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The Big Picture: Internetworking

Internetworking:
Internet Protocol (IP)

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(Lecture 9)

Teknologi Jaringan
Komputer

you are here, bab 4

Johny Moningka
(moningka@cs.ui.ac.id)
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer
Universitas Indonesia
Semester 2003/2004
Versi: 1.01

Agenda

Review ( so far)
Understand

Problem: There is more than one network!

Bagaimana bentuk/dasar jaringan: host terhubung


langsung => link tunggal (one physical medium)
Bagaimana membangun jaringan lebih besar
(connected networks: packet switching).

Simple Internetworking (Bab 4.1)

Basis internetwork (Bab 4.1.1)


Service model (Bab 4.1.2)
Global Address & ARP (Bab 4.1.3, 4.1.5)
Datagram Forwarding: IP (Bab 4.1.4)
Host Configuration: DHCP (Bab 4.1.6)
Error Reporting: ICMP (Bab 4.1.7)
Virtunal Networks & Terminals (Bab 4.1.8)

Internetworking
Masalah variasi dan heterogenitas jaringan =>
implementasi yang berbeda pada protokol bawah
(layer 1 & 2) dan hardware.
Membahas jaringan yang berkembang menjadi
sangat besar, mis. Internet (scalability issues).

Rujukan: Peterson and Davie, Ch. 4


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Versi: 1.1

Versi: 1.1

Basics of Internetworking

Versi: 1.1

Heterogeneity

Apa yang disebut: internetwork?

Routers (R1, R2..) interconnect networks


of different types

Ilusi terhadap koneksi seperti: suatu jaringan (direct link)


tunggal
Dalam praktek: jaringan dibangun diatas kumpulan
berbagai jenis jaringan.
Dalam praktek: penulisan software (proses) yang
mendukung model abstraksi communication channel.

Network 1 (Ethernet)
H7
H2

H1

H8

Network 4
(point-to-point)

Network 2 (Ethernet)
R1

Sifat:

R3

H3

R2

Mendukung heterogenitas jaringan: tidak bergantung pada


implementasi hardware, topologi dan platform (sistem
operasi, jenis nodes dll)
Potensi skala konetivitas

H4
Network 3 (FDDI)

H5

H6

The Internet: a specific global internetwork that


grew out of ARPANET
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Versi: 1.1

Versi: 1.1

Heterogeneity

Internet Protocol (IP)

Protocol stack perspective

Umum:

H1

Packet based (packet switching): datagram


Fungsi: menghubungkan banyak jaringan
(internetwork), jaringan yang layer 1 & 2 berbeda
(phisical & datalin: kabel & frame yg berbeda).
Prasyarat (capabilities)

H8

TCP

R1

R2

IP

IP

ETH

ETH

IP

FDDI

FDDI

TCP

R3

IP

PPP

IP

ETH

PPP

Routing: forwarding paket multi hops / melalui multiple


links.
Global addressing: IP Address (32-bit), panduan utk
routing.

ETH

Versi: 1.1

Internet Protocol (IP): protocol stack

Versi: 1.1

The Internet Protocol: Layer

network protocol for the Internet


operates on all hosts and routers
IP => jembatan utama protokol lain

...

FTP

Host/application

HTTP

NV

TCP

TFTP

Paket data yang dibuat oleh


end-system (host)

Layer
App

...

UDP

Transport

TCP / UDP

Network

IP

Data

TCP Segment

Hdr

Data

Hdr

IP Datagram

Link

network

...

Ethernet

IP
FDDI

ATM

phone line

Paket data yang dikirimkan dalam


internetworking

...

Hardware
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Versi: 1.1

IP: Outline topics

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IP: service model


Service untuk Transport layer (TCP, UDP)

Outline of internetworking with IP

global name space & identifikasi host (address)


host-to-host connectivity (connectionless)
best effort packet delivery

service model
overview of message transmission
host addressing and address translation
datagram forwarding
fragmentation and reassembly
error reporting/control messages
dynamic configuration
protocol extensions through tunneling
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Versi: 1.1

Not in service model: delivery guarantees


on bandwidth, atau delay => DATAGRAM
Delivery failure modes
packet delayed for very long time
packet lost
packet delivered more than once
packets delivered out of order
Versi: 1.1

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Versi: 1.1

Global Addressing Considerations (1)

Addressing Considerations
Structured vs flat

Map higher interface to lower interface

Contoh alamat flat => Ethernet (global unik), tapi tidak


terdapat identifikasi networks mana interface tsb berada
(asumsi hanya satu networks)

Misalkan: alamat surat

Fixed length or variable length?


Issues:

Issues

Flexibility
Processing costs
Header size

Routes => find the subnetwork => find the host in that
subnetwork => find the hosts interface
Need structure => to map subnetwork and host
How many levels => skalabilitas vs kompleksitas
prosesing

Engineering choice: IP uses fixed length


addresses

IP Address: structured/hirarkis, fixed 2 levels.

Router: sederhana, prosesing address cepat


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Versi: 1.1

IP (IPv4) : address model

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IP Addresses
Fixed length: 32 bits
Initial classful structure (1981)
Total IP address size: 4 billion

Internet address properties


32-bit address
hierarchical: network (/subnetwork), host

Class A: 128 networks, 16M hosts


Class B: 16K networks, 64K hosts
Class C: 2M networks, 256 hosts

traditional classful address (1981)

A: 0 network (7)
B: 1 0

High Order Bits


0
10
110

host (24 bits)

network (14 bits)

C: 1 1 0

host (16 bits)

network (21 bits)

Versi: 1.1

IP (IPv4) : address model (3)

127.0.0.1: local host (a.k.a. the loopback


address
Host bits all set to 0: network address
Host bits all set to 1: broadcast address

www.usps.gov

Host in class B network


www.cs.ui.ac.id

Note:

Host in class C network

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Versi: 1.1

Some Special IP Addresses

Decimal-dot notation
Host in class A network

198.182.196.56

Class
A
B
C

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IP addresses

152.118.14.3

Format
7 bits of net, 24 bits of host
14 bits of net, 16 bits of host
21 bits of net, 8 bits of host

host (8 bits)

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56.0.78.100

Versi: 1.1

IP address => address interface (bind)


Suatu host /card dapat mempunyai lebih satu
interface => satu host mempunyai lebih dari satu
IP address.

www.linux.org

Versi: 1.1

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Versi: 1.1

IP: Datagram forwarding

Forwarding: network

Properties:

198.192.186.23

198.192.100.10

MyHost

Setiap paket IP harus mempunyai alamat IP


untuk host tujuan (global address)
Setiap alamat IP mempunyai informasi host
tujuan berada pada network yang mana
(bagian network dari IP address)
Semua host dan router yang terhubung pada satu
network (physical) mempunyai alamat network
yang sama dari IP address

OtherHost
R1
198.192.186.

198.192.100.

R3
198.192.186.10

R2
198.190.180.

Misalkan: 198.192.186 (network address) => suatu


jaringan LAN X; semua host yang terhubung dengan
LAN X, mempunyai alamat IP: 198.192.186.xx

198.190.180.2
198.190.180.14

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Versi: 1.1

Internetwork: Datagram Routing

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Versi: 1.1

Router: Forwarding
Router:

Routers send
packet to next
closest point

Menyimpan routing table (how to reach


destinations) => arah atau next hops
Misalkan: Dari Myhost untuk mencapai host
198.190.189.14, harus melalui R2 dan R3

Pada entry tabel routing R2, untuk mencapai


subnetwork 198.190.189.xx => go to R3

R
R

Kemungkinan R3, juga dapat melakukan


forwarding ke router yang lain dst, sampai di
subnetwork tujuan.

H
R

H: Hosts

R: Routers

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Versi: 1.1

Forwarding Table

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IP Address: Public & Private


Publik: IP address (network number) yang
unik dan dikenal di Internet (reachable)

Contoh Forwarding Table: Router R2

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Versi: 1.1

Network Address

Next Hop

198.192.100

R1

198.190.180

R3

198.192.186

Interface 0

Registrasi dan distribusi informasi pada backbone


router di Internet

Private: IP address (network number) yang


dapat digunakan secara internal => tidak
untuk umum
Internal routing (hanya unik secara internal)
RFC1918 - IANA assigned private IP address:
10.0.0.0/8; 172.16.0.0/16; 192.168.0.0/16;
Network Mask: 255.0.0.0 ( / 8)
Versi: 1.1

