive absorption of divalent metal cations which accelerates oxidant-mediated neuronal degenerations in a genetically susceptible population(466).232.205. Both mercury and methyl mercury have been shown to cause depletion of calcium from the heart muscle and to inhibit myosin ATPase activity by 50% at 30 ppb(59).17. blocking the ATP energy function(35. A recent study assessedthe large decrease in ALS incidence in Guam and similar areas to look for possible explanations in the cause of past high incidence and recent declines. with condensing osteitis which must be removed with a surgical burr along with 1 mm of bone around it(35.205. 282.71.306). inhibition of the glutamate transporter.495e).35) and adversely affects the vascular response to norepinephrine and potassium.212.70.306).306.202.16. Amalgam fillings have been found to be related to higher blood pressure.246.160.33. Numerous studies have found long term chronic low doses of mercury cause neurological. and blocks entry of calcium ions into the cytoplasm (1.35).

156. those testing positive had significantly higher average number of amalgam fillings than those not testing positive(and higher levels of mercury in urine( 132.437). and CFS. enzyme nerve growth inhibition.spleen.61.156). with pattern indicating likely source and the level extent of damage. cerebral hemorrhage. I 86. Mercury.154. developmental.305. 44% tested allergic. CFS.lead.38. etc. increasing as a protective measure against metals toxicity. with most cases seeing significant increase in oxyhemoglobin level and reduction in porphyrin levels along with 100% experiencing improved energy.357). and other toxics have different patterns of high levels for the 5 types of porphyrins. suicide. The problem occurs in extractions that are not cleaned out properly after extraction(437).267). cavitations.161. DNA mutations.all known to be affected by mercury effects(35). The average for those with amalgams is over 3 time that of those without. and is over 20 times normal for some severely poisoned people(232. Recent studies have found that drug resistant strains of bacteria causing ear infections.116. Supplements such as glucosamine sulfate and avoidance of orange juice and caffeine have been found to be beneficial in treating arthritic conditions as well(35). Patch tests for hypersensitivity to mercury have found from 2% to 44% to test positive (87. much higher for groups with more amalgam fillings and length of exposure than those with less. Mercury is extremely toxic and kills many beneficial bacterial. Of the dental students with 10 or more fillings at least 5 years old. People with amalgam fillings have an increased number of intestinal microorganisms resistant to mercury and many standard antibiotics(35. and (34.296. be much larger and patch tests do not measure the total population getting toxic reactions from mercury. These have been found to be factors along with amalgam in serious chronic conditions such as MS. I 17. The interruption of the ATP energy chemistry results in high levels of porphyrins in the urine(260). the total would vulnerable to increased immune system reactions to amalgam fillings.(35. violent deaths. and pneumonia more than doubled since 1996. The study also found that mercury has major adverse effects on red and white blood cells. tuberculosis. and root canals also can cause high porphyrins.264. A study funded by the Adolf Coors Foundation(232) found that toxicity such as mercury is a significant cause of abnormal cholesterol levels. and significant health problems to be related such as arthritis. Alzheimer’s.270. but some forms of bacteria can alter their form to avoid being killed by adding a plasmid to their DNA making the bacteria mercury resistant. systemic effects inhibition.161. and that cholesterol levels usually normalize after amalgam replacement.222.292. Tests by special equipment(Cavitat) found cavitations in over 90% of areas under root canals or extracted wisdom teeth that have been tested.260). cancer. The most sensitive reactions are immune reactions. and porphyrin leveIs(232). The FDA has approved a test measuring porphyrins as a test for mercury poisoning. and have found that after reducing mercury burden antibiotic . 5. But this transformation also increases antibiotic resistance and results in adversely altered populations of bacteria in the intestines. oxygen carrying capacity.369). the percent of Americans allergic to mercury just from this group would be about 17 million people especially However.389). However some other dental problems such as nickel crowns. sinusitis.272. 6. Based on these studies and statistics for the number with 10 or more fillings. and toxins such as anaerobic bacteria and other toxics which significantly inhibit body enzymatic processes in virtually all cavitations(437). However lowering cholesterol levels by other means below 160 correlates with much higher rates of depression. rivers(53).175.204. Studies have found a significant correlation between mercury resistance and multiple antibiotic resistance (I 16.263. In studies of medical and dental students.226. These toxins have been found to have serious systemic health effects in many cases.117. 178. MCS. and deaths.41O-412/l 49.149. Cavitations are diseased areas in bone under teeth or extracted teeth usually caused by lack of adequate blood supply to the area. MCS. ALS. and similar for strains of bacteria in U.S.

hormones. Richardson(Health Canada) has estimatedthat about 20% of the population suffers a subclinical impairment of kidney or CNS function related to amalgam mercury(209c). autism. Mercury also blocks the metabolic action of manganese and the entry of calcium ions into cytoplasm(333).35.40).etc. 9. The results of hormone tests. resulting in inactivation of sulfur and functions such as cysteine dioxygenase(CDO). Based on this finding.33. gammablocking of enzyme glutamyltraspeptidase(GGC) and sulfite oxidase. etc. These exist in almost every enzymatic process in the body. Levels of mercury in follicular fluid was significantly higher for those with amalgam fillings (9. etc(330.56. 68 % of the women then responded to treatment and alopecia was alleviated( 187).464. Another study in Japan found significantly higher levels of mercury in gray hair than in dark hair(402).194.389.35.228b35. In some cases. In other studies involving amalgam removal. which is normally quenched by pyruvate and catalase(203). Molybdenum. nerve tissue.ll I. The Government’s toxic level for mercury in urine is 30 mcg/L (189).2 1c. immune disturbances.9). along with a deficiency in sulfates required for many body functions.(21c. Blocked or inhibited sulfur oxidation at the cellular level has been found in most with many of the chronic degenerative diseases.33 I . A large study of 20. Inorganic mercury exposure has been found to exert a dosedependent cytotoxicity by generating extremely high levels of hydrogen peroxide. Mercury from amalgam thus has the potential to disturb all metabolic processes(25. and red blood cells.) 7. Allergies and hair-loss were found to be 2-3 times as high in a group with large number of amalgam fillings compared to controls( 199. 194). including Parkinson’s. Mercury from amalgam binds to the -SH (suhhydryl) groups.111. and recurrent fungal infections were also found in the amalgam group. 33. Alzheimer’s. Mercury accumulates in the kidneys with increasing levels over time. but adverse effects have been seen at lower levels and . ALS.60. and appears to be a major factor in these conditions.203.338. 8. The alteration of intestinal bacterial populations necessary for proper digestion along with other damage and membrane permeability effects of mercury are major factors in creating “leaky gut” conditions with poor digestion and absorption of nutrients and toxic incompletely digested compounds in the bloodstream(338.211.56. 35. MCS.1 I 1 I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I resistance declines (251. Mercury is transported throughout the body in blood and can affect cells in the body and organs in different ways. A study of levels in kidney donors found an average of 3 times higher mercury level in those with amalgams versus those without( 14c).194. and to decreaseglutathione pcroxidase activity in the kidneys while upregulating heme oxidase function. B12-vitamin.317). One study found levels ranging from 2 1 to 8 10 ppb.438).000 subjects at a German university found a significant relation between the number of amalgam fillings with periodontal problems. 114. and also in those with more than average number of amalgam fillings(254).146). B 1-vitamin. lupus.180.3 17).5 14. diarrhea. an intervention studies agree(9. a Gynecological Clinic that sees a large number of women suffering from alopecia/hair loss that was not responding to treatment had amalgams replaced in 132 women who had not responded to treatment. HgC12 also has been found to impair function of other organelles such s lysomomes that maintain transmembrane proton gradient. infertility.405). rheumatoid arthritis. and gastrointestinal problems( 199). stomatis. wasting disease. Mercury exposure has been shown to adversely affect kidney function in occupational and animal studies (20. cell culture studies. Other clinics have also found alleviation of hair loss/alopecia after amalgam removal and detox(40. Sulfur is essential in enzymes.260. neurological problems. producing sulfur metabolites with extreme toxicity that the body is unable to properly detoxify(33. Higher levels of hormone disturbances. PSP-vitamin.146).21. Some of the gastrointestional problems caused by mercury include poor mineral absoroption.197}. and tetrahydrofolate supplementation has helped to boost the protective sulfite oxidase.).etc. the majority had significant improvement (40.222. bloating.

10. depression. with some measuredat over 4 micro amps.366).35.27.210. reproductive function and cause birth defects and developmental problems in chi1dren( ATSDR mercury health MRL of 0.197. causes aberrant numbers of chromosomes in cells. Mercury has been found to cause decreased sperm volume and motility . affects DNA in sperm. or epilepsy.3 1.29. Some studies have also found persons with chronic exposure to electromagnetic fields(EMF) to have higher levels of mercury exposure and excretion(28) and higher liklidhood of getting chronic conditions like ALS(526). Subfertile males in Hong Kong were found to have 40% more mercury in their hair than fertile controls(55). In studies of women having miscarriages or birth defects. The central nervous system operates on signals in the range of nano-amps. currently U.37.100.433.50.305. birth defects.3 1. For these reasons it is important that no new gold dental work be placed in the mouth until at least 6 months after replacement. resulting in reduced volume for cerebellum and organs and subtle deticiencies(38.39.28. 12. Amalgam fillings produce electrical currents which increase mercury vapor release and may have other harmful effects( 19.361).etc.162) humans(9.146. Clinical evidence lead to hormone imbalances that can reduce indicates that amalgam fillings fertility(9. inhibits enzymes necessary for sperm production.255.338~.55. Abnormal sperm is also being blamed for a global increase in testicular cancer.38).3I . Mercury from amalgam fillings is transferred to the fetus of pregnant women and children who breast feed at levels often higher than those of the mother( 18.which is 1000 times less than a micro amp(28). mcgA43 which is exceeded by any dental work involving amalgam(Section III).186.20. Studies indicate an increase in the rate of spontaneous abortions with an increasing concentration of mercury in the fathers’ urine before pregnancy(37)..61. increased infertility and abortions at low levels of methyl mercury( 162. Other protocols for amalgam removal are available from international dental associations like IAOMT( 153) and mercury poisoned patients organizations like DAMS(447).159. Studies in monkeys have found decreased sperm motility. and background levels of mercury in mothers correlate significantly with incidence of birth defects and still births( 10.10. Studies have found that mercury accumulates in the ovaries and testes. or birth defects( 10. These currents are measured in micro amps. 11.159. husbands were found to typically have low sperm counts and significantly more visually abnormal sperm(393).146.104.395. For this reason urine tests are not a reliable measure of mercury toxicity( 11.25.296).305).23. It’s now estimated that up to 85 per cent of the sperm produced by a healthy male is DNA-damaged(433).23. Negatively charged fillings or crowns push electrons into the oral cavity since saliva is a good electrolyte and cause higher mercury vapor losses(35.23. Patients with autoimmune conditions like MS.38. abnormal sperm. increased sperm abnormalities and spontaneous abortions.all of which can cause infertility.162. are often found to have a lot of high negative current fillings(35). spontaneous abortions. 186. and other reproductive conditions.224.38.20. Many governments have bans or restrictions on use of amalgam by women of child-bearing age.41.105.281).low levels in urine often mean high mercury retention and chronic toxicity problems. in animals(4. causes chromosome breaks.105. increased uterine and decreased fertility and in fibroids/endometritis.112.38l. . etc. Researcher’s advise pregnant women should not be exposed to mercury vapor levels above government health standards (2.287. etc.36.227. Mercury has an effect on the fetal nervous system at levels far below that considered toxic in adults.192.503).35.282. The Huggins total dental revision(TDR) protocol calls for teeth with the highest negative charge to be replaced first(35). Mercury vapor exposure causes impaired cell proliferation in the brain and organs.367). Since mercury(al1 forms) is documented from studies of humans and animals to be a reproductive mercury can reduce and developmental toxin(23.

221.250.35).244.442). Such hormonal secretions are affected at levels of mercury exposure much lower than the acute toxicity effects normally tested. MS. etc. Among those with chronic immune system problems with related immune antibodies.459).13.l g-24. ALS(92.41. which has been found to be a major factor in neurological . tyrosine(257). Low noncytotoxic levels of mercury induce dose dependent binding of mercury to DNA and significantly increased cell mutations ( Mercury and other toxic metals such as copper and lead cause breaks in DNA(4.163. Parkinson’s.238.369.346.207.504b). Low levels of mercuric chloride also inhibit ATPase activity in the thyroid.35). etc.46 l.257. Both types of mercury were found to cause denaturing of protein. Many studies of patients with major neurological or degenerative diseases have found evidence amalgam fillings may play a major role in development of conditions such as such as Alzheimers (66.369). Mercury exposure causes high levels of oxidative stress/reactive oxygen species(ROS)(13. These effects result commonly in a reduction in thyroid production(50) and an accumulation in the thyroid of radiation.197. 16. Low levels of mercury and toxic metals have been found to inhibit dihydroteridine reductase . ALS. Mercury depletes and weakens the immune system in many ways documented throughout this paper.30.166.412).285.l83.326.184. Mercury has been well documented to be an endocrine system disrupting chemical in animals and people.105. and many hormonal functions at very low levels of exposure (9.257. The hypothalamus regulates body temperature and many metabolic processes. Parkinson’s(98.194.302. 17.4) and birth defects(l97. enzyme production processes (111. MS(l02. 3 12. is significantly decreased in patients with Alzheimer’s’s’s. 18.300. 2 10. but inorganic mercury was more potent. hypothalamus.36- The level of mercury released by amalgam fillings is often more than the levels documented in medical studies to produce adverse effects and above the U.381). including the immune system and reproductive systems(105.186).122. In addition to effects on DNA.325.and autism.183.42.291. which is essential in production of neurotransmitters.229.405. There has been no evidence found that there is any safe level of mercury in the body that does not kill cells and harm body processes(WHO. 35).212.372. tyrosine and tryptophan transport into neurons(27.342. and 5-HTP(4 12). with methyl mercury inhibiting ATP function at even lower levels(50. the types showing the highest level of antibody reductions after amalgam removal include thyroglobulin and microsomal thyroid antigens(91) 15. Tetrahydrobiopterin. and some after 5-formyltetrahydrofolate. government health guidelines for mercury exposure(see previous text). ADD(285e. Such patients have abnormal inhibition of neurotransmitter production.382.295.242. thyroid gland(50. This is especially so for the pituitary gland of the developing fetus where mercury has been shown to accumulate and which is the most sensitive to mercury(2-4.33. which affects the neural system function by inhibiting transmitters through its effect on phenylalanine.372.3 1.35).61.3 12. mercury also promotes cancer in other ways.S. This was found to cause severe impaired amine synthesis and hypokinesis.462.324.158. Such symptoms improved for most patients after administration of R-tetrahydrobiopterin (4 12).272.97. Mercury also damages the blood brain barrier and facilitates penetration of the brain by other toxic metals and substances (311). disrupting function of the pituitary gland.38.169. in addition to many problems caused by hormonal imbalances. 14.146.296) and also have synergistic effects with x-rays(296) . 84. Mercury damage thus commonly results in poor bodily temperature control. Toxic metal exposure’s adverse influence on thyrocytes can play a major role in thyroid cancer etiology( 144) .38. The pituitary gland controls many of the body’s endocrine system functions and secretes hormones that control most bodily processes.

