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23 .

Mercury Exposure Levels from Amalgam
Dental fillings; Documentation of
Mechanisms by which Mercury causes over
40 Chronic Health Conditions; Results of
Replacement of Amalgam fillings; and
Occupational Effects on Dental Staff
By Bernard Windham

Mercury Exposure Levels from Amalgam Dental Fillings; Documentation of Mechanisms by Which
Mercury Causes over 40 Chronic Health Conditions; Results of Replacement of Amalgam Fillings;
and Occupational Effects on Dental Staff
Bernard Windham, Editor- Chemical Engineer 12164 Whitehouse Road
850-878-9024
Tallahassee, FL,323 11
1. Introduction
Il. Toxicity and Health Effects of Mercury
III. Systemic Mercury Intake Levels from Amalgam Filling Exposure
IV. Immune System Effects and Autoimmune Disease
V. Medical Studies Finding Health Problems Related to Amalgam Fillings
VI. Documented Results of Removal of Amalgam Fillings
VII. Tests for Mercury Level and Toxicity and Treatments
VIII. Health Effects from Dental Staff Exposure to Mercury
IX. Scientific Panel and Government Bodies That Have Found Amalgam Fillings Unsafe
Toxic metals such as mercury, lead, cadmium, etc. have been documented to be neurotoxic,
I.
immunotoxic, reproductive/developmental toxins that according to U.S. Government agencies cause
adverse health effects and learning disabilities to millions in the U.S. each year, especially children
and the elderly( 105,160). Exposure of humans and animals to toxic metals such as mercury, cadmium,
lead, copper, aluminum, arsenic, chromium, manganese, etc. is widespread and in many areas
increasing. . The U.S. Center for Disease Control(276) ranks toxic metals as the number one
environmental health threat to children. According to an EPA/ATSDR assessment,the toxic metals
mercury, lead, arsenic, and cadmium are all ranked in the top 7 toxics having the most adverse health
effects on the public based on toxicity and current exposure levels in the U.S., with nickel and
chromium also highly listed. A National Academy of Sciences report of July 2000 and other
studies(39,125) found that even small levels of mercury in fish or levels of mercury in the blood of
women below 10 micrograms per liter(ug/l) appear to result in developmental effects, and represent
unacceptable risks of birth defects and developmental effects in infants.
10 ug/l is the upper
level of mercury exposure recommended by the German Commission on Human Biomonitoring
in the blood(39).
The main factors determining whether chronic conditions are induced by metals appear to be
exposure and genetic susceptability, which determines individuals immune sensitivity and ability to
detoxify metals(405). Very low levels of exposure have been found to seriously affect relatively large
groups of individuals who are immune sensitive to toxic metals, or have an inability to detoxify metals
due to such as deficient sulfoxidation or metallothionein function or other inhibited enzymatic
processes related to detoxification or excretion of metals. For those with chronic conditions, fatigue
regardless of the underlying disease is primarily associated with hypersensitivity to inorganic and
organic mercury, nickel, and gold(369,382).
While there are large numbers of neurological and immune conditions among adults, the
incidence of neurotoxic or immune reactive conditions in infants such as autism, schizophrenia,
ADD, dyslexia, learning disabilities, etc. have been increasing especially rapidly in recent years
(2,409,441). A recent report by the National Research Council found that 50% of all pregnancies
in the U.S. are now resulting in prenatal or postnatal mortality, significant birth defects,
developmental neurological or immune conditions, or otherwise chronically unhealthy babies(441).
Exposure to toxic chemicals or environmental factors appear to be a factor in as much as 28 percent
of the 4 million children born each year-(44l), with 1 in 6 having one of the neurological conditions

previously listed. EPA estimates that over 3 million of these are related to lead or mercury
toxicity(2,125,276,409). A study at the U.S. CDC found “statistically significant associations”
between certain neurologic developmental disorders such as attention deficit disorder(ADD) and
autism with exposure to mercury from thimerosal-containing vaccines before the age of 6
months(476).
While there is considerable commonality to the health effects commonly caused by these toxic
metals, and effects are cumulative and synergistic in many cases, this paper will concentrate on the
health effects of elemental mercury from amalgam fillings. Studies have found considerable genetic
variability in susceptibility to toxic metals as well. The public appears to be generally unaware that
considerable scientific evidence supports that mercury is the metal causing the most widespread
adversehealth effects to the public, and amalgam fillings have been well documented to be the number
one source of exposure of mercury to most people, with exposure levels often exceeding Government
health guidelines and levels documented to cause adverse health effects.
Toxicity and Health Effects of Mercury
II.
Dental amalgam contains about 50 % mercury, as well as other toxic metals such as
1.
tin,copper,nickel, palladium, etc. The average filling has 1 gram of mercury and leaks mercury vapor
continuously due to mercury’s low vapor pressure along with loss due to galvanic action of mercury
with dissimilar metals in the mouth (182,192,292,348,349,525), resulting in significant exposure for
most with amalgam fillings(see Section III). Mercury vapor is transmitted rapidly throughout the
body, easily crosses cell membranes, and like organic methyl mercury has significant toxic effects at
much lower levels of exposure than other inorganic mercury forms (38,281,287,304,329). The OSHA
level for mercury vapor in air is 50% lower than for organic mercury in air. According to the U.S.
EPA & ATSDR, mercury is among the top 3 toxic substances adversely affecting large numbers of
people(2 17), and amalgam is the number one source of exposure for most people(see III).
Mercury is the most toxic of the toxic metals. Mercury (vapor) is carried by the blood to cells
2.
in all organs of the body where it:
(a) is cytotoxic(kills cells) (2,2 1,27,36,56,147,14&l 50,160,2 10,259,295,333/333)
(b) penetrates and damages the blood brain barrier(3 1 I), resulting in accumulation of mercury and
other toxic substances in the brain( 14,20,21b,25,85,99,175,273,301,305,/149,262,274); also
accumulates in the motor function areas of the brain and CNS(48,175,29 1,327,329).
0 is neurotoxic(kills brain and nerve cells): damages brain cells and nerve cells (19,27,34,36, 43,
69,70, 147,148,175,207,211,273,291,295,327,329,301,303,305,395/39,262,274,303); generates high
levels of reactive oxygen species(ROS) and oxidative stress, depletes glutathione and thiols causing
increased neurotoxicity from interactions of ROS, glutamate, and dopamine (13,56,98,102,126,
145,169,170, 184,2 13,2 19,250,257,259,286,290,291,302,324,326,329,424,442,496); kills or inhibits
production of brain tubulin cells (66,67,16 1,166,207,300); inhibits production of neurotransmitters
bY inhibiting: calcium-dependent neurotransmitter release(372,432), dihydroteridine reductase
(27,122,257,333), nitric oxide synthase(259), blocking neurotransmitter amino acids (4 12), and
effecting phenylalanine, serotonin, tyrosine and tryptophan transport to neurons
(34,122,126,257,285,288,333,372,374,4 12/255,333)
(d) is immunotoxic(damages and inhibits immune T-cells, B-cells, neutrophil function, etc.)
(17,27,31,38,44,45,46,60,127,128,129,130,152,155,165,181,226,252,270,285,316,343,355,425,46
7/272) and induces ANA
antibodies and autoimmune disease (38,43,45,59,60,118,18 1,
234,269,270,313,314,334,342,343,425,405)
(e) is nepthrotoxic(toxic to kidneys) (14,20,203,209~,223,254,260,268,334,438)
(f) is endocrine system-disrupting chemical(accumulates in pituitary gland and damages or inhibits

304.35) and inhibits DNA & RNA synthesis (114. mercury causes significant destruction of stomach and intestine epithelial cells. decreased oxyhemoglobin level. imbalances in development of brain (38.175. thyroid gland function (50.39. reproductive and developmental toxin (2.205.459. a suspected major factor in stomach ulcers and stomach cancer(256) and candida albicans.87.69.40).26.22. causes birth defects (23.112. damages sperm.10.90.35) and accumulation of heliobacter pylori.132.38.60.).365.10.2 12.84.226.3 12.43Z).39) causes cardiovascular damage and disease: including damage to vascular endothelial cells.433. causes interruption of the cytochromeC oxidase systern/ATP energy function (43. and increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (35.59.327.162).427). 348.42) and significant developmental effects-much more damage to the fetus than for maternal exposure to inorganic mercury and at lower exposure levels than for organic mercury(287.10.37.351.381.348.35/149).129.4.59.41.142.361.105.369.459.305~~8.348.389.61. 388. prenatal/early postnatal exposure affects level of nerve growth factor in the brain.156. and reduction in IQ (1. causes reduced iodine uptake & hypothyroidism (50.35) and blocks enzymes needed to convert porphyrins to adenosine tri phosphate(ATP) causing progressive porphyrinuria.37.131.45. tachycardia.306. 95.264.19. thymus gland function(5 13).232.226.263.305.35).97.38.73.146).338c.369/274).8 8 8 8 1 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 4 I 8 8 8 8 8 pituitary glands hormonal functions at very low levels (9.228b.119.181.367.as well as altering molecular (h) (0 6) (w (1) . viral. asthma.20.35).339.511/4.369.510.21c) and adversely alters bacterial populations in the intestines causing leaky gut syndrome with toxic.405.etc.212.355.129.342.). lowers sperm counts and reduces motility.162).9.39.86.285c.33.3.263.50. resulting in 09 damage to stomach lining which along with mercury’s ability to bind to SH hydroxyl radical in cell membranes alters permeability(338.347.357).232.338.381).212. and disrupts enzyme production processes at very low levels of exposure (9. zinc and Vit B 12 (43.104.and multiple sensitivities(MCS) (8.509/39).146. (4. incompletely digested complexes in the blood(222.198. lupus.276e.350. 35) . glucose. as well as poor nutrient absorption.313.37.23.142.128.42.35.45.392.212.22.161.1 IO.186.445.267.96.85.117.20/4.194. sarcolemma.2 12.35.296.121.39.38.3 11. and porphyrins in urine (34.175.38.258.53).41.264.230.160.110. adrenal gland function(84.27.75.338. resulting in low energy.308). 281.234.304.35/4.13.272.etc.24. depresses enzyme isocitric dehydrogenase (ICD) in fetus.131. 338.38.375.339.52.281. causes learning disabilities and impairment.9.70.38.31. damage to sarcoplasmic reticula.467/59.22-24. (0) forming strong bonds with and modification of the-SH groups of proteins causes mitochondrial release of calcium (1. 255.101.55.228.99.55.2014.308.61 .162.222.327. magnesium.160.91.37.275.2 10.43. causesimmune system damage resulting in allergies.382. damages DNA(296.25 1.111. causes menstrual disturbances (9.35. digestive problems.509/241).55. 160. impairs astrocyte function.35.296.and increased antibiotic resistance( 116.175.154.361.46.5085 11.50/201.367.35.287.35.194.105. high blood pressure.446/272) and neutrophil functional impairment(285.232.329.125.273.339.25.265.202.404.410-412) (g) exposure to mercury vapor (or methyl mercury) causes rapid transmittal through the placenta to the fetus (20..369.159.21.333.~. increased white cell count.105. causes infertility (4.24.260) (m) inhibition of immune system facilitates increased damage by bacterial.366.27.161.chronic fatigue syndrome(CFS).56.338~.38. 149.schleraderma(468).310.41. and fungal infections (17. reduces bloods ability to transport oxygen to fetus and transport of essential nutrients including amino acids. 382.357.168.. inhibits cytochrome P450Areme synthesis(84. and contractile proteins.17.131.I~.241.

211.126.194.382. autoimmune thyroiditis and impairment of conversion of thyroid T4 hormone to the active T3 form(369. 3. hypothalamus.366.54).50.Mercury has been well documented to be an endocrine system disrupting chemical in animals and people. Studies indicate that slight imbalances of thyroid hormones in expectant mothers can cause permanent neuropsychiatric damage in the developing fetus(509.273.35).35.274.287. (50).16. inhibited glucose transfer and uptake(338. Even larger percentages of women had elevated levels of antithyroglobulin(anti-TG) or antithyroid peroxidase antibody(anti-TP).91). Mercury also damages the blood brain barrier and facilitates penetration of the brain by other toxic metals and substances(311).252.38. Mercury (especially mercury vapor) rapidly crosses the blood brain barrier and is stored preferentially in the pituitary gland. 369) Thus mercury has a greater effect on the functions of these areas.360.338). and many hormonal functions at very low levels of exposure .50).34. 5 times the normal rate(511).3 to 77 ppb(85). Studies have also established a “clear association” between the presence of thyroid antibodies and spontaneous abortions(511).38 1). According to survey tests.111. Women with the highest levels of thyroid-stimulating-hormone(TSH) and lowest free levels of thyroxine I7 weeks into their pregnancies were significantly more likely to have children who tested at least one standard deviation below normal on an IQ test taken at age 8. Another study of pregnant women who suffer from hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) found a four-times greater risk for miscarriage during the second trimester than those who don’t. 327.459. Hypothyroidism is a well documented risk factor in spontaneous abortions and infertility(9).20. Such hormonal secretions are affected at levels of mercury exposure much lower than the acute toxicity effects normally tested. Levels of recurrent abortions in a population with positive levels of thyroid antibodies in one study were 40%.99.85. maternal hypothyroidism appears to play a role in at least 15% of children whose IQS are more than I standard deviation below the mean. and women with untreated thyroid deficiency were four-times more likely to have a child with a developmental disabilities and lower I.(p) function of amino acids and damaging enzymatic process(33.41O-412) resulting in improper cysteine regulation( 194).194. 8 to 10 % of untreated women were found to have thyroid imbalances so the actual level of hypothyroidism is higher commonly recognized(508).25.61. enzyme production processes.14. thyroid gland. damage of thyroid RNA(458). Mercury damage thus commonly results in poor bodily temperature control. damaged sulfur oxidation processes(33. One study found mercury levels in the pituitary gland ranged from 6. HgC12 inhibits aquaporin-mediated water transport in red blood cells(479).162.19.405.348. Mercury blocks thyroid hormone production by occupying iodine binding sites and inhibiting hormone action even when the measured thyroid level appears to be in proper range(35). disrupting function of the pituitary gland. thyroid gland. as previously confirmed by hormonal/reproductive problems in animal populations( 104.254). while . Studies have documented that mercury causeshypothyroidism(50. Low first trimester levels of free T4 and positive levels of anti-TP antibodies in the mother during pregnancy have been found to result significantly reduces lQS(509). The thyroid and hypothalamus regulate body temperature and many metabolic processes including enzymatic processes that when inhibited result in higher dental decay(35) . Based on study findings.338.50. and occipital cortex in direct proportion to the number and extent of dental amalgam surfaces (1. including the immune system and reproductive systems. The pituitary gland controls many of the body’s endocrine system functions and secretes hormones that control most bodily processes. millions of children. in addition to many problems caused by hormonal imbalances such as depression. and reduced glutathione availability (necessary for detoxification)( 13.96. Hypothyroidism is also known to be a major factor in cardiovascular disease(510). Hypothyroidism is a well documented cause of mental retardation.Q.

etc(Section VIIl.38.145. This may explain why dentists have much higher levels of emotional problems. depletion of cellular glutathione(necessary for detoxification processes) (111.38.175.111.392/l 49).296.54. There was a particular association between the T-cell defects and inhibition of thymic pyruvate kinase. ALS. Supplementary oxytocin extract has been found to alleviate many of these mood problems(35).453. (13.264. Mercury’s biochemical damage at the cellular level include DNA damage. so chronic exposure can have long term effects(5 13b).496).84. and increases fertility(35.252.3 16.325.347.263.254. MND. Mercury inhibits sulfur ligands in MT and in the case of intestinal cell membranes inactivates MT that normally bind cuprous ions(477).496). lead.496). PD. micromolar levels of mercuric ions specifically blocked synthesis of ribosomal RNA.272.114.1 I I I 1 I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I 1 another(348) found the mean level to be 30ppb. I I I .329. There were specific immunotoxic and biochemical alterations in lymphoid organs of mice treated at the lower doses of mercury. nickel and gold crowns are major factors in reducing pituitary function(35. The normalization of pituitary function also often normalizes menstrual cycle problems.252/l 14). and appear to be a major factor in suicide of teenagers and other vulnerable groups.FM. MS.442-444.levels found to be neurotoxic and cytotoxic in animal studies. alteration of protein structure (33. abnormal migration of neurons in the cerebral cortex( 149).355).126). inhibition of glutathione peroxidase enzyme( 13. 4. along with replacement of metals in the mouth(Section VI. Part of the toxic effects of mercury.4 1O-4 12). inhibition glucose transport(338.42. induction of free radical formation( 13.).369. Also.CFS. Mercury at very low concentrations has been seen to impair some lymphocytic functions causing subclinical manifestations in exposed workers.254. The pituitary glands of a group of dentists had 800 times more mercury than controls(99). Low levels of pituitary function are associated with depression and suicidal thoughts.432).197. Alzheimer’s.226.494-496). Inhibition of thymus function can thus affect proper development of the immune and lymphatic systems. etc.etc. Amalgam fillings. thus .). Some of the effect on depression is related to mercury’s effect of reducing the level of posterior pituitary hormone(oxytocin).207b.50.254. endothelial cell damage(202). inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis(4. maturation and peripheral functions are affected by the thymic protein hormone thymulin. are through their replacing essential minerals such as zinc at their sites in enzymes. etc. Lymphocyte differentiation.I 14.272.98.254). Animal studies have shown mercury significantly inhibits thymulin production at very low micromolar levels of The metal allergens mercuric chloride and nickel sulfate were found to exposure(5 13a).305. along with leading to decreased levels of glutathione peroxidation and superoxide dismustase(SOD)( 13. stimulate DNA synthesis of both immature and mature thymocytes at low levels of exposure.464).43. the rate-limiting enzyme for glycolysis(5 13~). The thymus gland plays a significant part in the establishment of the immune system and lymphatic system from the 12* week of gestation until puberty. causing fibrillarin relocation from the nucleolus to the ncleoplasm in epitheial cells as a consequence of the blockade of ribosomal RNA synthesis. and immune system damage (34. disabling the necessary enzymatic processes. suicide. Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species(ROS) have been implicated as major factors in neurological disorders including stroke.142.489. alteration of the transport of calcium(333.339.338. endometriosis. depression.194.96.4 1.).56. The immunological defects were consistent with altered T-cell function as evidenced by decreases in both T-cell mitogen and mixed leukocyte responses.9).169.cadmium.194. Metalloprotein(MT) are involved in metals transport and detoxiflcation(442.424. and of function and other of enzyme essential nutrients(96. This appears to be a factor in deregulation of basic cellular events and in autoimmunity caused by mercury. Pyruvate and glycolysis problems are often seen in mercury toxic children being treated for autism(409).198. Mercury induced lipid peroxidation has been found to be a major factor in mercury’s neurotoxicity.462.

495). Exposure to mercury results in changes in metalloprotein compounds that have genetic effects.60.342.3 13).410).271.232. Elimination of milk products from the diet has been found to improve the condition. (11) A direct mechanism involving mercury’s inhibition of cellular enzymatic processes by binding with the hydroxyl radical(SH) in amino acids appears to be a major part of the connection to allergic/immune reactive conditions such as autism(408-414.385.446.114.60.234. For example mercury has been found to strongly inhibit the activity of dipeptyl peptidase (DPP IV) which is required in the digestion of the milk protein casein(411.156.305.allowing buildup of copper to toxic levels in many and malfunction of the ZnKu SOD function.296. Such populations have also been found to have high levels of mercury and to recover after mercury detox(413.226. Prenatal mercury vapor expsoure that results in levels of only 4 parts per billion in newborn rat brains was found to cause decreases in nerve growth factor and other effects(305). Significant physiological changes occur when metal ion concentrations exceed threshold levels.35). metabolism.412) as well as of xanthine oxidase(439).412). schizophrenia(409.369.442. but males have been found more responsive to this factor than women(497).275).132.149).498). Of a population of over 3000 tested by the immune lymphocyte reactivity test(MELISA. Such MT formation also appears to have a relation to autoimmune reactions in significant numbers of people (114.330. effects on the cytochrome-C energy processes (43.464). As mercury levels are reduced the protein binding is reduced and improvement in the enzymatic process occurs.46.338~. metal-specific homeostasis.60.468. ScIeroderma(468).84. 33. Insulin-like-growth factor I (IGF-I) are positively correlated with growth hormone levels and have been found to be the best easily measured marker for levels of growth hormone. Several clinical trials have found IGF-I treatment is effective at reducing the damage and slowing the progression of ALS and Alzheimer’s with no medically important adverse effects(498).160). Some of the processes affected by such MT control of genes include cellular respiration. This is a level that is common in the population with several amalgam fillings or other exposures(500).468). having both structural and catalytic effects on gene expression( 114. Prenatal or neonatal exposures have been found to have life long effects on nerve function and susceptability to toxic effects.241.375.476.3 13.33 1.498). Mercury vapor is lipid soluable Only a few micrograms of mercury and has an affinity for red blood cells and CNS ceIIs(2 1a). lupus 3.464. enzymatic processes involving vitamins B6 and B 12(41 S).147.33). eczema and psoriasis (323. 22% tested positive for inorganic mercury and 8% for methyl mercury .477.455.95. IGF-I and insulin levels have been found to be reduced in ALS pateients with evidence this is a factor in ALS(497.331.60.419. Additional cellular level enzymatic effects of mercury’s binding with proteins include blockage of sulfur oxidation processes(33. and allergies (26.313. 445.439.468). severely disturb cellular function and inhibits nerve growth (175. Another neurological effect of mercury that occurs at very low levels is inhibition of nerve growth factors.152.255. It has also been found that in chronically ill patients the levels of pituitary and thyroid hormones that control many bodily processes are low. Studies involving a large sample of autistic and schizophrenic patients found that over 90 % of those tested had high levels of the milk protein betacasomorphin-7 in their blood and urine and defective enzymatic processes for digesting milk protein(410). IGF-I controls the survival of spinal motor neruons affected in ALS during development as well as later in Iife(497. for which deficiencies result in nerve degeneration. and that supplenting both thyrotropinreleasing hormone and growth control hormone is more effective at increasing all of these hormone levels in the patient(499).330. along with mercury’s adverse effects on cellular mineral levels .194. enzymatic processes. and adrenal stress response systems.464.442.

and appear to be a major factor in suicide of teenagers and other vulnerable groups. But the effect on the immune system of exposure to various toxic substances such as toxic metals and environmental pollutants has also been found to have additive or synergistic effects and to be a factor in increasing eczema.38). and correlated with the number of amalgam fillings(506). seals. Similar is true of some other animals at the top of the food chain like alligators. and acety1cho1inesterase(35.159.8 1. magnesium. Low levels of pituitary function are associated with depression and suicidal thoughts.395.105.367. ovaries.175. which are affected by mercury and other hormone disrupting chemicals. 6. Most doctors treating such conditions also usually recommend supplementing the deficient essential minerals previously noted that mercury affects.3 13.21). I 60. defective sperm cells.275. the brain is also organic (220. All Great Lakes as well as many coastal bays and estuaries and large numbers of salt water fish carry similar health warnings. Bacteria also oxidize mercury vapor to the water soluble.3 1.4 32.305.427.333.290.372. Some wading birds and Florida panthers that eat birds and animals that eat fish containing very low levels of mercury(about 1 part per million) have died from chronic mercury poisoning (104. 386.S. Mercury accumulates in the pituitary glands.198.3 13.365.272). testes.38).of calcium.4 15).465.35. Over half the rivers and lakes in Florida have such health warnings banning or limiting eating of fish. A clinical study found that methyl mercury in saliva is significantly higher in those with amalgam fillings than those without.506.Because of the extreme toxicity of mercury.225.10. Wisconsin has fish consumption warnings for over 250 lakes and rivers and Minnesota even more.99. only l/2 gram is required to contaminate a IO acre lake to the extent that a health warning would be issued by the government to not eat the fish( 15 I.125. And along with these blockages of cellular enzymatic processes. Since mercury is an estrogenic chemical and reproductive toxin. and increased neurological problems related to lowered levels of neurotransmitters dopamine. In addition to having estrogenic effects.273). The pituitary glands of a group of dentists had 800 times more mercury than controls(99).96. and lowered testosterone levels in males and menstrual disturbances and infertility in women(4.38.107.140. This may explain why dentists have much higher levels of emotional problems.25. ionic form Hg(I1) (431). and prostrate gland(35. and lithium (43.37. and sensitivity to other lesser allergens.432.1 60). mercury has other documented hormonal effects including effects on the reproductive system resulting in lowered sperm counts.3 14.85. the majority of the rest cannot reproduce. .503b.288. damaged DNA. The average male Florida panther has higher estrogen levels than females.. S. noreprenephrine.2).45 1.412). beluga and orca whales. often obtaining a hair element test to determine imbalances and needs(386. Other studies have found similar results(5 12). serotonin.etc(Section . asthma.27. aberrant chromosome numbers rather than the normal 46.20. due to the estrogenic properties of mercury( 105. and organochlorine compounds (4 13.104.000 such lakes with warnings(2) and 7% of all U.146. etc.484).119.9. polar bears. depression.23. minks.381. Some of the effect on depression is related to mercury’s effect of reducing the level of posterior pituitary hormone(oxytocin). zinc.296.254. suicide. Most of the children tested for toxic exposures have found high or reactive levels of Much mercury in saliva and other toxic metals.14 1. as part of the total of over 50.. and most other states and 4 Canadian provinces have similar health wamings(2).512).160). allergies. mercury has been found to cause additional neurological and immune system effects in many through immune/autoimmune reactions (60. river miles.433. chromosome breaks. since mouth bacteria and other organisms in the body methylate inorganic mercury to organic mercury(5 1.9 19.

425. and increases fertility(35. Elemental mercury vapor is more rapidly transmitted throughout the body than most other forms of mercury and has more much toxic effects on the CNS and other parts of the body than inorganic mercury due to its much greater capacity to cross cell membranes. 101 milligrams(mg)(60% of total) or 30 micrograms per day(18).292. cadmium. One study found dental offices discharge into waste water between 65 and 842 milligrams per dentist per day(231).).S. function(35.360.338.183. learning ability. because the amount of mercury was considered dangerous to public health and created a serious disposal problem. amounting to several hundred grams per year per office. mercury standards). Suplementary oxytocin extract has been found to alleviate many of these mood problems(35). along with replacement of metals in the mouth(Section VI.525).329). Studies have found that levels of exposure to the toxic metals mercury. having low pressure and being subject to galvanic action with other metals in an oral environment(lS2. The amount of mercury released by a gold alloy bridge over amalgam over a 10 year period was measured to be approx.349.etc. & section III).2la. and also in mental patients and criminals behavior(3.230b. Studies have found that both genetic susceptibility and environmental exposures are a factor in xenobiotic related effects and disease propagation(2 1d.38.5 grams.35. learning.7e.160). nickel and gold crowns are major factors in reducing pituitary VIII.369. 11a. Similarly for inhibition of some essential cellular processes(333. 9. Mercury from dental offices and human waste from people with amalgam fillings has much higher levels and is a major source of mercury in Florida waters. The amount of mercury in the mouth of a person with fillings was on average 2.336.308. A study in Sweden found significant occupational and environmental exposures at crematoria. Some genetic types are susceptible to mercury induced autoimmunity and some are resistant and thus much less affected(234. An average amalgam filling contains over % gram of mercury.425.376e. 8.27.50. Running shoes with ‘/2 gram of mercury in the heels were banned by several states. The normalization of pituitary function also often normalizes menstrual cycle problems. and the average adult had at least 5 grams of mercury in fillings(unless most has vaporized).2ld).28 1. 162.192. while another Swiss study found mercury levels during cremation of a person with amalgam fillings as high as 200 micrograms per cubic meter(considerably higher than U.348.304.311) and placenta of pregnant women (20. often exceeding site air mercury standards(420). 10.82.etc. A Japanese study estimated mercury emissions from a small crematorium there as 26 grams per day(421).23 1.1 82. and since the requirement to install selenium filters mercury emission levels in crematoria have been reduced 85%(422). Studies found that mercury causes or accelerates various systemic conditions in a strain dependent . Mercury vapor rapidly crosses the blood-brain barrier( 14. and behavioral effects have been found from mercury vapor at much lower levels than for exposure to methyl mercury(287. enough to contaminate 5 ten acre lakes to the extent there would be dangerous levels in fish(151).186. cremation released over 65 kilograms of mercury per year as emissions. A study in Switzerland found that in that small country. Mercury in solid form is not stable.287.Amalgam fillings. and lead have major effects on classroom behavior. 3 11. Large numbers of animal studieshave documented that genetically susceptible strains are more affected by xenobiotic exposures than less susceptible strains (234.22-24.etc. section III). 7.105.).383.361) Developmental.336.526.287.).).). Additionally cremation of those with amalgam fillings adds to air emissions and deposition onto land and lakes. according to the World Health Organization and other studies (38. This is in addition to air emissions.85. so that within 10 years up to half has been found to have been transferred to the body of the host( l&34.9). endometriosis.304).

Other studies(285b. A population of plant workers with average mercury excretion of 20 ug/ g creatinine was found to have long lasting impairment of neutrophil function(285. tin&us.457. Several doctors have found thiamin(B3). decreased coordination. inositol. and memory. and other neruological condtions(502) Another study found that many of the symptoms and signs of chronic candid&is.readily excrete mercury and are less susceptible. and IgM levels.35). Mercury inhibits production of insulin and is a factor in diabetes and hypoglycemia.128. IgA. Another genetic difference found in animals and humans is cellular retention differences for metals related to the ability to excrete mercury(426).395) found that workers exposed at high levels at least 20 years previous(urine peak levels above 600 ug/L demonstrated significantly decreased strength.etc. and that lower levels of exposure adversely affect some strains but not others. increased tremor.with effects on memory at very low exposure . Both immune cell type Thl and Th2 cytokine responses are involved in autoimmunity(425c). with the potential of inducing type II diabetes .18l. autoimmune antibodies also decline in animals or humans(233. The incidence of autoimmune conditions have increased to the extent this is now one of the leading causes of death among women(450). etc.405). Such levels of mercury exposure were also found to inhibit cellular respiratory burst. polyneuropathy. One genetic factor in Hg induced autoimmunity is major histocompatibility complex(MHC) linked.60. the cells responsible for insulin production can be cytokines( 152.234c. Thirty percent of dentists with more than average exposure were found to have neuropathies and visuogrphic dysfimction(395). Also when a condition has been initiated and exposure levels decline. resulting in more inflammatory damage. etc. Another group of workers with average excretion rates of 24. lability. Long term occupational exposure to low levels of mercury can induce slight cognitive deficits. Higher levels have been found to cause more serious neurological problems (119.449.395c). and folic acid supplementation to alleviate peripheral neuropathies. resulting in susceptibility to chronic autoimmune conditions such as Alzheimer’s. Mercury has been found to affect both Thl and Th2 cytokines causing an increase in inflammatory TIQ In the pancreas.I60.manner. Other studies(285c) found that mercury at levels below the current occupational safety limit causes adverse effects on mood.285. Those with type APOE.). Vit B6. For example it has been found that individuals with genetic blood factor type APOE.285. with significant reductions in insulin need after replacement of amalgam filings and normalizing of blood sugar(35).do not excrete mercury readily and bioaccumulate mercury. fatigue. multiple chemical sensitivity and chronic fatigue syndromes are identical to those of chronic mercurialism and remit after removal of amalgam combined with appropriate supplementation and gave evidence to implicate amalgam as the only underlying etiologic factor that is common to all(404).g.502. whereas those with type APOE. damaged or destroyed by the chronic high levels of cytokines.404. Another study(59) found such impairment of neutrophils decreasesthe body’s ability to combat viruses such as those that cause heart damage.are intermediate to the other 2 types(437. Occupational exposure studies have found mercury impairs the body’s ability to kill Candida albicans by impairment of the Iytic activity of neutrophils and myeloperoxidase in workers whose mercury excretion levels are withing current safety Iimits(285.7 1bd.467).7 ug/ g creatinine had long lasting increases in humoral immunological stimulation of IgG. Significant correlations between increasing urine mercury concentrations and prolonged motor and sensory distal Iatencies were established(285g). etc. pain. as early as age 40. decreased sensation.even in otherwise healthy individuals with no other risk factors for diabetes(501). paresthesia. personality.404). decreased stress tolerance. including inducing of autoimmunity. Parkinson’s.342. 11. Elemental mercury can affect both motor and sensory peripheral nerve conduction and the degree of involvement is related to time-integrated urine mercury concentrations.404b). Other studies have also found a connection between mercury with peripheral neuropathy and pareshesia(I 90.

The U.18. being transferred over a period of time to the host(l5amalgam fillings 19. The following table gives the average daily mercury exposure from saliva alone for those tested.2 ug/ M3 of air.000 persons with amalgam fillings was measured(199).3 micrograms per cubic meter of sir(2). The daily total exposure of mercury from fillings is from 3 to 1000 micrograms per day.209.352. with the average after chewing being 3 times this level.79. The level of mercury in unstimulated saliva was found to average 11.S. EPA Health Standard for elemental mercury exposure(vapor) is 0.179.199.77. 85.199). but adverse effects such as increases in blood pressure and cognitive effects have been documented as low as I ug/L.50. Of Tubingen Health Clinic in which the level of mercury in saliva of 20.182. 1 % had unstimulated levels over 200 ug/L.19.335. and generally was higher for those with more fillings. The upper level of mercury exposure recommended by the German Commission on Human Biomonitoring is 10 micrograms per liter in the blood(39). and even more so for those with more than 4 fillings. It also gives the 84th percentile mercury exposure from saliva for the 20.335. III.35.525.S. Note that 16% of all of those tested with 4 amalgam fillings had daily exposure from their amalgam fillings of over 17 ug per day.).338~/241).36. Several were found to have mercury levels over 1100 q/L. with a warning at ‘/2 ppm (125). The EPA drinking water standard for mercury is 2ppb( 125).100. The U.371. The FDA limit for mercury in seafood is 1 ppm.26.332. or approx. Table: Average daily mercury exposure in saliva by number of amalgam tillings( 199) . based on the average levels found per number of fillings and using daily saliva volumes of 890 ml for unstimulated saliva flow and 80 ml for stimulated flow (estimated from measurements made in the study and comparisons to other studies).182.levels. 42 @day. Since mercury is methylized in the body. Mercury in solid form is not stable due to low vapor pressure and evaporates continuously from in the mouth. More studies found that long term exposure causes increased micronuclei in lymphocytes and significantly increased IgE levels at exposures below current safety levels(128). (see further details continued) A large study was carried out at the Univ.014 micrograms/kilogram body weight(ug/kg) or approximately 1 ug/day for average adult(2 17). some of both types are present in the body. The older World Health Organization( 183) mercury health guideline(PTW1) is 300 ug per week total exposure or approx. Systemic Mercury Intake Level from Amalgam Fillings 1.199. The level of mercury in saliva has been found to be proportional to the number of amalgam fillings. The tolerable daily exnosure level for mercury developed in a report for Health Canada is .38.436. and the MRL For the average adult breathing 20 M3 of for methyl mercury is 0.371). and 10 % had unstimulated mercury saliva levels of over 100 Q/L.83. 14 ug for the ATSDR acute oral toxicicity standard.211. Mercury in the presence of other metals in the oral environment undergoes galvanic action.303.3 1. causing movement out of amalgam and into the oral mucosa and saliva( 174.299..1 ug/kg body weight per day or 7 ug for the average adult(2). this amounts to an exposure of 4 or 6 ug/day for the 2 elemental mercury standards.192.142. as well as maternal linked to retardation( 1 IO) and birth mental being exposure defects(23. with impacts higher in low birth weight babies(39).37.83. ATSDR health standard(MRL) for mercury vapor is 0. with the average exposure being above 10 micrograms per day and the average uptake over 5 @day (183.3 @kg body weight/day(217).361.etc. The WHO limit for women of childbearing age at which there is a significant risk of developmental disabilities in fetal exposure is 10 ppm in hair or 40 ug/L in mother’s blood( 183) 2.298.6 ug Hg/L. The EPA health guideline for methyl mercury is 0. air per day.241.000 tested by number of fillings.183.

A study at Stockholm Univ. and many tested in past studies have exceeded the older and higher WHO guideline for mercury( 183). The authors of the Tubingen study calculated that based on the test results with estimates of mercury from food and oral air included. bruxism. Chewing gum or drinking hot liquids can result in 10 to 100 times normal levels of mercury exposure from amalgams during that period( 15. type of tooth paste used.6 61. etc. for persons with from 18 to 82 filling surfaces.179. As can be seen most people with several fillings have daily exposure exceeding the Health Canada TDE and the U.209.5 8 9.7 ug/L (292c). etc. for subjects with number of filling surfaces ranging from 18 to 82. amalgam particles swallowed. Daily Hg(ug) 6. Daily exposure from intraoral air ranged from 20 to 125 ug of mercury vapor. The Tubingen study did not assessthe significant exposure route of intraoral air and lungs. Most of those whose intraoral air mercury levels were measured exceeded Gov’t health guidelines for workplace exposure(2). The studies also determined that the number of fillings is the most important factor related to mercury level. Other studies found similar resuIts(83. Different filling composition/manufacturer can also make a difference in exposure levels( as will be firther discussed). (6.4 16. and neural path transfer of mercury absorbed by oral mucosa.S. The main exposure paths for mercury from amalgam fillings are absorption by the lungs from intraoral air.8 24. EPA and ATSDR health guideline for mercury(2. etc.335. with average mercury level in unstimulated saliva of 29 ug/L( 1S). 3.17. while a Norwegian study found the average level in oral air to be 0.79. over 40 % of those tested in the study received daily mercury exposurehigher than the WHO standard(PTWI). whether person chews gum or drinks hot liquids.364. gums. Some of the factors that will be seen to influence this variability include composition of the amalgam. One study that looked at this estimated a daily average burden of 20 ug from ionized mercury from amalgam fillings absorbed through the lungs( I9 I). and that the majority of mercury exposure was from elemental vapor.83.8 21.133.etc.5 Saliva tests for mercury are commonly performed in Europe. and many other studies have been carried out with generally comparable results(292. there is considerable variability for a given number of fillings.211.5 26 30. and 175 ug/day(352).174.5 35 41.348.5 I1 12. without consideration of exposure from food. with age of filling being much less significant(3 l9b).7 56.3 22.436) The sublingual venal olfactory. with some with exposure levels over 1000 ug/day. Another study at a Swedish University(335) measured intraoral air mercury levels from fiIlings of from 20 to 125 ug per day. Another large German study(352) found significantly higher levels than the study summarized here. vapor absorbed by saliva or swallowed.79.).31.3 15. The average for those with 4 or less fillings was 8 ug/L( 18).3 46.(335) made an effort to determine the respective parts in exposure made by these paths.9b.4 64.216.18.199.. It found that the majority of excretion is through feces.9 18.5 43.222. olfactory.317. sublingual venal.6 50. and some individuals have been found to have intraoral air mercury levels above 400 ug/ M3 (3 19).3 84th percentile(ug) 17 23. oral environmental factors such as acidity.209.319.335. Daily excretion .77.8 ug/M3(176).94. While it will be seen that there is a significant correlation between exposure levels and number of amalgam surfaces and exposure generally increases as number of fillings increases.182.34.35).352). 32.3 19. Three studies that looked at a population with more than 12 fillings found generally higher levels than this study.Number of fillings: 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Av.95). and neural pathways are direct pathways to the brain and CNS bypassing the liver’s detox iystem and appear to represent major pathways of exposure(34) based on the high levels of mercury vapor and methyl mercury found in saliva and oral cavity of those with amalgam.4 14 15. and membrane.8 48.

etc. but approx 60% of swallowed mercury vapor is absorbed(292. with most of the rest being converted to inorganic forms apparently. compared to the reference average level for those without amalgam fillings of .274.18.18. 85.80.) Most with several amalgams had daily fecal excretion levels over 50 @day. with fillings appearing to be responsible for over 75% of total mercury.likely originating as vapor.85). The total mercury level had a significant correlation to the number of amalgam fillings. At least 80% of particle mercury is excreted.287.349.348)). mean= 7 ug/L. kidneys(85. but some mercury is also excreted though the kidneys in urine and in sweat.386.)e.34. (I 4.S.83. Other studies had similar findings(6. The feces mercury was essentially all inorganic with particles making up at most 25%. being more variable than other paths.55 ug5.205.363). with 93% being inorganic mercury.174.370). Elemental mercury vapor is transmitted throughout the body via the blood and readily enters cells and crosses the blood-brain barrier. Elemental mercury swallowed in saliva can be absorbed in the digestive tract by the blood or bound in sulfhydryl compounds and excreted through the feces.85)heart(59. 20 % of swallowed mercury sulfhydryl compounds are absorbed in the digestive tract. and the majority being mercury sulfuhydryl compounds. also bioaccumulates in the brain/CNS (301. While mercury vapor and methyl Hg readily cross cell membranes and the blood-brain barrier.5 times that of controls and more than the U. This level of mercury gives a daily excretion of over 30 micrograms per day. placenta.14.436) with the half life in the brain being over 20 years. 80% of swallowed methyl mercury is absorbed(335.361). The reference average level of mercury in feces(dry weight) for those tested at Doctors Data Lab with amalgam fillings is . The average in those with amalgam was 4. Significant levels are able to cross the blood brain barrier. (13 times that of the population w/o amalgam).370). .19. Approx.138.16.252).94).15.79. In a population of women tested In the Middle East(254).9 amalgam surfaces and range of 0 to 60 surfaces found the average urine level was 3. with 79 % being organic mercury.etc.3 11. Thus the level in the brain and heart is higher after exposure to Hg vapor than for other forms(360.liver.26 mg/kg.36. I ug/L. the number of fillings was highly correlated with the mercury level in urine. and oral mucosa( 174.77.17.25. The average level of those with over 49 surfaces was over 8 times that of controls. Other labs found similar results(386). EPA maximum limit for mercury in drinking water(2 18).through feces amountedto from 30 to 190 ug of mercury.115.3 1. while another study(363) found on average 77% of the mercury in the occipital cortex was inorganic. military population(49) with an average of 19.192.348). The same study found that the average blood level was 2.273. but some patients are much higher(93).329.).S.273).1 ug5. The range of mercury excreted in urine per day by those with amalgams is usually less than 15 ug(6.335. A large NIDH study of the U.348. A study of mercury species found blood mercury was 89% organic and urine mercury was 87% inorganic(349b). at much higher levels than inorganic mercury and also higher levels than organic mercury. Their study and others reviewed found that at least 80% of mercury vapor reaching the lungs is absorbed and enters the blood from which it is taken to all other parts of the body(335.31. A review determined that approx.61.335.19.348.02 mg/kg(528). once in cells they form inorganic mercury that does not readily cross cell membranes or the blood brain barrier readily and is responsible for the majority of toxicity effects.20. Nutrient transport and renal function were also found to be adversely affected by higher levels of mercury in the urine.83. and also cellular membranes into major organs such as the heart since the oxidation rate of HgO though relatively fast is slower than the time required by pumped blood to reach these organs(290. The primary detoxification/excretion pathway for mercury absorbed by the body is as mercury-glutathione compounds through the liver/bile loop to feces( 111. As is known from autopsy studies for those with chronic exposure such as amalgam fillings mercury (1. and the placenta of pregnant women(38.327. 196.199. From the study results it was found that each 10 amalgam surfaces increased urine mercury by approx.49.

16. 191.91). Amalgam manufacturers.77-83. Peopole who tested hypothyroid usually have significantly higher levels of homocysteine and cholesterol.35. elastic fibers.100) Average mercury levels in gum tissue near amalgam fillings are about 200 ppm. (14. There is in most cases chronic inflammatory response or macrophagic reaction the metals(47). which are documented factors in heart also had high Ievels of 50% of those testing hypothyroid. Government health agencies such as Health Canada. Mercury and silver from fillings can be seen in the tissues as amalgam “tatoos”. which are documented to be commonly caused by Thyroid mercury(369. These levels are among the highest levels ever measured in tissues of living organisms.292.303).OOOug) of mercury. and are the result of flow of mercury into the mucous membrane because of galvanic currents with the mucous membrane serving as cathode and amalgam as cathode( 192).35).349.48.273. ranging from 50 to 90 % of total exposure. striated muscle fibers. or animals that died from mercury poisoning.89.-gold and mercury) causes galvanic action. and acini of minor salivary glands. averaging about 80% of total systemic intake.29.459.35. which have been found to accumulate in the oral mucosa as granules along collagen bundles. vapor currents. those who died in Minamata. Studies have shown that mercury in the gums such as from root caps for root canaled teeth result in chronic inflammation.138.61.g. endothelial cells. Mercury levels in saliva and feces usually decline between 80 to 95% (79.82.130. usually in the form of a foreign body granuloma with multinucleated giant cells of the foreign body and Langhans types( 192). in addition to migration to other parts of the body(200. Having dissimilar metals in the teeth(e.36. with levels in roots tips as high as 4 1 ppm( 192).382.192.47.292. Dept. Studies have shown mercury travels from amalgam into dentin.27. These levels are much higher than the FDA/EPA action level for prohibiting use of food with over 1 ppm mercury. multinucleated giant cells. nerve sheaths.129.216.48).348.503b.94. It is well documented that amalgam fillings are a major factor . 196.525. These are also known factors in developing arteriosclerotic vascular disease.2 11.204). have been found to play a major role in chronic heart conditions such as clogged arteries and chronic heart failure(5 IO). Dark granules are also present intracellularly within macrophages. imbalances.S.79.25. and dental materials researchers advise against having amalgam in the mouth with other metals such as gold(446. German oral surgeons have found levels in the jaw bone under large amalgam fillings or gold crowns over amalgam as high as 5760 ppm with an average of 800 ppm(436).303. The average amalgam filling has approximately 0. but many dentists ignore the warnings.I I I Thus inorganic mercury in the brain has a very long half life(85.47. exceeding the highest levels found in chronically exposed chloralkali workers. dental school texts.274.25.50. Mercury vapor from amalgam is the single largest source of svstemic mercury intake for persons with amalgam fillings. disease. and fibroblasts. and the gums. blood vessels. membranes.19. After filling replacement levels of mercury in the blood. Likewise the level is tremendously over the U.161.19.35). and feces typically temporarily are increased for a few days.35.196.17.273. electrical higher and levels much mercury levels in tissues. Average mercury levels are often 1000 ppm near a gold cap on an amalgam filling due to higher currents when gold is in contact with amalgam (30.30. As much as 50% of mercury in fillings has been found to have vaporized after 5 years and 80% by 20 years(182.etc.183.335.57. Concentrationsof mercury in oral mucosa for a population of patients with 6 or more amalgam fillings taken during oral surgery were 20 times the level of controls(l74). 4.167. urine.390.386) 5.).332. root tips. hyperhomocystemic or and 90% either were homocysteine(hyperhomocysteinenic) hypercholesterolemic(5 10). Of Health/EPA drinking water limit for mercury which is 2 parts per billion(2 18).196.).5 grams(500. but levels usually decline in blood and urine within 6 months to from 60 to 85% of the original levels(57. and (182.

315.25.273/274) (g) brain occipital cortex (14.335).174. and copper which also have toxic effects.25.332.298.329.19.80.85.366/274) renal(kidney) cortex( 14. and 1% had over 160 ug/day( 199).20. oral gum tissue inflamation.76. and bone loss(29.79.183. This has also been found to be a factor in the much higher release of mercury vapor by the modem non gamma-two amalgams.335.85.79. and anterior horn motor neurons (48.49.117.112.) (k) fetal and infant liver/brain levels(61 .138.49.34. Numerous other studies also support this finding(Section IV). 7.117. they have been found to be instable in a different mechanism when subjected to wear/polishing/ chewing/ brushing: they form droplets of mercury on the surface of the amalgams( 182.327. more neurotoxic than with organic tin compounds formed in the body being even mercury(5 1. .238). In a large German study.etc). 10 ug/day. Recent studies have concluded that becausethe high mercury release levels of modem amalgams. with the average being at least 7 micrograms per day (18.9.93.297).7d etc.83.303.366) motor function areas of the brain & CNS: brain stem. cerebellum.85.186.176.100.30.366) 09 (I) liver( 14.21 l)(usually not as strong as other measures) @I urine mercury level (38. The level of mercury and copper released from high copper amalgam is as much as 50 times that of low copper amalgams( 19 1).79. Amalgam also releasessignificant amounts of silver.134.262).254.348.35.273.85.199.19.2 11.22) related to maternal fillings. The periodontal ligament of extracted teeth is often not fully removed and results in incomplete jawbone regrowth resulting in a pocket where mouth bacteria in anaerobic conditions along with similar conditions in the dead tooth produce extreme toxins similar to botulism which like mercury are extremely toxic and disruptive to necessarybody enzymatic processes at the cellular level.79.82.in gingivitis. Studies have consistently found modem high copper non gamma-two amalgams have a high negative current and much greater release of mercury vapor than conventional silver amalgams and are more cytotoxic (35.).77.182.115.199.19. The methods and results of the Tubingen study( 199) were similar to those of other German studies(292. tin. the median daily exposure for those with fillings through saliva was approx. 138.57.16.299). while alloys containing copper or iron were very corrosive in acid environments(297). The number of amalgam surfaces has a statistically significant correlation to : (a) blood plasma mercury level (17. bleeding.179.348.222.3 17) (4 feces mercury (25.23.292. 3 17.83.85.77.211.254.292.442. dorsal (i> root ganglia.99. While the non gamma-two amalgams were developed to be less corrosive and less prone to marginal fractures than conventional silver amalgams. Clinics have found the increased toxicity and higher exposures to be factors in increased incidence of chronic degenerative diseases(35.21 ab.3 15.222.23 1.89.18.16.273. A person with amalgam fillings has daily systemic intake from mercury vapor of between 3 and 70 micrograms of mercury. 6.291.20. rhombencephalon.335) saliva and oral mucosa( 18.133. 4% of those with fillings had daily exposurethrough saliva of over 80 ug/day. comparable to the similar enzymatic disruptions caused by mercury and previously discussed(35.167.22.83.176.2 11. mercury poisoning from amalgam fillings is widespread throughout the population”(95.386) 69 (f) pituitary gland (19.335).77.335) 0 oral air( 16. The component mix in amalgams has also been found to be an important factor in mercury vapor emissions.138.199. Alloys containing tin such as amalgam were found to have the highest galvanic corrosion rates.3 15.437).

315.138. 303. Mercury also is transported along the axons of nerve fibers (5.183). Mercury vapor (and bacteria in teeth ) have paths to the rest of the body. Mercury (especially mercury vapor) rapidly crosses the blood brain barrier and is stored preferentially in the pituitary gland( 14. EPA health guideline level(199) of 0.25.99. 9.217.183. and using fluoride toothpaste significantly increase the intake(15.137.) German studiesof mercury loss from vapor in unstimulated saliva found the saliva of those with amalgams had at least 5 times as much mercury as for controls( 138.S. The range in one study was 2. Oral bacteria streptococommus mitior.319. Thus mercury has a very long half life in the brain. (34.98.80.335.3 15).38.1 ug/kg body weight/day( 199).3 18). hypothalamus(348c).35.34.506). and nerves. in(35)).199. Vapor emissionsrange up to 200 ug/M3 (35) and are much higher after chewing( 15. and over 50% of those with 6 or more fillings had daily exposures more than the U. Teeth are living tissue and have massive communication with the rest of the body via blood. Normal blood levels are less than 20 ppb. 292. The blood and urine mercury load of a person with amalgam fillings is often 5 times that of a similar person without.209.209.274.36.136.sanguis were all found to methylate mercury(81). At least 30% of those having amalgam fillings tested in a large German study had ingested mercury levels exceeding the WHO PTWI mercury standard of 43 ug/day (199. I 1.134-137.83.93) 8. 10.85. Some mercury entering nasal passages is absorbed directly into the olfactory lobe and brain without coming from blood(34.317.349.292.348. High levels of Vit B12 in the system also have been found to result in increased methyl mercury concentrations in the liver and brain(51).182. Methyl mercury is more toxic to some body processes than inorganic mercury. lymph.183.82.17.319).327.199. adrenal gland. After chewing. and also crosses the blood-brain barrier readily.8 1.85.34. Mercury has a long half life in the body and over 20 years in the brain.7 ppb(85). and S. and one study found on average that 77% of the mercury in the occipital cortex was inorganic(363). 12. but health effects have been observed in patients in the upper part of this range.18. drinking hot liquids.199.93. those with amalgams had levels over 50 times higher than those without. Other studies have found similar amounts( 18.222.35.225. brushing or polishing.261.and a large German study( 199) found median exposure through saliva alone for those with fillings to be about 10 @day.25. (20. Once mercury vapor or methyl mercury are converted to inorganic mercury in cells or the brain.348.83.etc.211. Mercury from amalgam is methylated by bacteria.182. Methyl mercury is 10 times more potent in causing genetic damage than any other known chemical (Ramel.503b.182.35. ATSDR and EPA health guideline levels (2.211.273.S. The median daily exposure through saliva for those with 10 or more fillings was over 10 times that of those with no fXlings( 199.100. and chronic low level intake results in a slow accumulation in body tissues.34.Total intake is proportional to the number and extent of amalgam surfaces.etc.89.329). with many having several fillings with over 10 times that level.mutans.3 17. Mercury level in saliva has been found to give much better indication of body levels than blood or urine levels(36).16.350).327).31.( 14. N-acetylcysteine .38. A Swedish study estimated the total amount mercury swallowed per day from intra-oral vapor was 10 micrograms per day( 177).19. The level of organic mercury in saliva is significantly related to the number of amalgam fillings(506).3 15. and the average level of exposure was 29 @day for those with at least 12 occlusal surfaces(18).209). galvanic electric currents(35). but other factors such as chewing gum.364).79. thyroid gland(99). the mercury does not readily cross cell membranes or the blood-brain barrier.28.3 18) The average blood level for one large population was 5 ug/l( 176). and occipital cortex in direct proportion to the number and extent of amalgam surfaces (14.292.) 13.4 to 28.366) Thus mercury has a greater effect on the functions of these areas. and candida albicans in the mouth and intestines(5 1.S. Most people with fillings have daily exposure levels exceeding the U.287.348.183.292.20.

291. stuffy nose.348. and developmental behavioral effects from vapor have been found at levels considerably below that required for similar effects by methyl mercury (20.38. The highest level is in the pituitary gland of the fetus which affects development of the endocrine system.20).20.386.60.294.282). The fetal mercury content after maternal inhalation of mercury vapor was found to be higher than in the mother( 4.186).22. metallic taste. From clinical experience some of the symptoms of mercury sensitivity/mercury poisoning include chronic fatigue. ringing ears. asthma(8.508-5 IO). plugged ears.(NAC) has been found to be effective at increasing glutathione levels and chelating methyl mercury(54.165. and also with the level in mother’s milk (19. The level of mercury in breast milk was found to be significantly correlated with the number of amalgam fillings(61). The saliva and feces of children with amalgams have approximately 10 times the level of mercury as children without(25.304). and young children is directly proportional to the number of amalgam surfaces in the mother’s mouth.S.112. liver.l82. muscle weakness. chronic skin problems. Fertile women should not be exposed to vapor levels above government health 304).264.). spacy feeling.35.61 .366). One study found a 60% increase in average cord blood mercury level between 1980 and 1990 in Japan(186). 3 13. chest pain. 16.186. The level of total mercury in nursing infants was significantly correlated to total mercury level in maternal hair(22. dry crusts in nose. 10 times that of amalgam-free mothers.210. (20.59.) Mercury from amalgam in the blood of pregnant women crosses the placenta and appears in amniotic fluid and fetal blood. 186.528).304.26. There is a significant correlation between number of amalgam fillings of the mother and the level of the fetus and older infants(20. with milk from mothers with 7 or more fillings having levels in milk approx.304. ATSDR mercury health MRL of 0. The level of mercury in maternal hair was significantly correlated to level of mercury in nursing infants(279).36.61. meconium. and in a Norwegian group with average age 12 there was a significant correlation between urine mercury level and number of amalgam fillings( 167).75.343.2 mcg/M3 (2.97).503.23. IV.304.28I . cardiovascular problems.38. A group of German children with amalgam fillings had urine mercury level 4 times that of a control group without amalgams(76).268-270.304.9 ug/L. diabetes(35). and many thousands who have had amalgam fillings removed(most) have had health problems and symptoms alleviated or greatly improved(see Section VI).304).23. Amalgam results in chronic exposure . insomnia.217).119c.20. hyperventilation.199.212.109. Several authors suggest use of early mother’s milk as a screen for potential problems since it is correlated both to maternal and infant mercury levels.112. chills. new born. frequent urination.182. and many types of neurological problems(21. gastrointestinal problems(2lc). dizziness. guidelines(38.36.6 1. The level of mercury in the tissue of the fetus.9l.2 to 6. and pituitary gland soon after placement (20.22. The milk sampled ranged from 0. Dental amalgams are the main source of mercury in breast milk( 112.290. 14.23 1.287). 17.22.112.148. The U.34.etc.391) and mercury is often stored in breast milk and the fetus at much higher levels than that in the mother’s tissues (19.61. Mercury is transferred mainly by binding to amino acids like albumin(339). rhinitis. Immune System Effects and Autoimmune Disease 1.70.61.etc.338).126).23.186. and placenta was higher than that in mother’s blood (22.or have amalgams placed or removed during pregnancy (20. and much higher levels in saliva after chewing.23. immune and autoimmune diseases. Milk increases the bioavailability of mercury( 112.49.69. headaches.23.162.204.504.3 15.287.45.71.361) The level of mercury in umbilical cord blood. 246. 287.2IO.255. Levels for exposure to mercury vapor has been found to be approx 10 times that for maternal exposure to an equivalent dose of inorganic mercury(28 1.339. Many thousands of people with symptoms of mercury toxicity have been found in tests to have high levels of mercury. irritability. chronic skin problems.3 1.279).

32. and autoimmunity( 181. Another amalgam effect found is increase in the average blood white cell count significantly (35). eczema.355) Interferon syntheses was reduced in a concentration dependent manner with either mercury or methyl mercury as well as other immune functions(l31). and impairs the T-4/T-8 ratio.369).270.31.3 14.355342.38. and inactivating or inhibiting enzyme or coenzyme systems or hormones involving the sulphydrol protein (SH)groups( 18 1. inhibition of enzymes. immunotoxicity.323. and depressive symptoms(460).338. Workers occupationally exposed to mercury at levels within guidelines have been found to have impairment of lytic activity of neutrophils and reduced ability of neutrophils to kill invaders such as candida(285.404).3 14.131. inhibiting generation of GSH by lymphocytes and monocytes(252). with a rapid and sustained elevation in intracellular levels of calcium induced(3 16. impairing cellular respiration and cellular energy.313. Mercury also inhibited B-cell and T-cell RNA and DNA synthesis.which result in neurotoxicity.314. MS.245).45. depleting the thiol reserves of cells.405). T-cells were susceptible to Hg induced cellular death (apoptosis). anemia. and hormones. inhibiting ability to secrete interleukin IL-1 and IL-2R.369. impaired cellular respiration. in the range of 10 to 25 ug/L.285). and immune reactivity or autoimmunity. and low doses also induce aggregation of cell surface proteins and dramatic tyrosine phosporlation of cellular proteins related to asthma. 2.333). and glomerulonephritis. Candida overgrowth results in production of the highly toxic canditoxin and ethanol which are known to cause fatigue.226. One study found that insertion of amalgam fillings or nickel dental materials causes a suppression of the number of T-lymphocytes(270).424. Low T4/T8 ratio has been found to be a factor in lupus.405.84.405.129. From animal studies it has been determined that mercury damages T-cells by generating reactive oxygen species(ROS).60. allergic diseases such as eczema and lupus (234. and Cl groups in proteins. so most health effects are of the chronic rather than acute in nature. gastrointestinal/metabolic effects. The inhibition of these tinctions by 50 % occurred rapidly at very low levels. inflammatory bowel disease. Thus some of the main mechanisms of toxic effects of metals include cytotoxicity. HgC12 also inhibits aquaporin-mediated water transport in red blood cells(479) as well as oxygen transport by hemoglobin(232). toxicity.226. Development of Th2 type immune responses deactivate such defenses(404b). changes in cellular membrane permeability. Mercury vapor exposure at very low levels adversely affects the immune system (17.rather than acute exposure and accumulation in body organs over time. along with OH. and generationof lipid peroxides or free radicals. Mercury caused adverse effects on both neutrophil and macrophage function and after depletion of thiol reserves.118. NH2. but serious health problems have been documented to be related to amalgam and researchershave attributed some deaths as due to amalgam (356.(226.296. Low doses also induced autoimmuntiy in some species( 18 1. Both forms are immontoxic and cytotoxic ant very low levels seen in individuals. Mercury induced autoimmunity in animals and humans has been found to be associated with mercury’s expression of major histocompatibility complex(MHC) class II genes(314.129. Immune Thl cells inhibit candida by cytokine related activation of macrophages and neutrophils. Mercury inhibits macrophage and neutrophil defense against candida by its affects on Thl and Th2 cytokine effects( 18 1. .285. All types of cells exhibited a dose dependent reduction in cellular glutathione when exposed to mercury. Both mercuric and methyl mercury chlorides caused dose dependent reduction in immune B-cell production.226.35). causing destruction of cytoplasmic organelles with loss of cell membrane integrity. causing activation of glial cells to produce superoxide and nitric oxide.27.404. hormonal effects.165.442). coenzymes.272.43).425c).165).18l. damaging and decreasing the dimension of mitochondria. (3 16) B-cell expression of IgE receptors were significantly reduced(3 16. binding with mitochondria.

239. etc. This is in addition to mercury’s effect on metallothionein and copper homeostasis as previously discussed(477). I 19) These effects can be reduced by zinc suppIementation(464.). gingko biloba. like SOD function. However methyl mercury inhibits macrophage functions such as migration and phagocytosis at lower levels.13 1). and non-familial ALS(489. Similar results have been found for treatment of cancer(35).43.489). Large numbers of people undergoing amalgam removal have clinically demonstrated significant improvements in the immune system parameters discussed here and recovery and significant improvement in immune system problems in most cases surveyed(Section VI). Body mercury burden was found to play a role in resistant infections such as Chlamydia trachomatis and herpes family viral infections. which have been found to affect glutamate mediated excitability and apoptosis of nerve cells and effects on mitochondria(495. which in turn leads to increased levels of superoxide due to toxic metal exposure.25 1).494. Both mercuric and methyl mercury were equally highly toxic at the cellular level and in causing cell volume reductions( 13 1). 38% to Au and 40% to Pd They removed LST positive dental metals from the oral cavities of patients.464.38). Amalgam fillings have also been found to be positively associated with mouth cancer(206.256.283). Mutations in the copper/zinc enzyme superoxide dismustase(SOD) have been shown to be a major factor in the motor neuron degeneration in conditions like familial ALS and similar effects on Cu/Zn SOD to be a factor in other conditions such as autism.427.180). Mercury by its effect of weakening the immune system contributes to increased chronic diseases and cancer(91.496.239. 5.495. lipoic acid. disabling early control of viruses and leading to enhanced infection(l31.403).496.43.222. Some of the antioxidants were also found to have protective effects through increasing catalase and SOD action. White cell levels decline after total dental revision(TDR) and some have .180.35.etc.495. Ceruloplasmin in plasma can be similarly affected by copper metabolism disfunction. Mercury from amalgam interferes with production of cytokines that activate macrophage and neutrophils. 4.1 I 1).234.463).52 I). Animal studies have confirmed that mercury increases effects of the herpes simplex vet-is type 2 for example( 13 I).using T-cells of peripheral blood. This condition can result in zinc deficient SOD and oxidative damage involving nitric oxide.The increased white count usually normalizes after amalgam removal. Vit E. and is often a factor in neurodegeneration(489). Alzheimer’s. peroxynitrite. 3.34. Similar results have been obtained at other cIinics(455). camosine. Improvement of symptoms was obtained in 82% (160/l 96) of the patients within l-10 months. Mercury also blocks the immune function of magnesium and zinc (198. Mercury from amalgam fillings has also been found to cause increase in white blood cells and in some cases to result in leukemia(35. Nacetylcysteine. and lipid peroxidation(495. 87% showed LST positive reactions to Hg.469.25 1.38. it was found many cases can only be effectively treated by antibiotics after removal of body mercury burden(cilantro tablets were used with followup antibiotics)(25 1.25 1. Copper is an essential trace metal which plays a fundamental role in the biochemistry of the nervous system(489. Coenzyme QlO.464). The low Zn levels result in deficient CuZnSuperoxide dismustase (CuZnSOD).144. Several chronic neurological conditions involving copper metabolic disorders are well documented like Wilson’s Diseaseand Menkes Disease.(444. Exposure to mercury vapor causes decreased zinc and methionine availability.40. whose deficiencies are known to cause significant neurological effects(461.38. as well as supplementation with antioxidants and nitric oxide-suppressing agents and peroxynitrite scavengers such as Vit C.237.495).355. Several studies found adverse health effects at mercury vapor levels of 1 to 5 mcg/M3 (35).143. while reducing lipid peroxidations(494a).464. 87% to Ni.237. Antigen specific LST-test was performed on a large number of patients with atopic eczema(323).495. depressesrates of methylation. and increased free radicals-all factors in increased susceptibility to cancer(l4.180. Parkinson’s.

Controls without CNS problems did not have such positive correlations. 87. 7.141. the following percentages were immune reactive to the following metals that have very common exposures: aluminum(91%).375.101.232. and glycine in CFS.94.3 13).118.81.3 13. ATCH indicative of hypothalamic deficiency such as relative glucocorticoid deficiency(472). extraction of root canaled teeth.313.182.5 ug/ml).313).235.234. tin(32%).1 I 8.288). cobalt(78%).342.recovered from leukemia after removal of amalgam fillings in a very short time(35. Removal of amalgam fillings usually results in cure of such lesions(60.133. copper(32%). arsenic(86%).1 52) Nickel and beryllium are 2 other metals commonly used in dentistry that are very carcinogenic. mercury(93%). Tests have found a significant portion of people to be in this category and thus more affected by exposure to amalgam than others(see section V). which includes amalgam replacement.60.342. CFS and Fibromyalgia patients have also been found to commonly have abnormal enzymatic processes that affect among other things the sodium-potassium ATPase energy channels(473).160) as well as with MRI positive patients for brain damage. and treatment of cavitations where necessary(35).l SO). silver(25%). The majority of those with CFS having SPECT scans were found to have 5 times more areas of regional brain damage and reduced blood flow in the cerebral areas (47 1). cadmium(63%). low level mercury exposure was found to causeadverse immune system response.456). gold.468). chromium(83%).202.75. (13 I. including effects on vitro production of tumor necrosis factor TNF alfa and reductions in interleukin-1 .nickel. antimony(36%). citrate.130. beryllium(74%).78. including to mercury preservatives such as thimerosal. palladium.369. Among a group of patients testing positive as allergic to mercury. Of the many thousands who have had the Clifford immune reactivity test(445). and trimethyl amine oxide in FM(474). lead(68%). taurine.212.140. replacement of metal crowns over amalgam. These effects along with reductions in red blood cells oxygen carrying capability often result in fatigue and reduced energy levels as well as neurological effects (35.86.82.212.119.468).118. toxic. 6. blocking the ATP energy function (35.338~). 94% of such patients had significant immune reactions to inorganic mercury(MELISA test) and 72% had immune reactions to low concentrations of HgCl2(<0.168. Toxic/allergic reactions to metals such as mercury often result in lichen planus lesions in oral mucosa or gums and play a roll in pathogenesis of periodontal disease. A high correlation has been found between patients subjectively diagnosed with CNS & systemic symptoms suggestive of mercury intoxication and immune reactivity to inorganic mercury(MELISA test. A high percentage of such patients test immune reactive to many of the toxic metals. nickel crowns.90.60.90. Nickel ceramic crowns and root canals have also been found to be a factor in some breast cancer and some have recovered after TDR. The majority studied were also found to have increased Th2 inflammatory cytokine activity and a blunted DHEA response curve to I.palladium. choline. 61% also had .43. and nickel(46. A high percentageof patients with oral mucosal problems along with other autoimmune problems such as CFS have significant immune reactions to mercury.35. People with chronic and immune reactive problems are increasing finding dental materials are a factor in their problems and getting biocompatiblity tests run to test their immune reactivity to the various dental materials used.84. Similarly nickel crowns and gold crowns over amalgam have been found to be a factor in lupus(456. palladium(32%).456.V.232. This also results in inflammatory processes that cause muscle tissue damage and result in higher levels of urinary excretion of creatinine . for which mercury is a known cause(43. Mercury. and gold induce autoimmunity in genetically predisposed or highly exposed individuals(3 14. and cause DNA malformations(35. and higher levels of excretion of choline. nickel(98%).229) and Belle’s Palsy from which some have recovered after TDR and Felderkrais exercises(35). Mercury also interrupts the cytochrome C oxidase system. zinc(33%).

381.342.468. 342. The rates of sensitization were even higher in some groups of CFS patients.369. such as found more frequently in patients with HLA-DRA antigens(375.3% to palladium. The improvement in symptoms and lymphocyte reactivity imply that most of the Hg-induced lymphocyte reactivity is allergenic in nature.I 68. Other studies of patients suffering from chronic fatigue found similar results(369. In general immune activation from toxics such as heavy metals resulting in cytokine release and abnormalities of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis can cause changes in the brain.86. eczema.60). the following were the percentages testing positive: nickel.35. Such symptoms usually improve significantly after amalgam removal. Such studies have also found that .375. Although patch tests for mercury allergy are often given for unresolved oral symptoms.) Also using mercury in a patch test has resulted in some adverse health effects.I I 1 1 1 I D I I I I 1 I 1 I I 1 I I immune reaction to phenylHg. Scleroderma. silver. and autoimmune thyroidititis. Such hypersensitivity has been found most common in those with genetic predisposition to heavy metal sensitivity(342.385. with over 20 % being highly reactive to each of these metals(375). palladium. In a group of patients tested by MELISA before and after amalgam removal at a clinic in Uppsala Sweden.468). After amalgam removal the immune reactivity to all of these metals other than nickel declined significantly.453. Only 2% were worse.375).60. and oral lichen planus. cadmium. 8.222.35. lupus.34%. and 76% reported significant long term health improvements after 2 years.118. 10% of controls had significant immune reactions to HgCl and 8.12%. CFS. Of the over 3. sleep disturbances. inorganic mercury.10 1.456).etc.2 12. cadmium. diabetes. palladium. myalgia. phenol mercury.459. with most patients also reactive to one or more other metals such as palladium.90. were able to detect subjectively when a patch test used mercury salts in a double blind study(373). gold. Fibromyalgia. muscosketal pain.section VI). and autoimmunity have been increasing rapidly in recent years(405). etc.375. For groups with suspected autoimmune diseases such as neurological problems. over 70% had significant immune reaction to inorganic mercury and 50% to nickel.1 l%. Patients with other systemic neurological or immune symptoms such as arthritis. and methyl mercury. A high percentage were also reactive to nickel in both groups. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.369. The study concluded that immune reactivity to mercury and palladium is common and appears to be allergenic/immune related in nature since immune reactivity declines when exposure levels are reduced.375). A group of patients that had amalgams removed because of chronic health problems. and MELISA test found significant reduction in lymphocyte reactivity compared to pre removal tests(342.50d).382.445.23%. which has been commonly used in root canals and cosmetics(3 13. lead. Of a group of 86 patients with CFS symptoms. and severe psychological symptoms(379-382. most of the patients tested positive to inorganic mercury and most of such patients health improved significantly and immune reactivity declined after amalgam removal.000 patients tested for lymphocyte reactivity to metals(60.369.45g. 78% reported significant health improvements after replacement of amalgam fillings within a relatively short period. Other studies have also found relatively high rates of allergic reactions to inorganic mercury and nickel(8 1. Mercury has been found to impair conversion of thyroid T4 hormone to the active T3 form as well as causing autoimmune thyroiditis common to such patients(369. Of 50 patients suffering from serious fatigue referred for MELISA test(369).3 I 3.35. gold and phenyl mercury all had highly significant differences from the control group. MS.323. this is not generally recommended as a high percentage of such problems are resolved irrespective of the outcome of a patch test(87.369.375). fatigue.168b. the patients reactivity to inorganic mercury. chemical sensitivities.453.1%. Conditions involving allergies.382. also often recover or improve significantly after amalgam replacement (12. epilepsy.229. 60) such as profound fatigue. ALS.382. A significant portions of the population appear to fall in this category. gastrointestinal and neurological problems as are seen in CFS.1 l%.113.383).13%. CFS.

3 13).60. lack of strength/force to resolve doubts or resist obsessions or compulsions.269. syndrome(CFS) through its effects on ATP and immune system(lymphocute reactivity.3 14). endometriosis (1.215. Such deficiencies can be due to genetic predisposition.270.465.35. selfeffacement. 9.480-483.33e. Mercury exposure through dental fillings appears to be a major factor in chronic fatigue 11. reaction to mercury. suicidal thoughts.270.1 18) as well as with MRI positive patients for brain damage. but are also known to be caused by acute or chronic toxic exposures. Tests have found a significant portion of people to be in this category and thus more affected by exposure to amalgam than others. with increase in activated CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells and decreased NK cells(5 18).229). 293. Chronic immune activation is common in CFS.268.405). system 265.3 14. For MS and lupus patients.425.sensitized students. including lupus( 12.323.33 l.487). 44% were positive for allergy to mercury( 156). etc. a high percentage tested positive to nickel and/or inorganic mercury(MELISA).113. lichen planus(86. Silver also is released from amalgam fillings and stored in the body and has been shown to cause immune complex deposits. In a population of dental students tested. Controls without CNS problems did not have such positive correlations.and amalgam fillings induce immune reactions in many patients (91 . 81% of the group with health complaints had pathological MRl results including signs of degeneration of the basal ganglia of the 60% of the symptom group tested positive for immune system brain.nickel.palladium.234.269. and gold induce autoimmunity in genetically predisposed or highly exposed individuals(60.268.3 14.330. V. moodiness.44. Medical Studies Finding Health Problems Related to Amalgam Fillings (other than immune) 1. Neurological problems are among the most common and serious and include memory loss.456).168.226. A high correlation has been found between patients subjectively diagnosed with CNS & systemic symptoms suggestive of mercury intoxication and immune reactivity to inorganic mercury(MELISA test. Mercury vapor or Inorganic mercury have been shown in animal studies to induce autoimmune reactions and disease through effects on immune system T cells(226.130.234.34.342.118)(270.60.233. Eating fish was not a significant factor between sensitive and non. which like mercury vapor crosses the blood-brain barrier.314. but none in the controls.3 13. 13% tested positive for allergy to mercury.35).3 13. immune reactions and autoimmunity in animal studies (77.369.234.234.60. 10. Low level mercury exposure(as well as other toxic metals) including exposure to amalgam fillings has been found to be associated with increased autoimmune diseases (19.234. A patch test was given to a large group of medical students to assess factors that lead to sensitization to mercury(l32).229.286).) .129.9. The authors concluded that immune reactions have an important role in development of brain lesions . 270. and also and weakens the damages immune (222.I I 1 1 I I I I I I I I I B’ I I 1 I deficiencies in detoxification enzymes such as glutathione transfereases cause increased susceptibility to metals and other chemicals(384). Mercury.38. 27.45. CFS patients usually improve and immune reactivity is reduced when amalgam fillings are replaced(342.78.383.404).90. anger and sudden bursts of anger/rage(434.Chrons Disease.342. neutraphil activity.21~/272. effects on T-cells and B-cells) as well as its promotion of growth of candida albicans in the body and the methylation of inorganic mercury by candida and intestional bacteria to the extremely toxic methyl mercury form.235.314). but the sensitized group had a significantly higher average number of amalgam fillings and higher hair mercury levels. depression.35. Many studies of patients with major neurological diseases have found evidence .426.225.87.

} Mercury(as well as toxins from root canals and cavitations) interact with brain tubulin and disassemblesmicrotubules that maintain neurite structure(207b. and Alzheimer’s(see # 25). Another study(134) found general toxicity effects at 1 micromole levels in immature cell cultures. Very high levels of mercury are found in brain memory areas such as the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of patients with diseases with memory related symptoms (l58. decreased mental efficiency.212. Flu shots have mercury and aluminum which both are known to accumulate in the brain over time. The effects of mercury with other toxic metals have also been found to be synergistic.etc.322. Some factors that have been documented in depression are low serotonin levels.56 ). behavioral changes. Low serotonin levels and/or hypoglycemia have also been found in the majority of those with impulsive and violent behavior(48 1.295.305). and low folate levels(480-83).27. along with reduced learning and adaption capacity after low levels of mercury vapor exposure (149. Diagnois of mercury toxicity can be made based on exposure history and 3 or more of such symptoms mercury is known to cause(2 1.465). loss of sexual drive. mild tremor.503b) point out that chronic mercurialism is often not recognized by diagnosticians and misdiagnosed as dementia or neurosis or functional psychosis or just “nerves”. fatigue.27. emotional lability. ALS. which mercury has also been found to be a cause of. are often mistakenly ascribed to psychogenic causes”.2 ppb) concentration. memory problems (212. etc.264. “Early manifestations are likely to be subtle and diagnosis difficult: Insomnia.222).34.107. Parkinson’s.212.233. One mechanism by which mercury has been found to be a factor in aggressiveness and violence is its documented inhibition of the brain neurotransmitter acetylcholinesterase( 175. and low levels cause abnormal brain cell balance and neurological disturbances (280. Other animal studies on rodents and monkeys have found brain cellular migration disturbances. One study(305) found prenatal mercury vapor exposure decreased NGF concentration in newborn rat’s forebrain at 4 parts per billion(ppb) tissue concentration. and microglial response at even lower levels. excitability.amalgam fillings may play a major role in development of conditions such as depression schizophrenia (94.254).333.374.175.271.305.210.45 1.295. Animal studies of developmental effects of mercury on the brain have found significant effects at extremely low exposure levels.372. having much more effect than with individual exposure(35).453).109. (34. which is a factor in neurological diseases such as depression and Alzheimer’s. The exposure levels in these studies are seen in the fetus and newborn babies of mother’s with amalgam fillings or who had work involving amalgam during pregnancy(61). levels commonly seen in those with amalgam fillings or in dental staff working with amalgam.35. A study of people who received flu shots regularly found that if an individual had five consecutive flu shots between 1970 and 1980 (the years studied) his/her chances of getting Alzheimer’s Disease is ten times higher than if they had one or no shots(475). Thus chronic exposure to low level mercury vapor can inhibit polymerzation of brain tubulin and creatinine kinase which are essential to formation of microtubules. impaired judgment and coordination.287. Medical texts on neurology (21.285e. depression. abnormal glucose tolerance(hypoglycemia).229.437).482).207. Studies of mercury studies on animals give results similar to that found the Alzheimer brain. nervousness.294. Epidemiological studies have found that human embryos are also highly susceptible to brain damage from prenatal exposure to mercury.33.465.320.317. Studies have confirmed that there are vulnerable . Mercury causes decreased lithium levels. increased immunoreactivity for glial fibrillary protein at 1 nanamole (0.295). and other more serious neurological diseases such as MS.35. headache.294.222. Lithium protects brain cells against excess glutamate and calcium.

175. dyslexia.56. and mercury is documented to commonly cause hypothyroidism. Both inhibit cellular calcium ATPase and calcium uptake by brain microsomes at very low levels of exposure (270. They also block or inhibit calcium Lchannel currents in the brain in an irreversible and concentration dependent manner. Mercury inhibits sodium and potassium (N. ADD.232. and reduction in lQ(3. lowering immune growth factor IGF-I levels and .511). and both forms of mercury inhibit PKC at micromolar levels. Spatial and temporal changes in intracellular calcium concentrations are critical for controlling gene expression and neurotransmitter release in neurons(432.305. schizophrenia.110.84.4 12). and background levels of mercury in mothers correlate significantly with incidence of birth defects and still births (23.509.181. Protein Kinase C (PKC) regulates intracellular and extra cellular signals across neuronal membranes. including increased intracellular calcium.432). Metallic mercury is much more potent than methyl mercury in such actions. A Canadian study found that blood levels of five metals were able to predict with a 98% accuracy which children were learning disabled(3). .119. etc. both chronically or as a transient condition(458.149).50.285~.288. Prenatal/early postnatal exposure to mercury affects level of nerve growth eczema. spelling and visual motor skills(3).I I I I I I I I I 1 I 1 I 1 I I I I I periods during brain and CNS development that are especially sensitive to neurotoxic exposures and affect development processes and results(429).338~).10).329).K)ATPase in dose dependent manner and inhibits dopamine and noreprenephrine uptake by synaptosomes and nerve impulse transfer(288.38. Mercury alters calcium homeostasis and calcium levels in the brain and affects gene expression and neurotransmitter release through its effects on calcium. resulting in reduced volume for cerebellum and organs and subtle deficiencies(38. Calcium plays a major role in the extreme neurotoxicity of mercury and methyl mercury. ADD. Mercury has an effect on the fetal nervous system at levels far below that considered toxic in adults. Maternal hypothyroidism has been found to cause endocrine system abnormalities in the fetus. 255.38. but neural development extends through adolescence. 2. Mercury vapor or inorganic mercury exposure affects the posterior cingulate cortex and causes major neurological effects with sufficient exposure(428.24/ 39. blocking the ATP energy function (35.279). tremor. erythism.305). mitochondrial dysfunction.43.264.175. Some conditions found to be related to such toxic exposures include autism.432. Mercury vapor exposure causes impaired cell proliferation in the brain and organs. but adverse effects such as increases in blood pressure and cognitive effects have been documented as low as 1 ug/L. and neurofilament aggregation and dysfunction of transport mechanisms(507). Some of the resulting conditions include stomatitis. M ercury also interrupts the cytochrome oxidase system.329. glutamate excitotoxicity.The fetal period is most sensitive.259.35). oxidative stress and free radical damage. These alterations are not mutually exclusive. factor(NGF) in the brain and causes brain damage and imbalances in development of the brain (38.2 1. Motor neuron dysfunction and loss in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have been attributed to several different mechanisms.). Exposure to mercury and 4 other heavy metals tested for in a study of school children accounted for 23% of the variation in test scores for reading. with impacts higher in low birth weight babies(39).453).287.210.333. as well as inhibiting phorbal ester binding(43.270.305. Several studies found that mercury causes learning disabilities and impairment.508. The upper level of mercury exposure recommended by the German Commission on Human Biomonitoring is 10 micrograms per liter in the blood(39). Exposure of developing neuroblastoma cells to sub-cytotoxic doses of mercuric oxide resulted in lower levels of neurofilament proteins than unexposed cells(305). etc.50. etc. and increased calcium and altered calcium homeostatis apper to be a common denominator.338~. with 50 % inhibitition in animal studies at 13 ppb(333.

333. MS has also been found to commonly be related to inflamatory activity in the CNS such as that caused by the reactive oxygen species and cytokine generation caused by mercury and other toxic metals (405.152. and CD8-t supressor immune cells than a group of MS patients with amalgam replaced.375.496). which also causes inflow of calcium. T-cells.4 16. Mercury has been found to be a common cause of Fibromyalgia(293. If astrocytes are not able to rapidly neutralize excess glutamate.515.516). as well as higher body temperature. sleep disturbances.142.152. increases in inflammatory cytokines such as caused by toxic metals trigger increased free radical activity and damage to astrocyte and astrocyte finrction( 152).527) . another amino acid excitory neurotransmitter) cause increased sensitivity to pain . Astrocytes. have a function of neutralizing excess glutamate by transforming it to glutamic acid.4 12.405. hemoglobin.rnction(119. and more excurbations of MS than those without(l02a). Immune and autoimmune mechanisms are thus seen to be a major factor in neurotoxicity of metals. Metals by binding to SH radicals in proteins and other such groups can cause autoimmunity by modifying proteins which via T-cells activate B-cells that target the altered proteins inducing autoimmunity as well as causing aberrant MHC 11expression on altered target cells(425de. Mercury and other toxic metals inhibit astrocyte function in the brain and CNS( 119.496). causing increased glutamate and calcium related neurotoxicity(l19.496). Parkinson’s.5 15.369. musculoskeletal pain. Nitric oxide related toxicty causedby peroxynitrite formed by the reaction of NO with superoxide anions. hemocrit.478. Studies have also found mercury and lead cause autoantibodies to neuronal proteins. and ALS(346.226a.346.346. IGF-1 protects against brain and neuronal pathologies like ALS. This is also a factor in conditions such as CFS. and myelin basic protein(MBP) (269ag.5% of men(368). changing the structure of the compound that it is attached to. Antioxidants like lipoic acid which counteract such free radical activity have been found to alleviate symptoms and decrease demyalination(494c).impairing astrocyte fi.369.343).13).3 86.119). Mercury and increased glutamate activate free radical forming processes like xanthine oxidase which produce oxygen radicals and oxidative neurological damage(346.13 l).both found in CFS/Fibromyalgia.416. causing swelling and neurotoxic effects( 119. Glutamate is the most abundant amino acid in the body and in the CNS acts as excitory neurotransmitter (346. and Fibromyalgia by protecting the astrocytes from this destructive process. gastrointestinal (2 lc) and neurological problems along with other CFS symptoms and Fibromyalgia (342. Mercury and cadmium also have been found to intefere with zinc binding to MBP(5 17b) which affects MS symptoms since zinc stabilizes the association of MBP with brain myelin(5 17a). which based on a Swedish survey occurs in about 12% of women over 35 and 5. thyroxine.496. then a buildup of glutamate and calcium occurs. neurofilaments. a type of cell in the brain and CNS with the task of keeping clean the area around nerve cells. which are affected in MS. Astrocytes are common cells in the CNS involved in the feeding and detox of nerve cells.333.478. Animal studies have confirmed that increased levels of glutamate(or aspartate. MS. Mercury lymphocyte reactivity and effects on glutamate in the CNS induce CFS type symptoms including profound tiredness. Such binding and autoimmune damage has been documented in the fat-rich proteins of the myelin sheaths of the CNS(478) and collagen(405). Metals like mercury bind to SH-groups(sulphydry1) in sulfur compounds like amino acids and proteins.416. This often results in the immune systems T-cells not recognizing them as appropriate nutrients and attacking them(226).497). which results in nitration of tyrosine residues in neurofilaments and manganese Superoxide .496) which are responsible for much of the Fibromyalgia symptoms and a factor in neural degeneration in MS and ALS.516). A group of metal exposed MS patients with amalgam fillings were found to have lower levels of red blood cells.

290. There is also evidence that fetal or infant exposure causes delayed neurotoxicity evidenced in serious effect at middle age(255. 182.108.74.109. L-camitine.119. memory. nicotine.232. levels commonly received by those with amalgam fillings(290). Extremely toxic anaerobic bacteria from root canals or cavitations formed at incompletely healed tooth extraction sites have also been found to be common factors in Fibromyalgia and other chronic neurological conditions such as Parkinson’s and ALS.235. 282.3 10.232.160. as well as reducing NK-cells in the blood and . 3. with condensing osteitis which must be removed with a surgical burr along with 1 mm of bone around it(35.257.119.2 12. Organic tin compounds formed from amalgam are even more Studies of groups of patients with amalgam fillings found neurotoxic than mercury (222. Mg and Zn induced excessive absorption of divalent metal cations which accelerates oxidant-mediated neuronal degenerations in a genetically susceptible population(466).34. significantly more neurological. and at 100 ppb can destroy the membrane of red blood cells(35.199.reducing blood supply to the tissues (34. Cavitations have been found in 85% of sites from wisdom tooth extractions tested and 55% of molar extraction sites tested(35.35).205.I I I I I I 1 I 1 I I I I I I I I 1 Dimustase(SOD) has been found to cause inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain.140.69.246. inhibition of the glutamate transporter.306. (3.17.262). and omega 3 fatty acids(fish and flaxseed oi1)(417. Some that have been found to be effective include CoQ10(444). damages myocardial and heart valves (Turpayev. Mercury’s effect on pituitary gland vasopressin is a factor in high blood pressure(35).lO7.306).453). 258. NAC(54.202. Mercury also increases cytosolic free calcium levels in lymphocytes in a concentration-dependant manner causing influx from the extracellular medium(270c). 4.222. Mercury also interrupts the cytochrome oxidase system.141.in (35)) & (59. Numerous studies have found long term chronic low doses of mercury cause neurological.494e).000 people. and mood problems(3.109.141. One of the studies conclusions was that a likely major factor for the high ALS rates in Guam and similar areas in the past was chronic dietary deficiency since birth in Ca.35 1. ginkgo biloba and pycnogenol(494a).17. A recent study assessedthe large decrease in ALS incidence in Guam and similar areas to look for possible explanations in the cause of past high incidence and recent declines. and blocks entry of calcium ions into the cytoplasm (1. Neurological effects have been documented at very low levels of exposure(urine Hg< 4 ug/L). Vit B6.160. chest pains.338c) and impairing These effects often result in fatigue and reduced energy levels astrocyte mnction( 119). Mercury binds to hemoglobin oxygen binding sites in the red blood cells thus reducing oxygen carrying capacity(332. choline. sleep.107.306). 108. etc.21. hemoglobin irregularities.(20 1.71.306. and behavioral problems than the control groups.199.43.212. Amalgam fillings have been found to be related to higher blood pressure. Medical studies and doctors treating Fibromyalgia have found that supplements which cause a decreasein glutamate or protect against its effects have a positive effect on Fibromyalgia and other chronic neurologic conditions.313).333).16. vitamins C and E(444.255.22. blocking the ATP energy function(35.140. tachycardia.33.270c) and damage blood vessels. methyl cobalamine(B 12). memory.437).290.201.437).2 12.35) and adversely affects the vascular response to norepinephrine and potassium.453).35..84. One of the studies at a German University( 199) assessed20.212. Both mercury and methyl mercury have been shown to cause depletion of calcium from the heart muscle and to inhibit myosin ATPase activity by 50% at 30 ppb(59).70.202.60. ginseng.52 1). The incidence is likely somewhat less in the general population. behavior.140. mood. and glutamate-induced neurotoxicity involved in ALS(524.370).60.495e). Mercury also accumulates in the heart and (35.14 1.202.205.34.222.494a).222.

with most cases seeing significant increase in oxyhemoglobin level and reduction in porphyrin levels along with 100% experiencing improved energy.267). The FDA has approved a test measuring porphyrins as a test for mercury poisoning.357).149.305. Supplements such as glucosamine sulfate and avoidance of orange juice and caffeine have been found to be beneficial in treating arthritic conditions as well(35). and CFS.61. and deaths.lead.41O-412/l 49. much higher for groups with more amalgam fillings and length of exposure than those with less. cancer. The study also found that mercury has major adverse effects on red and white blood cells.S. cerebral hemorrhage.154. I 86.369). and have found that after reducing mercury burden antibiotic . CFS.296. The average for those with amalgams is over 3 time that of those without. be much larger and patch tests do not measure the total population getting toxic reactions from mercury. and similar for strains of bacteria in U. cavitations. However lowering cholesterol levels by other means below 160 correlates with much higher rates of depression. DNA mutations.117. tuberculosis.263. and significant health problems to be related such as arthritis.204.270. increasing as a protective measure against metals toxicity. but some forms of bacteria can alter their form to avoid being killed by adding a plasmid to their DNA making the bacteria mercury resistant. Based on these studies and statistics for the number with 10 or more fillings. suicide. A study funded by the Adolf Coors Foundation(232) found that toxicity such as mercury is a significant cause of abnormal cholesterol levels. However some other dental problems such as nickel crowns. The interruption of the ATP energy chemistry results in high levels of porphyrins in the urine(260). 5. I 17. MCS. The most sensitive reactions are immune reactions. 178. etc. In studies of medical and dental students. the total would vulnerable to increased immune system reactions to amalgam fillings. violent deaths.116.272. ALS. Patch tests for hypersensitivity to mercury have found from 2% to 44% to test positive (87.226. the percent of Americans allergic to mercury just from this group would be about 17 million people especially However. and (34.264. and is over 20 times normal for some severely poisoned people(232. Of the dental students with 10 or more fillings at least 5 years old. These have been found to be factors along with amalgam in serious chronic conditions such as MS. MCS.175. oxygen carrying capacity.(35. and that cholesterol levels usually normalize after amalgam replacement. People with amalgam fillings have an increased number of intestinal microorganisms resistant to mercury and many standard antibiotics(35. The problem occurs in extractions that are not cleaned out properly after extraction(437). 6. and other toxics have different patterns of high levels for the 5 types of porphyrins.38. But this transformation also increases antibiotic resistance and results in adversely altered populations of bacteria in the intestines.spleen. and root canals also can cause high porphyrins. with pattern indicating likely source and the level extent of damage.all known to be affected by mercury effects(35).161. Studies have found a significant correlation between mercury resistance and multiple antibiotic resistance (I 16.260). Alzheimer’s. those testing positive had significantly higher average number of amalgam fillings than those not testing positive(and higher levels of mercury in urine( 132.222. developmental. enzyme nerve growth inhibition. Mercury is extremely toxic and kills many beneficial bacterial. Tests by special equipment(Cavitat) found cavitations in over 90% of areas under root canals or extracted wisdom teeth that have been tested.292.156.389). and porphyrin leveIs(232). Cavitations are diseased areas in bone under teeth or extracted teeth usually caused by lack of adequate blood supply to the area.437).156).161. Mercury. sinusitis. These toxins have been found to have serious systemic health effects in many cases. 44% tested allergic. and toxins such as anaerobic bacteria and other toxics which significantly inhibit body enzymatic processes in virtually all cavitations(437). rivers(53). Recent studies have found that drug resistant strains of bacteria causing ear infections. systemic effects inhibition. and pneumonia more than doubled since 1996.

Mercury exposure has been shown to adversely affect kidney function in occupational and animal studies (20.146). etc(330. cell culture studies.60. including Parkinson’s. The alteration of intestinal bacterial populations necessary for proper digestion along with other damage and membrane permeability effects of mercury are major factors in creating “leaky gut” conditions with poor digestion and absorption of nutrients and toxic incompletely digested compounds in the bloodstream(338. and appears to be a major factor in these conditions.40).389.317).).9).etc. and gastrointestinal problems( 199).405). 114. and red blood cells. Mercury is transported throughout the body in blood and can affect cells in the body and organs in different ways. Inorganic mercury exposure has been found to exert a dosedependent cytotoxicity by generating extremely high levels of hydrogen peroxide. nerve tissue. wasting disease. 194). B 1-vitamin. and recurrent fungal infections were also found in the amalgam group. Mercury also blocks the metabolic action of manganese and the entry of calcium ions into cytoplasm(333).56.) 7. B12-vitamin. Alzheimer’s.1 I 1 I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I resistance declines (251. 68 % of the women then responded to treatment and alopecia was alleviated( 187). and tetrahydrofolate supplementation has helped to boost the protective sulfite oxidase. Some of the gastrointestional problems caused by mercury include poor mineral absoroption.197}. infertility. 8. but adverse effects have been seen at lower levels and .111.(21c. Another study in Japan found significantly higher levels of mercury in gray hair than in dark hair(402).etc. along with a deficiency in sulfates required for many body functions. an intervention studies agree(9. diarrhea. Mercury from amalgam thus has the potential to disturb all metabolic processes(25. A large study of 20. One study found levels ranging from 2 1 to 8 10 ppb.2 1c. Allergies and hair-loss were found to be 2-3 times as high in a group with large number of amalgam fillings compared to controls( 199.228b35.5 14. Other clinics have also found alleviation of hair loss/alopecia after amalgam removal and detox(40. Mercury from amalgam binds to the -SH (suhhydryl) groups. producing sulfur metabolites with extreme toxicity that the body is unable to properly detoxify(33.464.203.3 17). bloating.56. gammablocking of enzyme glutamyltraspeptidase(GGC) and sulfite oxidase. Levels of mercury in follicular fluid was significantly higher for those with amalgam fillings (9. the majority had significant improvement (40. immune disturbances. HgC12 also has been found to impair function of other organelles such s lysomomes that maintain transmembrane proton gradient.146). stomatis. 9. The results of hormone tests. In other studies involving amalgam removal.ll I. Higher levels of hormone disturbances. Based on this finding.438). In some cases.33. resulting in inactivation of sulfur and functions such as cysteine dioxygenase(CDO).260. Richardson(Health Canada) has estimatedthat about 20% of the population suffers a subclinical impairment of kidney or CNS function related to amalgam mercury(209c).35. These exist in almost every enzymatic process in the body. The Government’s toxic level for mercury in urine is 30 mcg/L (189). neurological problems. Blocked or inhibited sulfur oxidation at the cellular level has been found in most with many of the chronic degenerative diseases. a Gynecological Clinic that sees a large number of women suffering from alopecia/hair loss that was not responding to treatment had amalgams replaced in 132 women who had not responded to treatment.211. 33. A study of levels in kidney donors found an average of 3 times higher mercury level in those with amalgams versus those without( 14c).21. autism. Sulfur is essential in enzymes. which is normally quenched by pyruvate and catalase(203). and also in those with more than average number of amalgam fillings(254).222. 35. PSP-vitamin.33 I . and to decreaseglutathione pcroxidase activity in the kidneys while upregulating heme oxidase function. rheumatoid arthritis. Molybdenum. hormones. MCS.000 subjects at a German university found a significant relation between the number of amalgam fillings with periodontal problems.194.35. lupus.338. etc.180.194. ALS. Mercury accumulates in the kidneys with increasing levels over time.

38.50. causes aberrant numbers of chromosomes in cells.20. with some measuredat over 4 micro amps. Clinical evidence lead to hormone imbalances that can reduce indicates that amalgam fillings fertility(9.146.224. abnormal sperm. spontaneous abortions.433. reproductive function and cause birth defects and developmental problems in chi1dren(2. or birth defects( 10.37.227.105. and other reproductive conditions. Other protocols for amalgam removal are available from international dental associations like IAOMT( 153) and mercury poisoned patients organizations like DAMS(447).38l. currently U. Abnormal sperm is also being blamed for a global increase in testicular cancer.395.260.19.55.36.2 mcgA43 which is exceeded by any dental work involving amalgam(Section III). 10.61.182. Negatively charged fillings or crowns push electrons into the oral cavity since saliva is a good electrolyte and cause higher mercury vapor losses(35.146.296). inhibits enzymes necessary for sperm production.10. In studies of women having miscarriages or birth defects. For this reason urine tests are not a reliable measure of mercury toxicity( 11.29.20.255. Subfertile males in Hong Kong were found to have 40% more mercury in their hair than fertile controls(55).low levels in urine often mean high mercury retention and chronic toxicity problems.282.210.194).287.146.458).4. 186. causes chromosome breaks.338~.37. Researcher’s advise pregnant women should not be exposed to mercury vapor levels above government health standards (2. resulting in reduced volume for cerebellum and organs and subtle deticiencies(38.3 1.100.38. Mercury from amalgam fillings is transferred to the fetus of pregnant women and children who breast feed at levels often higher than those of the mother( 18.112.).55.159.105. Mercury vapor exposure causes impaired cell proliferation in the brain and organs.9. Amalgam fillings produce electrical currents which increase mercury vapor release and may have other harmful effects( 19.all of which can cause infertility.57.38.361).38).367). are often found to have a lot of high negative current fillings(35). For these reasons it is important that no new gold dental work be placed in the mouth until at least 6 months after replacement. The Huggins total dental revision(TDR) protocol calls for teeth with the highest negative charge to be replaced first(35). and background levels of mercury in mothers correlate significantly with incidence of birth defects and still births( 10.183.287.366). Studies in monkeys have found decreased sperm motility. increased infertility and abortions at low levels of methyl mercury( 162.19. Studies have found that mercury accumulates in the ovaries and testes.35. Many governments have bans or restrictions on use of amalgam by women of child-bearing age.23.38.30.23.61.39. 12.27. Since mercury(al1 forms) is documented from studies of humans and animals to be a reproductive mercury can reduce and developmental toxin(23.10. husbands were found to typically have low sperm counts and significantly more visually abnormal sperm(393). etc.35.162. affects DNA in sperm.224.281).etc.159. .197.105.24.3I .50.23.186. Studies indicate an increase in the rate of spontaneous abortions with an increasing concentration of mercury in the fathers’ urine before pregnancy(37).305).41.305.216.61.192). It’s now estimated that up to 85 per cent of the sperm produced by a healthy male is DNA-damaged(433). 11. etc. Mercury has an effect on the fetal nervous system at levels far below that considered toxic in adults.28. These currents are measured in micro amps.61.192. in animals(4. or epilepsy. The central nervous system operates on signals in the range of nano-amps.35.38.4.23.3 1. increased sperm abnormalities and spontaneous abortions.162) humans(9.503). ATSDR mercury health MRL of 0.255.S. Some studies have also found persons with chronic exposure to electromagnetic fields(EMF) to have higher levels of mercury exposure and excretion(28) and higher liklidhood of getting chronic conditions like ALS(526). increased uterine and decreased fertility and in fibroids/endometritis.31. depression.25.100. birth defects.104.which is 1000 times less than a micro amp(28). Patients with autoimmune conditions like MS.105.104. Mercury has been found to cause decreased sperm volume and motility ..365).27.

244. Parkinson’s(98.S. Low levels of mercury and toxic metals have been found to inhibit dihydroteridine reductase .442).405.and autism. ADD(285e.160. The pituitary gland controls many of the body’s endocrine system functions and secretes hormones that control most bodily processes.189.170. including the immune system and reproductive systems(105.42.46 l. Both types of mercury were found to cause denaturing of protein.13. 18.462.105.272.33.324. Parkinson’s.381). 14.207.122.35).423.325.285.342.302.183. disrupting function of the pituitary gland.163.169.105). with methyl mercury inhibiting ATP function at even lower levels(50. thyroid gland(50. ALS.61. Such symptoms improved for most patients after administration of R-tetrahydrobiopterin (4 12).186). the types showing the highest level of antibody reductions after amalgam removal include thyroglobulin and microsomal thyroid antigens(91) 15.97. and 5-HTP(4 12). Mercury also damages the blood brain barrier and facilitates penetration of the brain by other toxic metals and substances (311).35). which is essential in production of neurotransmitters.363.248. These effects result commonly in a reduction in thyroid production(50) and an accumulation in the thyroid of radiation.41. Mercury damage thus commonly results in poor bodily temperature control. mercury also promotes cancer in other ways.372.369.212.369).35).184.194. hypothalamus. and some after 5-formyltetrahydrofolate. 35). 2 10. Tetrahydrobiopterin.197. MS. tyrosine(257).238.221. Mercury has been well documented to be an endocrine system disrupting chemical in animals and people.412). There has been no evidence found that there is any safe level of mercury in the body that does not kill cells and harm body processes(WHO. In addition to effects on DNA.382. This is especially so for the pituitary gland of the developing fetus where mercury has been shown to accumulate and which is the most sensitive to mercury(2-4.56.36-44.56). which has been found to be a major factor in neurological . enzyme production processes (111. tyrosine and tryptophan transport into neurons(27. The hypothalamus regulates body temperature and many metabolic processes. The level of mercury released by amalgam fillings is often more than the levels documented in medical studies to produce adverse effects and above the U.67. etc.291.204. Mercury depletes and weakens the immune system in many ways documented throughout this paper. 3 12.158. Mercury and other toxic metals such as copper and lead cause breaks in DNA(4.l g-24. 16. Among those with chronic immune system problems with related immune antibodies.416. Mercury exposure causes high levels of oxidative stress/reactive oxygen species(ROS)(13.372.l83. Many studies of patients with major neurological or degenerative diseases have found evidence amalgam fillings may play a major role in development of conditions such as such as Alzheimers (66. but inorganic mercury was more potent.300. in addition to many problems caused by hormonal imbalances.166.257. Such hormonal secretions are affected at levels of mercury exposure much lower than the acute toxicity effects normally tested. This was found to cause severe impaired amine synthesis and hypokinesis. and many hormonal functions at very low levels of exposure (9. etc.3 12.296) and also have synergistic effects with x-rays(296) .).30.295. Low noncytotoxic levels of mercury induce dose dependent binding of mercury to DNA and significantly increased cell mutations (142.229.98. 84.459).146. Low levels of mercuric chloride also inhibit ATPase activity in the thyroid. is significantly decreased in patients with Alzheimer’s’s’s.257. Such patients have abnormal inhibition of neurotransmitter production.3 1.326.289. ALS(92.242.38.504b).35). which affects the neural system function by inhibiting transmitters through its effect on phenylalanine. 17. government health guidelines for mercury exposure(see previous text).346.250.4) and birth defects(l97.38. MS(l02. Toxic metal exposure’s adverse influence on thyrocytes can play a major role in thyroid cancer etiology( 144) .258.

Alzheimer’s’s.33e).346).327. tyrosine and tryptophan transport into neurons( 122.291. is significantly decreased in patients with Alzheimer’s’s’s.229b. Another study( 169) found blood and urine mercury levels to be very strongly related to Parkinson’s with odds ratios of approx. 324.520.423.271. Mercury and quinones form conjugates with thiol compounds such as glutathione and cysteine and cause depletion of glutathione. with exposure either to vapor or organic mercury tends to accumulate in the glial cells in a similar pattern. with the average being 500% higher than controls(330. MS patients have been found to have much higher levels of mercury in cerebrospinal fluid compared to controls (163.2 12.(supplements which inhibit breach of the blood brain barrier such as bioflavonoids have been found to slow such neurological damage). dorsal root ganglia.469. Studieshave found mercury related mental effects to be indistinguishable from those of MS (207.35).289.244.184. but noted that this effect was only seen for exposure of over 20 years.105.301. cerebellum. A Canadian study found those with 15 or more amalgam fillings to have more than 250% greater risk of MS than controls.329. and likewise higher risk for those who have had amalgam fillings more than 15 years(324) One study found higher than average levels of mercury in the blood. as well as multiple exposures to these and lead. with some requiring additional treatment for viruses and intestinal dysbiosis.85. rhombencephalon. Parkinson’s. Tetrahydro-biopterin. Many studies of patients with major neurological or degenerative diseaseshave found evidence amalgam fillings play a major role in development of conditions such as such as ALS (48.289. Mercury has been found to accumulate preferentially in the primary motor function related areas such as the brain stem. 4 16. which affects the neural system function by inhibiting brain transmitters through its effect on phenylalanine.442). Lupus(SLE).38.327. Increased formation of reactive oxygen species(ROS) has also been found to increase formation of advancedglycation end products(AGEs) that have been found to cause activation of glial cells to produce superoxide and nitric oxide.372).162. Such damage to the blood brain barrier’s function has been found to be a major factor in chronic neurological diseases such as MS(286. Such patients have abnormal inhibition of neurotransmitter production.257.97.442).442. Parkinson’s. and in general being poor sulphur oxidizers.302.222. Large German studies including studies at German universities have found that MS patients usually have high levels of mercury body burden. Mercury.291.35. which is essential in production of nerurotransmitters. Another study (145) that reviewed occupational exposure data found that occupational exposure to manganeseand copper have high odds rations for relation to PD. Such conjugates are found to be highest in the brain substantia nigra with similar conjugates formed with L-Dopa and dopamine in Parkinson’s disease(56).33 1. and anterior horn motor neurons. they can be considered part of a vicious cycle. rheumatoid arthritis and autism have found that the patients generally have elevated plasma cysteine to sulphate ratios.325. 20 at high levels of Hg exposure. and MS.183.56. Clinical tests of patients with MND. This was found to cause severe impaired amine synthesis and hypokinesis.289.287a).3 I l/262). This means that these patients have insufficient sulfates available to carry out . Most recovered after mercury detox.326).478). and the pattern of deposition is the same as that seen from morphological changes(327g.ALS. Low levels of toxic metals have been found to inhibit dihydroteridine reductase . which finally leads to neuronal cell death in the substantia nigra in PD(424).139).302. and hair of Parkinson’s disease patients(363). urine.92.291. which enervate the skeletal muscles(48. Mercury depletion of GSH and damage to cellular mitochondria and the increased lipid peroxidation in protein and DNA oxidation in the brain appear to be a major factor in Parkinson’s disease(33.disease(56. which is necessaryto mitigate reactive damage.326.324.207. Mercury penetrates and damages the blood brain barrier allowing penetration of the barrier by other substances that are neurotoxic (20. with one study finding 300% higher than controls(271).470.

and antioxidants have been found to have benefits in treatment(5 14). Low levels of available glutathione have been shown to increase mercury retention and increase toxic effects(l1 I). blocked. Persons with the Apo-E4 gene form of apolipoprotein E which transports cholesterol in the blood. This can be a major factor in bone loss of calcium(osteoporosis). damaged.84. and to be effective in treating not only depressive conditions but degenerative conditions like Huntington’s Disease which are related to such damage. It has been documented that conditions like depression and other chronic neurological conditions often involve damage and nerve cell death in areas of the brain like the hippocampus. Also mercury binds with cell membranes interfering with sodium and potassium enzyme functions.338c. black streaks on retina. There is evidence that some forms of leukemia are abnormal response to antigenic stimulation by mercury or other such toxics.207. In many cases(many thousand documented)removal of amalgam fillings and treatment for metal toxicity led to “cure’ or significant improvement in health(see Section V).514). In one subtype of ALS. are especially susceptible to this damage(207.necessarybodily processes.38. This has been found to produce inflamatory cytokins sch as IL-I and TNF that contribute to cartilage and bone destruction. Mercury has been shown to be a factor that can cause rheumatoid arthritis by activating localized CD4+ T-cells which trigger production of immune macrophages and immunoglobulin(lg) producing cells in joints(405.43). Mercury at extremely low levels also interferes with formation of tubulin producing neurotibrillary tangles in the brain similar to those observed in Alzheimer’s patients. This appears to be a factor in susceptibility to Alzheimer’s’s disease. Mercury(like copper) also accumulates in areas of the eyes such as the endothelial layer of the cornea and macula and is a major factor in chronic and degenerative eye conditions such as iritis.3 11). with more createdto try to react to a foreign toxic substance in the body. especially in terms of the blood-brain barrier (I 55. Mercury and methyl mercury impair or inhibit all cell functions and deplete calcium stores(96). cataracts. Mercury has also been found to play a part in inducing intoleranceand neuronal problems through blockage of the P-450 enzymatic process(84. Lithium protects brain cells against excess glutamate induced excitability and calcium influx(280. while high levels of free cysteine have been demonstrated to make toxicity due to inorganic mercury more severe(333. while those with Apo-E2 which has extra cysteine and is a better mercury scavenger have less damage. myopia. 20.Mercury has been shown to diminish and block sulphur oxidation and thus reducing glutathione levels which is the part of this process involved in detoxifying and excretion of toxics like mercury(33).56.33e).180. astigmatism. with high levels of mercury in the brain (207). it is documented that the process thus involves free radical/reactive oxygen species effects. 19. Less than lppm mercury in the blood stream can impair the blood. Mercury was also found to accumulate in the mitochondria and interfere with their vital functions.346).254). Also. and to inhibit cytochrome C enzymes which affect energy supply to the brain(43.56). Mercury causes an increase in white blood cells.33e). and removal of amalgam has led to remission very rapidly in some cases(35. causing excess membrane permeability.macula degeneration.239). Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis. and low levels of zinc(363. Glutathione is produced through the sulphur oxidation side of this process. Ones susceptibility can be estimated by testing for this condition.brain barrier. Most of these conditions have been found to improve after . Mercury is known to damage or inhibit SOD activity(441. The majority have an intermediate form Apo-E3. etc.221.33. or faulty enzymatic superoxide Dismustase (SOD) processes appear to be a major factor in cell apoptosis involved in the condition(443). Mercury and the induced neurofibrillary tangles also appear to produce a functional zinc deficiency in the of AD sufferers(242)as well as causing reduced lithium levels which is another factor in such diseases. and lithium has been found to not only prevent such damage but also promote cell gray matter cell growth in such areas(280).111.232.35).194.

469.469.222.35.86.376.486). anger(2 12.453.523. For the week following amalgam removal.229.470.233. tachycardia and heart problems .309.25 1.222.). 229. depending on protective measures taken.95.376.222.etc. joint dizzyness/vertigo(40.35.94.376.95.233.38.453.369.35.322.322.etc.229.453) MS(94.321.229.94. antibiotic resistant infection(25 1).233.453.222.35. The above over 60.313.440. urinary/prostrate problems(2 12.3 17.27 1.271.271.222.349).469. but usually improve if adequate precautions are taken to reduce exposure during removal. stomach problems lupus( 12.349.27 1.40.222. 2 12.349. 222.469.27 1.229.469.222.229).469.323).115. immune system/ autoimmune problems (8.59.57). root canals extracted and cavitations checked for and cleaned.180.322.chronic sensitivities chemical multiple 317.271.2 12.354.94. (294.322.94.310.3 13. but within 2 weeks levels fall significantly. sinus problems (35.212.375.91). pain/Fibromyalgia (35.3 17.317.322.94.2 12.35.376.89) Chronic conditions can worsen temporarily.285e.469. cancer(breast. whereas some clinics do something comparableto Hal Huggins total dental revision where in addition to amalgam replacement. vision disturbances(35.485).40.26.222. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (8. 222.212.78.89.469.233.2 12.523).232.523).317.222). chronic eye conditions: inflamation/iritis/ astigmatism/myopia /cataracts/macula degeneration (35. susceptibility to infections (35. (222.271.271. alopecia/hair loss (40.(82.222. allergies(8.170.35).525).228.35). asthma(8.271.222.358.233.88. (212.271.40. autoimmune thyroiditis(382.2 12.440.60.).228.523).222. On average those with 29 amalgam surfaces excreted over 3 times more mercury in urine after DMPS challange than those with 3 amalgam surfaces. (26.233.35./leukemia) (35.88.229.229.94.322.229.60.322. Alzheimer’s’s(204. Results of Removal of Amalgam Fillings 1.95.35).97.34.34.485.27 1.35). 408.222.469.367). schizophrenia 376. anxiety & mental confusion (94. some clinics primarily replaced amalgam fillings using patient protective measures and supportive supplements.229.25 l).103.271.95.27 1.57).93.323.294.35.75.342.453). 350.91.115.89. depression (94. candida(26.222.271. insomnia(35.232.349.212.etc.100.342). epilepsy (5.95.229.3 13.2 12.2 12.115). neuropathyfparesthesia (35.470.75.212.etc.485.322.322. tinnitus(35.168.94.228.233. memory disorders (35.322). For the following case studies of amalgam replacement.27 1.322. etc.165.271.222.6. patients gold or nickel crowns over amalgam are replaced by biocompatible alternatives.375.469).2 12.322).306.blood conditions 212.212.229.322.93. Removal of amalgam fillings resulted in a significant reduction in body burden and body waste product load of mercury(75.465.527.94.485.233.317.232.3 13. skin conditions (2 12.) diabetes(35.271.35.35).440.376).212) (205.amalgam replacement(35.82.293.323.248.376).212.2 12. Total reduction in mercury levels in blood and urine is often over 80% within a few months(79.440.94.229.187.222.46.212.222.3 17.222.440.35.35). muscle tremor Parkinson’s/ ALS(97.302.57.322. 229.35.222.82.94).322.82.1 15.404.102.323. and those with 45 amalgam surfaces more than 6 times as much mercury( 12b).317.523.385.271.470).94. eczema and psoriasis (168b.523).222.3 17.35).212. 2.271.38).523).322).3 17.38.233.etc. muscular/joint infertility(9.34.40. body mercury levels increase significantly.102.376.470.3 13. 3.233.35.35.107.35.) VI.90.98.95.470.405.342.470.3 17.523.423.293.229. pain/ arthritis(35.95.97.322).87.101.113.349.133.222).440).271.485.469.35.95).440.369.459).115.222. PMS(35.46. hearing loss( 102.271.222. endometriosis (229.000 cases of cure or significant .233.115. There are extensive documented cases (many thousands)where removal of amalgam fillings led to cure or significant improvement of serious health problems such as periodontal diseases(35.232.40).291.270. chron’s disease(222.95.222. (35.291. oral keratosis(pre cancer)(87.233.95.271. headaches/migraines(5.452.35.60.

87. constipation. etc. related to mercury and other immunotoxics(60. skin reactions.325. in over 70% of cases for: bloating or intestinal cramps. irratibility. cold hands/feet. Some of the above cases used chemical or natural chelation to reduce accumulated mercury body burden in addition to amalgam replacement.3 13. and the average was 54. Other clinics reported similar success. The Huggins Clinic using TDR has successfully treated over a thousand patients with chronic autoimmune conditions like MS. insomnia.etc. A Jerome meter was used to measure mercury vapor level in the mouth. in over 60% of cases for: allergies. including himself with the population of over 6OO(approx.improvements were not isolated cases of cures.etc.168.etc. muscle fatigue. throat irritation. This has been found to improve recovery rate for chronic conditions like epilepsy and autoimmune conditions. That such mercury(and similarly bacteria) in the teeth and gums have direct routes to the brain and CNS has been documented by several medical studies(34. one of the clinics(95) replacing amalgams in a large number of patients with chronic conditions had full recovery or significant improvement: in over 90% of casesfor: metallic taste. bleeding gums.302). 85%) who experienced significant improvement in MS. poor memory. The Huggins TDR protocol includes testing teeth with metal for level of galvanic current caused by the mixed metals. and microsomal thyroid antigens(91).). thyroglobulin. watery eyes. sciatic pain. Interviews of a large population of Swedish patients that had amalgams removed due to health problems found that virtually all reported significant health improvements and that the health . the types showing the highest level of antibody reductions after amalgam removal include glomerular basal membrane. irrational fear. Some clinics using DMPS for chelation reported over 80% with chronic health problems were cured or significantly improved(222. in over 80% of cases for: depression. tender teeth.dementia. Clinical studies have found that patch testing is not a good predictor of success of amalgam removal. heart problems.359). head aches/migraines. CFS. the clinical studies indicated a large majority of most such type casestreated showed significant improvement.). Lupus. But the recovery rate of those using dentists with special equipment and training in protecting the patient reported much higher success rates than those with standard training and equipment. or cancer may require more aggressive mercury removal techniques than simple filling replacement due to body burden. Details are available and case histories. muscle tremor. Metals are being pushed into the body from negatively charged metal dental work with saliva as electrolyte and the highest charged teeth lose the most metal to the body(35). Among those with chronic immune system problems with related immune antibodies. In a large German study of MS patients after amalgam revision. urinary disorders. AD. Other cases have found that recovery from serious autoimmune diseases. bad breath. extraction resulted in 85% recovery rate versus only 16% for filling replacement alone (222.6 micrograms mercury per cubic meter of air. far above the Government health guideline for mercury(2 17). etc. and removal of the teeth with highest negative galvanic current first(35).27 1.). fatigue. chest pain. nasal congestion or discharge.(35). as a high percentage of those testing negative also recovered from chronic conditions after replacement of fillings(86. and mouth sores.MS. For examaple. Swedish researchers have developed a sophisticated test for immune/autoimmune reactions that has proved successful in diagnosing and treating environmentally caused diseases such as lichen planus. dizziness. 97% versus 37 to 88%(435). poor concentration/ADD. diabetes. and leg cramps. This appears to be due to migration of mercury into roots & gums that is not eliminated by simple filling replacement. ALS. TDR and other measures used in metals detox have been found to increase T-cells and immune function in AIDS patients(35).

Feces is the major path of excretion of mercury from the body.25). liver. extrapolated to U.5 ppm. Many studies using chemical chelators such as DMPS or DMSA have found post chelation levels to be poorly correlated with prechelation blood or urine levels(57. thyroid gland. For this reason many researchers consider feces to be the most reliable indicator of daily exposure level to mercury or other toxics. Hair mercury levels did not have a significant correlation with urine mercury in one study(340) and did not have a significant correlation to number of fillings(350). alkatline phosphatase.21abd.278. with high precoproporphyrin almost always high with mercury toxicity and often coproporphyrin. Mercury hair level in a population sampled in Madrid Spain ranged from I .36. though still not totally reliable and may be a better indicator for organic mercury than inorganic.36. as well as with occupational dental exposure and to be a good medium for monitoring internal mercury exposure. with significant numbers of those with several filings having over 10 ppm and 170 times those without fillings(80). Tests for Mercury Level or Toxicity and Treatment 1. Some researchers suggest hair offers a better indicator of mercury body burden than blood or urine(279.303). kidneys. Mercury blocks enzymes needed to convert some types of porphyrins to hemoglobin and adenosine tri phosphate(ATP). having a higher correlation to systemic body burden than urine or blood. Mercury vapor passes through the blood rapidly(half-life in blood is 10 seconds(370)) and accumulates in other parts of the body such as the brain. This study found a significant positive correlation between maternal hair mercury and mercury level in nursing infants. For those with several fillings daily fecal mercury excretion levels range between 20 to 200 ug/day. mercury is less efficiently eliminated (11.improvements were permanent(233). in later states you usually see marginal hemoglobin. The average level of mercury in feces of populations with amalgam fillings is as much as 1 ppm and approx.278).260. The pattern of which porphyrins are high gives an indication of likely toxic exposure. and lactic dehydroganese.2 1abd.115. which tend to correlate with recent exposure level (6b. so urine tests are not reliable for body burden after long term exposure.157. etc. except that external occupational exposure can also affect hair levels. The saliva test is another good test for daily mercury exposure. For example 89% of those reporting allergies had significant improvements or total elimination. Kidneys have a lot of hydroxyl(SH) groups which mercury binds to causing accumulation in the kidneys.335. plus low oxyhemoglobin(35).35. Provocation challenge tests after use of chemical chelators such as DMPS or DMSA also are effective at measuringbody burden(57. In the early stages of mercury exposure before major systemic damage other than slight fatigue results you usually see high hemoglobin.57.1 I .3 to 92. Hair was found to be significantly correlated with fish consumption. that measures amount of damage as well as likely source. hemocrit. population this would represent over 17 million people who would benefit regarding allergies alone. Thus blood test measures mostly recent exposure.21ab).2 16. but high levels of DMPS can be dangerous to some peopleespecially those still having amalgam fillings or those allergic to sulfur drugs or sulfites.6b). and inhibiting excretion(503). As damage occurs to kidneys over time. but one study (340) found a significant .183.35). VII.80.282). A new test approved by the FDA for diagnosing damage that has been caused by toxic metals like mercury is the fractionated porphyrin test(260.183.83. done commonly in Europe and representing one of the largest sources There is only a weak correlation between blood or urine mercury levels and of mercury exposure.S. 10 times that of a similar group without fillings (79. hemocrit.386.183. (study period 17 years) A compilation of an even larger population found similar results(212.80. One researcher suggests that mercury levels in hair of greater than 5 ppm are indicative of mercury intoxication. pituitary gland.528.79. body burden or level in a target organ(36.503).58).

Another chelator used for clogged arteries. Challenge tests using DMPS or DMSA appear to have a better correlation with body burden and toxicity symptoms such as concentration . forms toxic compounds with mercury and can damage brain function(307). Zinc induces metallothionein which protects against oxidative damage and increases protective enzyme activities and glutathione which tend to inhibit lipid peroxidation and suppress mercury toxicity(430. Tests suggestedby HugginslLevy(35) for evaluation and treatment of mercury toxicity: (a) hair element test(386) (low hair mercury level does not indicate low body level)(more than 3 essential minerals out of normal range indicates likely metals toxicity) (b) CBC blood test with differential and platelet count 0 blood serum profile (d) urinary mercury (for person with average exposure with amalgam fillings. and motor deficits(290). but should not be used with high copper. 2. but to cause decreasedexcretion of organic mercury(494d) and copper. mitochondrial dysfunction. and pycnogenol have also been found protective against degenerative neurological conditions(494.464).022 normal.g> 1.521. Other antioxidants such as carnosine(495a). lower test level than this likely means person is poor excreter and accumulating mercury. average mercury level is 3 to 4 ppm.273. gingko biloba. EDTA.495e.Vitamins C & E. Note: during initial exposure to mercury the body marshals immune system and other measures to . temperature. Some researchers believe DMSA has less adverse side effects than DMPS and prefer to use DMSA for chelation for this reason. 444).< 1.with many studies finding a significant correlation amalgam level the number of chelation mercury and between post surfaces(57.On average those with 29 amalgam surfaces excreted over 3 times more mercury in urine after DMPS challange than those with 3 amalgam surfaces. Lipoic acid and N-acetylcysteine(NAC) also increase glutathione levels and protect againstsuperoxide radical/peroxynitrite damage.292. s. often mercury toxic(35) (e) fractionated porphyrin(note test results sensitive to light. Zinc is a mercury and copper antagonist and can be used to lower copper levels and protect against mercury damage.173.008 consistent with and suicidal tendencies(35)) depression 3.303). has been found to dramatically increase excretion of inorganic mercury(over 12 fold). and consider anyone with higher levels to have excessbody burden(222.However one study(290) found significant effects at lower levels.correlation between pre and post chelation values when using DMPS.172. Experienced doctors have also found additional zinc to be useful when chelating mercury(222) as well as counteracting mercury’s oxidative damage(43).g. Use of EDTA may need to be restricted in those with high Hg levels. Several doctors use 16 ug/L as the upper bound for mercury after DMPS challenge. Some studies have also found DMSA as more effective at removing mercury from the brain(58). Lipoic acid has a protective effect regarding lead or inorganic mercury toxicity through its antioxidant properties(494). s. diabetic neuropathy(494). memory. A common protocol for DMSA(developed to avoid redistribution effects) is 50 mg orally every 4 hours for 3 days and then off 11 days. so thus have an additional neuroprotective effect(494ab. excitotoxic amino acid(glutamate) brain injury.222.LA.352). Also lipoic acid. shaking) (f) individual tooth electric currents(replace high negative current teeth first) (g) patient questionnaire on exposure and symptom history (h) specific gravity of urine(test for pituitary function. Lipoic acid has been found to have protective effects against cerebral ischemic-reperfusion. N-acetylcysteine(NAC) has been found to be effective at increasing cellular glutathione levels and chelating mercury(54).54). and those with 45 amalgam surfaces more than 6 times as much mercury( 12b).290. Coenzyme QlO.

try to deal with the challenge. etc. Test results indicating mercury/metals toxicity(35): (a) white blood cell count >7500 or < 4500 (b) hemocrit > 50% or < 40% 0 lymphocyte count > 2800 or < 1800 (d) blood protein level > 7. CFS.potassium.5 ppm or < . In such cases where (calcium> 1100 or < 300 ppm) and low test mercury. Health Effects from Dental Personnel Exposure to Mercury Vapor . Progesterone creme has been found to promote regrowth of myelin sheaths in animals(448c)..manganese. Huggins Total Dental Revision Protocol(35): (a) history questionnaire and panel of tests.4 ppm (h) oxyhemoglobin level < 55% saturated (1) carboxyhemoglubin > 2. and most with these conditions improve after TDR if protocol is followed carefUlly(35). evaluate need for further treatment(not usually needed). mercury toxicity likely and hard to treat since retaining mercury. Parkinson’s. after prolonged exposure the body inevitably lose the battle and measures to combat the challenge decreaseand immune system Chronic conditions are common during this phase. with supportive vitamin/mineral supplements. Other measures in addition to TDR that have been found to help in treatment of MS in clinical experience are avoidance of milk products.5 gm/lOO ml (e) triglycerides > 150 mg %ml (f)BUN>18or<12 (g) hair mercury > 1. Lupus. aluminum.5% saturated (j) T lymphocyte count < 2000 (k) DNA damage/cancer (1) TSH > I ug (m) hair aluminum > 10 ppm (n) hair nickel > 1. note: after treatmentof many casesof chronic autoimmune conditions such as MS. nickel. Alzheimer’s’s. (d) test and treat cavitations and amalgam tattoos where relevant (e) supportive supplementation. it is documented that the process is inflamatory involving free radical/reactive oxygen species effects. (q) high hemoglobin and hemocrit and high alkaline phosphatase(alk phos) and lactic dehydrogenese(LDA) during initial phases of exposure. Rheumatoid Arthritis. with low/marginal hemoglobin and hemocrit plus low oxyhemoglobin during long term chronic fatigue phase. etc. Also.zinc. high mercury exposures with low hair mercury or urine mercury level usually indicates body is retaining mercury and likely toxicity problem(35). it has been observed that often mercury along with root canal toxicity or cavitation toxicity are major factors in these conditions. so many test indicators will be high. supplementation of calcium AEP(448) and alpha lipoic acid(494). and antioxidants have been found to have benefits in treatment(5 14). get lots of sunlight. Also so some test indicator scores decline. ALS. VIII. periodic monitoring tests. (b) replace amalgam fillings starting with filling with highest negative current or highest negative quadrant. 0 extract all root canaled teeth using proper finish protocol. 4.5 ppm (0) hair manganese> 0. (f) avoid acute exposures/challengeto the immune system on a weekly 7/l 4/2 I day pattern.3 ppm (p) immune reactive to mercury.

1. the more likely to be allergic and the more effects(6b.3 to 36 microgram/liter(ug/L)(69. Urinary porphyrin profiles were found to be an excellent biomarker of level of body mercury level .173).).123.362).6ug/L.222. urine (25d.290). 290.17 I. In general dental assistants and women dental workers showed higher levels of mercury than male dentists (171. Mercury levels of dental personnel average at least 2 times that of controls for hair(397-40 I). indicating daily exposure levels of over 100 ug/day. which accumulates in their bodies to much higher levels than for most nonoccupationally exposed.25c). Studies have found that the longer time exposed.249).1 ug/L with study averages from 3. Dental offices are known to be one of the largest users of inorganic mercury(71 b.2 ug/L (124.253.303). The total lymphocyte count. It is well documented that dentists and dental personnel who work with amalgam are chronically exposed to mercury vapor.172.253.17 1. and for 1987 found an average of 8. A review of several studies of mercury level in hair or nails of dentists and dental workers found median levels were 50 to 300% more than those of controls(38.173. One study found that over a 4 year period of dental school.397-399) and for blood (124.& 10. with women having higher levels than men in general. national sample of dentists provided by the American Dental Association had an average of 5. They also found much higher levels in the brain occipital cortex(as high as 300 ppb).195. 15% above 15. each filling was found to increase mercury in the urine approx.6 q/L).303.4ug/L(290.195.172. 3.362.68).34 to 9.8 q/L with approx.397).138. while another group of dental student showed compromised immune systems compared to medical students. though the relationship was nonlinear and increased more with larger number of fiIlings(124).124. the number of amalgams polished each week. Similar results have been seen in other studies as well(408). The average urine level increased by 500% during the course(63).8 q/L (124.57. Autopsies of former dental staff found levels of mercury in the pituitary gland averaged as high as 4. the sensitivity rate increased 5 fold to over 10%( 154~).172.38).99. A large survey of dentists at the Norwegian Dental Assoc. 10% of dentists had urine mercury levels over 10.7 to 6.16. Much higher accumulated body burden levels in dental personnel were found based on challenge tests than for controls(303). Sweden. In that large sample of dentists.253. with study averages ranging from 1. meeting(171) found that the mean mercury level in 1986 was 7. Allergy tests given to another group of dental students found 44% of them were allergic to mercury( 156).64.8 ug/L.363. T helper/ inducer(CD4+CDS-).with measurable effects among those in the lowest levels of exposure.154c. and with the number of fillings in the dentist(l71.69. The Swedish safety guideline for Study averages for other countries ranged from mercury in urine is 5.397).249.2 ug/L (70.000 ppb. and T suppressor/cytotoxic(CD4-CD8+) numbers were significantly elevated in the dental students compared to the matched control group(408).290. A group of dental students taking a course involving work with amalgam had their urine tested before and after the course was over.253. 3%. with excretion levels after a dose of a chelator as high as 10 times the corresponding levels for controls(57. Mercury excretion levels were found to have a positive correlation with the number of amalgams placed or replaced per week.etc.6 q/L with approx. Another group of dental studentshad similar results(362). renal cortex(as high as 2110 ppb) and thyroid(as high as 28. In one study.8 to 30.l56.70.6 nmol Hg/nmoI(l 1. 173.040 ppb.290. 16% above 13.4 q/L and 1% had levels over 33.64. which has banned use of mercury in fillings. and urine levels in dental professionals from Swedish and European studies ranged from 0.69. Mercury levels in blood of dental professionals ranged from 0. A U. Autopsy studies have found similar high body accumulation in dental workers. total T cell numbers(CD3). is the country with the most exposure and health effects studies regarding amalgam.249.503a) . p287-288. Adverse health effects of this exposure including subtle neurological effects have also been well documented that affect most dentists and dental assistants.178).S.6 to 57 ugL. with levels in pituitary gland and thyroid over 10 times controls and levels in renal cortex 7 times controls(99.

The average dental office exposure affects the body mercury level at least as much as the workers on fillings(57. It was found that the bacterial air exhaust filter (designed to clean the contaminated waste air entering the surgery) offered no protection to mercury vapour.395. This study was for dental personnel having mercury excretion levels below the 10th percentile of the overall dental population.209). 2. This produces high levels of exposure to patient and dental staff.64. The U.6 ug/M3.7.1 b). In addition to these measures researchers also advise all dental staff should wear face masks and patients be supplied with outside air( 120. Some studies note that carpeting and rugs in dental offices should be avoided as it is a major repository of mercury(6.173).247).395.69. 4 ug/day exposure).395.123. with several studies finding levels approximately the same as having 19 amalgam fillings( 123.395. Use of such measures along with a Clean-Upm aspirator tip was found to reduce exposure to patient and staff approximately 90%(397). Screening test that are less burdensome and less expensive are now available as first morning void urine samples have been found to be highly correlations to 24 hour urine test for mercury level or porphyrins(73). neurobehavioral tests of motor speed.253. Thus most offrce mercury levels were found to far exceed the U.249. Use of water spray. Dentists were found to score significantly worse than a comparable control group on 3. mercury vapour emissions increased.2 1d.6.70.S. visual memory(68.dental personnel with several fillings. Another study found spot readings as high as 200 ug/M3 in offices with few controls that only used saliva extractor( 120). Amalgam dust generated by high speed drilling is absorbed rapidly into the blood through the lungs and major organs such as the heart receive a high dose within minutes(2 19a. at the dentist’s breathing zone.69. This study used . but care should be taken regarding challenge tests as the high levels of mercury released can cause serious health effects in some.290. Significant adverse neurobehavioral effects were found even for dental personnel receiving low exposurelevels(lessthan 4 ug/l Hg in urine)(290). and dental masks to only filter out about 40 % of such particles (2 19.172.290.290. Many surveys have been made of office exposure levels( I . The average levels in offices with reasonable controls ranged from 1.395c.S.7.71 b.and mercury damage neurological effects.171.5 to 3.1 b).3O3).123.303). similar to U. OSHA surveys find 6-16% of U. especially those who still have amalgam fillings or high accumulations of mercury. EPA and Health Canada guidelines(2. 0.173.290. As the vacuum motor heated up with run time.503) For offrice’s using an aspirator.S.l88. high velocity evacuationand rubber dam reduce exposure to patient and dentai staff significantly.153). visual scanning. and residual levels in equipment sterilizers often exceed this level(454). and emotional/mood tests(70:249.249.249). and visuomotor coordination(69.124. Test performance was found to be proportional to exposure/body levels of mercury(68.1b).138. etc. but even in Sweden which has had more office environmental controls than others spot levels of over 150 ug/M3 were found in 8 offrces(l72). Use of high speed drill in removal or replacement has been found to create high volume of mercury vapor and respirable particles.2 ug/M3 (217) (giving approx.249.260).10.7 to over 300 micrograms per cubic meter(ugIM3) (120. with coproporphyrin significantly higher in those with higher mercury exposure and urine levels(70. ATSDR mercury vapor exposure MRL for chronic exposure is much lower. guidelines for chronic mercury exposure. as seen in previous discussion. mercury vapour concentrations of ten times the current occupational exposure limit of 25 microg/m3 were recorded after 20 minutes of continuous aspirator operation(219). Such levels are also common among the general population of non. A build up of amalgam contamination within the internal corrugated tubing of the aspirator was found to be the main source of mercury vapour emissions followed by particulate amalgam trapped within the vacuummotor. concentration verbal memory. dental offices exceed the OSHA dental office standard of 50 ug/M3.70.70.395c.S.503c).1b). Coproporphyrin levels have a higher correlation with symptoms and body mercury levels as tested by challenge test(69.) The level of mercury at breathing point in offices measured ranged form 0.

) Chelators like DMPS have been found after a fast to release mercury from cells in tissue to be available for excretion.395.400.word).504a. kidney. Another study using DMPS challenge test found over 20 times higher mercury excretion in dentists than in controls. other than the documented neurological effects such as chronic fatigue. 4.a new methodology which used standard urine mercury levels as a measure of recent exposure. Those with higher levels of mercury had deficits in both memory. Even at the low levels of exposure of the subjects of this study. The most common problems were related to the central nervous system. etc.lack of ability to concentrate. Many studies have found this occurs frequently in dentists and dental staff along with other related symptoms. while toxicity symptoms.000 U.72. Dentists were also found to have a high incidence of radicular muscular neuralgia and peripheral sensory degradation( 190.while another study found selective atrophy of muscle fibre in women dental workers(490b).247. and motor function correlated more strongly with post-chelation mercury levels. dentists and dental assistants with chronic exposure to mercury vapor and anestheticsfound increased health problems compared to controls. and another with Parkinson’s disease recovered after reduction of exposure and chelation(248). memory(vocabulary. This method was found to give enhanced precision and power to the results of the tests and correlations. and motor function compared to those with lower exposure levels. Similar cases among those with other occupational exposure have been seen.193. and 45% headaches(490a). Tests of controls did not find such immune reactions common. and urine levels after chelation with a chemical. immune reactivity.248. Thirty percent of dentists with more than average exposure were found to have neuropathies and visuographic dysfunction(395).369. tremors. and neurological diseases(99. 50% reported significant irritability. Both dental hygienists and patients get high doses of mercury vapor when dental hygienists polish or use ultrasonic scalers on amalgam surfaces(240.193). Dental workers and other workers exposed to mercury vapor were found to have a shortening of visual evoked potential latency and a decreasein amplitude.378. and motor skills related to the level of exposure pre and post chelation(290).246.377. In a study in Brazi1(492). One dentist with severe symptoms similar to ALS improved after treatment for mercury poisoning(246). with magnitudes correlated with urine excretion levels( 190).S.71. muscle pains. Other studies reviewed found increased rates of brain cancer and aIlergies(99. and indications of mild to moderate mercury poisoning in 62% of workers. In one study of dentists and dental assistants.503c). A survey of over 60. have from dentists been documented to suffer mercury Many poisoning(6f. Pregnant women or pregnant hygienist especially should avoid these practices during pregnancy or while nursing since maternal mercury . to measure body burden mercury levels. Mercury exposure has been found to often cause disability in dental workers(230b.193). 62% of dental workers had urine mercury levels over 10 mg/L. mood. One of the common effects of chronic mercury exposure is chronic fatigue due to immune system overload and activation. And the plotted test results gave no indication of there existing a threshold below effects were not measurable. 46% arthritic pains. Swedish male dentists were found to have an elevated standardized mortality ratio compared to other male academic groups(284). DMPS. there were clear demonstrated differences in test scores involving memory.503.395c. indicating high body burden of mercury compared to controls(491).369).(249. concentration. mood. chronic muscular pain. motor effects. In another study nearly 50 % of dental staff in a group tested had positive autoimmune ANA titers compared to less than 1 % of the general population(35). In a group of dentists and dental workers suffering from extreme fatigue and tested by the immune test MELISA.1 b). burnout. etc. stomach problems.490).74.490. Mood scores including anger were found to correlate more strongly with pre chelation urine mercury levels.etc. 50% had autoimmune reaction to inorganic mercury and immune reactions to other metals used in dentistry were also common(369). including significantly higher liver.

290.248). but one study found rates in same range as doctors.186.277. memory. 6.38.compared to controls. A study in Poland found a much higher incidence of birth defects among female dentist and dental assistants than norrnal(l0). and which behavioral problems.24.38.433)) . and contact urticaria(247. and higher suicide rates than the general white population (284. and concluded dental work to be an occupational hazard with respect to reproductive processes(401).I 0. and their children have significantly lower average IQ compared to the general population (1. visiomotor.99).61 .369. as well as higher brain and body burdens( 1. Female dentists have increased rates of spontaneous abortion and perinatal mortality (193.110). conjunctivitis.112.490.34.433). SIDS. A large U.1 88. Dental staff have been found to have significantly higher prevalence of eye problems.249.19.222. mood. Several dental assistants have been diagnosed with mercury toxicity and some have died of related health effects(32.247. atopic dermatitis. increase with years of exposure (1. and congenital defects than for the control group(394). Even dental personnel with relatively low exposure(urine Hg<4 ug/l) were found to have significant neurological ef’fects(290) and was found to be correlated with body burden of mercury.38).74).493. An epidemiological survey conducted in Lithuania on women working in dental offices(where Hg concentrations were < 80 ug/M3) had increased incidence of spontaneous abortions and breast pathologies that were directly related to the length of time on the job(277a).395).S.6873.401.504b).34.38.exposure has been shown to affect the fetus and to be related to birth defects.173. and another study found an increased risk of spontaneous abortions and other pregnancy complications among women working in dental surgeries(277b).70.68-74.37.246.156.279.245. A study in Poland also found a significant positive association between mercury levels and occurrence of reproductive failures and menstrual cycle disorders.348) dental hygienist are advised not to polish dental amalgams when cleaning teeth.50). Body burden increases with time and older dentists have median mercury urine levels about 4 times those of controls. Populations with only slightly increased levels of mercury in hair had decreases in academic ability(3). Face masks worn by dental workers filter out only about 40% of small dislodged amalgam particles from drilling or polishing.246.99). Some studies . increased spontaneous abortions (lo.38.12 l). 5.123.1b). and very little mercury vapor(247).34. 69. The level of mercury excreted in urine is significantly higher for female dental assistantsthan dentists due to biological factors (17 l. I 10. and a female dentist recovered from Parkinson’s after mercury detox(248).247. stillbirths. and poor performance on memory tests(68.38. Most studies find dentists have increased levels of irritability and tension( l. A study of dentist and dental assistantsin the Netherlands found 50% higher ratesof spontaneous abortions. Amalgam has been shown to be the main source of mercury in most infants and breast milk.146.31. From the medical register of births since 1967 in Norway. Effects are directly related to length of time on the job(277).10.l72. musculoskeletal.23.249.290) Some older dentists have mercury levels in some parts of the brain as much as 80 times higher than normal levels( 14.( 10. survey also found higher spontaneousabortion rate among dental assistantsand wives of dentists( 193).3 1.l b).88.40 1. etc. it can be seen that dental nurse/assistants have a clearly increased risk of having a deformed child or spontaneous abortion(433).3 I c.247. with unusually high occurrence of spina bifida. Because of high documented exposure levels when amalgam fillings are brushed( 182.248. significantly reduced fertility and lowered probability of conception (10.142.124a).287). Dentists and dental personnel experience significantly higher levels of neurological. which often contain higher mercury levels than in the mother’s blood (20. A chronically ill dental nurse diagnosedwith mercury sensitivity recovered after replacement of fillings and changing jobs(60). Female dental technicians who work with amalgam tend to have increased menstrual disturbances (275. high rates of drug dependancy and disability due to psychological problems(l5.

and found no threshold level below which effects were not measurable. In 1987 the Federal Dept. The director of the U. 36.19. Proposition 65. advisesthat amalgam should not be used as a base for crowns or for retrograde root fillings as is commonly done in some countries(387).148. Austria. A World Health Organization Scientific Panel concluded that there is no safe level of mercury exposure( 183. Most European countries require controls on dental waste amalgam emissions to sewers or air.38. hormonal. EPA found that removed amalgam fillings are hazardous and must be sealed airtight and exposed of as hazardous waste(214). Sweden.99.61.. brain.57. mood.143.Life SciencesPress. Japan. kidney. A major amalgam manufacturer. A study of dental personnel having very low levels of mercury excretion found measurable neurological effects including memory.222.1 15.1999.209.435). A Canadian Government study for Health Canada concluded that any person with any number of amalgam fillings receives exposure beyond that recommended by the USPHS Standard(209). to the State 4. The U. Switzerland.S.18. NationalCenterfor . and CNS system cancers among dental workers( 14.20. The use of amalgam is declining in Europe and Germany’s largest producer of amalgam has ceased production. and reproductive systems from common levels of exposure(Section IV).S. Australia. Lars Friberg stated that “dental amalgam is not safe for everyone to use(208238).S.34. New Zealand. mercury is too toxic to use as a filling material”(l64. The Chairman of the panel.238. Many homes of dentists have been found to have high levels of mercury contamination used by dentists bringing mercury home on shoes and clothes( 188).212.have found increased risk of lung. The use of mercury amalgams has been banned for children and women of child-bearing age or put on a schedulefor phase out by several European countries.210.153. 183.60. including Canada..164. 1. IX. cardiovascular.( 164. Studies have found significant measurable adverse health effects at levels far below current government regulatory levels for mercury(290). Norway. Dept.282).208.208). The Legislature of the State of California passed a law. have similar or more extensive bans or health warnings regarding the use of amalgam. 227. Many of those researching amalgam related health effects including several very prominent scientists have concluded that the health effects are widespread and serious so that mercury should not be used as a filling material (1.p 133-I45. 2. A Swedish medical panel unanimously recommended to the government “discontinuing the use of amalgam as a dental material”(282).99.Univ. “IntegratedRisk InformationSystem. 7.236. EnvironmentalProtectionAgency(EPA). Scientists and Government Panels or Bodies That Have Found Amalgam Fillings to be Unsafe. 3. etc.170. that requires all dentists in the state to discuss the safety of dental materials with all patients and to post the following warning about use of amalgam on the wall of their office: “This office usesamalgam filling materials which contain and expose you to a chemical known of California to cause birth defects and other reproductive harm”.189.94.88.283). Proceedings of the First International Conference on Biocompatability. Federal program overseeing dental safety advises against using mercury amalgam for new fillings. Caulk Inc. Most major countries other than the U. and motor function related to mercury exposure level as measured by excretion levels(290). France.Ott 1990.435) A Swedish National Mercury Amalgam Review Panel and a similar Norwegian panel found that “from a toxicological point of view. Other studies have found measurable effects to the immune. (2)U.S.Of Psychology. Great Britain. Of North Texas. of Health in Germany issued an advisory warning against use of dental amalgam in pregnant women(61). Both countries have indicated plans to ban or phase out use of amalgam. REFERENCES (1) Denton S(MD) & ButlerJ.

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Maryland,
April,
2001;
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