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Versi: 1.1

Public IP Address

IP Packet Size

IP public diatur oleh organisasi ICANN


(non-profit)

Besarnya data dalam paket IP => 64 KB


(lebar field untuk panjang data 16 bit)
Masalah:

Untuk Asia Pasifik registrasi didelegasikan


melalui APNIC (http://www.apnic.net)
APNIC juga memberikan porsi alokasi IP address
pada NIR (National Internet Registry) dan ISP

Perbedaan physical layers (variasi) yang


membatasi panjang frame (mis. Ethernet hanya
1500 bytes)

Keterbatasan IP address:

Dikenal sebagai: maximum transmission unit (MTU)

Terutama untuk kelas B


Secara praktek tidak ada pembagian kelas lagi
(CIDR) tapi dengan prefix (/20 => 12 bit untuk
host address => 4096 host untuk suatu netwok)
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Versi: 1.1

IP: Fragmentation and Reassembly (1)

Source host tidak dapat mengetahui berapa


minimum MTU (protokol link yang akan dilewati)

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IP: Fragmentation and Reassembly (2)

Solusi:

Fragmen adalah paket lengkap (IP


datagram)

Jika diharuskan: IP paket dapat dipecah


(fragmentation) oleh router dalam beberapa paket
IP

Terdapat IP header pada setiap fragmen


Router (intermediate) dapat melakukan
fragementasi sesuai keperluan

Setiap paket IP dikirim pada setiap frame ke link

Questions

Penggabungan fragmen dilakukaan pada


tujuan (destination address)

Dimana fragemen paket-paket tersebut digabung (reassembly) kembali?


Apa yang harus dilakukan jika salah satu fragmen
hilang atau rusak?

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Versi: 1.1

Versi: 1.1

Fragmentation: information

End nodes (host);

Jika satu atau lebih fragmen hilang =>


discard semua fragmen lain
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Versi: 1.1

IP: Packet Format

Length
Panjang dari IP fragment (panjang data)
0

Identification

8
16
19
Length
HLen TOS
Ident
Flags
Offset
TTL
Protocol
Checksum

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Version

Identifikasi yang sama untuk fragment dari IP paket yang


sama: match up with other fragments

Flags

SourceAddr
DestinationAddr
Options (variable)
Data

Akhir dari fragment (ada atau tidak ada lagi fragment) :


More fragments flag

Fragment offset

Pad

(variable)

Posisi byte fragment tsb (where this fragment lies in entire


IP datagram)
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Versi: 1.1

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Versi: 1.1

IP Packet Format
4-bit version
IPv4 = 4, IPv6 = 6

4-bit header length


Counted in words,
minimum of 5

8-bit type of service


field (TOS)
Mostly unused

16-bit data length


Counted in bytes

IP Packet Format
Fragmentation
support

8-bit time-to-live field


(TTL)

16-bit packet ID

Hop count decremented


at each router
Packet is discard if TTL
=0

All fragments from the


same packet have the
same ID

3-bit flags
1-bit to mark last fragment

8-bit multiplexing
protocol field

13-bit fragment offset


into packet

TCP = 6, UDP = 17

Counted in 8-byte words

16-bit IP checksum on
header

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Versi: 1.1

Summary: Internet Architecture

IP is the
compatibility layer
Hourglass architecture
All hosts and routers run
IP => perekat dari
berbagai jenis jaringan &
aplikasi

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Variable size
Source-based routing
Record route

Padding
Fill to 32-bit boundaries

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Versi: 1.1

Summary: Simple Approach


Dumb network

Packet-switched
datagram network
Best effort,
connectionless

32-bit source IP
address
32-bit destination IP
address
Options

IP provide minimal functionalities to support connectivity


TCP

Addressing, forwarding, routing

UDP

Smart end system


Transport layer or application performs more sophisticated
functionalities

IP

Flow control, error control, congestion control

Advantages

Satellite

Accommodate heterogeneous technologies (Ethernet,


modem, satellite, wireless)
Support diverse applications (telnet, ftp, Web, X windows)
Decentralized network administration

Ethernet ATM

Versi: 1.1

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Versi: 1.1