324.442). Such damage to the blood brain barrier’s function has been found to be a major factor in chronic neurological diseases such as MS(286. Clinical tests of patients with MND.329. Most recovered after mercury detox. with the average being 500% higher than controls(330. 4 16.184.287a).222. as well as multiple exposures to these and lead. Such conjugates are found to be highest in the brain substantia nigra with similar conjugates formed with L-Dopa and dopamine in Parkinson’s disease(56). Such patients have abnormal inhibition of neurotransmitter production. and anterior horn motor neurons. but noted that this effect was only seen for exposure of over 20 years. which affects the neural system function by inhibiting brain transmitters through its effect on phenylalanine.2 12. tyrosine and tryptophan transport into neurons( 122. Many studies of patients with major neurological or degenerative diseaseshave found evidence amalgam fillings play a major role in development of conditions such as such as ALS (48.disease(56.38. MS patients have been found to have much higher levels of mercury in cerebrospinal fluid compared to controls (163.325.33 1. is significantly decreased in patients with Alzheimer’s’s’s.207. which is necessaryto mitigate reactive damage.139). Tetrahydro-biopterin.(supplements which inhibit breach of the blood brain barrier such as bioflavonoids have been found to slow such neurological damage). Studieshave found mercury related mental effects to be indistinguishable from those of MS (207. This means that these patients have insufficient sulfates available to carry out .291.183. Mercury.ALS.271. which finally leads to neuronal cell death in the substantia nigra in PD(424).301.85. 324.162.33e). Parkinson’s.35.291.520.35). they can be considered part of a vicious cycle. with some requiring additional treatment for viruses and intestinal dysbiosis.302.442).3 I l/262).478).442. urine.302. and hair of Parkinson’s disease patients(363). which enervate the skeletal muscles(48.105.372). Mercury depletion of GSH and damage to cellular mitochondria and the increased lipid peroxidation in protein and DNA oxidation in the brain appear to be a major factor in Parkinson’s disease(33.327.92.423.289.289.229b. and the pattern of deposition is the same as that seen from morphological changes(327g.289. rheumatoid arthritis and autism have found that the patients generally have elevated plasma cysteine to sulphate ratios.470.469. cerebellum. Alzheimer’s’s. and MS.346). Another study (145) that reviewed occupational exposure data found that occupational exposure to manganeseand copper have high odds rations for relation to PD.326).244. This was found to cause severe impaired amine synthesis and hypokinesis.257. Lupus(SLE).326.97. Parkinson’s. Mercury penetrates and damages the blood brain barrier allowing penetration of the barrier by other substances that are neurotoxic (20. dorsal root ganglia. Another study( 169) found blood and urine mercury levels to be very strongly related to Parkinson’s with odds ratios of approx. Increased formation of reactive oxygen species(ROS) has also been found to increase formation of advancedglycation end products(AGEs) that have been found to cause activation of glial cells to produce superoxide and nitric oxide.56. which is essential in production of nerurotransmitters. rhombencephalon. 20 at high levels of Hg exposure. A Canadian study found those with 15 or more amalgam fillings to have more than 250% greater risk of MS than controls.291.327. with exposure either to vapor or organic mercury tends to accumulate in the glial cells in a similar pattern. with one study finding 300% higher than controls(271). and in general being poor sulphur oxidizers. and likewise higher risk for those who have had amalgam fillings more than 15 years(324) One study found higher than average levels of mercury in the blood. Mercury and quinones form conjugates with thiol compounds such as glutathione and cysteine and cause depletion of glutathione. Mercury has been found to accumulate preferentially in the primary motor function related areas such as the brain stem. Low levels of toxic metals have been found to inhibit dihydroteridine reductase . Large German studies including studies at German universities have found that MS patients usually have high levels of mercury body burden.

514). astigmatism. etc. black streaks on retina. In many cases(many thousand documented)removal of amalgam fillings and treatment for metal toxicity led to “cure’ or significant improvement in health(see Section V).232.56). are especially susceptible to this damage(207. This has been found to produce inflamatory cytokins sch as IL-I and TNF that contribute to cartilage and bone destruction.3 11).33e). blocked.43). damaged. while those with Apo-E2 which has extra cysteine and is a better mercury scavenger have less damage.33.338c.254). The majority have an intermediate form Apo-E3. Mercury and methyl mercury impair or inhibit all cell functions and deplete calcium stores(96). it is documented that the process thus involves free radical/reactive oxygen species effects. while high levels of free cysteine have been demonstrated to make toxicity due to inorganic mercury more severe(333. and low levels of zinc(363. cataracts.brain barrier. It has been documented that conditions like depression and other chronic neurological conditions often involve damage and nerve cell death in areas of the brain like the hippocampus. and to inhibit cytochrome C enzymes which affect energy supply to the brain(43. and to be effective in treating not only depressive conditions but degenerative conditions like Huntington’s Disease which are related to such damage.221. Less than lppm mercury in the blood stream can impair the blood. Lithium protects brain cells against excess glutamate induced excitability and calcium influx(280. Mercury was also found to accumulate in the mitochondria and interfere with their vital functions.194. In one subtype of ALS.111. This appears to be a factor in susceptibility to Alzheimer’s’s disease. Low levels of available glutathione have been shown to increase mercury retention and increase toxic effects(l1 I). Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis.239). Persons with the Apo-E4 gene form of apolipoprotein E which transports cholesterol in the blood.84. with high levels of mercury in the brain (207). causing excess membrane permeability.33e). or faulty enzymatic superoxide Dismustase (SOD) processes appear to be a major factor in cell apoptosis involved in the condition(443). Mercury causes an increase in white blood cells. Mercury and the induced neurofibrillary tangles also appear to produce a functional zinc deficiency in the of AD sufferers(242)as well as causing reduced lithium levels which is another factor in such diseases. and removal of amalgam has led to remission very rapidly in some cases(35. This can be a major factor in bone loss of calcium(osteoporosis). 20. and lithium has been found to not only prevent such damage but also promote cell gray matter cell growth in such areas(280). There is evidence that some forms of leukemia are abnormal response to antigenic stimulation by mercury or other such toxics.Mercury has been shown to diminish and block sulphur oxidation and thus reducing glutathione levels which is the part of this process involved in detoxifying and excretion of toxics like mercury(33).macula degeneration.180. Ones susceptibility can be estimated by testing for this condition.necessarybodily processes.38. with more createdto try to react to a foreign toxic substance in the body. Mercury(like copper) also accumulates in areas of the eyes such as the endothelial layer of the cornea and macula and is a major factor in chronic and degenerative eye conditions such as iritis. Mercury has also been found to play a part in inducing intoleranceand neuronal problems through blockage of the P-450 enzymatic process(84. Mercury has been shown to be a factor that can cause rheumatoid arthritis by activating localized CD4+ T-cells which trigger production of immune macrophages and immunoglobulin(lg) producing cells in joints(405.56. 19. Also. and antioxidants have been found to have benefits in treatment(5 14). Mercury is known to damage or inhibit SOD activity(441. Most of these conditions have been found to improve after . myopia. especially in terms of the blood-brain barrier (I 55. Mercury at extremely low levels also interferes with formation of tubulin producing neurotibrillary tangles in the brain similar to those observed in Alzheimer’s patients. Also mercury binds with cell membranes interfering with sodium and potassium enzyme functions.346).35).207. Glutathione is produced through the sulphur oxidation side of this process.

anger(2 12.95.322.etc. On average those with 29 amalgam surfaces excreted over 3 times more mercury in urine after DMPS challange than those with 3 amalgam surfaces.222. depression (94.485. endometriosis (229.2 12.91.212. autoimmune thyroiditis(382.322.349.107.485).222.94. Removal of amalgam fillings resulted in a significant reduction in body burden and body waste product load of mercury(75. insomnia(35.165.469. sinus problems ( 1.35.233. chronic eye conditions: inflamation/iritis/ astigmatism/myopia /cataracts/macula degeneration ( susceptibility to infections ( PMS(35.229. but within 2 weeks levels fall significantly. 2 12. chron’s disease(222. Results of Removal of Amalgam Fillings 1.27 1. 3.27 1.310. Alzheimer’s’s( pain/Fibromyalgia (35.313.229). Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (8.323.60.95.etc.342.3 17. patients gold or nickel crowns over amalgam are replaced by biocompatible alternatives.229.354. tachycardia and heart problems .469).35).349).222.470.376.376.40.35.376.453).3 17.440.349.470).469.229.).94.35.523). but usually improve if adequate precautions are taken to reduce exposure during removal.3 17.465.222. 350.375. etc.358.1 urinary/prostrate problems(2 12. Total reduction in mercury levels in blood and urine is often over 80% within a few months(79.3 13.470.27 1.212) (205.35.440. 1.46.523).34.440.3 17.93.322.322.222.376).222. 229.271.404.60. muscular/joint infertility( VI.233.102. The above over 60. (212.470.453.3 13.35.35).88.322.376).6.375.322). 229.94. For the week following amalgam removal. immune system/ autoimmune problems ( cancer(breast. schizophrenia 376.115.423.91). eczema and psoriasis (168b.469.306. 12.229.57).229. skin conditions (2 12. oral keratosis(pre cancer)(87.440. diabetes(35.222.27 1.469.75.82.323).349.90.376. For the following case studies of amalgam replacement.).523.485.222.94. some clinics primarily replaced amalgam fillings using patient protective measures and supportive supplements.385.35).469.270. neuropathyfparesthesia (35.309.25 l).233.323.440.etc.232.35.228. epilepsy (5.285e.233.3 17.3 13./leukemia) (35.322).2 12. pain/ arthritis(35.317.222.271. There are extensive documented cases (many thousands)where removal of amalgam fillings led to cure or significant improvement of serious health problems such as periodontal diseases( 12.271.35).369. vision disturbances(35. alopecia/hair loss (40. allergies(8.95. 222.(82.38). stomach problems lupus( 12. antibiotic resistant infection(25 1). hearing loss( 102. anxiety & mental confusion (94.113.2 12. whereas some clinics do something comparableto Hal Huggins total dental revision where in addition to amalgam replacement.322.3 13.523).440.blood conditions 212. body mercury levels increase significantly.95).233. 408.317.523. MS(94.453.35.212. asthma( joint dizzyness/vertigo( muscle tremor Parkinson’s/ ALS(97.323. (26.228.317.459).57).271. memory disorders (35.469.322.38.2 12. 2.233.486).470. (294. depending on protective measures taken. (222.2 12.35.302.222.321.89) Chronic conditions can worsen temporarily.453.342).212.222. tinnitus(35.168.485.523).322.349. cases of cure or significant .212.97.523).485.2 (35.222.322.35. headaches/migraines(5.100.440).40.271. root canals extracted and cavitations checked for and cleaned. candida(26.271.523.amalgam replacement(35.233.95.chronic sensitivities chemical multiple 317.271.322.322.35).376.271.57. and those with 45 amalgam surfaces more than 6 times as much mercury( 12b).222).94).

dizziness.). and the average was 54. in over 60% of cases for: allergies.87. muscle fatigue. head aches/migraines. the clinical studies indicated a large majority of most such type casestreated showed significant improvement.dementia. thyroglobulin. A Jerome meter was used to measure mercury vapor level in the mouth.359). poor memory.).(35).). skin reactions. For examaple. Lupus. and mouth sores.302). The Huggins Clinic using TDR has successfully treated over a thousand patients with chronic autoimmune conditions like MS. TDR and other measures used in metals detox have been found to increase T-cells and immune function in AIDS patients(35). CFS. and removal of the teeth with highest negative galvanic current first(35). fatigue. tender teeth. in over 80% of cases for: depression. bad breath. Interviews of a large population of Swedish patients that had amalgams removed due to health problems found that virtually all reported significant health improvements and that the health . diabetes. sciatic pain. and microsomal thyroid antigens(91). This appears to be due to migration of mercury into roots & gums that is not eliminated by simple filling replacement. Among those with chronic immune system problems with related immune antibodies. The Huggins TDR protocol includes testing teeth with metal for level of galvanic current caused by the mixed metals. watery eyes. That such mercury(and similarly bacteria) in the teeth and gums have direct routes to the brain and CNS has been documented by several medical studies(34. AD. 85%) who experienced significant improvement in MS. In a large German study of MS patients after amalgam revision. Other cases have found that recovery from serious autoimmune diseases.168. and leg cramps. 97% versus 37 to 88%(435). etc. poor concentration/ADD. bleeding gums. chest pain. as a high percentage of those testing negative also recovered from chronic conditions after replacement of fillings(86. in over 70% of cases for: bloating or intestinal cramps. Some of the above cases used chemical or natural chelation to reduce accumulated mercury body burden in addition to amalgam replacement. irrational fear. Other clinics reported similar success. etc.improvements were not isolated cases of cures. far above the Government health guideline for mercury(2 17). constipation. or cancer may require more aggressive mercury removal techniques than simple filling replacement due to body burden.etc. nasal congestion or discharge. cold hands/feet. Details are available and case histories.6 micrograms mercury per cubic meter of air. Clinical studies have found that patch testing is not a good predictor of success of amalgam removal. insomnia. This has been found to improve recovery rate for chronic conditions like epilepsy and autoimmune conditions. irratibility. extraction resulted in 85% recovery rate versus only 16% for filling replacement alone (222. related to mercury and other immunotoxics(60. including himself with the population of over 6OO(approx.325. But the recovery rate of those using dentists with special equipment and training in protecting the patient reported much higher success rates than those with standard training and equipment.etc. Some clinics using DMPS for chelation reported over 80% with chronic health problems were cured or significantly improved(222.MS. heart problems.etc. Swedish researchers have developed a sophisticated test for immune/autoimmune reactions that has proved successful in diagnosing and treating environmentally caused diseases such as lichen planus. throat irritation. the types showing the highest level of antibody reductions after amalgam removal include glomerular basal membrane.3 13.27 1. urinary disorders. one of the clinics(95) replacing amalgams in a large number of patients with chronic conditions had full recovery or significant improvement: in over 90% of casesfor: metallic taste. muscle tremor. ALS. Metals are being pushed into the body from negatively charged metal dental work with saliva as electrolyte and the highest charged teeth lose the most metal to the body(35).

having a higher correlation to systemic body burden than urine or blood.83.282). extrapolated to U.183.6b).278).25).21ab). For those with several fillings daily fecal mercury excretion levels range between 20 to 200 ug/day. etc. though still not totally reliable and may be a better indicator for organic mercury than inorganic. liver.80. and inhibiting excretion(503). but high levels of DMPS can be dangerous to some peopleespecially those still having amalgam fillings or those allergic to sulfur drugs or sulfites. A new test approved by the FDA for diagnosing damage that has been caused by toxic metals like mercury is the fractionated porphyrin test(260. Mercury vapor passes through the blood rapidly(half-life in blood is 10 seconds(370)) and accumulates in other parts of the body such as the brain.278.36. Kidneys have a lot of hydroxyl(SH) groups which mercury binds to causing accumulation in the kidneys.35.303).157. In the early stages of mercury exposure before major systemic damage other than slight fatigue results you usually see high hemoglobin. which tend to correlate with recent exposure level (6b. population this would represent over 17 million people who would benefit regarding allergies alone.503). (study period 17 years) A compilation of an even larger population found similar results(212. Many studies using chemical chelators such as DMPS or DMSA have found post chelation levels to be poorly correlated with prechelation blood or urine levels(57. The saliva test is another good test for daily mercury exposure.2 1abd.improvements were permanent(233).58). As damage occurs to kidneys over time. thyroid gland. as well as with occupational dental exposure and to be a good medium for monitoring internal mercury exposure.5 ppm. Mercury blocks enzymes needed to convert some types of porphyrins to hemoglobin and adenosine tri phosphate(ATP). mercury is less efficiently eliminated (11. Feces is the major path of excretion of mercury from the body. plus low oxyhemoglobin(35).335. Hair mercury levels did not have a significant correlation with urine mercury in one study(340) and did not have a significant correlation to number of fillings(350). hemocrit. with significant numbers of those with several filings having over 10 ppm and 170 times those without fillings(80).260. that measures amount of damage as well as likely source.1 I . Tests for Mercury Level or Toxicity and Treatment Mercury hair level in a population sampled in Madrid Spain ranged from I . in later states you usually see marginal hemoglobin.386. alkatline phosphatase.S. The pattern of which porphyrins are high gives an indication of likely toxic exposure. body burden or level in a target organ(36. Thus blood test measures mostly recent exposure.79.2 16.36. One researcher suggests that mercury levels in hair of greater than 5 ppm are indicative of mercury intoxication.57.528.35). so urine tests are not reliable for body burden after long term exposure. kidneys. except that external occupational exposure can also affect hair levels. The average level of mercury in feces of populations with amalgam fillings is as much as 1 ppm and approx. 10 times that of a similar group without fillings (79. Some researchers suggest hair offers a better indicator of mercury body burden than blood or urine(279. Provocation challenge tests after use of chemical chelators such as DMPS or DMSA also are effective at measuringbody burden(57. and lactic dehydroganese.183. For example 89% of those reporting allergies had significant improvements or total elimination.3 to 92. done commonly in Europe and representing one of the largest sources There is only a weak correlation between blood or urine mercury levels and of mercury exposure.183. but one study (340) found a significant . VII. This study found a significant positive correlation between maternal hair mercury and mercury level in nursing infants. For this reason many researchers consider feces to be the most reliable indicator of daily exposure level to mercury or other toxics. with high precoproporphyrin almost always high with mercury toxicity and often coproporphyrin. pituitary gland. Hair was found to be significantly correlated with fish consumption. hemocrit.

Use of EDTA may need to be restricted in those with high Hg levels.292. Zinc induces metallothionein which protects against oxidative damage and increases protective enzyme activities and glutathione which tend to inhibit lipid peroxidation and suppress mercury toxicity(430. Lipoic acid has a protective effect regarding lead or inorganic mercury toxicity through its antioxidant properties(494).173. often mercury toxic(35) (e) fractionated porphyrin(note test results sensitive to light.495e.< 1.273.Vitamins C & E.54). gingko biloba.However one study(290) found significant effects at lower levels. has been found to dramatically increase excretion of inorganic mercury(over 12 fold). average mercury level is 3 to 4 ppm. diabetic neuropathy(494). Note: during initial exposure to mercury the body marshals immune system and other measures to . so thus have an additional neuroprotective effect(494ab. Experienced doctors have also found additional zinc to be useful when chelating mercury(222) as well as counteracting mercury’s oxidative damage(43). EDTA. Another chelator used for clogged arteries.On average those with 29 amalgam surfaces excreted over 3 times more mercury in urine after DMPS challange than those with 3 amalgam surfaces. Several doctors use 16 ug/L as the upper bound for mercury after DMPS challenge. and motor deficits(290). temperature.303).g. forms toxic compounds with mercury and can damage brain function(307). but to cause decreasedexcretion of organic mercury(494d) and copper.222. Also lipoic acid. Tests suggestedby HugginslLevy(35) for evaluation and treatment of mercury toxicity: (a) hair element test(386) (low hair mercury level does not indicate low body level)(more than 3 essential minerals out of normal range indicates likely metals toxicity) (b) CBC blood test with differential and platelet count 0 blood serum profile (d) urinary mercury (for person with average exposure with amalgam fillings. excitotoxic amino acid(glutamate) brain injury. 444).521. s. Some studies have also found DMSA as more effective at removing mercury from the brain(58). Lipoic acid has been found to have protective effects against cerebral ischemic-reperfusion. and pycnogenol have also been found protective against degenerative neurological conditions(494. A common protocol for DMSA(developed to avoid redistribution effects) is 50 mg orally every 4 hours for 3 days and then off 11 days. N-acetylcysteine(NAC) has been found to be effective at increasing cellular glutathione levels and chelating mercury(54).464). Coenzyme QlO. lower test level than this likely means person is poor excreter and accumulating mercury. Zinc is a mercury and copper antagonist and can be used to lower copper levels and protect against mercury damage. and consider anyone with higher levels to have excessbody burden(222. Some researchers believe DMSA has less adverse side effects than DMPS and prefer to use DMSA for chelation for this reason. memory.correlation between pre and post chelation values when using DMPS.008 consistent with and suicidal tendencies(35)) depression 3.g> 1. mitochondrial dysfunction.290.172. shaking) (f) individual tooth electric currents(replace high negative current teeth first) (g) patient questionnaire on exposure and symptom history (h) specific gravity of urine(test for pituitary function.022 normal. Challenge tests using DMPS or DMSA appear to have a better correlation with body burden and toxicity symptoms such as concentration . s.352). but should not be used with high copper.LA. Other antioxidants such as carnosine(495a). Lipoic acid and N-acetylcysteine(NAC) also increase glutathione levels and protect againstsuperoxide radical/peroxynitrite damage.with many studies finding a significant correlation amalgam level the number of chelation mercury and between post surfaces(57. 2. and those with 45 amalgam surfaces more than 6 times as much mercury( 12b).

zinc.4 ppm (h) oxyhemoglobin level < 55% saturated (1) carboxyhemoglubin > 2. high mercury exposures with low hair mercury or urine mercury level usually indicates body is retaining mercury and likely toxicity problem(35). (f) avoid acute exposures/challengeto the immune system on a weekly 7/l 4/2 I day pattern. and antioxidants have been found to have benefits in treatment(5 14).5 ppm or < . ALS. Rheumatoid Arthritis. supplementation of calcium AEP(448) and alpha lipoic acid(494). with supportive vitamin/mineral supplements. periodic monitoring tests.5 gm/lOO ml (e) triglycerides > 150 mg %ml (f)BUN>18or<12 (g) hair mercury > 1. (d) test and treat cavitations and amalgam tattoos where relevant (e) supportive supplementation. it is documented that the process is inflamatory involving free radical/reactive oxygen species effects. and most with these conditions improve after TDR if protocol is followed carefUlly(35). mercury toxicity likely and hard to treat since retaining mercury. after prolonged exposure the body inevitably lose the battle and measures to combat the challenge decreaseand immune system Chronic conditions are common during this phase.manganese. VIII. with low/marginal hemoglobin and hemocrit plus low oxyhemoglobin during long term chronic fatigue phase. In such cases where (calcium> 1100 or < 300 ppm) and low test mercury.potassium. Other measures in addition to TDR that have been found to help in treatment of MS in clinical experience are avoidance of milk products. CFS. etc. (b) replace amalgam fillings starting with filling with highest negative current or highest negative quadrant. nickel. Lupus.. Health Effects from Dental Personnel Exposure to Mercury Vapor . Also so some test indicator scores decline. 0 extract all root canaled teeth using proper finish protocol. Parkinson’s. Progesterone creme has been found to promote regrowth of myelin sheaths in animals(448c). Alzheimer’s’s. Huggins Total Dental Revision Protocol(35): (a) history questionnaire and panel of tests. Test results indicating mercury/metals toxicity(35): (a) white blood cell count >7500 or < 4500 (b) hemocrit > 50% or < 40% 0 lymphocyte count > 2800 or < 1800 (d) blood protein level > 7. Also. 4.5% saturated (j) T lymphocyte count < 2000 (k) DNA damage/cancer (1) TSH > I ug (m) hair aluminum > 10 ppm (n) hair nickel > 1.5 ppm (0) hair manganese> 0. evaluate need for further treatment(not usually needed).3 ppm (p) immune reactive to mercury. so many test indicators will be high. note: after treatmentof many casesof chronic autoimmune conditions such as MS. get lots of sunlight.try to deal with the challenge. aluminum. it has been observed that often mercury along with root canal toxicity or cavitation toxicity are major factors in these conditions. (q) high hemoglobin and hemocrit and high alkaline phosphatase(alk phos) and lactic dehydrogenese(LDA) during initial phases of exposure. etc.

national sample of dentists provided by the American Dental Association had an average of 5. with women having higher levels than men in general.249.172. Allergy tests given to another group of dental students found 44% of them were allergic to mercury( 156). A group of dental students taking a course involving work with amalgam had their urine tested before and after the course was over. p287-288.222. though the relationship was nonlinear and increased more with larger number of fiIlings(124).363.& 10.34 to 9.040 ppb.290. with excretion levels after a dose of a chelator as high as 10 times the corresponding levels for controls(57.8 q/L with approx. It is well documented that dentists and dental personnel who work with amalgam are chronically exposed to mercury vapor. Autopsies of former dental staff found levels of mercury in the pituitary gland averaged as high as 4. Mercury levels of dental personnel average at least 2 times that of controls for hair(397-40 I).8 q/L (124.000 ppb. Sweden.S.249. Studies have found that the longer time exposed. 3.249).6ug/L.138.l56.290). the number of amalgams polished each week.253. with study averages ranging from 1.16. The total lymphocyte count.195. 173.6 q/L with approx.7 to 6. The Swedish safety guideline for Study averages for other countries ranged from mercury in urine is 5. which accumulates in their bodies to much higher levels than for most nonoccupationally exposed. the sensitivity rate increased 5 fold to over 10%( 154~).253. 10% of dentists had urine mercury levels over 10.4 q/L and 1% had levels over 33. A review of several studies of mercury level in hair or nails of dentists and dental workers found median levels were 50 to 300% more than those of controls(38.2 ug/L (124.1 ug/L with study averages from 3. each filling was found to increase mercury in the urine approx.195. Another group of dental studentshad similar results(362). meeting(171) found that the mean mercury level in 1986 was 7.6 nmol Hg/nmoI(l 1.397-399) and for blood (124. 16% above 13.397).303. One study found that over a 4 year period of dental school.173. with levels in pituitary gland and thyroid over 10 times controls and levels in renal cortex 7 times controls(99.6 q/L). T helper/ inducer(CD4+CDS-).124.362).3 to 36 microgram/liter(ug/L)(69.6 to 57 ugL.64. Dental offices are known to be one of the largest users of inorganic mercury(71 b. They also found much higher levels in the brain occipital cortex(as high as 300 ppb). the more likely to be allergic and the more effects(6b.99.38).362.17 I.17 1.70. Urinary porphyrin profiles were found to be an excellent biomarker of level of body mercury level . 290. A large survey of dentists at the Norwegian Dental Assoc. which has banned use of mercury in fillings.etc. The average urine level increased by 500% during the course(63).123. In that large sample of dentists.8 to 30.2 ug/L (70. urine (25d.57.397).303). while another group of dental student showed compromised immune systems compared to medical students. and with the number of fillings in the dentist(l71. Mercury excretion levels were found to have a positive correlation with the number of amalgams placed or replaced per week. and urine levels in dental professionals from Swedish and European studies ranged from 0. and T suppressor/cytotoxic(CD4-CD8+) numbers were significantly elevated in the dental students compared to the matched control group(408). and for 1987 found an average of 8. indicating daily exposure levels of over 100 ug/day.173). Autopsy studies have found similar high body accumulation in dental workers.290. renal cortex(as high as 2110 ppb) and thyroid(as high as 28.64.172. Adverse health effects of this exposure including subtle neurological effects have also been well documented that affect most dentists and dental assistants.178).8 ug/L.253.68). Much higher accumulated body burden levels in dental personnel were found based on challenge tests than for controls(303).69.253. 3%. 15% above 15.). Mercury levels in blood of dental professionals ranged from 0.503a) .25c).1. In one study. is the country with the most exposure and health effects studies regarding amalgam.4ug/L(290.with measurable effects among those in the lowest levels of exposure. Similar results have been seen in other studies as well(408).69. total T cell numbers(CD3).154c. In general dental assistants and women dental workers showed higher levels of mercury than male dentists (171.172. A U.

7 to over 300 micrograms per cubic meter(ugIM3) (120. In addition to these measures researchers also advise all dental staff should wear face masks and patients be supplied with outside air( 120.10.153). This produces high levels of exposure to patient and dental staff.395c.395.138. and emotional/mood tests(70: with coproporphyrin significantly higher in those with higher mercury exposure and urine levels(70. neurobehavioral tests of motor speed. mercury vapour concentrations of ten times the current occupational exposure limit of 25 microg/m3 were recorded after 20 minutes of continuous aspirator operation(219). It was found that the bacterial air exhaust filter (designed to clean the contaminated waste air entering the surgery) offered no protection to mercury vapour.S. but care should be taken regarding challenge tests as the high levels of mercury released can cause serious health effects in some.123.209). 2.) The level of mercury at breathing point in offices measured ranged form b).249. OSHA surveys find 6-16% of U. and visuomotor coordination(69. visual memory(68.71 b. Another study found spot readings as high as 200 ug/M3 in offices with few controls that only used saliva extractor( 120). as seen in previous discussion.S.2 ug/M3 (217) (giving approx.5 to 3. similar to U.503) For offrice’s using an aspirator. and dental masks to only filter out about 40 % of such particles (2 19.1 b). Screening test that are less burdensome and less expensive are now available as first morning void urine samples have been found to be highly correlations to 24 hour urine test for mercury level or porphyrins(73).3O3). Coproporphyrin levels have a higher correlation with symptoms and body mercury levels as tested by challenge test(69.260). mercury vapour emissions increased.124.395. The U.70. The average levels in offices with reasonable controls ranged from 1. This study was for dental personnel having mercury excretion levels below the 10th percentile of the overall dental population. dental offices exceed the OSHA dental office standard of 50 ug/ personnel with several fillings.249. Some studies note that carpeting and rugs in dental offices should be avoided as it is a major repository of mercury(6.and mercury damage neurological effects.6 ug/M3.290. Thus most offrce mercury levels were found to far exceed the U.l88. Amalgam dust generated by high speed drilling is absorbed rapidly into the blood through the lungs and major organs such as the heart receive a high dose within minutes(2 19a. etc. Use of water spray.303). Dentists were found to score significantly worse than a comparable control group on 3.395.S. 0. but even in Sweden which has had more office environmental controls than others spot levels of over 150 ug/M3 were found in 8 offrces(l72).S. especially those who still have amalgam fillings or high accumulations of mercury.249). A build up of amalgam contamination within the internal corrugated tubing of the aspirator was found to be the main source of mercury vapour emissions followed by particulate amalgam trapped within the vacuummotor. guidelines for chronic mercury exposure. Many surveys have been made of office exposure levels( I . Test performance was found to be proportional to exposure/body levels of mercury(68.70. The average dental office exposure affects the body mercury level at least as much as the workers on fillings(57.173). This study used .6.2 1d.395. with several studies finding levels approximately the same as having 19 amalgam fillings( 123. Use of such measures along with a Clean-Upm aspirator tip was found to reduce exposure to patient and staff approximately 90%(397).290.173.1b).172.253. concentration verbal memory.64.123.1b). EPA and Health Canada guidelines(2.249. 4 ug/day exposure). Significant adverse neurobehavioral effects were found even for dental personnel receiving low exposurelevels(lessthan 4 ug/l Hg in urine)(290). Such levels are also common among the general population of non. As the vacuum motor heated up with run time. ATSDR mercury vapor exposure MRL for chronic exposure is much lower.503c).395c.290. visual scanning. high velocity evacuationand rubber dam reduce exposure to patient and dentai staff significantly.247). and residual levels in equipment sterilizers often exceed this level(454).69. at the dentist’s breathing zone. Use of high speed drill in removal or replacement has been found to create high volume of mercury vapor and respirable particles.

etc. immune reactivity. Another study using DMPS challenge test found over 20 times higher mercury excretion in dentists than in controls.word).400.lack of ability to concentrate. stomach problems. Mercury exposure has been found to often cause disability in dental workers(230b.193. chronic muscular pain.377. memory(vocabulary. In a study in Brazi1(492).246. motor effects. muscle pains. dentists and dental assistants with chronic exposure to mercury vapor and anestheticsfound increased health problems compared to controls. The most common problems were related to the central nervous system. and motor function correlated more strongly with post-chelation mercury levels.72. tremors. 46% arthritic pains. and 45% headaches(490a). DMPS. One dentist with severe symptoms similar to ALS improved after treatment for mercury poisoning(246). Both dental hygienists and patients get high doses of mercury vapor when dental hygienists polish or use ultrasonic scalers on amalgam surfaces(240.503c). and indications of mild to moderate mercury poisoning in 62% of workers. One of the common effects of chronic mercury exposure is chronic fatigue due to immune system overload and activation.369).490). Mood scores including anger were found to correlate more strongly with pre chelation urine mercury levels. Many studies have found this occurs frequently in dentists and dental staff along with other related symptoms.etc. burnout. have from dentists been documented to suffer mercury Many poisoning(6f.S.503.247.74.while another study found selective atrophy of muscle fibre in women dental workers(490b). Thirty percent of dentists with more than average exposure were found to have neuropathies and visuographic dysfunction(395). concentration. to measure body burden mercury levels. Those with higher levels of mercury had deficits in both memory. indicating high body burden of mercury compared to controls(491). In another study nearly 50 % of dental staff in a group tested had positive autoimmune ANA titers compared to less than 1 % of the general population(35).193). and motor function compared to those with lower exposure levels. other than the documented neurological effects such as chronic fatigue. and another with Parkinson’s disease recovered after reduction of exposure and chelation(248). while toxicity symptoms. 50% reported significant irritability.193).369. Even at the low levels of exposure of the subjects of this study. 4. Pregnant women or pregnant hygienist especially should avoid these practices during pregnancy or while nursing since maternal mercury . Dental workers and other workers exposed to mercury vapor were found to have a shortening of visual evoked potential latency and a decreasein amplitude. Other studies reviewed found increased rates of brain cancer and aIlergies(99.(249.a new methodology which used standard urine mercury levels as a measure of recent exposure. This method was found to give enhanced precision and power to the results of the tests and correlations. mood. including significantly higher liver.490. and neurological diseases(99. with magnitudes correlated with urine excretion levels( 190). And the plotted test results gave no indication of there existing a threshold below effects were not measurable.000 U. and urine levels after chelation with a chemical. there were clear demonstrated differences in test scores involving memory. 50% had autoimmune reaction to inorganic mercury and immune reactions to other metals used in dentistry were also common(369).395.71.378. Similar cases among those with other occupational exposure have been seen. Tests of controls did not find such immune reactions common. Dentists were also found to have a high incidence of radicular muscular neuralgia and peripheral sensory degradation( 190. 62% of dental workers had urine mercury levels over 10 mg/L. and motor skills related to the level of exposure pre and post chelation(290).1 b).) Chelators like DMPS have been found after a fast to release mercury from cells in tissue to be available for excretion. In a group of dentists and dental workers suffering from extreme fatigue and tested by the immune test MELISA. In one study of dentists and dental assistants. etc.395c. mood.248. kidney. A survey of over 60. Swedish male dentists were found to have an elevated standardized mortality ratio compared to other male academic groups(284).504a. A large U.401.68-74.70. I 10.23. but one study found rates in same range as doctors. memory. and congenital defects than for the control group(394). 69.19. and very little mercury vapor(247). survey also found higher spontaneousabortion rate among dental assistantsand wives of dentists( 193).1 88. Most studies find dentists have increased levels of irritability and tension( l. atopic dermatitis.S.38. stillbirths. A study of dentist and dental assistantsin the Netherlands found 50% higher ratesof spontaneous abortions.290.123. A study in Poland also found a significant positive association between mercury levels and occurrence of reproductive failures and menstrual cycle disorders.6873. and higher suicide rates than the general white population (284.369. and which behavioral problems.287).I 0.142. visiomotor.3 I c. and contact urticaria(247.40 1. it can be seen that dental nurse/assistants have a clearly increased risk of having a deformed child or spontaneous abortion(433). 6.l72. Some studies .31.34.348) dental hygienist are advised not to polish dental amalgams when cleaning teeth. with unusually high occurrence of spina bifida. high rates of drug dependancy and disability due to psychological problems(l5.exposure has been shown to affect the fetus and to be related to birth defects.156. Face masks worn by dental workers filter out only about 40% of small dislodged amalgam particles from drilling or polishing.34.249. significantly reduced fertility and lowered probability of conception (10.24.37. Female dentists have increased rates of spontaneous abortion and perinatal mortality (193.222. A study in Poland found a much higher incidence of birth defects among female dentist and dental assistants than norrnal(l0).50). conjunctivitis. as well as higher brain and body burdens( 1. and another study found an increased risk of spontaneous abortions and other pregnancy complications among women working in dental surgeries(277b).433).12 l). Populations with only slightly increased levels of mercury in hair had decreases in academic ability(3).38.l b). Female dental technicians who work with amalgam tend to have increased menstrual disturbances (275. Dental staff have been found to have significantly higher prevalence of eye problems.1b). musculoskeletal.74).433)) .38).99). which often contain higher mercury levels than in the mother’s blood (20.279. Dentists and dental personnel experience significantly higher levels of neurological. The level of mercury excreted in urine is significantly higher for female dental assistantsthan dentists due to biological factors (17 l. Even dental personnel with relatively low exposure(urine Hg<4 ug/l) were found to have significant neurological ef’fects(290) and was found to be correlated with body burden of mercury. increased spontaneous abortions (lo.110). SIDS. Body burden increases with time and older dentists have median mercury urine levels about 4 times those of controls. and their children have significantly lower average IQ compared to the general population (1. Because of high documented exposure levels when amalgam fillings are brushed( 182. A chronically ill dental nurse diagnosedwith mercury sensitivity recovered after replacement of fillings and changing jobs(60).38. Amalgam has been shown to be the main source of mercury in most infants and breast milk.38.248).compared to controls.61 . and poor performance on memory tests(68.395).249.( 10.124a). etc. Effects are directly related to length of time on the job(277).290) Some older dentists have mercury levels in some parts of the brain as much as 80 times higher than normal levels( 14. From the medical register of births since 1967 in Norway.3 1.99).493. and concluded dental work to be an occupational hazard with respect to reproductive processes(401).277.245.247. Several dental assistants have been diagnosed with mercury toxicity and some have died of related health effects(32.186. An epidemiological survey conducted in Lithuania on women working in dental offices(where Hg concentrations were < 80 ug/M3) had increased incidence of spontaneous abortions and breast pathologies that were directly related to the length of time on the job(277a). and a female dentist recovered from Parkinson’s after mercury detox(248).246.10. increase with years of exposure (1.247.34. mood.

S. Studies have found significant measurable adverse health effects at levels far below current government regulatory levels for mercury(290). etc. The use of mercury amalgams has been banned for children and women of child-bearing age or put on a schedulefor phase out by several European countries. Scientists and Government Panels or Bodies That Have Found Amalgam Fillings to be Unsafe.19. that requires all dentists in the state to discuss the safety of dental materials with all patients and to post the following warning about use of amalgam on the wall of their office: “This office usesamalgam filling materials which contain and expose you to a chemical known of California to cause birth defects and other reproductive harm”. REFERENCES (1) Denton S(MD) & ButlerJ. Caulk Inc.Ott 1990. advisesthat amalgam should not be used as a base for crowns or for retrograde root fillings as is commonly done in some countries(387). The Chairman of the panel.Univ. A major amalgam manufacturer. 1.94. 36. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Biocompatability. cardiovascular.38. Japan. and found no threshold level below which effects were not measurable. (2)U.435).170. Sweden.1999.189.S. Proposition 65.236. and reproductive systems from common levels of exposure(Section IV)..208.18.212. Many of those researching amalgam related health effects including several very prominent scientists have concluded that the health effects are widespread and serious so that mercury should not be used as a filling material (1. and motor function related to mercury exposure level as measured by excretion levels(290).61. and CNS system cancers among dental workers( 14..222. A World Health Organization Scientific Panel concluded that there is no safe level of mercury exposure( 183.have found increased risk of lung.164. 7. A study of dental personnel having very low levels of mercury excretion found measurable neurological effects including memory. hormonal.209. EnvironmentalProtectionAgency(EPA). kidney. including Canada. mood. Great Britain. Switzerland.20.88.238.( 164. NationalCenterfor . Both countries have indicated plans to ban or phase out use of amalgam. IX.p 133-I45. 183. of Health in Germany issued an advisory warning against use of dental amalgam in pregnant women(61). A Canadian Government study for Health Canada concluded that any person with any number of amalgam fillings receives exposure beyond that recommended by the USPHS Standard(209). have similar or more extensive bans or health warnings regarding the use of amalgam. 3. Austria. Many homes of dentists have been found to have high levels of mercury contamination used by dentists bringing mercury home on shoes and clothes( 188). Australia.60. EPA found that removed amalgam fillings are hazardous and must be sealed airtight and exposed of as hazardous waste(214).34.435) A Swedish National Mercury Amalgam Review Panel and a similar Norwegian panel found that “from a toxicological point of view. Lars Friberg stated that “dental amalgam is not safe for everyone to use(208238).Life SciencesPress.Of Psychology. Norway. In 1987 the Federal Dept. A Swedish medical panel unanimously recommended to the government “discontinuing the use of amalgam as a dental material”(282). to the State 4.143.208). The use of amalgam is declining in Europe and Germany’s largest producer of amalgam has ceased production. The U.S. Most European countries require controls on dental waste amalgam emissions to sewers or air.99.153. 227. The director of the U.99.S. brain. New Zealand. Most major countries other than the U. Other studies have found measurable effects to the immune. “IntegratedRisk InformationSystem. Of North Texas.210.1 15.283). The Legislature of the State of California passed a law.57. Federal program overseeing dental safety advises against using mercury amalgam for new fillings. 2. mercury is too toxic to use as a filling material”(l64. Dept.282).148. France.

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