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1- Explain this phrase. People employ language skills not in

isolation, but in tandem
Some time people employ all skills simultaneously. When students
are involved in a project, they have to write notes, read and
discuss something and of course to listen each other. When we are
engaged in a conversation, we are bound to listen as well as speak
because otherwise we could not interact whit the person we are
speaking to. When we are writing to send a message we have to
read what we had qritten before send it.
2- Explain the circle of input and output. (see figure 1 page 266.
Teachers provide massive language imputs, as does audio material
in the classroom and a variety of reading text that students are
exposed to. Student may read extensively or listen to podcasts.
They may interact with other English speakers. When theu
produces a piece of language and sees how it turns out, that
information is fed back into the acquisition process. Output
became input.
Teacher can provide feedback, too, not just when students finish a
piece of work, but also during the writing process.


metaphorical term. Explain.






In my opinion this picture represent the language process. We

need develop each part of a language ,different language skills to
achieve learning a language.
4- Define the terms: receptive and productive skills, extensive and
intensive reading/listening.
Receptive skills is a term used to reading and listening, skill
where meaning is extracted from the discourse.
Productive skills is the term for speaking and writing, skill where
students actually have to produce language thenshelves.
Extensive reading and listening frequently takes play when the
students are on their own (often for pleasure and in a leisurely
way), whereas Intensive reading and listening is often done with
the help and/or the intervention of the teacher. Tend to be more
concentrated, less relaxed and often dedicated to the achievement
of study goal.
Extensive reading, especially where students are reading material
writen specially at thier level have a number of benefits for the
development of a student`s language. They wiil be more positive
about reading, will improve their overall comprenhension skills,
amd will guve then a wider passive and active vocabulary.
Extensive reading can make students to read without constantly
stopping and providing an increased word recognition.
5- What are the roles of teachers during intensive reading?

During intensive reading, teacher have to create interest in the

topic and task in order to get students to read enthusiastically.
Teacher need adopt different roles when asking students to read
intensively such as:
Organiser: teacher needs to tell students to exactly what
their reading purpose is, give them clear instructions about how to
achieve it and explain how long they have to do this. Once teacher
has said You have four minutes for this, teacher should not
change that time unless observation suggests that is necessary.
Observer: when teacher ask students to read on their own,
teacher needs to give them space to do so, restraining of interrupt
that reading, even though the temptation may be to add more
information and instructions.
While students are reading teacher can observe their progress and
can decide whether to give them some extra time or, intead, move
to organising feedback more quickly than he has anticipated.
Feedback organiser: when students have completed the
task, teacher can lead a feedback session to check that they have
completed it successfully. He may start by having them compare
their answers in pairs and then ask for answers from the class in
general or from pairs in particular.

When teacher ask students to give answers, he should

always ask them to say where in the text they found the relevant
information. This provokes a detailed study of the text which will
help them the next time they come to a similar reading passage. It
also tells him exactly what comprehension problems they have if
and when they get answers wrong.
It is important to be supportive when organising feedback
after reading if teacher is to counter any negative feelings students
might have about the process and if teacher wishes to sustain their
- Prompter: when students have to read a task, teacher
can prompt them to notice languages features within it, and direct
them to certain features of text constructions, clarifying
ambiguities and making them aware of issues of text structure
which they had not come across previously.

6- Name and explain the advantages and disadvantages of using

audio material in class.
Using audio material in intensive listening in class has a number of
advantages and disadvantages. They can be tapes, CDs or hard
Advantages: recorded material allows students to hear a variety
of different voices apart from just their own teacher`s. Its gives
them an opportunity to meet a range of different characteres,
specially where real people are talking.
Audio material is portable and realidy avialable. Tapes and CDs are
extremely cheap, and machines to play them are relatively
inexpensive. Now that so much audio material is offered in digital
form, teachers can play recorded tracks in class directly from
Disadvantages: in big classroom with poor acoustics, the
audibility of recorded material often gives cause of concern. It is
sometimes difficult to ensure that all the student in a room can
hear equally well.
Another problem with the redorded material in the classroom is
that everyone has to listen at the same speed, a speed dictated by
the recording, not by the listeners.
7- Define these terms: literacy- handwriting- spelling- lay out and
Literacy: id the ability of read and write in certain situations and
for certain purposes, some of which are more prestigious than
others. To be deprived the opportunity of write is to be excluded
from a wide range of social roles, which the majority of people in
industrialised societies associate with power and prestiges.

Literacy represents the intellectual process of gaining meaning

from a critical interpretation of written or printed text. The key to
all literacy is reading development, a progression of skills that
begins with the ability to understand spoken words and decode
written words, and culminates in the deep understanding of text.
Reading development involves a range of complex language
underpinnings including awareness of speech sounds (phonology),
spelling patterns (orthography), word meaning (semantics),
grammar (syntax) and patterns of word formation (morphology), all
of which provide a necessary platform for reading fluency and
comprehension. Once these skills are acquired, the reader can
attain full language literacy, which includes the abilities to apply to
printed material critical analysis, inference and synthesis; to write
with accuracy and coherence; and to use information and insights
from text as the basis for informed decisions and creative
thought.The inability to do so is called illiteracy or analphabetism.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization (UNESCO) defines literacy as the "ability to identify,
understand, interpret, create, communicate and compute, using
printed and written materials associated with varying contexts.
Literacy involves a continuum of learning in enabling individuals to
achieve their goals, to develop their knowledge and potential, and
to participate fully in their community and wider society"
Handwriting: the activity of writing by hand. It is a personal issue.
Student should not all be expected to use exactly the same style,
despite copyng axercise. Nevertheless, badly-formed letters may
influence the reader agents the writer, something which is
undesirable whether the work is the product of some creative task
or, work that is going to be assessed in a test or exam. We sould
encourage students with problematic handwriting to improve.
Spelling: the forming of words from letters according in an
acceted order, orthographic . bad spelling is perceived as lack of
education or care. This is not necessarily the case in emails, and
SMS text messages have spellings and words all of their own. Is
perfectly acceptable in some emails to have spelling which is
inexact, in other situations it is not.
One of the reasons that spelling is difficult for students of English is
that the correspondence between the sound of a word and the way
it is spelt it is not always obvious. A single sound may have many
differents spelling , and the same spelling may have many different
sounds. When students work on different phonemes, we need to
draw their attention to the common spellings of those phonemes.
We should also get them to look at different ways of pronouncing
the same letters(or conbinations of letters), we can ask them what
other words they know with the same kinds of spelling or sounds.
When they listen to recording, they can study transcripts and/or
copy down sections of the recording.
To help make things clear, we should get our students to focus on a
particular variety of English as a spelling model for them to aspire

One of the best ways to help students to improve their spelling is

through reading, especially extensivelly. We can also draw their
attention to spelling problems and explain why they occur.
Layout and punctuation: different writing communities abbey
different punctuation and layout conventions in communication
such as letters, reports and publicy materials. These are frequently
non-transferable from one community or language to another. Such
differences are easily seen in the different punctuation conventions
for the quotation of direct speech with different language use, or
the way in which many writers use commas onsted of, or as much
as full stops.
Different genres of writing are layout differently, business and
personal letters are different from each other and emails have
conventions all of their own. Newspaper articles are laid out in
quite specific ways, and certain kinds of small adss in magazines
follow conventional formats.
To be successful as writers in our own or another language, we
need to be aware of layouts and use or modify them when
appropriate to get our message across as clearly as we can.

8- Explain the process of writing (the process wheel)

Writing is a process that involves at least four steps: prewriting or

planning, drafting,revising,and ending. It is a recursive process.
While you are revising, you have to return to the prewriting step to
develop and expand your ideas.
Planning : is anything you do before you write a draft of your
document. It includes thinking, taking notes, talking to others,
outlining, and gathering information.
Althoug prewriting is the first activity you engage in, generating
ideas is an activity that occurs throughout the writing process.
Drafting: Drafting occurs when you put your ideas into sentences
and paragraphs. Here you have to concentrate upon explaining
and supporting your ideas fully. Here, you also begin to connect
your ideas. Regardless of how much thinking and planning you do,

the process of putting your ideas in words changes them; often the
very words you select evoke additional ideas or implications
Don`t pay attention to such things as spelling at this atage. This
draft tends to be writer-centered: it is you telling yourself what you
know and think about the topic.
Revision is the key to effective documents. Here you think more
deeply about your readers needs and expect about your readers
needs and expectations. The document becomes reader-centered.
How much support will each idea need to convince your readers?
Which terms should be defined for these particular readers? Is your
organization effective? Do readers need to know before they can
understand?At this stage you also refine your prose, making each
sentence as concise and accurate as possible. Make connections
between ideas explicit and clear.
Editing: When you Check for such things as grammar, mechanics,
and spelling. The last thing you should do before printing your
document is to spell check it.Dont edit your writing until the other
steps in the writing process are complete.
Final version: is the writing finished.
9- Reflect upon your reading about students and speaking, then in
your own words list the importance of these activities.
In speaking is very important the preparation in order to lose
students their fear and can to express themself in front of others
fluently and without panic. Planning and preparation for speaking
will give the chance to think about what they are going to say and
how to say it. This involve just given them quit time to think in
their heads about how them will speak, and letting them practise
dialogue in pairs before having to do anything more public.
Repetition give students more confidence and allows them to
improve their speaking.
10-What are the elements of a plan? List and give examples.
Elements of a plan:
Objectives: e.g. Students will learn uses of past perfect.
- Materials needed: e.g texts
- Class activities: e.g. atudents will read different texts.
- Contingency plan
- Homework: e.g Identify past perfect tenses in a text.
- Evaluation: