Sie sind auf Seite 1von 100

INCORPORATING WINETECH TEGNIES INGELYF

1931 - 2016

85 YEARS

SEPTEMBER 2016

ORIGIN WINE

NOT ONLY FOR

COOL CLIMATE
SYMPOSIUM
DIE ROLBLAARSTRYD
DUUR VOORT
VERBETERDE
ALTERNATIEWE
HOUTPRODUKTE

RSA R40,00 INCL VAT

9 770043 965000 09018

ADAMA: VANUIT
DIE GROND
PROTECT YOUR WINE
AGAINST OXIDATION

Off the beaten track

focus on

Capped
with service

Superior
service
is
about
refinement, perfection, innovation,
ability to adapt and style. Most
importantly, it is about meeting
these
high
standards
with
no fuss.
As South Africas largest metal
and plastic closures manufacturer,
Nampak Closures has a well
established and proven track
record of delivering professional
service. We are supported by
Nampak R&D, widely regarded
as one of the most advanced
packaging
science
and
technology facilities in the southern
hemisphere and have access
to cross divisional packaging
technology, expertise, market
trends and knowledge.
Our range of proudly South
African screw caps, backed up
by our superior personal service,
are designed to give your wine a
perfect sense of style that appeals
to even the most sophisticated
connoisseur.

For more information, contact us on


+27 21 507 8411 or e-mail:
madene.koen@za.nampak.com
barry.erasmus@za.nampak.com

GEREELD
04 NEXT-GENERATION

TEGNIES
71 RISIKOBESTUUR VIR

05
09
10
14
15
16

72

24
31
44
48
65
96

WINETREPRENEURS

NEWSLINE
INDUSTRY INDICATORS
KOLLIG
SNIPPETS

86

DIARY
PROFILE:
JOHANN LAUBSER
FIVE-MINUTE MENTOR:
ANTHONY VAN
SCHALKWYK
UBUNTU: SIYANDA
THOKOZANI
PWC: TECHNOLOGICAL
INNOVATION FOR A
SECURE FOOD FUTURE

90

ARTIKELS
18 KEEPING IT COOL
20 DIE ROLBLAARSTRYD

WYNKELDERS

VERBETERDE
ALTERNATIEWE
HOUTPRODUKTE

22
25

ONKRUIDDODERS EN
TOEDIENINGSTEGNIEKE
VIR DIE BEHEER VAN
ROLBLADGENFEKTEERDE
VOLDRAENDE
WINGERDSTOKKE

26
29
32

HOW TO PROTECT
YOUR WINE AGAINST
OXIDATION DURING
AGEING

34
36
39

FOCUS ON WOOD
SUPPLIER SCENE

43

CHEERS VI EERS

46

DUUR VOORT

TIME FOR REAL


ACTION?
BEYOND PRODUCT
AND PROFIT
WHEN WINE SPEAKS
LOUDER THAN WORDS
N SIN VIR AVONTUUR
FROM IT WHIZZ TO
WINE IN ELGIN
ADAMA: VANUIT DIE
GROND
ORIGIN WINE:
NOT ONLY FOR WINE
DRINKERS
BORDEAUX MINORS
ON THE RISE
NOMMERPAS PRIEEL
VERSEKER
VOLHOUBAARHEID
WELL, WELL
WELLINGTON

092016

E BEATE
N TRAC

PICTURE: SHUTTERSTOCK

OFF TH

focus on
WOOD

DISRUPTIONS

A WORD FROM EDO

Innovation is easy,
hang out with weird
and thou shalt become
weird, strategy guru,
Tom Peters.

nnovation used to be associated with the weird lot on


the fringe. Not anymore. While working on this off-thebeaten-track issue of WineLand it brought home the
fact that in a fast-changing environment were all often
forced off the beaten track.

This not only applies to our current political and economic


climate, but also in terms of wine markets, consumer
behaviour and wine styles and preferences. Established
industries, based on heritage and tradition, are especially
vulnerable to disruptive innovators because they rarely
see them coming, keynote speaker at the upcoming
Adams & Adams WineLand Seminar Douglas Kruger says.

On the other hand, the disruption caused by methods


developed in South Africa, which were successfully
implemented in New Zealand to solve the leafroll
problem, could also vastly improve our wine quality and
protability, if only they were implemented properly.
You only need to ask the wineries of the Upper Hemel-enAarde Valley which, along with Vergelegen, have become
the other leafroll success story. Similarly the disruption
Craft@Origin caused by aiming to sell wine to non-wine
drinkers could actually increase the size of the pie.

This comment is likely to cause mixed reactions in the


wine world. While it would probably annoy one half whod
argue that tradition and heritage are industry strengths,
the other half is likely to be enticed by the possibilities
that stirring the proverbial lees could present.

There are many examples of good disruptions which are


not only beneficial, but necessary. This years WineLand
Seminar aims to catalyse innovation and will feature two
panel discussions on innovation, one in wine production,
the other in the trade. Dr Morne Mostert of Stellenbosch
Universitys Institute for Futures Research will contemplate
the future(s) of the wine industry, highlighting innovation
as a means of steering it to an ideal future.

Well-known examples of disruptive innovations include


the way Uber has revolutionised the taxi industry and
digital photography has prompted the demise of the film
camera. So, what will be the Uber of the wine industry?
Although its not as extreme as the aforementioned
examples, Prosecco has disrupted the once untouchable
Champagne market.

When the participants for the seminars production


panel met to discuss their modus operandi, Bruce Jack
of Accolade wines said homing in on reasons why
maintaining the status quo is unacceptable such as
widespread struggling producer profitability is a good
starting point. You may find if you havent gone off the
beaten track, youve possibly already missed the boat.

Disruption is a word thats seldom viewed in a positive


light. Disruption requires effort. Its contrary to the
notion of but weve always done it this way and the
complacency that could come from tradition. In fact I
didnt use the D word on the seminar invite because it
may have put off half the invitees.

To book your seat for the seminar go to


www.wineland.co.za.

Edo

EDITORIAL TEAM
Edo Heyns | Wanda Augustyn
Doronae de Ridder | Jana Loots
Sandile Mkhwanazi
Lee-Anne Davidson
VINPRO INDICATORS
Funzani Sundani

CONTRIBUTORS
Christo Conradie | Marianne McKay
Dr Gerhard Pietersen | Colyn Truter
SUBREDAKTEUR / COPY EDITOR
Cecilia van Zyl
TRANSLATION
Romi Boom
ADVERTISEMENTS
Sue Smith PO Box 53457 Kenilworth 7745
t: 021 448 7330/1
f: 021 448 8228
e: susansmith@isales.co.za
ART DIRECTION
VR Graphics t: 021 863 3165
e: info@vrgraphics.co.za

september2016

WINETECH TECHNICAL
Jan Booysen | Gerard Martin
Doronae de Ridder | Anel Andrag

ILLUSTRATIONS
Konrad Brand
e: konrad.brand@gmail.com
PRINTING
ABC Press t: 021 534 3210
DISTRIBUTION
Quinita Barnes PO Box 1411 Suider Paarl 7624
t: 021 276 0458 e: quinita@wineland.co.za

OFFICE

t: 021 276 0458 f: 086 611 7877 e: in@wineland.co.za


Laborie et Picardi Cecilia Street Suider Paarl 7646
PO Box 1411 Suider Paarl 7624

UNDER THE AUSPICES OF

Member of the Audit Bureau


of Circulation of SA

Opinions expressed herein are not necessarily those


of the editor/publishers; information is given in good
faith and we do not accept responsibility for damage or
injury which may arise from possible inaccuracies. All
rights reserved, none of the contents may be used in any
other media without the prior consent of the publishers.
Published by WineLand Media under the auspices of
VinPro Ltd (limited by guarantee).

Colyn Truters career


in the wine industry
came to an abrupt
end when he was
retrenched. He
came up with a plan
pronto and started
an entrepreneurial
venture out of
necessity.

OF THE
OLD
BISCUIT
MILL
TREND

NEXT-GENERATION WINETREPRENEURS

n 2004 I found my dream job as


marketing and sales manager for
an established winery, but was
retrenched seven years later.
I started talking to winemaking
friends and it became clear there
were many small to medium-sized
producers in need of marketing
and sales support. I started my
own business in 2011 with two
producers, Arendsig and Journeys
End, and Im still working with them
today.
The wine industry views sales and
marketing as the same thing which
is one of the biggest mistakes we
make. Without a proper marketing
structure and plan you cant sell
anything. Marketing needs sales and
sales needs marketing. I always look
at other industries and their brands
to learn and boy, do we have a lot
to learn from the likes of the whisky
trade!
Speaking of other industries, in
2013 I started working with a barrel
cooper from Bordeaux, Tonnellerie
Baron, which allowed me to work

directly with
winemakers.
Barons
philosophy
for barrel
production
is exactly the
same as mine
for wine. This
diversification
of my
portfolio was mutually beneficial
and my knowledge of bottled
wine has helped me to meet
with winemakers, discuss their
philosophy, wine style and vision.
As time passed so did the wine
producers I worked with, because
of the frustration created by not
working with like-minded people.
You need to figure out in which
segment of the industry you want
to be. Do you want to work for
a high-volume, mass-produced
brand chasing all corners of the
world? Or do you want to work with
producers focused on specifics such
as regionality and old vines?

In association with

Your work needs to fulfil


your passion and vision
and complement your
strengths and expertise.
I often had to remind
myself that I didnt
own any asset the
only thing I had was
intellectual property.
Spend less time on
people who dont get it and more on
people who do!
There has been a big shift towards
craft products, which I call the
Biscuit Mill trend. People are
searching for their own butcher,
baker and fishmonger and the
same goes for wine. They want to
know when, where, how, how much
and how exclusive it is.
This has created a great opportunity
for niche brands. To repeat, the
wine industry can learn from other
industries including beer and
whisky about taking advantage of
trends such as the Biscuit Mill trend
and should be at the forefront of
marketing and sales. w

Contact: Pieter van Niekerk


e: pieter.vanniekerk3@standardbank.co.za
w: www.standardbank.co.za

*The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the position or policy of Standard Bank.

GERRIE
WAGENER
While he never sought the limelight, Gerrie Wagener
was well known throughout the wine industry and you
dont have to look hard to find or appreciate his influence.
He had a broad knowledge of all aspects of the industry
and was often called upon for advice by chairmen and
cellar workers alike.
I met Gerrie when I moved to the Western Cape in 1993.
Having worked at Anglo American on both Boschendal and
Vergelegen, I had had the privilege of getting to know Gerrie
well. Whether at sales conferences, management meetings,
business lunches or during his signature walkabouts, every
encounter with Gerrie was a learning experience.
He always had a story, an anecdote, a pearl of wisdom to
share. Gerrie gained the nickname Pappa Beer, coined I
think by JC Bekker. While gentle in demeanour, he was no
softy. You knew exactly what he expected of you and he was
always there when needed. He had a keen eye for talent and
was willing to give you the space and support to excel.
Gerrie personified the term team player the development
of Vergelegen and the new Boschendal cellar are just two
projects he led that bear testimony to that.
Through his consulting business GNW Consulting,
Gerries modest but adventurous approach impacted
many vineyard and cellar operations such as Boschendal,
Vergelegen, First Sighting, Afrika Vineyards, Winecorp,
Morgenster and Tokara to name but a few.
Gerries passion for the wine industry will never be
forgotten. He will however be best remembered for his
active, driving role in the establishment of the Vineyard
Academy that formalised the training of vineyard workers
in the South African wine industry. His legacy will live on in
the industry for many generations to come.
Judi Dyer, managing director: Morgenster

SHORT RUN LABELS


DO YOU NEED A QUICK AND ECONOMICAL WAY TO
PRINT A SMALL QUANTITY OF LABELS?
Our digital short run labels are the solution. There are no
plate or die charges for digital short run printing so you
can save on cost. Also, with a minimum of 1 label, you
won't have to buy more than you need. Short run labels
are a great way to test out your product and label design
as well as for small export orders. And our digital short
run labels offer the same quality and colour you expect.
Foiling & embossing now available.

www.veritaslabels.co.za
We print the small jobs other printers dont want to do.
Mike Carter | Veritas Labels
M: 082 706 5599 |
F: 086 510 4548
E: mike@veritasconsulting.co.za

NEWSLINE

IN MEMORIAM

JOIN WINELAND
ON A TECH TRIP
TO STUTTGART

AWARD WINNING

As part of WineLands drive to keep you up to date with


the latest innovations in the fields of winemaking and
viticulture, it has partnered with Intervitis Interfructa
and Messe-Stuttgart to arrange a visit to one of the
worlds leading wine and viticulture technology shows.
Join WineLand editor Edo Heyns on an exciting trip to
Europe, which includes attending Intervitis Interfructa
in Stuttgart, Germany, from 27 - 30 November.
Visitors can look forward to a varied programme
with exhibits ranging from cultivation, harvesting,
processing, process control, storage and packaging
technologies to business and marketing on an
exhibition area of more than 60 000 m2. Intervitis
Interfructas commitment to innovation is highlighted
by the Innovation Awards, presented at the show by
the German Winegrowers Association in cooperation
with the German Agricultural Society.

BRAND
PROTECTION

Intervitis Interfructa coincides with the 62nd German


Winegrowers Congress, themed Shaping an authentic
and innovative future mastering climate change and
globalisation.

NEWSLINE

The final programme depends on the interests of


the group, which is limited to four. Accommodation
in Stuttgart will be provided by Messe-Stuttgart. For
more info send an email to in@wineland.co.za.

PURVEYOR OF
EXCELLENCE

What you get when you cross


an award winning wine with
our trade mark attorneys.
With over 100 years of legal excellence
and a strong commitment to professionalism
and client care, Adams & Adams knows
best what protection is integral to the hard
work and time invested in a brand. With the
largest intellectual property law practice
in Africa, supported by strong commercial,
property and litigation teams, who better
to trust with securing your rights?

NEW MOVES AT DISTELL


Jeff Green has been appointed manager of the James
Sedgwick Distillery in Wellington. He takes over from
Andy Watts who has been at the helm for 25 years. Jeff
has worked at the distillery as process manager and
distiller since 2009.
Andy now heads the entire Distell whisky portfolio
and will be involved at the Centre of Excellence, a new
department created by Distell to focus on the process,
quality and style of products across its range of wines,
spirits, ciders and other ready-to-drinks.

ESTA-IMPLIKASIES VIR
MUNISIPALITEITE
Munisipaliteite kan verantwoordelik gehou word vir die
voorsiening van noodbehuising aan uitgesette mense.
Dit spruit uit n onlangse uitspraak van die grondeisehof
waar die Drakenstein-munisipaliteit gelas is om
noodbehuising aan Zanemvule Mpume te verskaf.
Mpume se prokureur, Johan van der Merwe van JD van
der Merwe Prokureurs in Stellenbosch, het die uitspraak
as n fantastiese oorwinning vir die Grondwet bestempel
omdat dit ingevolge die Wet op Uitbreiding van Sekerheid
van Verblyfreg (Esta) die grondwetlike regte van
uitgesette mense beskerm wat dakloos gelaat is.

WINE VISION VENTURES TO


THE NEW WORLD

CONTACT: cpt@adamsadams.com

Following two years in London and resounding success


in Bilbao, Spain, last year, Wine Vision will make its first
visit to the New World towards the end of this year. The
host location for this years Wine Vision, held from 5 to 7
December, is Sonoma County in California.

PRETORIA: +27 12 432 6000


JOHANNESBURG: +27 11 895 1000
CAPE TOWN: +27 21 418 8560
DURBAN: +27 31 536 3740

ATTORNEYS

Patent | Trade Mark | Copyright | Design | Commercial | Property | Litigation


www.adamsadams.com

My wine deserves
the best technology!
Fresh ideas for winegrowers

Hans-Peter Whrwag
Whrwag Winery
Stuttgart, Germany

www.ivifho.de

INAUGURAL CONFERENCE PROMOTES

WINE AND FOOD TOURISM

NEWSLINE

The Business of Wine & Food Tourism


Conference will be held in November.
This will be the first time that
industry players and government
representatives from national and
provincial levels will come together to
discuss the promotion of South Africa
as an international wine and food
tourism destination.
The conference, which will be opened
by minister of tourism Derek Hanekom,
features a list of international and local
experts wholl share their knowledge
on various aspects of regional food
and wine travel. The minister will
also present the first ever national
wine tourism strategy based on the
South African Wine Industry Strategic
Exercise (Wise).

Wines of South Africa CEO Siobhan


Thompson says. Our wineries can
already compete with the best in
the world and its time these gems
are discovered by national and
international visitors.
VinPro MD Rico Basson agrees. SAs
current wine tourism economic
contribution of about R6 billion, with
a target of R15 billion by 2025, can be
a large contributor to job creation in
the tourism industry. A total of 289
000 jobs have already been added in
the wine value chain to date and the
new strategy will pave the way for
significant growth in the wine tourism
sector over the next 10 years.

The conference aims to promote


cooperation between the private and
public sectors in the area of food and
wine tourism, to educate business and
entrepreneurs about opportunities
in the sector and to pave the way for
a new national wine tourism strategy
and marketing agenda that will see
South Africa take its rightful place as a
top wine and food tourism destination.

Internationally authentic local food


and wine events are a huge draw
card for experience-hungry travellers.
South Africa has a rich variety of
regional food and wine offerings that
could be of interest to this growing
market. International speakers will
share their knowledge and expertise,
enabling delegates to better market
and position themselves in the
international market.

South Africa can become a key player


in the food and wine tourism arena,

Speakers include Visit Napa Valley


president and CEO Clay Gregory,

Wine Business Solutions founder


Peter McAtamney, Meiningers Wine
Business International editor-in-chief
Felicity Carter and Dr Robin Back of
the University of Central Florida. Local
experts such as JP Rossouw of the
Platter Wine Guide and Mariette du
Toit-Helmbold of Destinate will also
join the discussion. There will also be
several workshops where delegates
can gain practical knowledge.
Im very proud of the fact that the
ministry of tourism can take an active
part in establishing this conference,
bringing together the local public
and private sectors and launching an
exciting new era for the marketing
of South Africa, Hanekom says. I
believe that we can make South Africa
a preferred destination in food and
wine tourism and in so doing create
employment opportunities and
stimulate our local tourism economy.
Provincial minister of economic
opportunities Alan Winde says tourism
is an indispensable part of South
Africas economy. This conference
will enable us to grow our local and
international markets, while equipping
even the smallest producers and
businesses to reach a global audience.

Biofumigation plays an integral


role in an holistic approach
to managing
Biofumigation
plays an
integral

soil-borne
diseases,
nematodes
and
role
in an holistic
approach
to managing
weeds.
Make
use
of
this
opportunity
soil-borne diseases, nematodes andto
meet Make
with experts
in the
research field
weeds.
use of this
opportunity
to
and to gain knowledge on the practical
meet with experts in the research field
application of Biofumigation on the farm.
and to gain knowledge on the practical
This meeting is aimed at researchers,
application of Biofumigation on the farm.
farmers, technical advisors and all
This meeting is aimed at researchers,
stakeholders in the agricultural and food
farmers, technical advisors and all
supply industry
stakeholders in the agricultural and food
Delegates
supply
industrywill have the options to
register either for the 3-day combined
Delegates will have the options to
package (scientific plus practical days)
register either for the 3-day combined
or only for the practical day.
package (scientific plus practical days)

or only for the practical day.

6th
th
6International
International
Biofumigation

Biofumigation
Symposium
Symposium

www.biofumigation2016.co.za

www.biofumigation2016.co.za

25 - 27 July 2016
Spier Wine Estate and Conference Venue
25
- 27 July 2016
Stellenbosch, South Africa

Spier Wine Estate and Conference Venue


Stellenbosch, South Africa

INDUSTRY

INDICATORS
August

2015

2016

YoY

Level %

55.8

51

-9%

BRENT CRUDE OIL ($)


August

2015

2016

YoY

$/Barrel

41.59

43.61

5%

compiled by Funzani Sundani, VinPro

WESTERN CAPE DAM LEVELS

FUEL PRICES (COAST)


August

2015

2016

YoY

Unleaded 95 (R/Litre)

12.83

11.87

-7%

Diesel 0.05% (R/Litre)

10.62

10.58

0%

EXCHANGE RATE
August

2015

2016

R/GBP

19.87

18.39

YoY
-7%

R/Euro

13.87

15.50

12%

R/Dollar

12.74

13.88

9%
C

DOMESTIC WINE SALES

12 Months
Million Litres
Wholesale
Private Cellars

June 2014 - June 2015 May 2015


May 2016
202

225

11%

53

54

2%

Producer Cellars

104

111

6%

Total

359

389

8%

CM

MY

CY

CMY

EXPORTS
12 Months
Million Litres

July 2014 June 2015

July 2015 June 2016

%
-9%

Packaged

184

168

Bulk

245

253

3%

Total

429

421

-2%

TOP SA EXPORT COUNTRIES


Bulk & Packaged July 2014 - July 2015 (Million Litres)
June 2015 June 2016
United Kingdom
Germany

112

102

-9%

85

75

-12%
28%

France

23

29

The Netherlands

22

23

2%

Russia

21

23

7%

Sweden

26

23

-12%

Canada

19

22

13%

Denmark

20

21

3%

USA

11

11

1%
-5%

China

11

10

Belgium

10

10

1%

Finland

2%

Japan

-10%

Angola

-33%

Sources: AA/DWAF/OANDA/News24.com/SAWIS

www.vinpro.co.za

NUWE BEPERKTE
ROOI VERSNIT

Peter Finlayson and Chris Albrecht.

RAISING A GLASS TO BOUCHARD


FINLAYSON

DEUR DORONAE DE RIDDER

KOLLIG

Bouchard Finlayson entertained customers at a wine tasting held in the


Homestead cellar of the Hemel-en-Aarde winery where Peter Finlayson
and junior winemaker Chris Albrecht introduced their latest vintages.
They also showcased the acclaimed 2013 Bouchard Finlayson Galpin
Peak Pinot Noir. Another highlight of the event was the tasting of older
vintages of Galpin Peak and Bouchard Finlayson Hannibal, the winerys
signature Italian/French red blend. Guests had the opportunity to
vertically taste 2007 - 2009 vintages of Hannibal in magnums and 2004,
2006 and 2007 Galpin Peak vintages in Jeroboams.

W YE VERSKEIDENHEID WYNE

10

Vanjaar se lys van Nederburg-wyne strek oor vyf


dekades heen, van oesjare in die sewentigerjare
tot 2014. Die uiteenlopende keuse wat die paneel
vir 2016 se Nederburg Veiling gemaak het, sluit
in etlike groot soet- en rooiwyne, n 14 jaar oue
Chenin Blanc en n nege jaar oue Sauvignon
Blanc. Die oudste wyn is Gnter Brzel se 1979
Edelkeur, die legendariese edellaatoeswyn wat
tot die Nederburg Veiling aanleiding gegee het
en die kelder groot internasionale erkenning
besorg het. Die veiling word op 16 en 17
September by Nederburg gehou.

Durbanville Hills het The Tangram 2012 Red


Blend, waarvan slegs 1 659 bottels gemaak
is, bekendgestel. Die naam is afgelei van
die Chinese sewestuklegkaart waar n mens
na die geheel moet
kyk om die menigte
beelde te verstaan
wat geskep kan word.
Die finale Bordeauxversnit bestaan uit 70%
Cabernet Sauvignon,
20% Merlot, 5%
Cabernet Franc, 3%
Petit Verdot en 2%
Malbec. Die 2012
Tangram Red Blend is
slegs by die kelder en
www.vinoteque.co.za
beskikbaar en kos R895
per bottel. Elke bottel is
genommer en word met
n sertifikaat uitgereik.
Wynliefhebbers kan
net vier bottels per persoon koop en deur
jou aankoop by www.thetangram.co.za te
registreer, kan jy n sertifikaat onderteken
deur die wynmaker Martin Moore aanvra.
Die wyn sal slegs in uitsonderlike jare
beskikbaar wees.

Ilze Saunders, a
former titleholder
and head of the
Miss Earth SA
projects for 2016,
with a bottle of
Enaleni Vineyards
Sauvignon Blanc
2015.

NEW BRAND AMBASSADOR

Enaleni Vineyards in Stellenbosch is delighted to announce


the appointment of Miss Earth SA as its new brand
ambassador. The partnership will see the two entities join
forces to make a difference in the lives of those living and
working on the Enaleni farm. Miss Earth SAs mission is to
increase awareness of the newly launched Fairtrade-certified
wine brand and share the Enaleni communitys story of
optimism.
Miss Earth SA is a leadership programme that aims
to empower young women by providing them with a
platform to create a sustainable difference in social and
environmental sectors in South Africa. The organisations
goal is to create sustainability, citizenship and stewardship
through environmental work.

BLEND YOUR OWN SIGNATURE WINE

PICTURE: GRANDE PROVENCE.

Grande Provence in Franschhoek offers a wine-blending experience for


people who want more than just another tour and tasting. Carefully
guided by Grande Provence wine ambassadors, participants in the
interactive hour-long blending session create their own unique
blends from three different wine varieties. Once theyre happy with
their personalised blend, the wine is sealed and can be taken home
as a memento of an unforgettable experience. The wine-blending
workshop costs R725 - R1 200 per person, which includes lunch. For
bookings and more information, call 021 876 8600, email restaurant@
grandeprovence.co.za or go to www.grandeprovence.co.za.

2016S WINNING PORT

Leeu Spa-ontspanningsarea.

The Axe Hill Cape Vintage 2013 (Cape Vintage class)


from Calitzdorp was the overall winner of the Cape Port
Producers Association (Cappa) Challenge. Calitzdorp
produced all but five winners from the 62 entries in both
divisions.
OTHER CLASS WINNERS WERE:
Cape Tawny: KWV Cape Tawny (non-vintage)
Cape Ruby: Calitzdorp Winery Cape Ruby
Museum: KWV Limited Release 1961 and De Krans
Cape Vintage Reserve 2005 (joint winners)
THE TOP 10 WINES
(IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER)
IN THE TABLE WINE DIVISION
FOR NATURAL WINE MADE
FROM TRADITIONAL PORT
VARIETIES ARE:

Bergsig Touriga Nacional 2012


Bergsig Touriga Nacional 2013
Boplaas Ring of Rocks 2013
Boplaas Portuguese
Connection 2014
Boplaas Tinta Barocca 2015
Boplaas Tinta Barocca WW 2014
De Krans Tinta Barocca 2013
De Krans Tinta Roriz 2014
De Krans Tritonia 2014
Overgaauw Touriga
Nacional 2015

LEEU ESTATES VERWELKOM JOU


Leeu Estates is n vyfster-boetiekeiendom in Franschhoek
met 17 luukse kamers en suites. Analjit Singh, n
internasionale belegger van Indiese oorsprong, het
gedurende n besoek aan Suid-Afrika in 2010 besluit
om n familietuiste in die Franschhoek-vallei aan te
skaf. Vandag is di tuiste drie historiese plase wat
saamgesnoer is om n wreldgehalte bestemming in
wyn en gasvryheid te bied. Hierdie werkende wynplaas
bestaan uit n 19de eeuse herehuis, Leeu Spa, The Dining
Room, Garden Terrace, Reading Room, Wine Studio,
Indaba-funksielokaal en Bokkie-tuin.
Hierdie onderneming is n bewys van die vertroue
in ons provinsie en die provinsie se vermo om
beleggers en besoekers te lok, asook ons vermo om
wreldklaswyn en ander ervarings te bied, het Tim
Harris, uitvoerende bestuurder van Wesgro tydens Leeu
Spa se opening ges. Vir besprekings of meer inligting,
bel 021 492 2222 of stuur n e-pos na reservations@
leeucollection.com.

FOR THE HEALTH CONSCIOUS AND WEIGHT WATCHERS

Audacias latest innovation is a lower-kilojoule wine. Made using honeybush and rooibos
wood, it clocks in at 7.5% alcohol, 193 kilojoules and 0.2 grams total sugar per 100 m.
The wine has a nutritional table on the back label and is a great lifestyle choice for those
who watch their carb, alcohol and sugar intake and people with Type 2 diabetes. The wine
costs R65 a bottle at the cellar door and is available at selected restaurants.

11

SA IMPRESSES AT DECANTER
AWARDS
South Africa scooped 1 Platinum Best in Show, 5
Platinum, 29 Gold, 213 Silver, 273 Bronze and 101
Commended medals at the annual Decanter World
Wine Awards (DWWA). The winners are:
PLATINUM BEST IN SHOW
De Morgenzon Chardonnay Reserve 2015
PLATINUM

Cederberg Shiraz 2014


Delaire Graff Cabernet Sauvignon Reserve 2012
Paul Cluver Noble Late Harvest Riesling 2014
Spier Creative Block 2 Sauvignon Blanc-Smillon 2014
Wildekrans Barrel Select Pinotage Reserve 2014

GOLD

Cape Point Vineyards Isliedh 2015


Cederberg Five Generations Cabernet Sauvignon 2014
Constantia Glen Five 2011
David Nieuwoudt Ghost Corner Sauvignon Blanc 2015
De Morgenzon Chenin Blanc Reserve 2015
Driehoek Shiraz 2013
Elgin Vintners Pinot Noir 2013
Flagstone Writers Block Pinotage 2013
Klein Constantia Vin de Constance 2012
Kleine Zalze Vineyard Selection Chenin Blanc 2015
KWV Cathedral Cellar Chardonnay 2015
KWV Laborie MCC Blanc de Blanc 2010
KWV The Mentors Cabernet Franc 2013
KWV The Mentors Cabernet Sauvignon 2013
KWV The Mentors Petit Verdot 2014
Marks & Spencer Sauvignon Blanc 2015
Nederburg Wines Winemasters Noble Late Harvest
Reserve 2014
Nico van der Merwe Nicolas Syrah 2013
Paul Cluver Estate Chardonnay 2015
Paul Cluver Seven Flags Chardonnay 2015
Peter Falke Signature Exclusive Blend 2013
Saronsberg Cellar Full Circle 2014
Saronsberg Cellar Shiraz 2014
Trizanne Signature Wines Syrah Reserve 2015
Uva Mira O.T.V. 2013
Uva Mira The Single Tree Chardonnay 2014
Waitrose Private Cellar Shiraz 2014
Wildekrans Barrel Select Pinot Noir Reserve 2013
Wildekrans Shiraz Barrel Select Reserve 2014

HOT RED WINES


The results of the second annual
RisCura Red Hot Wine Awards,
featuring Bordeaux-style red blends,
were announced during an event held
at Burrata Restaurant at the Old Biscuit
Mill in Woodstock, Cape Town. A total
of 59 entries were received from 46
producers and 13 wines were rated
90 or higher on the 100-point quality
scale. The top wines were:

11

94 POINTS
Groot Constantia Gouverneurs Reserve Red 2013

10
12

93 POINTS

SAWI SUCCESS
KWV took the most honours at the seventh
annual South African Wine Index (SAWi) Awards
with 11 awards, followed by Cederberg and
Spier who won eight each, Saronsberg with
seven and Bouchard Finlayson, Paul Cluver
and Diemersdal with six awards each. Groot
Constantia took top honours with the trophy
for High-End Wine Producer of the Year. The
award was made even sweeter when Groot
Constantias Boela Gerber and Floricius Beukes
won the Winemaker of the Year Award and the
Viticulturist Award respectively. Saronsberg
Cellar received the High-End Red Wine
Producer of the Year Award and Kleine Zalze
Wines the High-End White Wine Producer of
the Year Award. For the full results go to http://
www.sawineindex.com/page/awards/.

Ernie Els Signature 2013


Mvemve Raats MR de Compostella 2014
92 POINTS

Delaire Graff Botmaskop 2014


Hartenberg The Mackenzie 2012
Spier Creative Block 5 2013
Vriesenhof Kallista 2010

91 POINTS
Dombeya Fenix 2011
Eikendal Classique 2014
Uva Mira O.T.V. 2014
90 POINTS
Creation Merlot Cabernet Sauvignon Petit Verdot 2014
Diemersdal Private Collection 2014
Rustenberg John X Merriman 2013
As producer of the best wine overall Groot Constantia
won a new 300-litre Selection range barrel from
Tonnellerie Sylvain.

R550/person
ADAMS & ADAMS

WINELAND

SEMINAR 2016

Visit
www.wineland.co.za
to book your seat.

This years Adams & Adams WineLand Seminar puts the spotlight
on innovation and more specifically the creative mindsets and
technologies that could rattle the cage and shape the future of the
wine industry.

8:00 15:00 l 22 September 2016

(Closing date for bookings 9 September 2016)

Industry experts lead two panel discussions about rethinking wine


production and marketing.
Director of the Institute for Futures Research at the University of
Stellenbosch, DR MORNE MOSTERT, is an international specialist
in the development of thinking for leaders and advises globally on
strategic decision-making. He will investigate innovation as a means of
influencing the industrys road to vintage 2030.
Internationally renowned keynote speaker
DOUGLAS KRUGER is passionate about creating proactive leaders and
debunking outdated ideas. A hard-core advocate of personal discipline
and committed crusader against a victimhood-mentality, his forte is
dismantling self-imposed rules that can hamstring organisations.

Spier Wine Estate

Innovation is the central issue in


economic prosperity.

- American economist and educator Michael Porter

Thomas A Edison

IMPACT OF BREXIT
ON PORT
Portugal and the UK have a long
history of trade relations going
back many centuries, with one
of the strongest ties arguably
being the export of port. The UK
is Portugals sixth biggest market
for port over one million bottles
were exported between January
and April this year alone. While the
British havent stopped buying port
in the industrys more than 300year history its difficult to predict
what the real economic impact of
Brexit will be. Port wine company
Churchills CEO Emilia Campos says
the industry has been caught off
guard. Were not prepared for the
pound falling around 15%, were not
prepared for the coming recession
and were not prepared for peoples
reactions.

BY SANDILE MKHWANAZI

INTERNATIONAL SNIPPETS FOR TWITER

www.euronews.com

BLIGHT THREATENS
SPAINS SHERRY
GRAPE HARVEST
A warm, wet spring has wreaked
havoc in the vineyards of Andalusia
where vintners report that fungi
are threatening this years sherry
production. Its feared that as much
as 80% of their crops could be
destroyed due to mildew fungus
caused by warm temperatures and
unusually high rainfall during spring.
Among the worst-affected vineyards
are those around San Lcar, where
the blight is expected to have
damaged between 50 and 70% of
growth, and Trebujena, which has
suffered damage of between 30 and
60%. One winegrower expected an
estimated 80% loss of his harvest.
Its been a disaster, Jose Sumariva,
who runs an 8 500 ha vineyard, told
El Pais.
www.thelocal.es

BUG DENTIFIED FOR


DREADED VINE
DISEASE

14

New research suggests an insect


may be responsible for the spread
of Red Blotch Disease in American
vineyards. Scientist Alan Wei doesnt
mince his words when asked about
the disease. Aside from drought, its
the most serious concern to confront

grape producers in the past 10 years,


he says. Researchers at the University
of California, Davis, and the USDA
Agricultural Research Service may
however have made a breakthrough
in identifying the cause of the
disease. After running experiments
with various insects found in infected
vineyards, they have identified the
three-cornered alfalfa treehopper as
a probable vector.
www.winespectator.com

SIGNS YOU LOVE


BUBBLY
Here are a few signs that youre a
champagne drinker for life:

1 You suddenly become interested


in styles of glass in which your
wine is served.

2 You know how to hold a glass


correctly.

A COMPLICATED YEAR
FOR CHAMPAGNE
Awful weather has been disastrous
for the Champagne vineyards in
France. Between mid-April and early
May there was a succession of heavy
frosts. Producers in the Cte des Bar
were the most severely affected. In
Les Riceys, 200 producers had 75%
of their vines destroyed. Buds were
burnt by a surprise winter frost and
they might use their reserve wines
and grapes from undamaged vines
to make this years champagne to
compensate their losses.

3 You get annoyed by name-

dropping of sparkling wine


styles other than champagne.

4 You jump straight to the

champagne list on the menu,


even on your first date.

5 The drinks aisle is your first stop


at the supermarket so you can
see if there are any champagne
promotions running and set
budgets for the rest of your
shop.

www.drinksfeed.com

www.glassofbubbly.com

LOCAL MICROBES
CAN PREDICT WINES
CHEMICAL PROFILE
Regionally distinctive groups of
bacteria and fungi, associated
with local climate, may leave a
very specific fingerprint on a
wines chemical composition,
report researchers at Un iversity of
California, Davis. The researchers,
who collaborated with two Napa
Valley wineries, evaluated more than
200 commercial wine fermentations
at Far Niente and Nickel & Nickel.
Data from the study shows microbes
influence a wines terroir or
distinctive regional characteristics.
The study also suggests microbial
signatures associated with
predictable chemical profiles of wine
may provide a valuable new qualitycontrol tool for the multibilliondollar global wine industry.

More than 30 000 bottles of Penfolds


Grange, Torbreck and Henschke have
gone missing in Australia after the
storage company where they were
being held went into receivership.
The bottles, worth an estimated
AU$5 million, were being held in a
warehouse run by Wine Investment
Services (WIS) in New South Wales.
Among the missing wines are
various vintages of Penfolds Grange,
including bottles of the 1951,
vintages of Henschke Hill of Graces
and a number of Torbreck wines
such as The Descendant and Runrig.

www.infowine.com

www.drinksbusiness.com

$5M OF AUSSIE FINE


WINE VANISHES

S E PT E
MB

ER

01-20

02-04

VINPRO DISEASE AND PEST CONTROL COURSE. VinPro brings


vineyard worker training to producers doorstep with a comprehensive
series of training courses that correspond with the current wine grape
season. The disease and pest control course takes place from 1 - 20
September in various regions and includes an overview of insects, fungal,
bacterial and viral diseases and handling of pesticides and insecticides.
For more info, go to www.vinpro.co.za.
BOT RIVER SPRING WEEKEND. The Spring Weekend 2016 promises Bot
River bliss at its best. All farms are open from 10:00 until 16:00 over the
weekend, which kicks off on a high note with the sommelier-led Bot River
Magnum Magnificence tasting at Beaumont Wine Estate. Tickets, including
weekend passes costing R100 per person, are available at www.quicket.co.za.
For more info, go to www.botriverwines.com.

22
24&25
30

THE MICHAEL FRIDJHON WINE EXPERIENCE. Host Michael Fridjhon leads guests along the
highways and byways of the greatest wine styles of Burgundy,Bordeaux, the Rhne, Champagne,
the Loire Valley, the Moselle, and Tuscany. He also introduces them to examples from the South Africa,
Australia and New Zealand. The theme for the 20th anniversaryof this wine weekend is Change and
Continuity. For more info, send an email to alex@outsorceress.co.za.
ADAMS & ADAMS WINELAND SEMINAR. This years seminar puts the spotlight on innovation and
more specifically the creative mind-sets and technologies that could rattle the cage and shape
the future of the wine industry. It all happens at Spier Wine Estate from 08:00 to 15:00 and the
cost is R500 per person. For more info, go to www.vinpro.co.za.
FRANSCHHOEK UNCORKED FESTIVAL. Good wines, food and live entertainment are on offer at
the annual Franschhoek Uncorked Festival. Celebrate your heritage with Franschhoek wines selected
by the winemakers and paired with delicious food cooked over an open flame as Franschhoek prepares to
Braai4Heritage. Tickets cost R140 per person. For more info, go to www.franschhoekuncorked.co.za.

HERITAGE

DAY

24

BY LEE-ANNE DAVIDSON

17-18

DIARY

SOWETO WINE & LIFESTYLE FESTIVAL. Now in its 12th year, this festival has
grown to become Africas premier wine, food, music and lifestyle event. It takes
place at Walter Sisulu Square of Dedication in Kliptown, Soweto, where wines from
some of the most exciting vineyards in the country will be showcased. For more info, go
to www.sowetowinefestival.co.za.

CAPE WINEMAKERS GUILD FINAL PRE-AUCTION TASTING. The Nedbank Cape Winemakers Guild Final Pre-Auction
Tasting offers wine-lovers a final preview of the wines crafted exclusively for the 2016 Nedbank Cape Winemakers Guild
Auction. Held at Spier Conference Centre, Stellenbosch, the event includes a formal tutored tasting of exceptional wines
with a creative edge and great diversity of styles.For more info, go to www.capewinemakersguild.com/events.

fermentation control ...and more


Temperature
(Setpoint)
operating

15,0C (15,0C) Graph

15,5C (15,0C) Graph

19,5C (19,5C) Graph


cool

25,0C(20,0C) Graph
heat

17,5C (17,5C) Graph


cool

24,0C (24,0C) Graph

15,5C (15,0C) Graph


cool

15,5C (15,0C) Graph

fermentation control

monitoring

www.vinpilot.com

mobile access

remontage control

Wijnland Engineering
Chris van der Merwe

air humidification

phone: 021 883 855 6


cell: 082 555 346 7

A
X
LU

UR

Y PORTFOLIO SHOUL D
BE

E XC

LUS

IVE

TH

RO
UG

HO
UT
...

The right address is the


cornerstone of a luxury
wine portfolio. Wanda
Augustyn asked Delaire
Graff GM Johann Laubser
what this entails.

16

ccording to Johann, it all starts with the


address to give the brand provenance,
pedigree and a sense of exclusivity
and style. Other key criteria when
building a luxury wine portfolio are
presentation (packaging), superb quality
and the execution of a well-constructed
marketing and PR strategy.

This includes attendance at wine shows, success in wine


competitions and constant consumer exposure through
press articles, tutored tastings and wine dinners among
other things, Johann says.
Johann explains at Delaire Gra Estate, one of South Africas
top destinations, plantings are terroir-driven. Consequently
Bordeaux red varietals and Chardonnay dominate
the portfolio. The white wine portfolio comprises two
stylistically dierent Sauvignon Blancs (from outsourced
vineyards) and three Chardonnays. The Botmaskop
Bordeaux-style blend in the red wine portfolio has grown to
approximately 60 000 bottles a year, while the easy-drinking
Shiraz continues to gain in popularity. The Icon range, which
is priced from R350 to R3 000 a bottle, consists of a White
Blend, Chardonnay and two Cabernet Sauvignons.

Im privileged to have superbly talented colleagues and a


wonderfully supportive owner in Laurence Graff.
WHAT SHOULD BE INCLUDED IN A LUXURY
PORTFOLIO IN TERMS OF OFFERING?
As with all luxury brands, there needs to be price and
product category segmentation. The portfolio should be
exclusive and luxurious throughout, but tiered to address
both the aspirational and well-heeled consumer, which
our Luxury, Premium and Icon categories do with their
commensurate pricing.
DO YOU CHOOSE YOUR TARGET MARKET
OR DOES IT CHOOSE YOU?
You begin by selecting your target market. However
success is driven by how well you succeed in executing the
aforementioned processes.

WHERE DO YOU MARKET YOUR PRODUCTS?


Because of our diversified offering, Delaire Graff Estate
has become a sought-after winelands destination for local
and foreign tourists. Our two restaurants, hotel and wine
lounge with tasting and retail sales account for 30% of
annual sales. The domestic market also accounts for 30%
and the balance of 40% is exported. Germany, Switzerland
and the Netherlands and UK are our largest export
markets. Others that do well are the USA, Sweden, Norway
and the Indian Ocean Islands.
DO YOU BELIEVE IN DIVERSIFYING YOUR PORTFOLIO
IN TERMS OF PRICE STRUCTURE?
Our portfolio comprises three tiers. The Luxury range
consists of four wines priced from R85 to R120 a bottle.
The Premium range comprises five wines priced from R135
to R250 a bottle and the Icon range consists of five wines
priced from R350 to R3 000 a bottle. This approach works
well and fortunately for us demand for our wines mostly
exceeds supply.
HOW IMPORTANT IS WINNING AWARDS WHEN YOURE
IN THE WINE BUSINESS?
Winning awards is an essential driver of a luxury wine
portfolio. We are however selective with regard to the
competitions we enter as not all have the same credibility
and weight. The Old Mutual Trophy Wine Show, which we
regard as South Africas premier wine competition, has
been particularly kind to us in recent years. We also attach
a high value to good Platter ratings and regular five-star
awards are important for elevating the portfolios profile.

JOHANN LAUBSER DELAIRE GRAFF ESTATE

Johann, who was born in Stellenbosch and grew up


on a wine farm in the area, tells us about his memories
drinking wine. After a corporate career, he became a wine
entrepreneur at the age of 38. In the early nineties he
established Longridge Winery which later merged with Spier
and Johann was appointed CEO of the business. He joined
Delaire Gra Estate in late 2008 when it was a construction
site and says the journey has been rewarding and fun.

WHAT DOES YOUR TARGET MARKET LOOK LIKE?


Everything about our portfolio is designed to appeal to the
discerning wine consumer and priced accordingly.

WHAT DO YOU DO WHEN YOURE NOT WORKING?


When Im not at work I read extensively and enjoy keeping
up to date with current affairs. Golf, gym, exploring the
culinary, music and art scenes and spending time with
my wife and family, especially my two grandchildren, are
among my favourite pastimes.
GUILTY PLEASURES IN LIFE?
Wine of course. I indulge myself car-wise and enjoy travel
with a little luxury thrown in. w

WHATS YOUR

17

KEEPING IT

INTERNATIONAL COOL CLIMATE WINE SYMPOSIUM (ICCWS)

The role of change whether its a change in climate, markets or wine styles was a recurring
topic at the eighth International Cool Climate Symposium held in Brighton, England, in May.
Marianne McKay was there.

18

The main theme for this years


International Cool Climate
Symposium was Successful wine
production in changing climates.
It set the tone for many stimulating
presentations, seminars, workshops
and lively discussions for the close
on 700 delegates from 30 different
countries who attended the event.

imminent effect of a Brexit vote,


she said the UK wine industry
was experiencing unprecedented
growth.

New frontiers

Influential wine writer Jancis


Robinson opened the symposium
by expressing her surprise (in a nice
way, presumably) at the quality
of English wine, particularly the
sparkling wine, saying it didnt try to
mimic Champagne and describing it
as hedgerow in a glass. She lauded
Plumpton College for leading the
charge in educating those in the
vibrant UK wine industry.

Professors Hans Schultz of


Geisenheim University, Germany,
and Greg Jones of Southern Oregon
University, America, co-hosted a
session on Emerging Cool Climate
Wine Regions. They showed how the
northern frontier for winemaking is
shifting as the climate changes. The
growing demand for new products,
new purchasing trends and
changing demographics and tastes
have led to the opening up of new
regions for economically sustainable
wine production.

She was however was strongly


critical of the UKs Department of
the Environment, Food and Rural
Affairs (Defra) for cutting off funding
for the wine skills programme for
young people and failing to renew
its membership to the International
Organisation of Vine and Wine
(OIV). She was equally vocal about
the punitive duty on wine in the
UK. These setbacks aside and the

One of the interesting facts to


emerge is that after Gamay and
Chardonnay, Pinotage is the most
hardy to cold and able to survive
temperatures of -24.5 C. Who
knows, we may be drinking Alaskan
Pinotage Ros in a few years time!
They specifically mentioned frontier
winemaking areas in South Africa,
including high-altitude areas in the
Karoo and Drakensberg.

Wooing new consumers


Richard Halstead of the leading
wine research company, Wine
Intelligence, offered several
interesting insights into the topical
issue of emerging wine markets
and new consumers. The panel for
this fairly China-focused discussion
included Dr Damien Wilson of the
Wine Spectator Business Institute
in California, who looked at
technological trends that impact the
marketing of wine.
Addressing the question Why
should we care about emerging
markets? panellists answers
ranged from Thirty million new
wine consumers in China in the
next decade to the importance
of gratifying Millennials devotion
trend. The consensus was that
emerging markets, including
untapped domestic markets
such as those in South Africa,
are where the business is going
to be. The panellists emphasised
intermediaries such as wine
writers and bloggers are important
to new wine consumers who
want status and security in their
decision making. In China however

social media has become the


intermediary, with short-term
trends in buying habits driven by
peer opinions, rather than longterm brand loyalty.

Micro matters
Paul Henschke of the Australian
Wine Research Institute chaired
a session on wine microbiology
during which Professor Maret du Toit
of Stellenbosch University looked
at the importance of malolactic
bacteria in managing some of the
challenging acidity and pH issues
in cool climate wines. She provided
useful and practical information for
winemakers on differences among
bacterial species and timing of
inoculation in managing flavour and
acidity.

PICTURE: SHUTTERSTOCK

Know your consumer


Did you know that the recipe for an
award-winning red wine is 14.4%
volume alcohol, 3.9 g residual
sugar, oak and red fruit aromas with
well-balanced acidity? This was
highlighted by the Wine and Spirit
Education Trusts Ian Harris, who
discussed the importance of wine
education to establish common
ground among consumers and
determine new styles. Attributes
such as vegetative or barnyard
aromas were found to be a definite
no-no.

Award-winning Professor
Charles Spence of the department of
experimental psychology at Oxford
University used members of the
audience as guinea pigs
by playing two different kinds of
music while they tasted white
wine. I was amazed at the difference
the background sound made,
with a jumpy, discordant piece of
music making the wine seem
more acidic and unbalanced.
Definitely something for wine
marketers and tasting rooms
to bear in mind.
During the wine training slot my
colleague Anne Alessandri and I
discussed the changes that have
been made to the Stellenbosch
University degree programme
in viticulture and oenology to
increase graduates professionalism
and employability. Feedback
was positive and several people
commented it was the first time
theyd encountered formal research
in this area.
I also presented a paper on work
Valeria Panzeri, Jeanne Brand and
I are doing at the department of
viticulture and oenology on wine
sensory training. Instead of
adopting a European or
traditional perspective we have
decided to relook our wine
evaluation and aroma training to
make it more appropriate for

South African students. The


audience response was
gratifying they found
what we are doing exciting and
innovative, making us feel proud to
be South African.

Next up Canada

2020

Besides the conference


presentations, other highlights
included visits to vineyards and
wineries, the Sussex International
Food and Wine Festival, the
Brighton Arts Festival, evening
networking events and the
symposium gala dinner.
The symposium offered a
wonderful opportunity to
discover the English wine industry
and get to know the British wine
trade. The award-winning wine
writer and scientist, Dr Jamie
Goode, closed proceedings with
a call for the UK wine industry to
stick to making sparkling wine,
much to the chagrin of Pinot Noir
producers. The announcement
that the Canadian team had won
the bid for ICCWS 2020 was met
with great enthusiasm.
Ontarian Pinotage, anyone?

19

DIE
DUUR
VOORT
n Oorhoofse benadering wat inkoop en samewerking
van wyndruifprodusente verg, is noodsaaklik om
rolblaar hok te slaan. Deur Edo Heyns

nlangse navorsing in die


Amerikaanse deelstaat
Washington bewys
rolblaar benadeel nie net
wingerdopbrengs nie; dit
het ook n merkbare impak op kleur,
aroma en vrankheid. Is dit nie genoeg
rede om daadwerklike stappe te
doen om finaal van hierdie probleem
ontslae te raak nie?
Die skuld vir rolblaar word dikwels
verkeerdelik voor wingerdkwekers
se deur gel, s Nico Spreeth,
bestuurder van Vititec. Hy s daar is al
heelwat gedoen om rolblaar te bestry
veral aan kwekerskant. Maar die
virus het steeds die oorhand en daar
behoort verdere stappe gedoen te
word om werklike resultate te sien.

DIE ONSIGBARE GEVAAR

20

Rooi druiwe se virusstand is


duidelik sigbaar en die effek van
die rolblaarvirus word ook makliker
opgemerk ten opsigte van kwaliteit.
Maar wit druiwe is n heel ander saak.
Dit kan nie visueel gevalueer word
nie en is daarom die groot gevaar as
bron vir verdere infeksie.

Die ideaal sou wees om alle


moederblokmateriaal wat gent
word vir rolblaar te toets, s Nico.
Met rooi kan dit maklik visueel
gedoen word en daar is n korrelasie
van 100% tussen Vititec se visuele
inspeksie en Elisa-toetse. Maar met
wit is dit nie moontlik nie en daarom
is dit die grootste risiko.
Elisa-toetse die algemeenste
toetse vir rolblaarvirus kos die
bedryf naastenby R14 miljoen per
jaar en die meeste van hierdie toetse
word op wit kultivars gedoen, juis
omdat dit nie visueel gedentifiseer
kan word nie.
Veral Chenin Blanc en Colombar
wys glad nie simptome nie en die
virus versprei van hierdie wingerde
na rooi blokke. Ons moet nou
propageer dat alle wit kultivars
as besmet beskou word, s Nico.
Wingerdpraktyke soos suierwerk
moet eers op rooi wingerd waarvan
die virusstand bekend is, gedoen
word voordat daar na wit kultivars
beweeg word.
n Nuwe tegniek waar rooi ogies
op wit kultivars gent word, hou
heelwat potensiaal in. Die rooi
loot dien as n aanduiding van die
virusstand en maak die virusstand
van wit kultivars ook visueel sigbaar.
Tafeldruiwe hou ook n gevaar vir
wyndruiwe in. Waar slegs 4% van
wyndruifaanplantings in 2015 jaar
ongesertifiseerd was, is hierdie syfer
vir tafeldruiwe hor as 60%. Daar
sal beslis voordele wees as dieselfde
rels vir tafel- en wyndruiwe geld,
s Nico.

KWEEK IN NUWE GEBIEDE


Die meeste wingerdkwekerye is
steeds in gevestigde wingerdareas
gebaseer, ten spyte van die feit
dat daar heelwat besmette blokke
in hierdie konvensionele streke is.
Ja, hulle is oortuig dat behoorlike
spuitprogramme verspreiding onder
beheer het, maar is die risiko nie
steeds te groot nie?
Nico moedig kwekerye prontuit aan
om op nuwe grond te plant en daar
is heelwat wat dit doen. Vititec wat
entmateriaal aan kwekerye verskaf,
maar ook self stokkies kweek het
onder andere persele in Graafwater,
waar daar nie n ander wingerd in
sig is nie.
Dit is veral belangrik dat
onderstokke nie in tradisionele
wynbedryfgebiede geplant word
nie aangesien onderstokke, met
die uitsondering van US 8/7, nie
akkuraat vir rolblaarvirus getoets
kan word nie. Nico skryf die feit dat
kwekerye nie uit hierdie streke skuif
nie aan kostedruk toe.

DIE EKONOMIE VAN


ROLBLAAR

selfs blokke wat net met n masjien


geoes word indien die masjinerie nie
behoorlik tussen blokke afgespuit
word nie.
As die primre produsent nie
vir die kwaliteit van rolblaarvrye
wingerde vergoed word nie, gaan
dit nie swaai nie, s Nico. Hy voeg
by dat vergoeding vir druiwe van
rolblaarvrye wingerde nie net die
verspreiding van die virus sal stuit
nie, maar ook die algehele kwaliteit
van Suid-Afrikaanse rooiwyn sal lig.

SUKSESVERHALE
Almal wat reken rolblaar kan
nie oorwin word nie, moet gerus
volgende jaar gedurende herfs
deur die Bo-Hemel-en-Aarde-vallei
ry. Dis meestal rooi kultivars, maar
virusvry en die toekoms van ons ou
wingerde, s Nico.
Hoekom het hierdie wyk dit
reggekry, terwyl streke wat net om
die draai is vir rolblaar berug is?
Dis eenvoudig, s Nico. Almal in
daardie gebied het saamgestaan,
skoon materiaal gekoop en die
vektor, naamlik witluis, beheer.

Produsente sien nie die impak van


rolblaar in terme van oesverlies nie
omdat daar nie n kontrole is om
dit mee te vergelyk nie. Oesverlies
is daarom nie n groot genoeg
motivering om rolblaar te bestry
nie selfs nie in gebiede waar ho
produksies nagejaag word nie.

Hy voeg by dit is n wanopvatting


dat net landgoedere met diep
sakke rolblaarvry kan wees. Ek is
bevrees dis juis daardie siening n
laksheid wat ons terughou. Hoe
het Nieu-Seelanders dit dan met
Suid-Afrikaanse navorsing reggekry?
Miskien is dit nodig dat n konsultant
produsente aan die hand neem en
wys dit kan tog gedoen word.

Boonop versprei rolblaar vinnig


tussen gemeganiseerde wingerde en

Sien tydlyn op volgende twee


bladsye.

21

TIME FOR REAL ACTION?


South Africas leafroll guru, Dr Gerhard Pietersen, provides a timeline of critical research discoveries
that led to the control of grapevine leafroll disease, with special emphasis on events in South Africa.

The incidence of the


disease is reported
from France, the Orient,
Spain, Italy, Portugal and
Hungary (Guillon, 1895).

From 1891 to 1924


a number of authors
postulate the disease is
caused by environmental
factors, various fungi
or insects (Hoefert and
Gifford, 1967), and
from 1900 by a possible
nutrient deficiency
(Zacharewicz, 1900).

The causal agent is


postulated to be a virus
for the first time by
Martinoff.

1894

1895

1924

1934

1936

1943

1950

1952

1959

Scheu describes the


transmission of leafroll
disease through
grafting and budding,
confirming the biotic
nature of the causal
agent and supporting
the hypothesis that the
disease is caused by a
virus.

Olmo and Rizzi describe


a condition similar to
leafroll on the variety
Emperor in California.

The first report of leafroll


disease in South Africa is
made by Du Plessis.

Hewitt performs
transmission studies and
demonstrates that the
disease of Emperor could
pass through rootstocks
to healthy vines.

Biological indexing
as a faster method of
identifying the disease is
demonstrated by Goheen
et al for the first time.

Written descriptions of
leafroll-like disease from
France appear, based
on a translation of the
second edition of de
Berneauds book, The
Vinedressers Theoretical
and Practical Manual
(Hoefert & Gifford, 1967).

While initially little


information on the
incidence of leafroll
disease in Europe
is found, Mazade,
Guillon and G. de M.
independently report on
the severe impact of the
disease.

1829

Ochs presents evidence


for the first time that the
causal organism was a
bolt-shaped cylindrical
virus. Its not known
whether they observed
particles of what later are
known as Vitiviruses or
the Ampeloviruses.

The wine grape


certification scheme of
South Africa (SAWGCS)
is established and made
law. While primarily with
the aim of propagating
cultivar true, mainly
grapevine fanleaf virusfree planting material,
biological indexing onto
indicator vines serves
as the foundation for
also virus testing leafroll
infected vines.

1959

1976
1985

In South Africa, DJ
Engelbrecht and Kassie
Kasdorf at the Plant
Protection Research
Institute, Stellenbosch,
provide evidence for the
first time of the natural
spread in grapevine of
the closterovius particles
associated with the
disease.

22

Jako reports the


elimination of leafroll
by meristem tip culture
as a means of creating
leafroll-free nuclear
material, a technique
modified by the addition
of heat therapy in
1991 by Savino et al. In
1990 in South Africa,
Goussard, Wiid, Kasdorf
and Newton report the
elimination of leafrollassociated viruses from
grapevines using in vitro
somatic embryogenesis
as an alternative.

Clark and Adams for


the first time introduce
the enzyme-linked
immmunosorbent assay
(ELISA), a virus detection
technique developed
a few years earlier in
medical virology, for
the detection of plant
viruses.

Namba et al find
closterovirus-like
particles in thin sections
of phloem tissue
and in leaf dips from
GLD-affected vines and
suggest this type of virus
could be the disease
agent. This finding
is soon confirmed by
Faoro et al in 1981 and
Castellano et al in 1983

Guguerli et al, in
producing antisera for
the leafroll-associated
viruses and developing
an ELISA, identify two
serologically unrelated
closterovirus-like viruses
with particle length of
2,200 and 1,800 nm,
respectively, in purified
preparations from
symptomatic grapevine
leaves. These two viruses
are denoted grapevine
leafroll-associated
viruses 1 and 2 (GLRaV-1
and GLRaV-2).

1977

1979

1984

1987

1990

1991

Rosciglione and
Gugerli demonstrate
the transmission of
grapevine leafroll disease
and the associated
closterovirus to healthy
grapevines by the
mealybug Planococcus
ficus for the first time.

Planococcus ficus is
confirmed as a vector of
leafroll in South Africa by
Engelbrecht and Kasdorf
and they propose mild
strain pre-immunisation
as a control strategy
for grape leafroll virusassociated closterovirus
type 3.

Pietersen describes the


development of an ELISA
system for the detection
of GLRaV-3 in South
Africa.

Jordan et al observe
that leafroll disease
spreads in New Zealand
vineyards primarily along
rows mainly to adjacent
plants, but sometimes
across rows as well and
generally does not spread
great distances.

Pietersen and Kasdorf


report the development
of an Immuno-electron
microscopy (IEM)
technique to detect,
among other things,
GLRaV-1, GLRaV-2,
GLRaV-3, GLRaV-4 and
GLRaV-5 (as identified
at that stage). Soon
thereafter this technique
is adopted for the
screening of nuclear
material in the SAWGCS.

A survey for the leafroll


associated viruses using
IEM demonstrate that in
South Africa GLRaV-3 was
the most prevalent virus,
with low incidences
GLRaV-1, GLRaV-2 and
GLRaV-5 infected plants
detected (Pietersen and
Kasdorf, 1993).

Goszczynski, Kasdorf,
and Pietersen produce
antisera to GLRaV-1,
GLRaV-2 and GLRaV-3
and develop an ELISA
test capable of testing
for all three viruses in a
single test for use in the
SAWGCS.

Cabaleiro reports on
spatial patterns of
grapevine leafroll disease
spread and confirms the
presence of significant
aggregations of infected
plants in vineyards
(Cabaleiro and Segura,
1997).

1994

1997

1993
2001
In reporting on a spatiotemporal analysis of the
spread of leafroll disease
in South Africa, Pietersen
and Kasdorf, confirm
the predominance
of short-distance
secondary spread of
GLRaV-3, the presence
of disease gradients
indicative of primary
spread from adjoining
vineyards, random
spread associated with
specific rootstock/
scion combinations due
to infected planting
material and the
potential spread from
successive vineyards on
the same site.
A control strategy based
on roguing and vector
control is proposed.

A synthetic version of
the Planococcus ficus sex
hormone is tested and
used to predict P. ficus
numbers in South African
vineyards (Walton et al,
2004).

The female-produced
sex pheromone for
Planococcus ficus is
discovered (Hinkens et
al, 2001).
Imidachloprid, a systemic
insecticide shown to
be very efficient at
controlling sap-sucking
insects, is registered in
South Africa by Bayer
to control mealybug on
grapevines.

Walton and Pringle


(2004) report on the
colonisation of P. ficus
on vine roots for the
first time, further
supporting the possibility
of transmission of
leafroll from a vineyard
replanted on the same
site as an old infected
vineyard.

2003
The largest plant
improvement
organisation in the
SAWGCS, Vititec,
introduces a policy of
roguing infected plant
material in foundation
vineyards and not
collecting cane material
for propagation from
vines adjoining those.

The results obtained


from pilot studies
on the efficiency of
roguing as a means of
controlling the spread
of grapevine leafroll are
presented at the 8th
International Congress of
Plant Pathology, held in
Christchurch,
New Zealand (Pietersen
et al, 2003).

A model of leafroll
disease control
is initiated at the
commercial wine
estate Vergelegen. The
integrated strategy
involves roguing,
vector control by
insecticides, fallow
periods, prevention of
mealybug dispersal by
implements and humans,
and replacement of
infected material with
healthy planting material
(Pietersen et al, 2013).

To overcome the
danger of distributing
virus-infected planting
material in which the
virus is subdetectable
as found early after
infection, a three-star
status programme is
implemented in the
SAWGCS whereby
vines are propagated
in foundation blocks
in non-grapevine
production areas to
ensure a lack of infection
of such material.

Douglas and Kruger


show that nymphs of
Planoccus ficus are so
efficient at transmitting
GLRaV-3 that in 70% of
instances where a single
nymph feeds on a plant it
transmits the virus. This
confirms the need for
extremely good vector
control to prevent spread
of the disease.

2006

2008

2004
2013
The integrated control strategy employed at Vergelegen
results in the near-total elimination of grapevine leafroll
disease at the estate (Pietersen et al, 2013). Other
estates, having embarked on minor variations of the
integrated control strategies, report remarkable control
of the disease. These include Tokara, Thelema, LOrmarins,
Glenelley, Cluver and Oude Hemel en Aarde. The
integrated control strategy is widely utilised in foundation
and mother-block vineyards of the SAWGCS.

Walsh and Pietersen develop


the RT-LAMP test for the
rapid and easy detection of
leafroll.

A direct comparison of ELISA, nested PCR and RT-LAMP


shows that RT-LAMP is as sensitive as nested PCR and
can be performed in a much shorter time with less
equipment.

23

Talking to
experts in the
wine industry is
a huge help to
guide the less
experienced. This
month we speak
to wine marketing
authority Anthony
van Schalkwyk*. By
Wanda Augustyn

FIVE-MINUTE

ANTHONY VAN SCHALKWYK

What is your marketing


philosophy?

24
24

For the past 20 years its always been


Kleine Zalzes philosophy to build
a lifestyle brand and thats how
we market the golf course, lodge,
restaurant and wines. With our
four-tier wine range we cover all the
price points of our target market.
There are thousands of wines out
there, so quality, consistency and
style are essential. We believe
quality starts in the vineyard and is
polished by skillfully nurturing the
wine in the cellar. You then need an
exceptionally reliable distribution
network to get the wine to the
consumer. None of this can be
done without employees. Social
responsibility is also an integral part
of the Kleine Zalze culture and who
we are. If you get all the ingredients
of your marketing mix right the
result should be a success.

Kleine Zalze performs well in


the UK on-trade. What are
the advantages of sales in a
restaurant?
Focusing on the UK on-trade
and on-trade in general is part
of our lifestyle philosophy. I see
being listed in a restaurant as
an advantage. You increase your
footprint immensely. By having a
wine listed a waiter might put your
wine in front of a customer who
would otherwise never have bought
it because they werent familiar with
your brand. By creating a different
range for the off-trade like weve
done in the UK, the restaurants dont
have to compete with supermarkets.
We all go to restaurants for an
experience and wine is part of that
experience. How many times have
you dined at a restaurant where the
wine tasted so good it made the
experience even more memorable?

What consumer trends


excite you right now?
A few years ago organic and
biodynamic were big topics, then
a few years later it was low-alcohol
wines. The 21st century wine
consumer is willing to try new
varietals and new brands and that
excites me. Theyre willing to explore
a whole new field, irrespective of
price point.
We produce a lot of unusual varietal
wines and its amazing to see how
the perception of these wines has
changed over the past five years,
especially among South African
consumers.

Do you choose your target


market or do they choose
you?
Its 50/50 to be honest and it varies
from market to market. Some
markets are driven by tenders and
liquor boards and consumers in
these countries dont have a choice
they have to buy whats available. In
other markets we have to decide on
our range, varietals, price points we
want to focus on and our marketing
strategy for a specific market. w

*Anthony was lucky enough to grow up in the Stellenbosch winelands, which fuelled his passion for the South African wine industry from an early
age. Wine has always been an integral part of his life, from running through the vineyards to making his first wine when he was still a schoolboy.
His first job was as cellar assistant at Welmoed Winery. He did a BCom in marketing at Stellenbosch University while working part time at various
wine estates. In 2006 he landed a job at Ken Forrester Vineyards looking after both the local and international markets. He joined the dynamic
team at Kleine Zalze as marketing and sales manager in August last year.

aised in Malawi and


Zimbabwe, Painted
Wolf Wines co-owner
Jeremy Borg fell in love
with the wild at a young
age. A trained chef and foodie, he
developed a passion for wine while
in California, where he was a fulltime cellar worker at Rosenblum
Cellars.
Upon his return to Africa, he turned
down an offer at a reputable wine
farm in favour of a safari job in
Botswana. It was here that the seed
for Painted Wolf wines was planted.
He saw the plight of African wild
dogs first hand and decided to make
it his mission to find ways to create
awareness about these animals.
Back in South Africa Jeremy gained
business and wine experience
by working with Charles Back at
Fairview, before launching Painted
Wolf Wines in 2005. He garnered the
support of like-minded investors
who believe in a business that
displays social responsibility beyond
product and profit. In line with this
approach the Painted Wolf Wines
business model includes a guarantee
that a portion of the annual turnover
goes to conservation.
Jeremy initially rented space at Black
Pearl wines, but has now found a
temporary home at Leeuwenkuil
Family Vineyards near Stellenbosch

Jeremy Borg has combined his


passion for wine and wildlife
to spread awareness about the
plight of the African wild dog.
By Sandile Mkhwanazi

PEDAL 4 PAWS
where most of the production is
handled. The wine business has
since evolved from the hand-bottled
Borg Family Shiraz in 2005 to a range
of 18 000 cases consisting mostly of
Pinotage and Chenin Blanc.
DOUGH FOR DOGS
When Cape Town-based
photographer Roger de la Harpe
launched his book In Search of
the African Wild Dog in 2009 he
requested a wine sponsorship.
Endangered Wildlife Trust South
Africa (EWTSA), which had initiated
Rogers project, contacted Jeremy
and so the relationship between
Painted Wolf Wines and EWTSA
began. EWTSA is now a beneficiary
of a percentage of all Painted Wolf
Wines domestic sales.
Its other main beneficiary is the
UK-based NGO, Tusk Trust. It receives
5% of the UK turnover annually
and was recently given a 7 500
contribution. Since the inception
of the partnership with Tusk Trust
and EWTSA, a total of R1 million has
been donated to conservation and
social projects. w

Jeremys thirst for adventure


and passion for conservation
inspired him to launch
Pedal 4 Paws, an annual
mountain bike tour through
wilderness areas to raise
further funds for the African
wild dog. This years event,
held in partnership with
the Wildlands Conservation
Trust, takes place from 16
to 18 September. Themed
The Rare Carnivore Ride, the
route is through wild dog
territory in the Somkhanda
Game Reserve in northern
KwaZulu-Natal.
Jeremy says the aim is to
ride through all the major
conservancies in Southern
Africa where wild dogs
are found. I hope this will
be a distinct call for other
wineries to jump onto the
conservation wagon. We
could call it Wine-Wheels and
Wild Dogs or even PedalsPinotage and Painted Wolves.
Either has a nice ring to it.

25

From Holy Communion and Shabbat to lobola and coming of age, wine
and brandy play an important role in many religious and social customs.
By Jana Loots and Sandile Mkhwanazi

WHEN WINE
SPEAKS
LOUDER
THAN

HE
LP

IN
G

OB

26

OL

AH

APP

E N ...

Wine is intertwined in the history of many societies. As far back as 2 800 BC, the ancient Egyptians viewed grapes and wine
as a symbol of life, covering corpses with grapes and engraving the word anh (life) on cups from which they drank wine. The
ancient Greeks and Romans celebrated their respective gods of wine, Dionysus and Bacchus. Wine is mentioned more than
200 times in the Bible and in Christianity, the first miracle said to be performed by Jesus was turning water into wine at the
Wedding at Cana. When wine or brandy is used as part of a religious ceremony or cultural custom it can signify the nature of
an event, symbolise a transition between life stages or define the relationship between those involved. As such, it also dictates
the behaviour in a specific situation. According to a study by the Oxford-based Social Issues Research Centre (SIRC), alcoholic
beverages are used in societies as powerful and versatile symbolic tools to construct and manipulate the social world.

CHEERS!

PICTURE: SHUTTERSTOCK

WINE AND RELIGION


Wine and religion have an intricate
relationship, with some religions
condemning the use of alcohol
completely and others linking the
appropriate use of wine to specific
religious ceremonies, or making
wine according to strict rules for
religious purposes.

In many cultures, when you open


a bottle of sparkling wine or MCC,
it signifies youre celebrating
something. The type of drink
defines the nature of an event. For
instance weddings are synonymous
with sparkling wine, while in some
African cultures brandy plays a
crucial part in the run-up to a
wedding.
WINE AT WEDDINGS
Many wedding traditions involve
wine and vary from drinking
sparkling wine as part of the
speeches at the reception to couples
sharing a cup of wine or drinking
from each others cup to symbolise
unity. The French took it to the next
level by traditionally adding a piece
of toast to a special cup (coup de
marriage) from which the couple
would drink to ensure a healthy
life hence the word toast when
drinking in celebration of an event.
Newlyweds at a Chinese wedding
need to serve all the guests wine at
their reception.
HELPING LOBOLA HAPPEN

HOLY COMMUNION
Christian denominations use wine
as part of Holy Communion, a
sacrament or rite during which wine
or grape juice is consumed with a
piece of bread or a wafer. The wine
and bread act as a symbol of the
blood and body of Christ, and the
rite serves as a memory of Christs
sacrifice when he was crucified.
KOSHER WINE
Kosher wine is an integral part the
Jewish faith and most commonly
used when reciting the Havdola
blessing on Saturday evenings as
part of the end of Shabbat or day
of rest. Its also used in various
other rituals pertaining to Passover,
circumcision, redemption of the
first-born and marriages. A variety
of kosher wines are made according
to Jewish law, which requires that
the grapes and winemaking are
supervised or in some cases handled
exclusively by Jews.

Brandy plays a major role in many


African societies when a mans
family asks for a womans hand
in marriage. The event, known as
lobola negotiations, involves teams
from both families getting together
to decide on the price (lobola) to be
paid for the bride.
The process involves seven stages,
each accompanied by a bottle of
brandy. It starts off with sazimuzi,
when a bottle of brandy is given
to the prospective brides family
as a token of appreciation, and
imvulamlomo, which is said to open
the mouths of the daughters family
for dialogue.
The brandy is drunk as part of the
swazi lenkomo and zazinkomo
stages respectively symbolise
guiding cattle (as payment) to the
prospective in-laws and initiating
a comparison between herds from
both families. An additional bottle
of brandy is presented as part of

uxolo to ask for forgiveness if the


prospective in-laws arent satisfied
with the cattle.
Once the lobola has been accepted,
the brides family presents the
negotiating team with a bottle
of brandy to signify acceptance
or siyanemukela. The final stage
involves an exchange of bottles
of brandy between the families to
symbolise their union (umdla dlela).

TAKING THAT
NEXT STEP
In the African culture, brandy
also plays a significant role in the
transition between life stages, two
of which are coming of age and a
thanksgiving tradition.
COMING OF AGE
Before heading to the mountains
for the ukushiya ubukhwenkwe, or
coming-of-age process, the young
man caters for a group of males
known in the culture as boys
(as they havent undergone the
process themselves). This involves
drinking brandy and wine together
as a parting gift to them, after
which the young man disassociates
himself from them and bids them
farewell, leaving his years as a boy
behind him. On his return from the
mountain, he is considered to be a
man.
GIVING THANKS
According to the tradition of
umbongo in some African cultures,
a young man or woman approaches
their parents with a large sum of
money at the end of their first
working year. They present the
money, along with a bottle of
brandy and traditional brew, as a
token of thanks to their parents, but
particularly to their ancestors, for
guiding them through childhood to
this point, and asking them to bless
them in their new job. Brandy in this
case is translated as white mans
drink and has to be accompanied
by traditional brew. w

27

BigDoor21881E

Finance built for you

Terms and conditions apply. John Deere Financial is supported by Absa, a member of Barclays,
an Authorised Financial Services Provider and Registered Credit Provider Reg No NCRCP7.

www.JohnDeere.co.za

Wat doen n mens as jou huis in Holland afbrand kort voor jy aftree? Vir Paul Leeuwerik was die antwoord voor
die hand liggend: Jy koop n plaas in Afrika en begin n boetiekwynkelder. Deur Edo Heyns

Paul Leeuwerik het die plaas in


2003 gekoop nadat sy huis in
Holland afgebrand het. Dit was die
begin van n Afrika-avontuur vir
di belastingprokureur en sy vrou,
Corine. Aanvanklik is die wingerd van
0.8 ha se oes verkoop, maar die eerste
volwaardige Olifantsberg-oesjaar
het kort daarna in 2005 gevolg. Dit
kon nie te power gewees het nie,
want die wingerdaanplantings is in
2006 uitgebrei. Die wynstokperdjie
het ernstig geword toe Jacques du
Plessis (nou by Constantia Uitsig) as
wynmaker aangestel is.
Jacques se Rhne-inspirasie het
n behoorlike hupstoot gekry met
n besoek aan Riebeeksrivier in
die Swartland en kontak met die
wingerdghoeroe, Rosa Kruger, en
ikoniese wynmaker, Eben Sadie. Ons
het na Rhne-variteite omgeskakel

met n stok-by-paaltjie-opleistelsel,
s Paul. Alles het gewaai, behalwe
n blok Pinotage, dit ten spyte van
die feit dat ek eintlik van Bordeauxwyne hou, skerts hy.
Vandag spog Olifantsberg met
bykans 20 ha wingerd teen die
Brandwachtberg se hange. Dis
pure Rhne, met Shiraz, Carignan,
Mourvedre, Roussanne, Grenache
Blanc en Noir, asook Chenin Blanc,
Chardonnay en, natuurlik, die
oorspronklike lappie Pinotage.
Elizma Visser is verlede jaar as
Olifantsberg se wynmaker aangestel.
Haar passie l in wingerd en die
ongewone opset pas haar. Ek wil
juis geleentheid h om betrokke
te wees van die wingerd tot die
eindproduk en hier is dit sommer n
noodsaaklikheid, s sy.
Paul het haar uitgedaag om die
plaas in die volgende rat oor te
skakel, maar vir haar gaan dit ook
daaroor om n bydrae tot die vallei
as geheel te lewer. My man is ook
n wynmaker in die omgewing
en ons is trots Breedekloof.
Olifantsberg kan uit n kwaliteits- en
eksklusiwiteitsoogpunt n unieke
bydrae lewer.
Die relatief jong wingerd lewer reeds
wyne op wat baie karakter het en

die aanslag bly minimalisties, met


n fokus op die unieke ligging. Ons
koop ou-wingerd-Chenin Blanc in
en ook dit is nou uitsluitlik van die
Breedekloof, s Elizma.
Olifantsberg se wyne is baie soos die
plaas self: Ru maar vol karakter en
potensiaal. Die Olifantsberg Blanc
2014 is n versnit van Roussanne
skynbaar Elizma se oogappel
Grenache Blanc, Chenin Blanc en
n titseltjie Chardonnay. Met sy
opvallende tekstuur kan n mens nie
help om dadelik aan soortgelyke
wyne van die Swartland te dink nie
(n kompliment).

OLIFANTSBERG

lifantsberg is nie jou


tipiese Breedekloofwynplaas nie. Met
stok-by-paaltjieaanplantings van
Rhne-kultivars en
klein lotjies wyn, is
hierdie boetiekkelder deel
van die beweging om die klem te
verskuif na meer kwaliteitwyn in
n omgewing wat tot onlangs deur
grootmaatwyn-produsentekelders
oorheers is.

Dieselfde geld die 2013 Silhouette


n rooi Rhne-versnit wat verlede
jaar n trofee by die Old Mutual
Trophy Wine Show gewen het.
Hierdie wyn is parfuumagtig, met n
gepaste aardsheid en selfs n tiksel
biltong.
As dit met jong wingerd vermag kon
word, is Olifantsberg n naam om
dop te hou. Paul het duidelik steeds
die energie en waagmoed om sy
Afrika-avontuur voort te sit. Elizma
het groot skoene om te vul, maar
terselfdertyd is die wingerd geplant
en die grondslag gel om op voort
te bou met n eiesoortige verhaal en
terroir. En dit sal n groot bydrae vir
die Breedekloof as geheel wees. w

R
U
U
T
N
AVO

N SIN VIR

Elizma Vis

ser.

Paul Leeuwerik
op Olifantsberg.

29

REVOLUTIONISING
WINE BY THE

GLASS
PROMOTIONAL

Several South Africans have already become devotees.


This is what they had to say:
MIGUEL CHAN, TSOGO
SUN SOMMELIER:
It is by far the finest wine
preserver ever created. If
one looks at the endless
opportunities of serving a
wide array of wines by the
glass, with tasting menus
or private client tutored
tastings, it pays itself
quite quickly. Coravin
will also add at a lot to
the tasting experience in
tasting rooms, especially
in terms of the more
expensive wines.
CHRIS GROENEWALD,
CO-OWNER OF
HAWK AND SCHOON
WINE SHOP IN
STELLENBOSCH:
Coravin has revolutionised
the wine by the glass
option for restaurants.
This can be a total game
changer.

30

The bottom line is,


its one of the most
important investments
we have made to date.
I will encourage any food
and beverages operators,
restaurants and wineries
to do so. This will
significantly add to the
brand SA appeal.

CAROLYN MARTIN,
CREATION WINES:
This is an ingenious
invention for fine
wine loversby Greg
Lambrecht.

GARETH FERREIRA,
PALL MALL, LONDON:
An absolute must for any
establishment serious
about their wine by the
glass selection.
I simply could not
imagine working
without it.

Die trotse Thokozani-span


tydens die viering van hul
toekenning vir Beste Wit Versnit
by die 2015 Wellington Quest for
the Best Top 10.

Thokozani-wyne
vertel die verhaal
van hoop en
opheffing in die
Suid-Afrikaanse
wynbedryf. LeeAnne Davidson
het met Denise
Stubbs oor hul
suksesverhaal gesels.

ie Thokozani-projek is
byna 10 jaar gelede op
Diemersfontein, naby
Wellington, van stapel
gestuur om erkenning te gee aan die
landgoed se belangrikste bate sy
werkers. Vandag is dit een van SuidAfrika se beste wynhandelsmerke in
swart besit.

Ons wenresep is baie eenvoudig,


s Denise Stubbs, direkteur en
produkontwikkelaar van Thokozaniwyne. Ons het geleer uit ander se
foute en probeer om slegs op suiwer
sakevernuf te fokus. Ons maak
gebruik van die kundigheid in die
wynbedryf sodat ons saam vorentoe
kan beweeg.

Die Thokozani-projek fokus op passie,


toewyding, produktiwiteit en trots,
en betrek almal tot op grondvlak.
Mentorskap en n strategiese plan
van aksie is ook van kardinale belang.
Mense se persepsie van
jou wynhandelsmerk speel
n groot rol en jy moet
gaan volgens hoe mense
dink dit is die realiteit, s
Denise. Vermy kortpaaie en
ondersoek of jou strategie
volhoubaar is.
Sy raak emosioneel wanneer
sy vertel van Thokozani se
begin, die struikelblokke

wat hulle moes oorkom en die mense


van Diemersfontein wat die pilare van
die besigheid is. Ons is deur n streng
keuringsproses met ons wyne en het
eindelik die vrugte daarvan gepluk.
Ons wyne is nou op die winkelrakke
nie omdat ons enige spesiale
vergunning gekry het nie, maar omdat
dit verdien om daar te wees.
Die Thokozani-wynreeks, Ovation,
word byvoorbeeld ekskusief vir
Woolworths Suid-Afrika gemaak.
Thokozani word
gekenmerk deur sy
betrokkenheid by
beide die wyn- en
gasvryheidsbesigheid.
Laasgenoemde bestaan
uit drie fasette: Die
wynhandelsmerk en
die konferensie- en
akkommodasiefasiliteite
op Diemersfontein. w

Definition of Siyanda in English: Siyanda NOUN 1 The process of increasing in size: The upward growth of plants. The growth

of the city affects the local clilmate. 2 The process of developing physically, mentally or spiritually: Keeping a journal can be a vital step in our
personal growth. 3 The process of increasing in amount, value or importance: The rates of puplation growth are lowest in the north. Definition
of Thokozani in English:
VERB 1 Feel or show great joy or delight: We spent the evening rejoicing at our victory. He
rejoiced in her spontaneity. 2 Used ironically to draw attention to a strange characteristic, especially in a name: The guard rejoiced in the name
of Blossom. 3 Cause joy to: I love to rejoice their poor hearts at this season.

Thokozani

HIERDIE REEKS ARTIKELS FOKUS OP INISIATIEWE WAT N


VERSKIL MAAK IN SUID-AFRIKA SE WYNLANDGEMEENSKAPPE.

Thokozani het met n eienaarskap van


30% begin wat in Diemersfonteinpersoneel se besit is en nou tot 80%
gegroei het. Diemersfontein-wyne
besit die oorblywende 20%.

Die posisionering van n


wynhandelsmerk is uiters belangrik
en daarom moet daar voortdurend
aandag aan die mark gegee word om
vas te stel wat mense se behoeftes is
en die handelsmerk daarvolgens te
belyn.

UBUNTU, MY VRIEND

SIYANDA
THOKOZANI

31

What do you do when you have a successful IT business in London? You sell it and
buy a fallow piece of land in the Elgin Valley. By Wanda Augustyn

FROM IT WHIZZ TO WINE IN

n 22 September when
the world celebrates
World Organic Day,
Brian and Marion Smith
will celebrate making
fine wine on Elgin Ridge, the only
certified organic wine farm in the
Elgin region. On this once-bare
piece of land they today care for
their vines, ducks, Dexter cattle,
Percheron stallion and a few sheep.
The Smiths were happy in the UK,
but when Marion came to South
Africa with a friend to scatter her
husbands ashes she fell in love
with Cape Town. She and Brian
immediately bought a flat in
Sea Point and started to explore
the Cape winelands. When they
discovered Elgin, it was a done deal.
They sold their successful London
IT business and bought 20 hectares
of land in Elgin. Marion and Brian
immediately set about planting
vines on the fallow land and now
have approximately 3.5 ha of
Sauvignon Blanc, 1.2 ha of Pinot
Noir, 0.75 ha of Chardonnay and
0.5 ha Smillon. The remainder is
pasture for their herd of Dexter
cattle and Dorper sheep.

32

Why organic? Well, we wanted to


grow grapes and make wine in the
most natural and sustainable way
possible, says Marion who looks after
the farm while Brian makes the wine.
As the farm had been fallow
for a number of years, it was the

As the farm had


been
fallow for a
number of years,
it was the ideal
opportunity to plant
vines from scratch
and farm without
using pesticides,
insecticides and
herbicides. This
philosophy was
then taken to
the cellar where
winemaking is
natural.

ideal opportunity to plant vines


from scratch and farm without
using pesticides, insecticides and
herbicides. This philosophy was
then taken to the cellar where
winemaking is natural with wild
yeast ferments and no additives
such as sugar and acid.
In addition to our organic
certification were about to be
certified biodynamic which includes
the making of our own biodynamic
Preparation 500 fertiliser thanks to

our herd of Dexter cattle. We also


have a Percheron stallion called
Maddox and hes used to plough the
vineyards and pull a trailer during
harvest.
Elgin Ridges wines are marketed
locally in Cape Town by Marion and
Brian and their wines are listed in
several fine-dining restaurants such
as The Test Kitchen, La Mouette, Pot
Luck Club, Savoy Cabbage, The Black
Sheep and DW11-13.
Weve been very successful with
exports to the UK, Ireland and
Canada, Brian says. About 65% of
our sales are exported and were
listed in numerous Michelin-starred
restaurants in the UK. We also have
a strong presence at local specialist
wine merchants. Were currently
working with our agent in Norway to
expand our exports to Scandinavia.
Besides biodynamic certification
other future plans include planting
Cabernet Franc which will come into
crop in 2018.
Our new vine plantings will
increase our portfolio in the years to
come and 2017 will see the release
of our 2016 Chardonnay and 2012
MCC, Brian says. The South African
wine industry is going from strength
to strength with ever-improving
wines and we see Elgin Ridge as
a prime contributor to both the
local and international market. Our
commitment to and faith in South
Africa are stronger than ever. w

Marion and Brian Smith.

Adam Appollis het honderde jare


gelede gebuk gestaan en die grond
en wingerd van Bosman Family
Vineyards bewerk. Vandag is sy
nasate almal grondeienaars danksy
n slim, inklusiewe besigheidsmodel.
Deur Wanda Augustyn

VANUIT DIE

osman Family Vineyards is lank reeds n pionier


in transformasie en opheffing in die plaaslike
wynbedryf. Voorbeelde van hul werk sluit in
die lei en bestuur van sosiale projekte in die
Wellington-gemeenskap en n innoverende
besigheidsmodel wat omgewings- en sosiale
verantwoordelikheid met hul sakeplan verweef. Maar
dit is veral die Adama Trust vernoem na n voormalige
plaaswerker Adam Appollis waarvoor hulle die
bekendste is. Danksy die trust besit 280 werknemers
op die plaas vandag n omvangryke aandeel in hierdie
familiebesigheid.
Adama is waar alles bymekaarkom. Hierdie Fairtradegeakkrediteerde wyn, vernoem na Adam Appollis wie
se bynaam Adama was, is Bosman Family Vineyards
se vlagskipwyn en spog deesdae met n nuwe
verpakking. Dit poog ook om die sosiale ontwikkeling
en omgewingsvolhoubare boerderypraktyke wat deur
hierdie wyn weerspiel word verder te versterk. Hoewel
Adama met reg as die kelder se vlagskipwyn bestempel

word, is dit ook die vlagdraer van die beginsels en


waardes van oorerwing, innovasie en volhoubaarheid
wat Bosman Family Vineyards onderskryf.
Ons doelwit is om n leier op die gebied van
verantwoordelik geproduseerde wyn in Suid-Afrika
te wees, s Petrus Bosman, besturende direkteur van
Bosman Family Vineyards.
Die Bosmans is bekend vir hul innovasie met interessante
variteite. Die Adama Rooi (Shiraz 59% / Cinsaut 11% /
Grenache noir 11% / Nero dAvola 6% / Mourvdre 6% /
Primitivo 6% / Viognier 1%) en Wit (Chenin Blanc 58% /
Chardonnay 16% / Grenache Blanc 10% / Roussanne 8% /
Smillon 4% / Viognier 2% / Pinot Gris 2% ) behaal tans die
hoogste prys vir n plaaslik geproduseerde Fairtrade-wyn
en is die eerste keuse vir wyngeesdriftiges wat wyn soek
wat volgens die streng Fairtrade-beginsels gemaak word.

HOEWEL ADAMA MET REG AS DIE


KELDER SE VLAGSKIPWYN BESTEMPEL
WORD, IS DIT OOK DIE VLAGDRAER
VAN DIE BEGINSELS EN WAARDES
VAN OORERWING, INNOVASIE EN
VOLHOUBAARHEID WAT BOSMAN
FAMILY VINEYARDS ONDERSKRYF.

34

Projekte waarby Bosman Family Vineyards betrokke is en befonds word deur die Adama Rooi en Wit Fairtrade-wyne.

Die Adama Trust het homself as n uitstekende


besigheidspraktyk bewys, s Petrus. n Sterk fokus op
vaardigheidsontwikkeling en die koester van werknemers
het gelei tot n onbeduidende verlies aan werknemers
en hor vaardigheidsvlakke en produktiwiteit. Bosman
Family Vineyards, n Vlak 1 bydraer tot Swart Ekonomiese
Bemagtiging (SEB), het hierdeur n reputasie van
voortreflike kwaliteit in beide die kwekery en die maak
van wyn opgebou.
Wanneer jy vir die mense wat die werk doen, omgee,
gee hulle om vir die werk wat hulle doen, s Petrus. Die
inkoop op gedeelde eienaarskap was ook n welkome
evolusie vir hierdie familiebesigheid.
Ons wil graag h ons families moet vir nog vele geslagte
op hierdie grond bly. Ek glo n mens moet by veranderings
in jou omgewing aanpas, veral in die Suid-Afrikaanse
konteks waar daar groot ongelykheid is. Om werknemers
deel van jou besigheidsmodel te maak is bloot n meer
volhoubare model.
Die nuwe verpakking van die twee vlagskip Adamaversnitte sal verhoogde befondsing na die plaas se
gemeenskapsprojekte kanaliseer. Dit sluit in n speelskool,

ouetehuis, rekenaarsentrum en sportgeriewe vir families op


die plaas. Die groter befondsing beteken meer projekte kan
aangepak word om werkers en die gemeenskap op te hef.
Die trust is n baie suksesvolle projek wat ons glo die
vermo het om ons mense te bemagtig, s Rita Andreas,
voorsitter van die trust. As jy op die plaas rondkyk, sal jy
sien dat almal wat hier werk eienaarskap neem van wat
ons doen. Ons is almal saam in hierdie projek. Ons is nou
vennote en dit is n groot voorreg om deel van hierdie
besigheidsmodel te wees.
Hoewel wyn dikwels gesien word as die uitdrukking van
n kelder se eiesoortige terroir en n bevestiging is van
die wynmaker se vaardighede, sien Petrus en sy span
die wyne ook as n samekoms van die kelder se reis na
volhoubare ontwikkeling en gemeenskapsbemagtiging.
Dis immers nie blote toeval dat Adama die bynaam
was van die voorvader van die Appollis-families op die
plaas nie, maar min het hulle geweet dat Adama vanuit
die grond in Hebreeus beteken. Dit is n fundamentele
komponent van die boerdery en verteenwoordigend van
di familie en hul werkers se sterk verbintenis met die
grond. w

G EW EE T
M AA R M IN H ET H UL LE
D IE
D AT AD AM A VAN UI T
BE TE KE N.
G RO N D IN H EB RE EU S

35

COVER PAGE PROMOTION: ORIGIN WINE

LABEL ILLUSTRATIONS BY JUST DESIGN, SOIL DESIGN AND JULIAN FISHER.

The key to selling more wine is to


stop preaching to the converted.
Origin Wine has creatively mastered
this skill. Edo Heyns popped in at
its Stellenbosch facility.

NOT ONLY FOR

WINE
DRINKERS

oo many wines tend to get lost in a sea of


sameness, with predictable pairings, jargon
and stuff the average consumer couldnt
give a cork about. Using quirky packaging
and products, Origin aims to increase the size of
the pie by targeting consumers who are more
likely to opt for a beer than face the uphill battle
of choosing from a crowded wine shelf.
And you know what, its a lot of fun doing it,
quips Lise Ewins, whose team is a key part of
Origins creative brains. New Craft & Origin is a
case in point. The word Craft is nowadays most
notably associated with beer, with few wineries
making use of this trendy term. But then again,
wine marketers generally dont think like their
beer peers.
Ideally these wines should be positioned
somewhere between the wine and beer shelf
basically where a fringe wine consumer can be

36

expected. Theyll be bottled in 500 ml bottles with


beer caps and are likely to offend wine purists as
much as they attract their target market.
Craft & Origin was developed mainly for the UK
supermarket trade and will initially comprise a
white, red and two Moscato wines. Cultivars and
ironically origin are less important in this game.
Like the back label says, What we are going to
give you is a pat on the back for making the right
choice: this wine tastes damn good.
Isnt that the only reassurance a non-wine drinker
wants? Lise asks, before heading off to work on
another, even more radical concept.
Origin winemaker Hermias Hugo is more than
keen to master the craft of making wine for beer
and other commercial alcoholic beverage drinkers.
The key is to make it easy to want to take another
sip, he says. You dont want to blast someone
with tannins and acidity.

This means keeping it simple often with the use of residual sugar
of about 10 g per litre. Although Craft & Origin White is simply
white and not a specific variety), its made from mainly Chenin
Blanc.
In terms of reds, the last thing we want is astringency of too much
tannins, Hermias says. The wine should be soft and soothing.
A drink, more than anything else. Pinotage is an ideal fit for that
style and Hermias says they tend to use Swartland wines, which
can be made in a style that doesnt require lengthy aging.
Making and selling this kind of wine requires quite a mind shift,
but the rewards come in the form of new wine consumers, he says.
Purists who frown upon these wines might thank them later, when
new consumers gradually progress to other wines.
Origin, with the ever innovative Bernard Fontannaz at its helm,
often takes on what seems to be crazy projects, but few could
argue that converting non-wine drinkers would also benefit the
plethora of wines that are targeting the same wine converts.
Makes you wonder: Whos really crazy? w

"Insanity: doing the same thing over


and over again and expecting
different results."
Albert Einstein.

Origin often takes on


what seems to be crazy
projects, but few could
argue that converting
non-wine drinkers
would also benefit the
plethora of wines that
are targeting the same
wine converts.

37

NEVER RUSH THE REWARD


SAVOUR YOUR RETURNS
Crafting a fine bottle of wine demands great skill and effort, but perceiving its true
potential requires extraordinary talent.
And just like our distinguished panel of international and local judges at the Old Mutual Trophy
Wine Show, our fund managers do the groundwork in selecting the right investment for you - so you
can truly savour your returns.

To speak to an Old Mutual Financial Adviser, call 0860932584.

Old Mutual is a Licensed Financial Services Provider

10020260JB/

/E

BORDEAUX MINORS
ON THE

R
IS
E

n recent times lesser-known gems


have often been rediscovered at the
Old Mutual Trophy Wine Show. This
year international palates recognised
two such standout wines in the
niche category. Mostly used as blending
components, Smillon and Cabernet
Franc offer noteworthy alternatives to
traditional favourites.
TERROIR SPECIFIC
Once the most-planted white cultivar in
Franschhoek, Smillon from old vines has

regularly performed well at the show,


highlighting the consistency and value of
old vines.
Old vines are the best test of what
terroir has to give, Franschhoek
Vineyards winemaker JD Rossouw says.
He should know as their 2014 Smillon
won the trophy for the best Smillon
at this years Old Mutual Trophy Wine
Show. The estate boasts an 80-year-old
block from which they source some of
their grapes, which are supplemented
by grapes from younger blocks. The

PROMOTIONAL

Minor Bordeaux varieties (in South African terms, at least) Smillon


and Cabernet Franc shone at this years Old Mutual Trophy Wine Show.
Does this mean these niche varieties deserve more attention? By
Sandile Mkhwanazi

39

older block gives our wine structure and complexity, while


younger vines add freshness and fruit, he says.
JD notes that 2014 was a wet and challenging season,
especially between November and January. The joy of old
vines is that they keep balance since theyve seen it all. Their
growth vigour remains controlled and they take what they
can handle, he says. This also adds to the concentration of
fruit as the production levels of the vines are much lower
than that of other white cultivars.
JDs big concern is the trend over the past 15 years where
most of these vines have been ripped from the soil.
Winning awards at events such as the Old Mutual Trophy
Wine Show gives producers more reason to keep this rich
heritage in the soil as the international recognition that
goes with it is linked to sales, he says.
SOMETHING DIFFERENT
JD attributes the success of some niche
varieties such as Smillon
to proper vinification in the
cellar. This is secondary to the
fact that Smillon does well in
Franschhoek. The wine is barrelfermented in 20% new oak
with 30% natural fermentation,
which adds a different
dimension to the wine overall.
These different batches play
a major role in the blending
aspect of the wine. Smillon
is our flagship white wine and
only 5 000 litres are made a
year, JD says. Were lucky to
have access to more fruit, but
the smaller batches create a
window for one to evaluate
and blend wines to maintain
a certain style and standard.
Clonal selection plays a key
role in their selection of fruit,
resulting in a wine style leaning
towards tropical flavours combined with peach
and lemon creams.
Since Smillon is a niche cultivar, the award has increased
the prospect of better sales for the wine, which was until
recently a hand-sell. Unlike Sauvignon Blanc or Chardonnay
its a wine style you have to understand, JD says. It has to
grow on you for better appreciation.
He says theyre lucky to have access to more fruit, which
gives them the leeway to bump up total production Were
almost sold out which means well have to increase our
production next year as the wine has gained in popularity.
With access to more grapes our quality will fortunately not
be compromised.

CABERNET FRANC FIRST


For the first time in 15 years a Cabernet Franc was awarded
a trophy at this years of the Old Mutual Trophy Wine Show.
Vrede and Lusts 2014 Artisan Cabernet Franc won the
trophy for best Cabernet Franc at the show. Karlin Nel,
assistant winemaker at Vrede en Lust, says thinking out of
the box has been key in their winemaking and viticultural
practices.
The grapes were sourced from their farm in Elgin and were
only the second vintage from a vineyard planted in 2008.
Its a north-facing 1.1 ha block that produces 5.5 tons per
hectare. The effect of the cooler pockets of Elgin terroir is
expressed in the wine. With only 10 barrels, which equates
to 3 300 bottles, first preference is given to the estates wine
club members.
The viticulture team members, led by co-owner
Etienne Buys, use precise viticultural management
practices to ensure balanced ripening and grape

Vrede en Lust
assistant
winemaker
Karlin Nel,
managing
partner
Etienne Buys
and winemaker
Susan Erasmus.

development. When asked about the differences


between the management of Cabernet Franc and
Cabernet Sauvignon vineyards, he quips that in the case
of Cabernet Sauvignon a key action would be to graft it
over to Cabernet Franc!
On a serious note, the main action for our Cabernet
Franc block is dropping off green clusters during veraison
to ensure equal maturity, Etienne says. This has led to
rounded tannins and fruit purity in the 2014 vintage.
Cab Franc ripens about two weeks earlier than Cabernet
Sauvignon in Elgin.
HANDCRAFTED WITH A PURPOSE
Under the guidance of winemaker Susan Erasmus the cellar
is a fun and educative platform, Karlin says. We play around
with several things such as yeasts and barrel selection
especially with our site-specific range, she says. The
small-batch treatment requires attention to detail, from the
careful sorting of grapes to the selection of specific barrels
for maturation.
As we sip the Cabernet Franc, Karlin guides my palate
through the red berries and fynbos that are well integrated
with the wood.
The potential yield of the 1.1 ha block can go up to seven or
eight tons, but for now well work with what the vine has to
gives us, concludes Karlin. w

41

VERVAARDIG
IN
ITALI

Landini REX met


nuwe voorkoms

Gespesialiseerd om
aan al u wingerden boordbewerking
te voldoen

ENJIN OMGEWINGSTANDAARDE

REEKS;
75F Techno - 51 kW
85F Techno - 60 kW

Betroubaar
Operateurvriendelik

Hanteerbaarheid
In Europa vervaardig.

Perkins drie- en viersilinder enjins met direkte-

brandstonspuiting voldoen aan TIER 3


omgewingstandaarde.
Basiese ratkas met spoelkas (shuttle) en
opsionele kruiprat.
Kragaftakker met 540 / 540E rpm. Grondspoed
en onafhanklike aandrywing.
Hidrouliese sisteem met KAT II drie-punt hyser
verskaf 2600 kg. hyskrag.
Uitstekende beweegbaarheid in wingerd en
boordrye

VIR MEER INLIGTING, SIEN GERUS U NAASTE HANDELAAR OF KONTAK:


HOOFKANTOOR:011 914 1700, KAAPPROVINSIE: 060 987 0502. LIMPOPO /
MPUMALANGA: 079 211 8506, VRYSTAAT / NOORDWES: 082 879 9550,
KWAZULU-NATAL / OOSKAAP: 082 907 4336

Webblad: www.argosa.co.za Epos: landini@argosa.co.za

Top werkverrigting
Pas gemaklik in smal wingerd

NOMMERPAS

PRIEEL VERSEKER VOLHOUBAARHEID


Alternatiewe prieelstelsels kan kostes bespaar en beter gehalte en opbrengste bied. Deur Jana Loots

en daarom was geil groei vir hulle n


uitdaging. Om dit aan te spreek het
ons besluit om van die tradisionele
verlengde Peroldstelsel af te wyk
en wingerde op die dakprieelstelsel
op te lei. Die groei is beslis beter in
balans met die wingerdstok, s hy.

en hulle het oor tyd aanpassings


gemaak. n Dakprieel moet oor
vier kordonne beskik, maar nadat
verdigting waargeneem is, is dit
na twee kordonne aangepas om
deurlugting en sonligblootstelling
te verbeter.

Joos Nel van die plaas Rose Villa buite


Calitzdorp, verstaan dit goed. Sy
blok Colombar, wat op n dakprieel
opgelei is, is vanjaar as die wenner
van VinPro en Winetech se jaarlikse
wingerdblokevaluering in die Klein
Karoo aangewys.

Hierdie tipe prieelstelsel verhoog


opbrengs per hektaar deur n
beter kordonlengte en die ry- en
plantwydte bied besparings
tydens vestiging. Arbeid is meer
produktief onder die koeler prieel,
met minder aksies en n afname in
manure per aksie. Meganisasie is
minder en brandstofverbruik laer en
die dakprieel verg minder insette
ten opsigte van lowerbestuur en
onkruidbeheer.

Die Colombar-druiwe wat uit die


wenblok verkry word, word aan
Calitzdorp Kelder gelewer. w

Die streekskompetisie het vanjaar op


alternatiewe plantwydtes en prieelen snoeistelsels gefokus. Weens
ekonomiese realiteite ondersoek
al hoe meer wynprodusente meer
effektiewe stelsels om kostes
te bespaar en beter gehalte en
opbrengste te behaal, s Johannes
Mellet, VinPro-wingerdboukundige
vir die Klein Karoo-streek. Die
dakprieel is n minder algemene
stelsel vir wyndruiwe in die Wes-Kaap,
maar bied verskeie voordele.
Joos vertel die Calitzdorp-vallei se
diep slikgronde het goeie potensiaal

Buiten ho produksies, is die


gehalte van die druiwe baie goed, s
Johannes. Die blare kry voldoende
sonlig, terwyl die druiwe onder die
dakprieel teen direkte sonlig beskerm
word. Organiese materiaal bou goed
op en wortelverspreiding is beter in
die koeler grondtoestande, wat die
groeitoestande verder verbeter.
Joos s die gebruik van hierdie
alternatiewe stelsel was n leerproses
Joos Nel van die plaas Rose Villa
buite Calitzdorp gebruik die
alternatiewe dakprieelstelsel om
groei in balans te hou.

Om geil groei aan te spreek,


het ons besluit om die blok op
n dakprieelstelsel op te lei. Die
groei is beslis beter in balans
met die wingerdstok.

ALTERNATIEWE
PLANTWYDTES
EN PRIEEL- EN
SNOEISTELSELS
Kultivar

Colombar CO2R

Onderstok

Richter 99

Plantjaar

2007

Blokgrootte

2.77 ha

Plantwydte

1.2 m

Rywydte

2.75 m

Opleistelsel

Platdakprieel

Produksie

41.6 ton/ha

VINPRO/WINETECH BLOKWENNER: KLEIN KAROO

Wynprodusente kan volhoubare


gehalte en produksie verseker deur
nie blindelings op een prieelstelsel te
standaardiseer nie, maar eerder elke
wingerdblok se prieelstelsel by sy
omstandighede en wyndoelwit aan
te pas.

A PWC
ARTICLE

TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION
FOR A SECURE FOOD FUTURE
Theres a desperate need for food security and therefore greater agricultural output without
compromising resources in the process, according to PwCs latest Africa Agribusinesses
Insights Survey 2016. PwC agribusiness industry leader Frans Weilbach highlights some
of the key points from the survey.

griculture is currently on the edge of a second


green revolution. This will entail fundamental
shifts in how the agricultural sector utilises and
implements innovative technology to improve
output in a sustainable manner and address
the need for greater food security globally.
Advances in technology and innovation are key to the
future of agriculture as agribusinesses strive to feed an
increasing population against a background of climate
change, scarcity of water and a host of environmental
concerns. Participants in PwCs latest Africa Agribusinesses
Insights Survey 2016 indicated the biggest drivers of
environmental sustainability from least to most important
as illustrated below.
Innovative technology and advancements in productivity
are becoming increasingly important as pressure mounts
on food systems. The global population is growing rapidly
and climate change continues.
Agribusinesses are making changes to go high-tech. From
data-gathering drones to artificial intelligence farming,
technology is making the agricultural sector more precise
and efficient as agribusinesses push for increased profits.

The biggest drivers


of environmental
sustainabilityy
from least to most
important are:

44

Regulators

Resource
scarcity

795 million

people go hungry
every day.
The agricultural sector is regarded as one of the most
critical industries for the African continent (see map)
due to economic potential and is projected to become a
US$1trillion industry in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) by 2030.
More than half (58.8%) of survey respondents consider
investment in Africa as an opportunity for their businesses
to expand. The top four countries they are planning to
invest in are Zambia, Botswana, Tanzania and South Africa.
PwCs Agribusinesses Insights Survey 2016 was carried
out among a group of African agribusinesses that are
mainly focused on delivering agricultural and related
services to primary producers. The survey focuses on the
strategic challenges that agribusiness leaders face, while
highlighting areas where technological innovation is
already taking place and where it can make a difference in
the future. In addition, the survey provides viewpoints on
the agricultural sector in Nigeria and Kenya.

Consumers

Competitors

Retailers

management as the most challenging


human resources matters.

Survey respondents are less optimistic about revenue


growth over the next 12 months compared with their
expectations a year ago. The majority of agribusinesses
(46.2%) expect revenue growth of 0 to 5%, and 26.9% of
businesses expect it to be between 6 and 10%.
The biggest challenges to business growth cited by
business leaders were access to technology, the scarcity
of natural resources and supply-side uncertainties. African
agribusinesses also feel improved government support in
the sector has a long way to go. For example businesses
are of the view government doesnt offer sufficient tax
incentives to ensure international competitiveness.
Furthermore they say government is not doing enough to
develop skilled workers in the sector.
African agribusinesses also indicated they have
maintained focus on risk management, with the majority
of survey respondents (95.2%) periodically conducting a
formal risk assessment. Its also positive to note 53.8% of
respondents prepare an integrated report.
Human resources (HR) models and processes are
beginning to evolve, with more emphasis being placed on
technology to improve networks and data. Agribusinesses
are looking to their HR teams to provide not only
basic services and transactional activities but also
strategic insights and workforce intelligence. Businesses
indicated internal HR capacity, labour unrest, employee
turnover and communication between employees and

PwC PROMOTIONAL ARTICLE

Although theres widespread consensus


about the reality of global climate change,
much uncertainty still exists when it comes
to the exact measurable impact of changes
in climatic conditions on agriculture
and food security. The majority of
agribusinesses are of the view that climate
change will have a significant impact on
sub-Saharan Africa agriculture in the future
41.2% indicated therell be a significant
impact in the short term, while 35.3% said
therell be an impact over the next 20 years.
In addition 35.3% of agribusiness leaders
indicated they are considering investment
in renewable energy, while 29.4% have
already done so. The main forms of
renewable energy that agribusinesses have
invested in are solar energy and biogas.
Increased pressure on the profitability of
farming and agricultural business activities
is forcing the agricultural sector to be an
early adopter of new technologies so it can
improve the productivity and profitability
of the sector. Survey respondents noted the
availability of real-time data as the biggest
opportunity for technological innovation.
In addition drones are fast becoming a real
green-tech tool.
Global research shows artificial intelligence (AI) farming
will be the main enabling factor to increase the worlds
agricultural production capacity to meet the demands
of the growing population. This goes hand in hand
with precision farming and other technology trends.
The majority of survey respondents (76.5%) agree that
AI farming will make a major contribution to increase
capacity in Africa over the next 10 years. Only 47% of
businesses had already invested or plan to invest in
the development of AI farming capabilities for primary
production. The cost of implementation was noted as the
biggest restriction on the use of AI farming capabilities
(64.7%).
All agribusinesses indicated they feel a responsibility
to ensure food security. Food quality and safety is the
one pillar of food security respondents indicated they
could most contribute towards, followed by availability
and affordability. Its also positive to note all businesses
indicated their agribusinesses contribute to corporate
social investment (CSI). The top three areas of investment
are healthcare, education and personal upliftment.
Its predicted technological innovation will act as
a catalyst in lifting agribusiness to the next level in
Africa. The winners will be agribusinesses that seize
the opportunity to create new opportunities through
technology as theyll be able to reach their strategic goals
faster and more efficiently. w

For more information email Frans Weilbach at frans.weilbach@za.pwc.com.


To download the survey scan the QR code above.

45

WELL, WELL

WELLINGTON

Novare Trophy for


SA Terroir Top Wine Estate:
Bergsig Estate
Novare Trophy for
SA Top Terroir Producer:
Bergsig Estate
Novare Trophy for SA Terroir
Top Single Vineyard Wine:
Doolhof Single Vineyard
Malbec 2014
Novare Trophy for
SA Terroir Top Wine Area:
Wellington District

46

Trophy winners on the day: Giele Beukes of Doolhof, De Wet Lategan of Bergsig,
Candice Danneburg, head of marketing Novare and JG Auret of Linton Park.

TOP 5 ESTATE WINES:


Wildekrans Barrel Select Reserve Chenin Blanc 2015
Rainbows End Cabernet Franc 2014
Linton Park Reserve Cabernet Sauvignon 2012
Bon Courage Noble Late Harvest 2015
Bergsig Cape LBV 2003

Wines from the Wellington district shone at this years Novare SA


Terroir Wine Awards. By Sandile Mkhwanazi

record 322 wines were entered for the 11th Novare


SA Terroir Wine Awards. The podium was graced with
several newcomers, providing stiff competition for the
usual suspects. The judges panel, made up of people
from both technical and consumer fields, comprised Jeff Grier
of Villiera, sommelier consultant Kris Snyman, wine writer
David Biggs, tour consultant Karen Glanfield, wine judge
Pierre Marais and winemakers Elize Coetzee of Bergkelder and
Lizelle Gerber of Boschendal.

The warm-climate card


Wellington was crowned South Africas top terroir for
2016, with wines from La Cave, Linton Park, Welbedacht,
Diemersfontein, Napier and Doolhof standing out.
Doolhof winemaker Gielie Beukes 2014 Signature Malbec,
his first vintage, and a 2010 Chenin, Smillon and Sauvignon
Blanc blend were national winners in their respective
categories. Gielie attributes these successes to the vineyards
location and effective practices implemented in the vineyards.
It has less to do with winemaking but more with the fruit we
get, he says. Malbec is one of the early-ripening blocks on
the farm, which means the timing of our viticultural practices
must be on point. He added keeping the vine in shape is
challenging due to vigorous growth.
The warm climate label that has been assigned to Wellington
is working to our advantage, Napier Winery estate manager
Leon Bester says. As ripening is not a problem in the valley,
most producers have found the balance between sugar
ripening and phenolic ripening across the general range of
wines produced in the valley.
The diversity of soil types, microclimate and timing of
viticultural practices are proving to be the winning formula,
Leon says. The fact most nurseries are in the area also benefits
Wellington producers as they know in advance that the
material they buy has an affinity with the area and its soil.

Hats off to viticulturists


Beyond Wellingtons borders viticulturists role is becoming
increasingly prevalent. The best fertiliser for any farm is
the feet of the producer and his team that walk the terrain
every day, Wildekrans farm manager and viticulturist Braam
Gericke says. The human factor that harnesses what the
terrain provides is often not recognised at platforms such as
the Novare SA Terroir Wine Awards. Instead the measure of
excellence has been how well wines perform. Its about time
we see more viticulturists being recognised at these award
ceremonies, Braam says.
Neethlingshof cellar master De Wet Viljoen agrees, saying it
wouldve been fitting if the viticulturists, who deal mostly
with the terroir, were given more recognition at these awards.
Mentors whove harnessed the attributes of the vineyards
at Neethlingshof include the likes of Professor Eben Archer.
They deal with most of the challenges in the vineyard, De
Wet says. Without their critical thinking and observation and
the effective execution of tasks by their vineyard teams we
would have no fruit in the cellar which means there would be
no wine. w

A win for the industry


Elsenburg Agricultural Training Institute produced three national
winners at this years Novare SA Terroir Wine Awards. Winemaker
and lecturer Lorraine Geldenhuys says this achievement was a win
for the industry rather than the institution itself. Its impressive if
these students are already winning awards before going into the
industry and it shows the depth of talent thats waiting in the wings.
Elsenburg Mourvdre 2015, Elsenburg Tannat 2013 and Elsenburg
Pinotage Ros 2015 were crowned national winners at the awards.

THE NATIONAL WINNERS OF THE 2016 NOVARE SA TERROIR WINE AWARDS ARE:
Cabernet Sauvignon: Cederberg Five
Generations Cabernet Sauvignon 2014

Sparkling Wine: Conradie Family Vineyards


Frederic Conradie MCC 2009

Chenin Blanc: Cederberg Five Generations


Chenin Blanc 2014

Fortified Sweet: Conradie Family Vineyards


Muscadel 2009

Pinot Noir: Cederberg Ghost Corner Pinot


Noir 2015

Gewurztraminer: Neethlingshof
Gewrztraminer 2016

Mourvdre: Elsenburg Mourvdre 2015

Sauvignon Blanc: Neethlingshof Single


Vineyard Sauvignon Blanc 2016

Tannat: Elsenburg Tannat 2013


Ros: Elsenburg Pinotage Ros 2015

Malbec: Doolhof Single Vineyard Malbec 2014

Chardonnay: KWV The Mentors Chardonnay


2013

White Blend: Doolhof Lady in White 2010


Port Style: Bergsig Cape LBV 2003

Smillon: KWV The Mentors Smillon 2014

Red Blend: Bergsig Icarus 2011

Pinotage: Groot Constantia Pinotage 2014


Cabernet Franc: Rainbows End Cabernet
Franc 2014
Cinsaut: Kaapzicht Cinsaut 2015
Colombar: Bon Courage Andres Fame
Colombar 2016
Merlot: Anura Merlot Reserve 2014
Natural Sweet: Slanghoek Private Selection
NLH 2013
Shiraz: Koelfontein Shiraz 2012
Tinta Roriz: De Krans Tinta Roriz 2014
Viognier: Lynx Viognier 201

47

QUALITYDRIVEN

ALTERNATIVES
T

he quality of wine is often down to the use of


oak and the desirable traits it adds to a wines
sensory profile. Certain quality attributes of
wine are linked to the vinification and management
of production processes, which include the period of
skin contact, tannin additions, barrel fermentation and
maturation, to mention but a few.
Once a year, a winemaker is faced with the
overwhelming task of selecting barrels, coopers and
of late, alternative wood products to add to their
winemaking philosophy. The wine industry has
seen an increase in production costs which has led
to winemakers looking for alternatives to traditional
barrels, Stellenbosch University oenology lecturer
Professor Wessel du Toit says.
The weakening rand has made wooden barrels an
expensive part of the winemaking process, especially
given their limited shelf-life.
POTENTIAL OF INDIGENOUS WOOD
Grape tannins and their over-extraction often result
in wines showing undesirable traits. Extracted wood
tannins are therefore used as an alternative source of
tannins for winemaking.
Its standard procedure that the quality of wood tannins
is determined in-house by specific producers of these
tannins, but I feel more needs to be done when it comes
to giving winemakers assurances about the impact
theyll have on their wine, Professor Du Toit says.

FOCUS ON WOOD
PICTURE: COURTESY VINA SOUTH AFRICA

Given the rising cost of barrels,


alternative wood and tannin
products provide winemakers
with more affordable
alternatives. By Sandile
Mkhwanazi

CM

MY

CY

CMY

Some winemakers have already started using


indigenous wood extracts such as rooibos as a way to
preserve their wine. Its about time we start looking at
indigenous South African woods and what they could
add to the winemaking landscape.
CONSUMER PREFERENCES
The perception of wood in wine is often linked to the
quality of the product. Consumers want the assurance
that theyre buying a quality product. The wine market
has an informed consumer base and they mostly link
maturation to a barrel, Professor Du Toit says. Wood
alternatives are a foreign concept to consumers, who
are more cautious when a winemaker explains the use
of staves and other alternatives. Product integrity is
questioned without weighing up the cost and lifespan of
a barrel against that of staves and other wood products.
A recent masters thesis by Anri Botha on the use of
various oak products for fermentation and ageing of
Chenin Blanc, details the sensory properties, perceived
quality and consumer preferences of various oak
products from various coopers. The results indicate that
consumers use varying standards to attribute quality in
a wine, highlighting their different preferences.
Professor Du Toit emphasises the need for an industryrelated quality assessment of wood alternatives and
tannin products and their contribution to enhancing
certain flavours in wine. This can only be achieved
through research which will help us fine-tune products
to make them more suitable for the wine industry. w

FLAVOUR ENHANCERS

African Cellar Suppliers,


local distributors of the
Damy and Billion barrels,
recently introduced its
extended range of barrels
and toasting options to
add value to your wine.

EXCLUSIVE RANGE
The new Exclusive range is available
in limited quantities and is suitable
for both red and white varieties. The
extra-fine grain staves are carefully
selected from all the best French
forests and air-dried for 24 months.
The barrels bring a precise, wooded,
noble palate and nose to the wine to
express the fruit.

PROMOTIONAL

THE DAMY STANDARD

DAMY ROUGE/RUBIS
The Damy Rouge is made exclusively
for red wines from hand-selected,
extra-tight grain French oak and airdried for 36 months. The barrels are
toasted to a trademarked toasting
designed specifically for red wine
application. They add structure
and texture, while preserving the
integrity of the fruit and soft tannins
that enhance mid-palate volume.

A longer toasting option has been


added to the standard Damy ranges
usual levels of light, medium,
medium+ and heavy toasting.
Technically the barrel stays on
embers instead of flames for at least
an hour as the coopers have to turn
the barrel around more often to get
an even toasting.
The flavour profile associated with
the standard Damy includes fresh
butter, fresh almonds, light vanilla
and less fatness. As a result, wines
aged in these barrels show freshness
and tightness.
As always, Damy aims to support
the wine-fruit instead of masking it
with woody, toasted flavours. While
synonymous with Pinot Noir and
Chardonnay, Damy and Billon have
been finding success on Shiraz and
Cabernet Sauvignon. On Shiraz, the
Vosges wood and medium toast have
enhanced the spiciness of the wine.
Recommended varietals for these
barrels include:

ESTRELLA
Damy launched the Estrella barrel
specifically for Syrah and Grenache.
Its made exclusively from Allier wood
which is air-dried for 36 months.
The barrels toasting method is
specifically for red wines from the
Ctes du Rhne. It reveals fruity
sweetness on the nose and palate
with silky-smooth tannins that bring
out a freshness in the wine.

50

Chardonnay and other barrelfermented whites such as Viognier


and Sauvignon Blanc.
Pinot Noir, Shiraz and other reds,
particularly when a round, creamy
texture is desired.
Cabernet Sauvignon with red
fruits and for roundness.
Pinotage for added roundness.

BILLON RANGE
This range of barrels respects the
fruit but is tighter on the palate with
a lengthy finish. The Vosges barrel
enhances the spiciness in Shiraz,
while on Chardonnay the respect
for the fruit acts as a support for the
wine. The Richelieu barrel, launched
in 2014, uses a unique blend of
oak from small microclimates in
three of the finest forests in France.
One forest is known to contribute
minerality, another imparts
structure, texture and spice, while
the third brings softness, freshness
and elegance.

The three forests come together


in a barrel toasted in a special
Bordeaux style to create a complex
but balanced contribution. The
emphasis in the wine is on fruit and
terroir with a pronounced length
on the palate. Available in 225 litre
Bordeaux and 228 litre Burgundy
sizes, medium and medium plus
toast and in limited quantities, each
Richelieu barrel is carefully crafted
to ensure a precisely measured
combination of the three forests,
with all staves seasoned for a
minimum of 36 months and all
heads aged for a minimum of 48
months.
Big barrels are becoming
increasingly popular worldwide and,
in keeping with the trends Billon
offers, barrels are available in 225
litres, 228 litres, 300 litres, 350 litres,
400 litres, 500 litres, 600 litres, 700
litres and 860 litres.
Recommended varieties for these
barrels include Chardonnay and
Sauvignon Blanc to give length and
clean fruit flavours, and Merlot, Pinot
Noir, Syrah and Pinotage to promote
the character of the wine and add
baked spice.

Contact: Bianca Smit | Tel: 021 981 7701 | Bianca.Smit@africancellar.co.za


www.africancellar.co.za

PHOTOGRAPHER: JEAN-CHARLES CHAPUZET

PROMOTIONAL
Benoit Torcheboeuf, Anouck Chapuzet, Jean-Christophe Varron
and Marius van Tonder.

A DECADE OF
EXCELLENCE
Despite the drop in
yields for the 2016
harvest, Vina South
Africa saw an increase
of 15% in its annual
turnover and sales.
That makes this the
best year yet for the
company, now in its
tenth year of operation.

We launched our new Eclat


barrel range just before the 2013 vintage and we are happy
to report that already more than 50 wineries are currently
trialling and implementing this revolutionary French oak
barrel in South Africa, says Marius.

Eclat

The reason for this relatively quick interest is that many


winemakers look for clean, fruit driven bouquets along with
seamless integration and richness on the mouth feel. This is
exactly what Vina has achieved with the Eclat barrel.

Ceramic-Toast French Oak Barrels

Hand Crafted Barrels

American Oak Barrels

What is particularly
satisfying to Marius van
Tonder, managing partner
of Vina SA, is that this
growth was seen in both
their barrel and alternative
oak product sections. The
growth in barrel sales can be
attributed to their unique
and innovative Eclat barrel,
which is toasted by means
of Ceramic Radiant Heat.

Fire Toasted French Oak Staves

Ceramic Radiant Heat enables reproduction of the finest


toasting principles in traditional coopering while allowing
optimal thermo degradation throughout the whole depth of
the stave. It also ensures effective precision of temperature
and the length of toasting. Due to this accuracy, the toasting
level and results are repeatable barrel after barrel.
It is a very gentle and respectful means of toasting high
quality, well-seasoned oak.
The toasting process is very clean as no wood is used to stoke
fires, which means no smoke or discoloration from smoke
is present. Another important benefit of ceramic toasting is
that no charring or blister forming occurs.
But what really sets the Eclat barrel apart from its
competitors is that it is extremely respectful of the wines
natural fruit due to the absence of smoky characters, and a
rich sucrosity on the mid pallet.

MARIUS VAN TONDER


VINA SOUTH AFRICA CC
EMAIL: marius@vineasa.co.za
TEL/FAX: +27(0)21 8722 894
CELL: 082 616 0610

Contact:
Marius van Tonder
Vina South Africa
Mobile: 082 616 0610
marius@vineasa.co.za

INTEGRATION BOOST LAUNCHED IN SA


Cape Cooperage Groups range of tannins
demystifies one of the most complex areas
of chemistry.

ape Cooperage Group has expanded its line of


tr/tan enological oak tannins. The latest release,
Integration Boost (IB), is positioned as an ageing or
finishing tannin and provides light, sweet aromatics
and a soft boost to mid-palate weight.

All tr/tan tannins are a blend of ellagitannin from stavequality oak and gallotannin isolated and purified from
oak galls. These blends provide 100% hydrolysable tannin,
dissolve easily and are in conformity with Enological Codex.
Our oak-toasting method results in a polyphenol
profile that rapidly integrates with native grape tannins,
complementing their structure by reacting with them to
create new, complex tannins that are velvety and smooth,
Jeffries says. We think another aspect that winemakers

Now available to all wine markets including South Africa,


tr/tan IB was developed to be used at any point during
the maturation process. Its also an easy option to trial.
Cape Cooperage Group has sample kits so winemakers
can dose a small amount of wine and taste the result
immediately. The results are representative of future
application on a commercial scale.
More and more winemakers are utilising tannins as an
important organoleptic tool, Jeffries says. Tannins allow
you to fine-tune wine to best achieve your winemaking
vision. This includes the aromatics, flavours and what they
are most known for mouthfeel. We continue to pick up
new clients because of the way IB is being used both as a
finishing tannin and in combination with two of our other
blends, Volume Boost (VB) and Fruit Intensive (FI).
Tannins first will influence the nose, then mouthfeel and
viscosity, Jeffries says. You can also increase the levels
slowly to soften tannins in dry wines. Our team can work
with you to identify the right tannin blend and ideal
dosage rate for your wine.
Contact:
Mari Louw
mlouw@capecooperage.com
www.capecooperage.com

PROMOTIONAL

Its already experiencing widespread success in both the


Northern and Southern Hemispheres, tr/tan technical
sales engineer Glenn Jeffries says. For white wines IB can
be used to freshen the fruit and preserve floral aromatics,
keeping them in balance and softly increasing the body.
For ross it adds sweetness and a confectionary nose
while maintaining a soft overall oak impact when used
at low rose rates. Finally, for light-bodied reds, its an
excellent option to soften any green tannins.

will really appreciate is its high reactivity


tr/tan IB assists with quicker binding,
increasing the wines potential for earlier bottling.

Now available for


Pediococcus and
Lactobacillus

Out of the 5 known species of Brettanomyces


only Brettanomyces bruxellensis is associated
1,2,3
with wine spoilage.
vinoBRETT is the only test specific for
Brettanomyces bruxellensis which means
youll only test positive if your wine is at risk.
TEST ONSITE IN LESS THAN 4 HOURS

021 870 1181

- sales@enartis.co.za - www.enartis.co.za

1.Smith MT. 2011. Brettanomyces Kufferath & van Laer 1921. In The Yeasts: A Taxonomic Study. See Kurtzman et al. 2011, pp. 983-86. 2.Mitrakul MC, Henick-Kling T, Egli CM. 1999. Discrimination of Brettanomyces/Dekkera
yeast isolates from wine by using various DNA fingerprinting methods. Food Microbiol. 16:3- 14. 3.Zuehlke JM, Petrova B, Edwards CG. 2013. Advances in the control of wine spoilage by Zygosaccharomyces bailii and Dekkera/
Brettanomyces. Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. 4:57-78.

NEW TOASTING METHODS


PROVIDE DEFINITIVE RESULTS
AND OVERALL GREAT
IMPRESSION TO YOUR WINE.

BARREL SELECTION REDESIGNED

Toasting options such as, longmedium, noisette and long-heavy


are now available. The range is
divided into three main groups:
Traditional, Solution and Premium.
THE TRADITIONAL RANGE:
It consists of the following barrel
types: Allier, with 100% oak from
the Allier forests; Assemblage, a
selection of wood from five French
oak forests; and the Privilege barrel,
with selected oaks from various
forests bringing forward the natural
tannin character of these oaks.

THE SOLUTION RANGE:

THE PREMIUM RANGE:

It consists of the Perl Blance barrel


which is the flagship white wine
barrel. Results aimed at with this
barrel include a well-integrated
wood component which is subtle,
aromatic and fresh. Two toasting
options further optimise the use of
this barrel: the Fruity toast option
enhances the aromas of fruit, while
the Spicy option results in a wine
with a subtle, spicy character.
The Expression Rouge barrel was
developed for red wine, the Rouge
Satin option is made from two wood
origins which bring out minerality
and freshness in order to preserve
the aromas and fruitiness of the
wine. The Rouge Velours barrel
results in a fresh, well-structured,
full-bodied wine. The last barrel
in the Solution range: The Spirit
barrel is especially made from wood
originating from the Limousine
forests and developed for the
maturation of Brandy and Cognac.

The range consists of the Colbert


barrel (only in 225 litre) made from
oak with a grain width of less than
1 mm and 36 months open-air dried.
The aim is to produce fine, elegant
and subtly wooded wines. The Elite
barrel with a grain width of less
than 2 mm is designed for wines
that require long ageing and where
the enhancement of the fruit, good
volume and roundness in the mouth
is required.

PROMOTIONAL

fter extensive worldwide


trials, testing and
experimenting, French
cooperage Tonnellerie
Nadalie developed a new
range of barrels aimed
at highlighting specific positive
attributes of barrel-matured wines.
New toasting methods were given
special attention to ensure that
these results were obtained.

Contact:
Coastal Barrel Suppliers in
association with F.S. Smit & Co
Fritz Smit or
Gerhard van der Merwe
Tel: 021 863 1032

57

PROMOTIONAL

LAFFORTS PREMIUM OAK BRAND,


NOBILE, ORIGINATED FROM AN ALLIANCE
BETWEEN THE COOPERAGE INDUSTRY
AND HIGH-PRECISION OENOLOGY.

Nobile is now recognised by


professionals throughout the world
for the quality of its wood-to-wine
balance. With its state-of-the-art facility
situated in the heart of the Bordeaux
wine region, Nobile oers practical,
pioneering solutions for revealing oak
expression in your wines.
Detailed wood selection
Thanks to our knowledge of the
aromatic potential of oak from various
origins (Quercus Petraea, Quercus
Robur, Quercus Alba) we can select
and assemble the wood in order to
limit natural variability and ensure
reproducibility. The selected wood
goes through an open-air on-site
maturation phase of at least 24
months.
During production of the various Nobile
products, the heating operations are
carried out by hot-air convection,
providing homogeneously heated
products from the surface through
to the centre, or by specific methods
for reproducing heated gradients
comparable with barrel toasting.

EVOLUTION OF WOOD
Experience and control in the release
of volatile compounds from the wood
and control of heating techniques
can ensure aromatic and tannic
reproducibility for complex flavour
profiles. The dosage is based on the
characteristics of the specific wine
style. Contact time is defined by
tasting throughout ageing.
Innovation and modernisation
Through this evolution, Nobile not
only reaffirms its knowledge of
oak products, but also the quality,
elegance and oenological potential
of the individual brand products,
whether its granular, chips, blocks,
staves or barrel inserts.
This year several new products for the
brand have been released. Following
in the footsteps of products such as
Nobile Base that was launched in 2013,
Nobile presents a new range of staves
for maturation. The 18 mm staves are
thicker, oerring volume and fullness
to mouthfeel on the mid-palate.
This 18 mm stave range is also
extended into the Barrel Refresh range

that helps with barrel preservation and


is known for its innovative attachment
system for ultra-easy implementation
(14 individual mini-staves, measuring
300 x 25 x 18 mm each). These
18 mm barrel inserts maximises the
beneficial oxygenation from barrels
and contribute to the wine 20 to 100%
new oak equivalent (1 Nobile Barrel
Refresh = 20% new oak).
There are three new products in this
range: 18-XBASE that enhances a
wines natural fruit without toasty
notes, and increases the wines
volume and fatness. 18-XTREAM is
about expressing ripe fruit aromas
and increases the wines sweetness
with mocha and roasted coffee notes.
18-DEVINE gives texture and extends
the fruit to create a more complex
finish and provide an elegance typical
of Burgundian barrels.
Contact:
Laffort South Africa
Tel: 021 882 8106.
laffort.RSA@laffort.com
www.laffort.com

Lnologie du bois

7mm
Staves

7 12 18
Staves

Staves

7mm7 12 18
mm

mm

BARREL REFRESH

BARREL REFRESH

MM

7 12 18
Staves

mm

7 12 18
BARREL REFRESH

L REFRESH

MM

BARREL REFRESH

MM

MM

Staves

mm

mm

mm

BARREL REFRESH

MM

MM

I8 - XBASE

NEW

I8 - XTREME
I8 - DIVINE

CUSTOM
MADE

Lnologie du bois

your best partner

Port: +33 (0)6 83 31 85 54 Tl: +33 (0)3 80 21 67 31


E-mail: josephine.preur@wanadoo.fr

Hameau Laperriere
21450 Poiseul la Ville
www.tonnellerie-cavin.com

LESSONS FROM
THE RHNE

1 Chateauneuf du Pape vineyard. 2 Mecury barrels at Domaine de Beaurenard. 3 Tasting at Domaine Janasse.

Barrel selection is as important as the selection of


quality fruit for making an exceptional wine.

What influences your decision when buying a new


French oak barrel? The goal is to choose reliable,
consistent barrels to beautifully elevate your wines. Many
winemakers rely on past relationships and experience
with certain barrels as a guide. One needs to be vigilant
when looking for a cooperage with a proven track record.
Tonnellerie die Mercurey has an impressive combination
of major benefits. Tarterets cooperage and stave supplier
NT Bois are family-owned. Tarteret family-owned
companies buy a dominant portion of all oak trees and
logs at auctions in France. This tremendous selection
power allows Mercurey barrels to be crafted from top
grade oak using provenance, terroir, grain profiles and
stave colour as criteria.
The RX South Africa team recently visited the Rhne valley
to get a better understanding of how the use of various

toasts and wood profiles influence Shiraz in particular. We


wanted to focus on the growing use of Mercurey barrels
for other cultivars, as we see a big movement towards
using our barrels for Rhne and Bordeaux varietals in
South Africa. We tasted wines at a few interesting cellars
in the Rhne valley and saw how old and new toasts work
together to achieve a harmonious end result.

PROMOTIONAL

onnellerie de Mercurey and sister company NT Bois


offer unparalleled oak ingredient sourcing. Nicolas
Tarteret, owner of Tonnellerie de Mercurey and
the NT Bois stave mill, is one of the foremost oak
authorities in France. Every tree bought for a Mercurey
barrel is selected by Tarteret and his team of specialists.
The entire process, from parcel location to measurement
and conversion, is factored in before the tree is harvested.

Some of the highlights included an extensive barrel


tasting at Domaine Christophe Pichon, a parallel tasting
at Maison M Chapoutier in Hermitage and a highly rated
bottle tasting at Domaine De La Janasse in Chteauneufdu-Pape.
These visits once again highlighted the importance of
working with a trusted cooperage to find solutions with
different wood and toasts. Building relationships and
understanding the needs and expectations of customers
are key to finding tailor-made solutions and enhancing
and polishing the fruits of their labour.
Contact:
Nicolette Senekal
RX South Africa
tm@rxgroup.co.za
Cell: 082 5688 101

61

PROMOTIONAL

EXPLORING NEW GROUND

CAPE COOPERAGE GROUP HAS


PARTNERED WITH A FRENCH
ARTISAN COOPERAGE WITH
A PASSION FOR HARMONY
BETWEEN WOOD AND WINE.

assion is inherent to a great


wine, just as it is to crafting a
premium oak barrel. The magic,
le grain de folie, is found by
creating beautiful harmony through
the right partnership.
With this in mind, Cape Cooperage
Group has entered into a synergistic
partnership with Tonnellerie
Tremeaux, an artisan cooperage
nestled in the heart of Beaune,
Burgundy. The move is an excellent
match of expertise and vision.
Tonnellerie Tremeaux embodies
passion for the smallest detail,

preferring to understand the wine


first before crafting a barrel to best
honour its muse. Cape Cooperage
Group then works with South
African winemakers to find the
ideal barrel pairing to showcase
fruit and the nuances of each
vintage.
We believe South African
winemakers will embrace
the quality of these classic
Burgundian oak barrels which
pair exceptionally well with Pinot
Noir and Chardonnay focused on
fruit and terroir expression, Cape
Cooperage Group general manager
Andr Kotz says. Tremeaux barrels
are special they are handcrafted
to order with emphasis on every
detail, from premium oak sourcing,
a chemine seasoning method, to a
fruit-forward toast portfolio.

We patiently craft
limited production
barrels to respect the fruit
and reflect each wines
unique beauty.

21200 Beaune - Cte dOr - France


www.tonnellerie-tremeaux.fr

The Tonnelerie
Tremeaux logo.

Tonnellerie Tremeaux was founded


by Ludovic Tremeaux, a Burgundian
native. He apprenticed as a cooper
at the age of 16 and went on to
graduate from the College of
Beaune with a Brevet de Technicien
Suprieur degree in wine and spirits.
Its a dream come true to find a
partner with a common vision and
who understands and respects the
essence of the brand, Ludovic says.
Our boutique cooperage believes in
the importance of each detail. This
inspires our commitment to working
as closely as possible with each
winemaker to understand the wine,
also our hands-on approach for oak
seasoning and barrel craftsmanship.
Tonnellerie Tremeauxs artisanal,
hands-on approach to oak
seasoning and craftsmanship
includes seasoning French oak

1 Ludovic Tremeaux, founder of the cooperage.


2 A barrel bearing the Tonnelerie Tremeaux logo.

using a one-meter high chimney


stacking method. This is an
excellent way to ensure the oak
seasons naturally and evenly with
optimal airflow and exposure to
the elements. While it requires a
significant investment of space on
the seasoning yard, this method
creates a softer oak profile with
incredible consistency.
At the cooperage, a small team of
master coopers patiently craft each
barrel to the desired specifications
and to best reflect the beauty of the
wine it is destined to age.
Our hands-on approach will remain
the same, even as we slowly increase
production to serve more wineries,
Ludovic says. Ill continue to divide
my time between being onsite in
our atelier in Beaune and visiting
wineries around the world, including
in South Africa, to support the sales
team.

TQ-178x130-SAF-2016.indd 1

Our group was drawn to Ludovic


due to his passion, authenticity and
commitment to respecting the wine,
Kotz says. Were looking forward to
giving South Africa access to these
limited-production barrels.
From refined to bold and captivating
to elegant, Cape Cooperage Group is
committed to maintaining a unique
match for every wine programme.
It now represents four barrel
brands Tonnellerie Quintessence,
Tonnellerie Tremeaux, T.W. Boswell
and World Cooperage, each offering
high-quality barrels with stylistic
differences to meet the needs of
various wine programmes.

Contact:
Andr Kotz
Cell: 083 433 9920
akotze@capecooperage.com
www.capecooperage.com

7/29/16 2:37 PM

PROMOTIONAL

CDS Vintec is proud to announce the recent appointment


of Dr Nina van Niekerk as in-house oenologist. She will
provide scientific based insight and assistance to clients
with their barrel and foudr requirements. Nina is an
Oenology graduate from US with extended experience in
the wine industry, including a long stint at Distell where
she completed her doctorate.
After investing in facilities for foudr production, our
barrel supplier (Dargaud & Jaegle) appointed an experienced Compagnon Du Devoir in 2015 to head up
this artisanal production facility and now also offers
large oval or round vats and upright tanks (up to 7500 L
capacity) as part of their portfolio. The first locally sold
D & J foudr went to Graham Beck and yielded good
results. Following enquiries from MCC association members, D & J now on special request offers dedicated MCC
barrels & large vats by using oak exclusively from the
Champagne-Ardennes and/or Lorraine regions (the oak
origin epicentre for bottle fermented wines).

references include KWV, Rustenberg, Groot Constantia,


Boschendal, Glen Carlou and Delaire Graff, to name a few.
Our Vallaurine barrels (a separate cooperage also owned
by the Jaegle family) are generally regarded as most suited
for Rhone varietals, although great results have been
achieved with Merlot. Jacques Wentzel of Black Elephant
for one is extremely pleased with the results, particularly
on Shiraz. Others who are impressed with the results after
changing over include Lammershoek and The Winery of
Good Hope, with many other references available.

Local D & J clients have done very well nationally and


internationally, especially with Chardonnay, but also
with Pinot Noir and other white and red varietals.
Prestigious awards include consistent Top 10 results at the
Chardonnay & Shiraz du Monde competitions. Our many
For more information, contact CDS VINTEC:
Nina van Niekerk (nina@cdsvintec.com, 021 863 5050 or 082 440 7754)
or Peter Peck (082 453 2371)

Dr Nina van
Niekerk.

The new John Deere FX 15 planter.

A BREATHER FOR

John Deere has heeded farmers


call by establishing a new financial
division to offer support during one
of the countrys worst droughts.
The drought affects producers
productivity and we share their
concerns, says Antois van der
Westhuizen, managing director of
John Deere Financial (JDF) for SubSahara Africa. Cash flows are under
pressure and this has a huge effect
on their daily operations.
JDFs main goal is to make John
Deere products accessible to more
producers. This is made possible
following an agreement concluded
between JDF and Absa Bank in 2005.
Antois says producers can trust
John Deere and JDF to listen to their
needs theyre on producers side
every step of the way.
We explored various options to
see how we can make the current
situation easier and prevent
unnecessary pressure on producers
cash flow, he says. Constant
changes in technology compel
producers to keep their replacement
schedules up to date, so its
important to us to enable them to

replace or buy equipment without


excessive financial pressure.
JDF has come up with an innovative
repayment scheme to relieve the
financial pressure on producers
who are faced with constant
increasing operating costs on top
of the drought. The instalments
on purchases of new John Deere
products have been structured in
such a way that qualifying clients
will only have to start paying the
following year, Antois says. The
idea is that farmers dont have to use
the crops they harvest this year to
service their financing commitment.
They only have to start repaying
with the next harvest.
TAILOR-MADE PRODUCT
When structuring its new financial
product JDF also took into account
the pressure a large deposit causes
and will relax deposit requirements
where possible. These structures
apply to all our products, Antois
says. Our financing is personal
and built around every producers
unique circumstances and cash flow,
which is why our slogan is Finance
built for you.
JDF finances its products at less than
the prime interest rate and will where
possible drive interest rates even lower.
The bottom line is clients are given
a lower interest rate on John Deere
products, irrespective of the financial
structure they prefer, Antois says.

Antois van
der Westhuizen,
managing director
of John Deere
Financial for SubSahara Africa.

JOHN DEERE COMES TO


PRODUCERS RESCUE BY
OFFERING THEM WELCOME
FINANCIAL RELIEF.

SUPPLIER SCENE

PRODUCERS

RADOUXS
INTRODUCES NEW
COMMERCIAL TEAM
Southern region sales representative
Hendrik Herfurth, Ronald Amos of the
technical services division and northern
region sales representative Thinus Verwey.

Ci 5235

Orvego the innovative fungicide with Initium...


that meets consumers' needs.


For highly effective and reliable control of downy mildew in IPM programs.
Outstanding rain fastness means that each application keeps protecting
your vines for longer.
Favourable toxicological and ecotoxicological profile.

Orvego Outstanding crop quality and yields in every respect.

BASF South Africa (Pty) Ltd

852 Sixteenth Road, Midrand, 1685

PO Box 2801, Halfway House, 1685

Tel: +27 11 203 2400

Orvego Reg. No. L9185 Act No. 36 of 1947. Please refer to the product label for complete directions for use.

Fax: +27 11 203 2461

FOTO: WATERKLOOF.

WINETECH

NR 325
September 2016

IN SAMEWERKING MET

N TEGNIESE GIDS VIR WYNPRODUSENTE / A TECHNICAL GUIDE FOR WINE PRODUCERS


WWW: These articles are available in English on www.wineland.co.za

72
74
78

WINETECH-NUUS

82

WINGERD-DINGE VIR SEPTEMBER


AKTUEEL IN DIE WINGERD EN DIE KELDER
Risikobestuur vir wynkelders
WYN IN HOUT EN HOUT IN WYN
Verbeterde alternatiewe houtprodukte
NUWE BLIK OP VRUGTEBEDRYF (DEEL 3)
FruitLook monitor wingerde met satelliete

86
90

ONKRUIDDODERS EN TOEDIENINGSTEGNIEKE
VIR DIE BEHEER VAN ROLBLAD-GENFEKTEERDE
VOLDRAENDE WINGERDSTOKKE (FASE 1)
ONKRUIDDODERS EN TOEDIENINGSTEGNIEKE
VIR DIE BEHEER VAN ROLBLAD-GENFEKTEERDE
VOLDRAENDE WINGERDSTOKKE (FASE 2)
GETTING NEW LIFE OUT OF OLD BARRELS:
Protecting your wine against oxidation during
ageing

WINGERDREAKSIE OP BRAK-GEASSOSIEERDE
GRONDCHEMIESE EIENSKAPPE

INHOUD

SAAMGESTEL EN VERSORG DEUR DORONAE DE RIDDER

68
70
71

WINETECH TEGNIES

Sommige artikels is verkort. Alle verwysings en inteks-verwysings,


asook bedankings en bronne word volledig op ons webtuiste aangedui.

WINETECH-NUUS

ROBERTSON INLIGTINGSDAG
ONDERSOEK PRIEELSTELSELS
Die VinPro/Winetech Inligtingsdag vir die
Roberston-streek het op alternatiewe
prieelstelsels gefokus. Die dag is by die
Graham & Rhona Beck
Vaardigheidsentrum gehou en die fokus
sluit aan by die tema van vanjaar se
blokkompetisie.
Briaan Stipp van die Robertson
Wynmakery het meganiese
snoeiwingerde bespreek, waarna
Johannes Mellet en Leon Dippenaar van
VinPro onderskeidelik die balletrok-,
Smart Dyson- en verskeie Kaliforniese
prieelstelsels se voor- en nadele
uiteengesit het.
Lucinda Heyns van die Instituut vir
Wingerd- en Wynwetenskappe (IWWW)
het n oorsig oor beskikbare onderstokke
gegee, met spesifieke verwysing na
droogtebestandheid. Sy het ook die
nuwe publikasie oor onderstokvariteite
bekendgestel. Gerard Martin van
Winetech het die sessie afgesluit met n
oorsig oor Winetech se navorsings-,
ontwikkelings- en innovasiestrategie.
Leon Dippenaar, Hennie Visser, Briaan Stipp, Johannes Mellet, Lucinda Heyns,
Arthur Meets en Gerard Martin.

Hennie Visser
VinPro, Robertson

BEMESTING BEKYK BY
OLIFANTSRIVIER INLIGTINGSDAG

n Onlangse VinPro/Winetech Inligtingsdag vir die Olifantsrivier-streek is by Die Keldery aangebied en het op bemesting
gefokus. Pieter Raath van Bemlab het oor die verskillende vorms van stikstof vir wingerdbemesting uitgebrei.

68

Die belangrikheid van na-oesbemesting is beklemtoon en bemestingsnorme op grond van die groeikrag en
produksiebehoeftes van die wingerd is bespreek. Gert Engelbrecht, VinPro-wingerdboukonsultant, het twee nuwe
publikasies van die Instituut vir Wingerd- en Wynwetenskappe (IWWW) met produsente gedeel, naamlik meganiese snoei
van wingerde en n bygewerkte onderstokhandleiding vir die bedryf.
Gert Engelbrecht
VinPro, Olifantsrivier

IWWW-BLADSKRIFTE
ROLBLAAR-BEHEERSTRATEGIE
Jarelange navorsing oor rolblaar word in di reeks met talle kleurfotos saamgevat. Dit dek verskeie aspekte van
rolblaarsiekte, van die oorsaak tot vektore, verspreidingspatrone en herkenning van die simptome. n Volledige
beheerstrategie word ook uiteengesit vir produsente wat hierdie siekte in hul wingerde wil bekamp.
MEGANIESE OES

WINETECH-NUUS

Die Instituut vir Wingerd- en Wynwetenskappe het onlangs sy webblad opgegradeer. Gaan na www.igws.co.za (Institute for
Grape and Wine Sciences) vir inligting, artikels en navorsingsnuus. Volledige bladskrifreekse oor die volgende temas is ook
op die webblad in pdf-formaat beskikbaar:

Hierdie bladskrifreeks bevat inligting oor tipes meganiese oesmasjiene en opleistelsels en vergelyk ook meganiese oes
met handoes. Die invloed van meganiese oes op produksie, groeikrag, wyngehalte en vrugbaarheid van die wingerd word
ook bespreek.
MEGANIESE SNOEI
Vir meer inligting oor tipes meganiese snoeimasjiene, meganiese snoei en die effek daarvan op wynkwaliteit,
waterverbruik, bemesting en volhoubaarheid, gaan na die bladskrifreeks oor meganiese snoei.

The revolutionary elastic polyester foliage wire that:





Is quick and easy to install


Retains its tension
No re-tensioning systems required
Gives you the ideal canopy shape, improving
photosynthesis and spray effectiveness
Has a 15 year track record
The wire will not corrode (ideal for coastal
conditions)
Suitable for mechanical harvesters

69

WINGERD-DINGE VIR SEPTEMBER

SEPTEMBER

KONSULTASIEDIENS

ONTHOU DI MAAND

Begin swambeheer-programme reeds van lootlengtes


van 5 - 10 cm.
Beheer slakke indien problematies.
Onthou: Waterverbruik is vroeg in die groeiseisoen
baie laag; waak dus teen onnodige besproeiing.
Wag drie tot vier weke n bot voor lentebemestingtoedienings.
Onkruidbeheer moet verkieslik slegs op bankies
gedoen word en dekgewasse in werksry moet solank
moontlik toegelaat word om te groei.
Begin vroeg suier by kwaliteits-/ho inkomsteblokke.

DIE SEISOEN SOVER

VinPro se spesialiste is beskikbaar om enige vrae met


betrekking tot Grondkunde en GIS, sowel as
Wingerdkunde te beantwoord. Blaai deur die vorige vrae
of vra n nuwe vraag op die webblad.

MOET LEES ARTIKELS


Leaf removals influence on Pinot Noir:
Wines & Vines, June 2016.
The battle against Eutypa:
Australian & New Zealand Grapegrower & Winemaker,
May 2016.

Vir volledige wenke, skakel Gaynor Fortuin van VinPro


Konsultasiediens by 021 276 0432.

LESERS KAN OOK NOU VAN DIE


VRA N KENNER-OPSIE OP DIE
VINPRO-WEBBLAD GEBRUIK MAAK.

Wydverspreide rens vanaf derde week van Junie, asook


in Julie, bring groot verligting.
Meeste damme se vlakke lig mooi en is voller teenoor
dieselfde tyd verlede jaar.
Temperature daal ook drasties vanaf middel Junie en
goeie koue-eenhede word geakkumuleer, maar steeds
agter teenoor 2015.
Eerste helfte van Augustus effe warmer as normaal.

Vir meer inligting, skakel Gaynor Fortuin by 021 276 0432.

VINPRO DVD-OPLEIDINGSPAKKETTE
BESKIKBAAR
Normale prys: R1 300 (BTW ingesluit).
VinPro-lid: R950 (BTW ingesluit).
Enkelmodule DVDs: R200/DVD.

Vineyard mapping technologies, practices and


applications:
Wine Business Monthly, June 2016.
Om enigeen van hierdie artikels in die hande te kry, stuur n e-pos
na Gaynor Fortuin by gaynor@vinpro.co.za. Laat weet ons van

goeie of interessante artikels by 021 276 0432.

VINPRO: OPLEIDING VIR WINGERDWERKERS


Siekte- en plaagbeheer: 1 - 21 September. Villa Crop bied
kursusse aan.
Stokontwikkeling: 4 - 11 Oktober. Slegs R250/werker.
Vir meer inligting, bel Kachn Ross by 021 276 0453, stuur n e-pos
na kross@vinpro.co.za of besoek www.vinpro.co.za en volg die
VinPro Trade Diary.

Vir meer inligting, skakel Unathi Mantshongo by 021 276 0455,


unathi@vinpro.co.za.

DAMME SE VLAKKE
kyk op bl 9.

VOORPUNT ADVIES VIR VOLHOUBARE WYNPRODUKSIE


BESTUURDER: Francois Viljoen 021 276 0429 / 083 309 7627
LANDBOU-EKONOME: Andries van Zyl 021 276 0429 / 073 280 8703; Funzani Sundani 078 084 1329
SEB ADVIESDIENS: Phil Bowes 021 276 0429 / 083 581 4322; Unathi Mantshongo 076 378 7496
GIS/GRONDKUNDIGE: Heinrich Schloms 021 276 0429 / 083 480 2686; Johan de Jager 072 139 9661
OPLEIDING / KURSUSSE: Kachn Ross 082 309 7618
WINGERDKUNDIGES

70

Stellenbosch Conrad Schutte: 021 276 0429, 082 804 0422; Paarl/Swartland Hanno van Schalkwyk: 021 276 0429, 083 455 5192
Worcester Pierre Snyman: 023 347 1566, 083 455 5191; Breedekloof Leon Dippenaar: 023 347 1566, 083 455 5194
Robertson Hennie Visser: 023 626 3017, 083 455 5193; Klein Karoo Johannes Mellet: 023 626 3017, 082 922 9547
Olifantsrivier Gert Engelbrecht: 072 152 4028; Oranjerivier Henning Burger: 054 337 8800, 082 824 4941

Saamgestel deur: VinPro Konsultasiediens. Vir meer inligting, kontak Gaynor Fortuin by 021 276 0432.

Risikobestuur vir
wynkelders
Risikobestuur is sedert die begin van die wynbedryf in die Middeleeue van die uiterste belang.
Deur Charl Theron

Bewegende dele kan beserings veroorsaak.

Risikobestuur is n spesialisgebied wat gewoonlik nie


voldoende aandag tydens die opleiding van wynmakers
geniet nie. Dit noop wynkelders om van konsultante
gebruik te maak. Ten einde risikobestuur effektief uit te
voer, moet sekere meetbare resultate genterpreteer word.
Een daarvan is die totale risikokoste (TRK) wat die direkte
en indirekte risikobestuurskoste teenoor verkope uitdruk.
Indien dit grafies oor tyd voorgestel word, gee dit n
aanduiding van die effektiwiteit van die betrokke
risikobestuursprogram.
Risikobestuurskonsultante beveel gewoonlik die
aanstelling van n komitee aan wat oor die hele
bestuurspektrum strek en die uitvoerende en finansile
hoof en produksie-, bedryfs-, veilgheids-, logistieke en
verkoopspersoneel insluit.
Die uiteindelike doel van risikobestuur is die vermindering
van onsekerheid, wat behels dat die wynkelder se
aktiwiteite en die resultate daarvan volhoubaar moet
wees. Voorbeelde van risikos waaraan wynkelders
blootgestel word, sluit in hulpbronne soos elektrisiteit en
water, produkpeutery, die terugbring van produkte,
aardbewings, vloede, kuberbedreigings, intellektuele
eiendom, kopiereg, handelsmerke, media- en
produkaanspreeklikheid, besoedeling, bereidingsmiddele
en verpakkingsmateriaal.
Nadat die potensile risikos gedentifiseer is, moet daar
besluit word hoe om dit te hanteer. Een van die maniere

om risikos te beperk of die gevolge daarvan te


minimaliseer, is versekering, maar dit word gewoonlik net
vir rampspoedige risikos aanbeveel.
Een van die grootste potensile risikokostes is die
vergoeding van werknemers vir werkbeserings. Maar dit
kan ook verminder word indien dit korrek bestuur word.
Beserings in die kelder benvloed nie net die veiligheid en
gesondheid van werknemers nie, maar ook die wins van
die kelder. Dit kan meestal voorkom word 90% van
werksplekongelukke kan aan menslike gedrag toegeskryf
word en slegs 10% is weens bedreigings en toerusting.
Die omvang van werksplekongelukke kan verminder word
deur verliesbeheeropleiding van werknemers of die
gebruik van tydelike werknemers, in welke geval wetlike
versekering nie vereis word nie. Maar die gebruik van n
tydelike werksmag kan nadelig wees, omdat die werkers
nie noodwendig dieselfde opleiding of werkskultuur as
voltydse werknemers het nie. Die handhawing van n
werkskultuur in wynkelders is dus van kritiese belang om
ongelukke te voorkom wat die opleiding van bestuurders
en toesighouers, sowel as die bemagtiging van personeel
betreffende veiligheid noodsaaklik maak.

AKTUEEL IN DIE WINGERD EN DIE KELDER

Wynkelders se blootstelling aan risiko strek van die


wingerd tot die wynverbruiker. Alles wat tydens die
produksiesiklus uitgevoer word en faktore wat dit
benvloed, hou potensile risikos in. Produksiemiddele en
die toerusting wat tydens die produksieketting gebruik
word, verhoog dit nog verder. Risiko behels dus nie net
die gesondheid en veiligheid van werknemers nie.

Bottelering is die finale proses om n veilige produk te verseker.

Hoewel tradisionele versekeraars in die wynbedryf aktief


is, moet alternatiewe risikofinansiering soos
aansporingskemas ook oorweeg word. Groot kelders kan
ook selfversekering oorweeg en die skep van n
versekeringswinssentrum kan deel daarvan wees.
Indien kelders n risikobestuursprogram het, moet dit
gereeld gemonitor en indien nodig, aangepas word.
Versekering van geboue, tenke, stortmaat en gebottelde
wyne, toerusting, besigheidsonderbreking, voertuie,
lugvaart, beserings, nood en ramptoestande vorm deel
van enige wyse van risikoversekering.

71

VERBETERDE
ALTERNATIEWE

houtprodukte
WYN IN HOUT EN HOUT IN WYN

Die toename in plaaslike en buitelandse verskaffers van alternatiewe


houtprodukte is bewys van hul toenemende gewildheid. Deur Charl Theron

72

lternatiewe eikehoutprodukte word reeds


ongeveer 30 jaar lank in die wynbedryf
gebruik. Die aanvanklike motivering vir
die ontwikkeling van alternatiewe
houtprodukte was die prys van nuwe
houtvate. Maar al was die prys van die
alternatiewe produkte meer aantreklik,
was hul beeld negatief en was veral tradisionele
wynpuriste gekant teen die gebruik daarvan.
Die produkverskaffers was egter besonder innoverend en
het met verskillende vorms alternatiewe houtprodukte
vorendag gekom. Wynmakers het ook mettertyd besef dit
voldoen aan sekere behoeftes wat nie deur houtvate
vervul kan word nie. Die markomvang het gevolglik
aansienlik toegeneem en die gebruik van alternatiewe
houtprodukte is nou n standaardpraktyk vir spesifieke
doelwitte by die meeste kelders. Die toenemende
gewildheid van alternatiewe houtprodukte word verder
bevestig deur n toename in plaaslike en buitelandse
verskaffers van die produkte.
Een van die alternatiewe houtprodukte se grootste
voordele vir kuiperye is die verbeterde benutting van hout
in vergelyking met vate. Die fisiese spesifikasies van
alternatiewe houtprodukte verseker dat verskillende
groottes gebruik kan word, maar hierdie voordeel vir
kuipers kan n groot nadeel vir wynkelders wees, omdat die

gehalte van die hout nie maklik geverifieer kan word nie en
die integriteit van die kuiper dus deurslaggewend is.
In teenstelling met die variasies in individuele houtvate,
kan die spesifikasies van die alternatiewe produkte
makliker gehandhaaf word, wat herhaalde gebruik
verbeter.
Aangesien die hout- en wynkontak by die alternatiewe
produkte meer effektief as in die geval van houtvate is,
is die fisiese afmetings belangrik om die optimale
wynkontak en gevolglike ekstraksie uit die hout te
verseker. Dit word deur die spesifikasiedata in Tabel 1
gellustreer.
Alhoewel alternatiewe houtprodukte waarskynlik nooit
tradisionele vate heeltemal sal vervang nie, poog
verskaffers om dit na te boots. Dit moet dus eerder as n
alternatiewe houtbehandeling as n alternatief vir vate
beskou word. Die verskaffers van alternatiewe produkte
het gevolglik op verskillende maniere innoverend
gereageer.
Die meeste verskaffers bied Franse en Amerikaanse
eikehoutprodukte wat, in vergelyking met 10 jaar gelede,
danksy die houtgehalte baie meer soos houtvate is. Beter
tegnieke word ook vir die sny van die houtstawe gebruik
om optimale houtkontak met die wyn te verseker.

Sfere (xoakers).

daarvan geword. Wynmakers besef spesifieke produkte


en variasies daarvan kan verlangde houtkarakters aan
wyn verleen. Dit kan wissel van n subtiele houtkarakter
by Chardonnay tot n soet, uitgesproke vanieljekarakter
by rooiwyne.

TABEL 1. Matespesifikasies van alternatiewe houtprodukte.


Produk

Spesifikasies

Poeier

Geen

Spaanders

Geen

Kubusse

10 mm x 10 mm x 10 mm

Sfere (xoakers)

Deursnit 25 mm

Dominos

50 mm x 30 mm x 13 mm

Blokkies

50 mm x 50 mm x 13 mm

Kettings

25 cm x 25 mm x 13 mm

Vatstawe

73 cm x 6.5 cm x 13 mm

Tenkstawe

91 cm x 6.5 cm x 13 mm

Winewood

1 m x 10 cm x 13 mm

Die geurprofiel-spektrum is ook aansienlik uitgebrei


danksy n beter begrip van roosteringstegnieke en die
ontwikkeling van nuwe tegnieke. Boonop is die
ekstraksietydperk verkort sodat die verlangde houtgeure
vinniger verkry kan word.
Ten spyte van hierdie vernuwings is die alternatiewe
houtprodukte steeds aansienlik goedkoper as vate en
daarom kan n verlangde houtkarakter ook in goedkoper
wyne, wat jonger verkoop word, geskep word. Baie van
die veranderings is aan die jonger geslag wynmakers te
danke. Hulle is nie so tradisievas soos hul voorgangers nie
en is gevolglik bereid om met nuwe produkte soos
alternatiewe houtprodukte te eksperimenteer.

Verskillende produkte soos stawe, kleiner produkte en


spaanders word op verskillende stadiums van die
wynbereidingsproses gebruik, soos voor en tydens
alkoholiese gisting of tydens appelmelksuurgisting
(AMG) en veroudering.

Beide Franse en Amerikaanse eikehout word gebruik.

Alternatiewe houtprodukte word ook vir premiumwyne


gebruik, veral as houtkontak tydens AMG of voor
veroudering verlang word.

Duurder alternatiewe houtprodukte is ook


aanvaarbaar, mits dit die verlangde resultate lewer.

Sekere houtsoorte en verskillende vorms daarvan pas


beter by spesifieke kultivars of wynstyle. Dit is daarom
belangrik om n evaluasie te doen of vas te stel wat
ander wynmakers se ondervinding is voordat dit
kommersieel gebruik word.

Die gebruik van alternatiewe houtprodukte hou


verskillende voordele in. Kommersile rooiwyne kan
vroer bemark word, meer struktuur kan aan wyne
verleen word, kleurstabilisasie kan verbeter word en
meer eikehoutgeure en minder tanniene kan oor n
korter tydperk gekstraheer word.

Stawe moet nie minder as 9 mm dik wees nie,


maar 12 mm of meer is verkieslik om genoeg struktuur
aan wyne te verleen.

Die duur van wynkontak met alternatiewe


houtprodukte moet versigtig bestuur word, aangesien
resultate baie vinniger as met houtvate voorkom.
Wynbalans is n kritieke aspek van wyngehalte en
daarom moet oormatige houtkarakter voorkom word.

Wynmakers is bereid om oor die gebruik van


alternatiewe houtprodukte te praat, omdat daar
minder stigma daaraan kleef.

Dit sal verwelkom word as alternatiewe houtprodukte


ook aan spesifieke houtoorspronge gekoppel kan
word.

Die veranderde gebruik en persepsie van alternatiewe


houtprodukte word as volg deur wynmakers saamgevat:

Hoewel prys steeds n beduidende faktor is, het die


invloed van alternatiewe houtprodukte op die styl en
gehalte van wyn bepalende faktore in die keuse

73

Nuwe blik op

VRUGTEBEDRYF

(Deel 3)

FruitLook monitor wingerde met satelliete

FRUITLOOK

Satelliete wat in die lugruim bo die aarde wentel, is deesdae nuttig om toestande
in wingerde en boorde te help monitor. Deur Jorisna Bonthuys

FruitLook, n aanlyn-hulpmiddel wat satelliettegnologie


inspan, versamel bruikbare inligting wat nie met die blote
oog sigbaar is nie.
Dit bied ruimtelike inligting waarmee produsente kan
help vasstel hoe hul gewasproduksie vorder, asook wat
die waterstatus daarvan oor tyd heen is, vergeleke met
ander seisoene, s dr Caren Jarmain, n onafhanklike
navorser by FruitLook. Dit stel jou in staat om gebiede te
identifiseer waar wingerde of vrugtebome sukkel om te
groei of waterskaarste ondervind.
Dit is danksy FruitLook se unieke ontwerp wat onder
meer satelliet-, geografiese en weerdata benut. Die
satelliete versamel inligting wat verband hou met groei,
watergebruik en stikstof in wingerde en boorde. Hierdie
inligting word vir produsente in gebruikersvriendelike
kaarte omgeskakel.

74

FruitLook bied dus n soort landbou-intelligensiediens


wat tans gratis aan produsente beskikbaar is danksy n
subsidie van die Wes-Kaapse Departement van Landbou.
FruitLook verskaf data vir n gebied wat oor sowat
170 000 ha in die vrugteproduserende streek van die
Wes-Kaap strek.
Talle produsente s hulle gebruik FruitLook se unieke
datastelle om hul bestuursbesluite in te lig, s dr Jarmain.

Sommige gebruik dit om siektekolle in wingerde of


boorde te bespeur. Ander span dit in om watergebruik en
-doeltreffendheid oor groot gebiede te monitor.
Talle produsente s dit help hulle ook om
kostedoeltreffend te boer.
FruitLook-data word uit individuele satellietbeeldelemente van 20 m x 20 m saamgestel waarmee
verskille in en tussen wingerde (en boorde) sigbaar
word. Dit bevat onder meer inligting oor die stand van
gewasproduksie, hoe goed plante groei en hoeveel
blaarbedekking daar is wat met spesifieke aanduiders
uitgelig word (sien grafika).
FruitLook-data oor biomassa-produksie verteenwoordig
byvoorbeeld die totale hoeveelheid dro materie (in
kilogram) wat in n week in n bepaalde wingerdblok
geproduseer word. Dit sluit alle wortel- en lootgroei,
onkruid en dekgewasse in.
Hierdie aanduider word aansienlik deur bestuursbesluite
op plase benvloed, asook deur eienskappe van die
onderskeie wingerdblokke, s dr Jarmain. Jong wingerde
of boordaanplantings sal byvoorbeeld minder biomassa
produseer as stokke wat ten volle dra. Daar word
gewoonlik ook minder biomassa geproduseer aan die
begin en einde van die (groei)seisoen.

Aan die begin van die seisoen kry die bladwisselende


plante lewe wanneer hulle n aktiewe groeifase betree.
Aan die einde van die seisoen begin die wingerde of
vrugtebome se blare verkleur, die chlorofil daarin word
afgebreek en die plante gaan n rustydperk binne.
Weerstoestande en seisoene speel ook n rol in hoe
FruitLook die toestande in bepaalde boorde of wingerde
beskou. Hoogsomer is sonenergie wat vir fotosintese
gebruik word byvoorbeeld ook meer geredelik beskikbaar
as gedurende die lente of herfs.

MEER OOR GROEIDATA


FruitLook se aanduiders oor biomassa-produksie
in n wingerdblok moet regdeur die seisoen min
of meer eweredig bly. Binne n blok wingerd of n
boord dui variasie daarop dat die blok nie eweredig
op bestuurspraktyke reageer nie weens een of ander
onderliggende rede, s dr Jarmain. Maar dit kan ook
aan onderliggende verskille in grondtoestande of
besproeiingskwessies toegeskryf word. Afwykings wat
betref die blok se groeipatroon van week tot week kan
moontlik aan besproeiingsprobleme of peste en plae
toegeskryf word.
Mreson Trust, n groot vrugteprodusent naby Villiersdorp,
gebruik FruitLook om besproeiingsbesluite in te lig, asook
probleme met peste hok te slaan. Kobus Swanepoel van
Mreson Trust s dit is nuttig om onder meer gebiede te
identifiseer waar gewasproduksie deur siektetoestande
benvloed word, wat kostebesparings meebring.

In 2012 het FruitLook relatiewe lae biomassa-produksie


in n spesifieke blok getoon wat ooreengestem het met
aalwurmbesmetting. Dit het ons gehelp om die besmette
gebied te identifiseer. Ons het net die nodige gebied
geteiken en in die proses ongeveer 75 tot 80% minder
plaagdoders gebruik as wat ons andersins sou.
Swanepoel s dit baat Mreson Trust om onder meer n
oog op FruitLook se aanduider oor biomassa-produksie
te hou. Dit help om seisoenale veranderings, groei in
verskillende gebiede en die doeltreffendheid van hul
bestuursingrypings te monitor, s hy. Sien grafika vir n
voorbeeld van di soort denkproses wat hieroor gevolg
word.
Jacques Crous, n hortoloog van First Fruits Consulting,
het n soortgelyke ervaring met FruitLook gehad wat
gehelp het om probleme in sy sitrusboorde te identifiseer.
Crous het probleme in n jong boord ondervind wat in
2013 op hul familieplaas in die Nuy-vallei gevestig is.
Volgens die aanduider het die biomassa-produksie
aansienlik afgeneem, maar sonder n ooglopende rede.
Ons het ondersoek ingestel en grootskaalse besmetting
met (sitrus)blaaspootjie bespeur.
Hoewel plaagbeheer dadelik toegepas is, was die
biomassa-produksie volgens FruitLook hierna steeds
ondergemiddeld vir n tydperk van drie weke en was dit
weens die verlies aan nuwe blaargroei en permanente
skade aan jong groeipunte.

75

verskaf data aan produsente waarmee hulle beter besluite oor hul plase kan neem
Doelwit: Verminder koste en verliese deur probleme op te los
Hoe? Gebruik FruitLook om die presiese

Daar is
fout...

Blok A
Blok B
Blok C

509
206
459

WAAR en

WANNEER dit nodig is

ligging van probleme vas te stel, asook die

tydsraamwerk

Stap 1:
Gaan FruitLook-data
weekliks na
S lyk 'n grafiek
op fruitlook.co.za

Stap 2: Bekyk groeidata in groter besonderhede


0.75

0.25

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1 - 2500kg

Klok-gevormde kurwe?

Onveranderd?

Onveranderd?

Verskil
dit van
laas
week?

Kan as gevolg van hellings/ grondvariasies wees

Verskil
die patroon
van laas
week?

Het ek iets
verander
waaraan
dit toegeskryf
kan word?

Toon ander
dele van die
plaas (waar
soortgelyke
gewasse verbou
word) 'n
soortgelyke
patroon?
Moontlik weens uitdunning, gedeeltelike oes van
gewasse, veranderings in besproeiingstoediening, ens.

Dit lyk soos 'n


plaagprobleem

S lyk 'n ruimtelike beeld van 'n


produksieblok op fruitlook.co.za

Step 4:

Stap 3:
Besoek die
gebied wat
hierdeur
geraak word

Tevrede boer + gesonde gewasse

Behandel slegs die betrokke gebied


Behandel die gebied wanneer 'n probleem
opduik en monitor sukses met verloop van tyd
Gaan FruitLook-data weer volgende week na

Graka:

76

Hou
waarskynlik
met die
weer
verband

FruitLook het in hierdie geval beslis gehelp om die


oorsaak van die probleem te identifiseer. Dit was
ook nuttig om die gevolge van die probleem op die
langtermyn te kwantifiseer sou dit nie betyds onder
beheer gebring word nie, s Crous.
Hoewel FruitLook nie die rede kan bied waarom biomassaproduksie afgeneem het nie, gee dit n goeie idee waar
om te begin soek na die redes hiervoor. FruitLook stel
produsente in staat om hul boorde en wingerde met
soortgelyke profiele op verskillende tye met mekaar te
vergelyk, s Crous. Dit is belangrik om plaastoestande
deurentyd behoorlik te monitor en dit is waarom die
groeidata, wat weekliks beskikbaar gestel word, so nuttig
is om uitskieters vroegtydig te bespeur.
Crous beskou FruitLook as besonder nuttig om variasies
in sy boorde te help uitskakel. Dit blyk elke gewas het ook
n unieke seisoenale groeikurwe en dit word in FruitLook
se data weerspiel. As hierdie kurwes verander, is daar
waarskynlik die een of ander rede waarom die boom of
stok nie optimaal kan fotosinteer nie.
Produsente streef meestal na eenvormigheid in n blok of
boord, aangesien dit op eenvormigheid in produksie dui,
s Crous. FruitLook help om die omvang van ruimtelike
variasie in n boord (of wingerdblok) te identifiseer.

WATERGEBRUIK EN BIOMASSA
In die Breederivier-vallei gebruik Petrus Steyn van
VillaCrop Protection, FruitLook onder meer om groei in
jong boorde te monitor en gebiede daarin te identifiseer
wat te min of te veel water kry.
Hy meen FruitLook kan produsente help om dele van
wingerde of boorde wat swakker as die res produseer, te
identifiseer en hul bestuurspraktyke dienooreenkomstig
aan te pas.
In die Robertson-streek het ons byvoorbeeld n nuwe
perskeboord gehad wat om onverklaarbare redes
vroeg in die seisoen weinig groei getoon het, vertel hy.
FruitLook-data het getoon dat die mees kwesbare kolle
in die nuwe boord baie met soortgelyke kolle in dieselfde
boord ooreenstem wat vroer onder siektes deurgeloop
en sedertdien verwyder is. Ons het dit aan probleme met
hervestiging toegeskryf en kon toe na die redes hiervoor
soek deur die nodige toetse te doen. Dit blyk daar was
toe groot probleme met aalwurms. Danksy FruitLook
kon ons die besmette gebied vroeg genoeg behandel en
vrugskade voorkom.
In di geval het FruitLook, saam met blokinspeksies en
toetse, gehelp om n verskil in die groeipatrone van jong
bome te identifiseer. Dit het ons in staat gestel om op
die gebied te fokus wat voorheen besmet was en ons
plaagbeheer-strategie dienooreenkomstig aan te pas om
skade aan vrugte te voorkom, s hy. Die boord toon nou

goeie produksie en FruitLook het hiermee gehelp danksy


tydige waarnemings.
Jaco Engelbrecht, n wingerdboukundige van
die Paarl, gebruik FruitLook-data om onder meer
besproeiingsprobleme in wingerde te help identifiseer.
Ons gebruik dit om ons bestuurspraktyke aan te pas
wanneer die plante dit die nodigste het om biomassaproduksie gematig te hou. Die data kan help vasstel
waarom opbrengste in een blok of boord meer is as in n
ander of wat die effek van besproeiing op gewasproduksie
is.
Karin Cluver, bestuurder van die vrugteafdeling op
die plaas De Rust naby Grabouw, gebruik op haar
beurt FruitLook se aanduiders vir biomassa-produksie,
watergebruik en evapotranspirasie-tekorte. Hierdie
aanduiders hou dikwels met mekaar verband en
benvloed mekaar. n Skerp toename in evapotranspirasie
sal byvoorbeeld meebring dat minder biomassa
geproduseer word weens waterstres.
Cluver vergelyk hierdie datastelle weekliks om vroegtydig
haakplekke hok te slaan, onder meer wat swak groei in
sekere boorde betref. Ek vind FruitLook veral nuttig om
historiese data van vorige seisoene te bekyk en blokke
met mekaar te vergelyk, s sy. Dit stel my in staat om die
effek van verskillende bestuursplanne onder die soeklig te
plaas. As jy jou plaastoestande verstaan en monitor, is dit
makliker om redes vir die veranderings wat bespeur word,
te vind.
Daar word nou sowat 20% minder water op De Rust
gebruik danksy die gebruik van FruitLook se data oor
biomassa en watergebruik, s Cluver. Dit is omdat hulle
nou in staat is om boorde doeltreffend te monitor,
veral vroeg in die seisoen. Die data stel ons in staat om
deurentyd ons gewasproduksie te herbedink en vas te stel
of ons te veel of te min water gee.
Distell gebruik weer die groei-aanduiders om druiwe van
n verlangde gehalte aan te koop en apart te hou vir die
maak van topgehalte wyn. Isabel Habets van Distell s dit
is ook nuttig om groeiverskille binne blokke te bespeur en
daarvolgens te pars. Distell gebruik dit om te kontroleer
of n blok of deel daarvan nie so goed vaar nie en om
aanbevelings oor besproeiingskalibrasies te maak.
Bogenoemde voorbeelde wys hoe FruitLook produsente
help om toenemend presisie-landbou toe te pas, s dr
Jarmain. Dit kan produsente help om meer doeltreffend
te boer. FruitLook help produsente om die gevolge
van sekere bestuursbesluite op gewasproduksie
beter te verstaan. Dit raak al hoe belangriker gegewe
hulpbronskaarstes en verhoogde produksiedruk in ons
streek.
In Deel 4 kyk ons hoe FruitLook gebruik word om
waterverwante bestuursbesluite in wingerde en boorde
te help rig.

Hierdie artikel is n aangepaste weergawe van n artikel wat vroer in die SA Vrugtejoernaal verskyn het.
Ons publiseer dit met vergunning.

Vir meer inligting, besoek www.fruitlook.co.za of stuur n e-pos na Caren Jarmain of


Ruben Goudriaan by info@fruitlook.co.za.

77

brakgeassosieerde
Wingerdreaksie op

grondchemiese
eienskappe

WINGERDREAKSIE

Ho sout- of natriuminhoud in grond kan


wingerde se groei, produksie en gehalte
negatief benvloed. Deur Philip Myburgh &
Carolyn Howell

INLEIDING
Grond- en besproeiingswater in wingerdboustreke word
toenemend brak, veral in semi-ariede streke. Benewens
die negatiewe effek van ho soutinhoud, is daar heelwat
bewyse dat Na- en Cl-toksisiteit groei en produksie van
wingerde benadeel. Die opname en aansameling van Na
en Cl in wingerdstokke moet dus so laag as moontlik
wees.
Loging van oortollige of toksiese ione uit die wortelsone
is nie altyd n praktiese oplossing nie, veral in grond met
swak interne dreinering of waar die logingswater
natuurlike hulpbronne kan besoedel. Die doelwit van die
projek was (i) om te bepaal hoe brak wingerde affekteer
en (ii) hoe ioonbalanse in grond, byvoorbeeld die
natriumadsorpsieverhouding (NAV), die opname en
aansameling van ione in wingerdstokke affekteer.

EKSPERIMENTELE AGTERGROND

78

Die studie is in 13 voldraende wingerde gedurende die


2000/01-seisoen naby Robertson in die Brerivier-vallei
gedoen. Chardonnay en Ruby Cabernet, beide op 110 R en
101-14 Mgt, is vir die studie gebruik. In elke wingerd was
n swak kol wat vermoedelik deur ho soute of Na
veroorsaak is (Fig. 1).

Grondmonsters is in die swak kolle, sowel as in beter


gedeeltes geneem. Die pH(KCl), elektriese geleiding van die
versadigde ekstrak (EGe), wateroplosbare K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cl
en SO4 in die 0 - 30 en 30 - 60 cm grondlae is deur die
grondlaboratorium by LNR Infruitec-Nietvoorbij bepaal.
Die adsorpsieverhoudings vir natrium (NAV) en kalium
(KAV) is vanaf die basiese katione bereken. Tydens oes is
die N, P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cl en SO4 in die blare en mos deur n
kommersile laboratorium, Bemlab in die Strand, ontleed.
Produksie, trosse per stok en trosmassa is bepaal. Mos-pH,
totale titreerbare suur (TTS) en suikerinhoud is deur die
kelder by LNR Infruitec-Nietvoorbij bepaal. Lootmassa per
stok is tydens snoei in Augustus 2001 gemeet.
Die grenslynbenadering is gebruik om tendense in
wingerdreaksie op brak-geassosieerde grondeienskappe
te bepaal. Grenslyne vir n spesifieke gewas word verkry
deur die variasie wat natuurlikerwys onder n reeks
toestande binne n streek voorkom, te monster. Om n
grenslyn te kry, word n strooiplot (scatter plot) van
plantreaksie teenoor n plantgroeifaktor opgestel. In die
meeste gevalle is dit moontlik om n lyn(e) langs die grens
van die geplotte datapunte te trek. Die grenslyn beskryf
dus die enkeleffek van n plantgroeifaktor waar geen
ander beperkende faktore voorkom nie. Meer volledige
besonderhede oor die eksperimentele prosedures is reeds
in n wetenskaplike wingerdjoernaal beskryf.

RESULTATE EN BESPREKING
Die volgende is slegs n opsomming van die
grenslyntendense. Die werklike grenslyne is reeds in n
wetenskaplike wingerdjoernaal gepubliseer.
Makro-elemente in blare
Onder die gegewe toestande was daar geen verband
tussen blaar-N en -P en enige van die gemete

FIGUUR 1. Een van die swak kolle waar grondchemiese status en wingerdreaksie in die Robertson-gebied gemeet is.
Die inlasfoto dui blaarskade weens ho brak in die grond aan.

FIGUUR 2. Die verband tussen mos-pH en totale titreerbare suur (TTS) vir vier bostok-/onderstokkombinasies.
Gebroke lyne dui die grenslyne aan.

79

TABEL 1. Effek van grondchemiese eienskappe op katione en boor in wingerdblare. Waardes tussen hakies dui die waargenome
variasie van die verskillende veranderlikes aan.
Element
Ca (0.9 tot 3.2%)

Mg (0.2 tot 1.1%)

K (0.1 tot 2.5%)


Na (0.01 tot 0.2%)
B (30 tot 270 ppm)
(1)

Grondeienskap

Reaksie van elementinhoud in blare

pH(KCl) (3.5 tot 8.2)

Maksimum blaar-Ca het by pH(KCl) 7 voorgekom.

Na:Ca (0.1 tot 15)

Blaar-Ca het reglynig afgeneem met n toename in Na:Ca.

KAV(1) (0.1 tot 1.7)

Blaar-Mg het reglynig afgeneem met n toename in KAV.

SO4 (1 tot 200 mg/) Blaar-Mg het reglynig afgeneem met n toename in SO4.
pH(KCl) (3.5 tot 8.2)

Maksimum blaar-K het by pH(KCl) 7.5 voorgekom.

SO4 (1 tot 200 mg/) Blaar-K het reglynig afgeneem met n toename in SO4.
K:Na (0.01 tot 1.1)

Blaar-Na het nie-reglynig afgeneem met n toename in K:Na, veral waar die K:Na laer as c. 0.15 was.

pH(KCl) (3.5 tot 8.2)

Maksimum blaar-B het by pH(KCl) 7 voorgekom.

Na (0.1 tot 38 mg/) Blaar-B het nie-reglynig afgeneem met n toename in Na.

Kaliumadsorpsieverhouding.

TABEL 2. Effek van grondchemiese eienskappe en blare se elementinhoud op lootmassa. Waardes tussen hakies dui die
waargenome variasie van die verskillende veranderlikes aan.
Grond/plantveranderlike

Lootmassa reaksie (0.1 tot 1.5 kg per stok)

Grond pH(KCl) (3.5 tot 8.2)

Lootmassa het reglynig toegeneem met n toename in pH(KCl). Chardonnay/110 R was meer gevoelig as
ander kombinasies.

Grond EGe(1) (0.1 tot 7 dS/m)

n Duidelike drumpelwaarde is nie waargeneem nie.


Lootmassa het afgeneem teen n tempo van 14% per dS/m.

Blaar-Ca (0.9 tot 3.3%)

Maksimum lootmassa het by 2.4% blaar-Ca voorgekom.

Blaar-K (0.1 tot 2.6%)

Lootmassa het reglynig toegeneem met n toename in K.


Lootmassa van Chardonnay/110 R het by c. 0.6 kg/stok gebly, al het K hor as 1.5 % gestyg.

Blaar-Na (0.01 tot 0.2%)

Lootmassa het nie-reglynig afgeneem met n toename in Na.

Blaar-Cl (0.1 tot 0.85%)

Lootmassa het reglynig afgeneem met n toename in Cl.

(1)

Elektriese geleiding van die versadigde ekstrak.

TABEL 3. Effek van grondchemiese eienskappe op produksie. Waardes tussen hakies dui die waargenome variasie van die
verskillende veranderlikes aan.
Grondveranderlike

Produksie reaksie (2 tot 25 t/ha)

EGe(1) (0.1 tot 7 dS/m)

Produksie het n duidelike drumpelwaarde by 1.8 dS/m. Bo hierdie waarde het produksie teen n tempo van 13%
per dS/m afgeneem.

Na (1 tot 26 mg/)

Produksie het reglynig afgeneem met n toename in Na.

NAV(2) (0 tot 13)

Produksie het n drumpelwaarde by NAV 3 getoon en het reglynig teen 8% per NAV-eenheid bokant hierdie
drumpel afgeneem.

(1)
(2)

Elektriese geleiding van die versadigde ekstrak.


Natriumadsorpsieverhouding.

TABEL 4. Effek van grondchemiese eienskappe en lootmassa op Na in mos. Waardes tussen hakies dui die waargenome variasie van
die verskillende veranderlikes aan.
Grond/Plantveranderlike

80

Mos-Na-reaksie (1 tot 130 mg/)

Grond (K + Ca/2):Na (0 tot 12)

Mos-Na het nie-reglynig toegeneem met n afname in grond (K + Ca/2):Na-verhouding, veral waar dit
laer as 2 was.

Lootmassa (0.1 tot 1.5 kg/stok)

Mos-Na het nie-reglynig afgeneem met n toename in lootmassa.

grondeienskappe nie (data nie aangetoon nie). Blaar-K het


reglynig toegeneem met pH(KCl) tot n maksimum by pH(KCl)
7.5 (Tabel 1). Dit is deur n reglynige afname gevolg. BlaarCa het n soortgelyke maksimum by pH(KCl) 7 bereik.
Aangesien blaar-Ca reglynig afgeneem het namate die
grond Na:Ca van 0.1 tot 15 toegeneem het, dui dit daarop
dat ho grond Na moontlik Ca-opname en/of -translokasie
na die blare onderdruk het.
Vegetatiewe groei
Lootmassa het reglynig toegeneem namate die grond
pH(KCl) van 3.5 tot 8.2 toegeneem het (Tabel 2). Onder die
gegewe toestande het die lootgroei van Chardonnay/
110 R geneig om effens meer sensitief vir pH te wees as
die ander bostok-/onderstokkombinasies.
Lootmassa het nie n duidelike EGe-drumpelwaarde
getoon nie, maar het teen n tempo van 14% per dS/m
afgeneem (Tabel 2). Maksimum lootmassa het by n blaarCa-inhoud van 2.4% voorgekom. Lootmassa het reglynig
toegeneem met n toename in blaar-K, behalwe in die
geval van Chardonnay/110 R. Lootmassa van
laasgenoemde kombinasie het ongeveer 0.6 kg per stok
gebly waar die blaar-K hor as 1.5% gestyg het. Lootmassa
het nie-reglynig afgeneem namate blaar-Na van 0.01 tot
0.2% toegeneem het. Lootmassa het ook afgeneem
namate blaar-Cl van 0.1 tot 0.85% toegeneem het, maar
die tendens was reglynig in vergelyking met die reaksie
op Na. Die voorafgaande tendense het duidelik op die
toksiese effek van ho Na en Cl op vegetatiewe groei
gedui.
Produksie
Groot variasie, naamlik van 2 tot 25 t/ha, het in die
produksie voorgekom. Produksie het geneig om konstant
te bly tot by n EGe-drumpelwaarde van 1.8 dS/m (Tabel 3).
Bo hierdie drumpelwaarde het produksie reglynig teen n
tempo van 13% per dS/m afgeneem. Natrium het n
negatiewe effek op produksie bo n drumpelwaarde van
NAV 3 gehad (Tabel 3). Produksie het bo die
drumpelwaarde reglynig afgeneem namate die NAV tot 13
toegeneem het.
TTA, pH en K van mos
Die Chardonnay-mos het oorwegend n hor TTS en laer
pH as die Ruby Cabernet-mos gehad (Fig. 2). Onder die
gegewe toestande het mos-pH toegeneem met n afname
in die TTS. Naby die boonste grenslyn was die K-inhoud in
die mos hor as by die onderste grenslyn (Fig. 2).
By n gegewe TTS het n mos-K-toename van min of meer
900 tot 1 600 mg/ die mos-pH met ongeveer 0.4 eenhede
laat styg. Die grond (K + Ca):Na moet verkieslik laer as
twee wees om uitermate ho Na in mos en wyn te
voorkom (Tabel 4). Mos-Na het afgeneem met n toename
in die lootmassa (Tabel 4), wat daarop dui dat vegetatiewe
groei moontlik n sterk sink vir Na kan wees.

GEVOLGTREKKINGS EN
AANBEVELINGS
Die grenslynmetode kan nuttig wees om die effek van
plantgroeifaktore op wingerdreaksie te bepaal. Die keuse

van persele het die meeste van die moontlike variasie in


grond- en wingerdtoestande gedek.
Onder die gegewe toestande het die vier bostok-/
onderstokkombinasies bykans dieselfde op die brakgeassosieerde grondeienskappe gereageer. Resultate het
bevestig dat die ideale pH(KCl) vir wingerd ongeveer 6 is.
Die brak drumpelwaarde vir wingerde in die Breriviervallei is tussen 0.7 en 1.5 dS/m. Die NAV moet laer as
3 wees, en die wateroplosbare Na laer as 5 mg/kg, om
Na-toksisiteit te voorkom. As gips toegedien word om die
grond-Na te verlaag, moet dit oordeelkundig gedoen
word om te voorkom dat SO4 in die grond aansamel.
Laasgenoemde verhoog die risiko van K- en Mg-tekorte.
Onder die gegewe toestande het Cl- en B-toksisiteit
waarskynlik bygedra om vegetatiewe groei te verlaag.
Die Cl en B in die grond moet dus laag gehou word, maar
daar moet gesorg word dat B nie tot tekortvlakke daal nie.
Ernstige verbrakking was die uitsondering eerder as die
rel vir wingerde in die Robertson-gebied. Verdere
navorsing moet dus in gebiede gedoen word waar die
landskap sodanig is dat oorbesproeiing van wingerde op
horliggende grond verbrakking van laerliggende
wingerde en/of natuurlik waterbronne kan veroorsaak.
Onder sodanige toestande kan verbrakking op n groter
skaal voorkom. Dit kan ook die negatiewe effekte van brak
op die ioonsamestelling in wingerdstokke, asook op groei
en produksie verhoog.

OPSOMMING
Grondchemiese toestande en wingerdreaksie is in
swak kolle in 13 wingerde naby Robertson in die
Brerivier-vallei gemeet. Chardonnay en Ruby
Cabernet, beide op 110 R en 101-14 Mgt, is vir die
studie gebruik. Die grenslynbenadering is gebruik
om wingerd se reaksie op brak-geassosieerde
grondeienskappe te bepaal.
Onder die gegewe toestande het die vier bostok-/
onderstokkombinasies bykans dieselfde op brakgeassosieerde grondeienskappe gereageer.
Resultate het bevestig dat die ideale pH(KCl) vir
wingerd ongeveer ses is. Die brak drumpelwaarde vir
wingerde in die Brerivier-vallei moet tussen 0.7 en
1.5 dS/m (decisiemens per meter) wees om groei- en
produksieverliese te voorkom. Die NAV moet laer as
drie wees en die wateroplosbare Na laer as 5 mg/kg
om die risiko van Na-toksisiteit te verminder.
Indien gips toegedien word om die grond-Na te
verlaag, moet dit oordeelkundig gedoen word om
te voorkom dat SO4 in die grond aansamel.
Laasgenoemde verhoog die risiko van K- en
Mg-tekorte. Onder die gegewe toestande het Cl- en
B-toksisiteit waarskynlik bygedra tot swakker
vegetatiewe groei. Die Cl en B in die grond moet
dus laag gehou word. Maar daar moet gesorg word
dat B nie tot vlakke daal wat tekorte in wingerde sal
veroorsaak nie.

Hierdie artikel is voortspruitend uit navorsingsprojekte wat deur Winetech befonds is en die finale verslag van projek
WW 04-13, Determining the effect of ion ratios in saline soils on ion accumulation in the grapevine, kan afgelaai
word by http://www.sawislibrary.co.za/dbtextimages/finalreport12.pdf.

Vir meer inligting, stuur n e-pos na Philip Myburgh by myburghp@arc.agric.za.

81

FOTO: PROF PIET GOUSSARD.

ROLBLAD-GENFEKTEERDE WINGERDSTOKKE (FASE 1)

82

Onkruiddoders
en toedieningstegnieke
vir die beheer van
rolblad-genfekteerde voldraende
wingerdstokke (Fase 1)

Die doel van hierdie studie was om onkruiddoders en geskikte toedieningstegnieke te identifiseer
om wingerdstokke, wat vier jaar lank of meer rolbladvirus-simptome getoon het, dood te maak.
Deur Johan Fourie, Roleen Carstens, Charles Ochse, Karen Freitag & Elleunorah Allsopp

INLEIDING
Daar is n toename in wingerdstokke wat met die
rolbladvirus besmet is. Die virus kan moontlik n
negatiewe effek op druifkwaliteit en die produktiewe
lewensduur van n wingerdstok h. Daarom is dit
belangrik om metodes te vind om die verspreiding van
die virus stop te sit ten einde n afname in virusbesmetting
te realiseer.
Die virus word van n besmette wingerdstok na n
naasliggende stok deur onder andere wingerdwitluis
[Planococcus ficus (Signoret)] oorgedra. Dit noodsaak die
vinnige en effektiewe verwydering van besmette stokke.
Meganiese verwydering van besmette stokke laat
ongelukkig lewendige wortels in die grond agter waarop
die wingerdwitluis moontlik kan oorleef. Daarom bestaan
die moontlikheid dat stokke wat dan op dieselfde posisies
ingeboet word, deur di witluis met rolblad besmet kan
word.

MATERIAAL EN METODES
Fase 1 van die studie is in n 14-jaar oue Chardonnay/99
Richter-wingerd uitgevoer wat ten minste die afgelope
vier jaar met die rolbladvirus besmet is. Die wingerd is op
grond met n medium tekstuur op die plaas Nietvoorbij
naby Stellenbosch gevestig. Altesaam 14 behandelings is
n oes op 26 April 2006 toegepas en op 26 Maart 2007
herhaal (Tabel 1). Nog 14 behandelings is op 6 Desember
2006 tydens die wingerd se korrelsetfase toegedien en op
12 Desember 2007 herhaal, soos in Tabel 1 beskryf.
Die behandelings is drie keer in n ewekansige blokontwerp
herhaal. Elke herhalingsplot het uit ses genfekteerde
wingerdstokke en die naasliggende werksrye bestaan.
n Wingerdry het as buffer tussen behandelings in
verskillende rye gedien, en twee wingerdstokke het as
buffer tussen plotte in dieselfde wingerdry gedien.
Die rolbladvirus- en wingerdwitluis-status van die
wingerdstokke is visueel bepaal voordat die behandelings
toegepas is. Die proef is oor twee seisoene herhaal soos
voorheen uiteengesit ten einde voorsiening te maak vir die
moontlike effek van seisoenale klimaattoestande op die
effektiwiteit van die onkruiddoder.

METINGS
Ten einde die vlak van beheer te bepaal, is die
wingerdstokke visueel vir hergroei gemonitor. Die wortels
van een wingerdstok per herhaling van elke behandeling
wat geen hergroei getoon het nie, is visueel gevalueer
om te bepaal of die stokke lewendig of dood is. Dit is
gedoen deur n profielgat 1.5 m lank x 1.5 m breed x 1 m
diep parallel met die wingerdry te grawe en die vier
wande visueel vir enige lewendige wortels te fynkam.
Hierdie evaluasies is middel Oktober en middel Maart
gedoen, die twee periodes waartydens die wingerd se
wortelgroei die aktiefste is.
Die persentasie besmetting met wingerdwitluis op die
wingerd, onkruide en dekgewasse is maandeliks van
Augustus tot Mei visueel gemonitor.

RESULTATE EN BESPREKING
EFFEKTIWITEIT VAN ONKRUIDDODERS WAT
N OES TOEGEDIEN IS
2006/07-seisoen
Slegs die blaartoediening (BT) van Brush Off het tot en

met een jaar n toediening (Maart 2007) geen bogrondse


hergroei getoon nie (Tabel 2). Maar aktiewe wortelgroei is
dieper as 10 cm waargeneem. Die lewendige wortels in
die dieper grondlae het bogrondse hergroei 24 maande
n toediening tot gevolg gehad (Maart 2008). Die
toedieningsdatum vir die 2007/08-seisoen is vorentoe
geskuif na 26 Maart (direk n oes) in n poging om die
effektiwiteit van die onkruiddoders te verbeter, aangesien
die gemiddelde temperatuur in April hor is as in Mei
(Tabel 3).
2007/08-seisoen
Brush Off (BT), Confront 360 SL (BT) en Plenum 160 ME
(BT) het geen hergroei tot en met een jaar n toediening
(Maart 2008) getoon nie (Tabel 2). Met die uitsondering
van Brush Off, het die effektiwiteit van die behandelings
toegeneem indien die onkruiddoder direk n oes
toegedien is. Visuele evaluasie van die wortels in Maart
2008 het die resultate van die 2006/07-seisoen bevestig,
deurdat die terugsterf van die wortels weer tot die
0 - 10 cm grondlaag beperk was (Tabel 2).

EFFEKTIWITEIT VAN ONKRUIDDODERS WAT


TYDENS KORRELSET TOEGEDIEN IS
2006/07-seisoen
Die bogrondse groei van die wingerdstokke is effektief
met Garlon 480 EC (BT), Timbrel 360 SL wat met die
wondbehandelingsmetode op die afgesaagde stam
toegedien is (AS), Plenum 160 ME (AS) en Brush Off (AS)
tot en met die einde van Maart 2007 (12 maande n
toediening) beheer (Tabel 4). Wortelstudies tydens Maart
2007 het getoon dat aktiewe wortelgroei steeds deur die
hele grondprofiel voorgekom het (data nie getoon nie).
Hoewel hergroei n vier maande (Maart 2007) steeds
voorgekom het waar Confront 360 SL toegedien is (beide
AS en BT), het die bogrondse groei 11 maande n
toediening (Oktober 2007) doodgegaan. Maar aktiewe
bogrondse groei is in die Brush Off- (AS) persele vanaf
11 maande n toediening (Oktober 2007) waargeneem.
Laasgenoemde tendens het in al die behandelings
16 maande n toediening (Maart 2008) voorgekom.
2007/08-seisoen
In die geval van Garlon 480 EC (BT), Timbrel 360 SL (AS),
Plenum 160 ME (AS) en Brush Off (AS) is die resultate
van die vier maande lange evaluasie (Maart 2007) in die
daaropvolgende seisoen se behandelings en vier maande
lange evaluasie (Maart 2008) bevestig (Tabel 4). In
teenstelling met die vorige seisoen, is geen hergroei in
Confront 360 SL (AS) en die basale stambehandeling van
Garlon 480 EC waargeneem nie. In ooreenstemming met
die vorige seisoen het aktiewe wortelgroei steeds in al die
behandelings n n tydperk van vier maande voorgekom
(data nie getoon nie).

TEENWOORDIGHEID VAN
WINGERDWITLUIS
Gedurende Mei 2006 het wingerdwitluis op 70% van die
wingerd voorgekom. Daarna het die besmetting na 1%
afgeneem en het dit daar gebly tot en met die afloop van
die projek. Geen wingerdwitluis is in die grond gevind nie,
ten spyte daarvan dat die wingerdwortels steeds
lewendig was. Dit kan aan die feit toegeskryf word dat die
plaasaksies vir die beheer van wingerdwitluis opgeskerp is
en natuurlike vyande die infestasie op aanvaarbare vlakke
gehou het.

83

TABEL 1. Behandelings wat in Fase 1 tydens die na-oesperiode en korrelset toegepas is.
Onkruiddoder

Dosis

Toedieningsmetode

Roundup (360 g/ glifosaat)

5% oplossing

Blaartoediening (BT)

MCPA 400 SL (400 g/ MCPA)

5% oplossing plus 0.05% Agral 90

BT

Brush Off (200 g/ metsulfuronmetiel)

80 g/100 water plus 0.05% Agral 90

BT

Garlon 480 EC (480 g/ triklopir)

0.5% oplossing plus 0.05% Actipron

BT

Confront 360 SL (90 g/ triklopir & 270 g/


klopiralied)

0.7% oplossing plus 0.5% Actipron

BT

Plenum 160 ME (80 g/ pikloram & 80 g/


fluroksipir)

0.75% oplossing plus 0.5% Actipron

BT

Timbrel 360 SL (360 g/ triklopir)

3% oplossing plus 0.5% Actipron

Wondbehandeling op afgesaagde stam (AS)

Confront 360 SL

3% oplossing plus 0.5% Actipron

AS

Plenum 160 ME

1.5% oplossing plus 0.5% Actipron

AS

Brush Off

180 g/100 water plus 0.05% Agral 90

AS

Garlon 480 EC

2% oplossing in diesel

Basale stam

Roundup

5% oplossing

Vars snoeiwonde (VS)

MCPA 400 SL

5% oplossing plus 0.05% Agral 90

VS

Geen (Kontrole)

Geen (Kontrole)

Geen

TABEL 2. Die effektiwiteit waarmee die wingerd deur sewe onkruiddoders, selektief deur middel van vier toedieningstegnieke n
oes toegedien, in n Chardonnay/99 Richter-wingerd beheer is, soos in Maart 2007, Oktober 2007 en Maart 2008 gevalueer.
Lewendige wingerdstokke of stokke
wat hergroei toon (%)
Toedieningstegniek

Blaartoediening

Wondbehandeling op
afgesaagde stam

Basale stam
Vars snoeiwonde

84

Geen (Kontrole)

Toegedien
26 April 2006

Onkruiddoder

Toegedien
26 Maart 2007

Maart
2007

Oktober
2007

Maart
2008

Maart
2008

Roundup (360 g/ glifosaat)

33

22

28

MCPA 400 SL (400 g/ MCPA)

100

100

100

100

72

01

Garlon 480 EC (480 g/ triklopir)

100

39

28

44

Confront 360 SL (90 g/ triklopir & 270 g/ klopiralied)*

100

89

94

01

Plenum 160 ME (80 g/ pikloram & 80 g/ fluroksipir)*

22

33

01

Timbrel 360 SL (360 g/ triklopir)

28

28

67

67

Confront 360 SL

100

28

44

22

Plenum 160 ME

100

39

89

28

Brush Off

100

94

100

56

Garlon 480 EC

33

17

28

Roundup

100

100

100

100

MCPA 400 SL

100

100

100

100

Geen (Kontrole)

100

100

100

100

Brush Off (200 g/ metsulfuronmetiel)*

* Grondlaag waarin die wortels beheer is: 1. 0 - 10 cm; 2. 0 - 35 cm; 3. 0 - 50 cm.

TABEL 3. Die renval en temperatuur tydens die groeiseisoen (September tot Februarie) en na-oesperiode (Maart tot Mei) vanaf
April 2006 tot Maart 2008.
Ren (mm)

Gemiddelde temperatuur (C)

Maand
2006

2007

2008

2006

2007

2008

Januarie

21

23.4

22.7

Februarie

30

46

21.6

22.3

Maart

38

24

21.0

21.5

April

53

101

18.4

18.6

Mei

172

95

15.1

16.1

September

44

29

16.3

14.5

Oktober

33

71

17.3

18.1

November

57

45

19.5

17.8

Desember

27

29

20.0

21.9

TABEL 4. Die effektiwiteit waarmee die wingerd deur sewe onkruiddoders, selektief deur middel van vier toedieningstegnieke
tydens korrelset toegedien, in n Chardonnay/99 Richter-wingerd beheer is, soos in Maart 2007, Oktober 2007 en Maart 2008
gevalueer.
Lewendige wingerdstokke of stokke
wat hergroei toon (%)
Toedieningstegniek

Blaartoediening

Wondbehandeling op
afgesaagde stam

Basale stam
Vars snoeiwonde
Geen
1

Toegedien
6 Desember 2006

Onkruiddoder

Toegedien
12 Desember 2007

Maart
2007

Oktober
2007

Maart
2008

Maart
2008

Roundup (360 g/ glifosaat)

11

44

MCPA 400 SL (400 g/ MCPA)

100

100

100

100

Brush Off (200 g/ metsulfuronmetiel)*

100

39

89

44

Garlon 480 EC (480 g/ triklopir)

01

281

Confront 360 SL (90 g/ triklopir & 270 g/ klopiralied)*

01

611

78

Plenum 160 ME (80 g/ pikloram & 80 g/ fluroksipir)*

67

44

Timbrel 360 SL (360 g/ triklopir)

39

Confront 360 SL

39

Plenum 160 ME

44

Brush Off

33

11

Garlon 480 EC

22

22

22

Roundup

100

100

100

89

MCPA 400 SL

100

94

100

100

Geen (Kontrole)

100

100

100

100

Die wortels is in die 0 - 10 cm grondlaag beheer.

OPSOMMING
Meganiese verwydering van besmette stokke laat ongelukkig lewendige wortels in die grond agter waarop die
wingerdwitluis moontlik kan oorleef. Nie een van die onkruiddoders of toedieningstegnieke het totale beheer van
beide die bostok- en onderstokkultivars gebied nie. Wingerdstokke wat vier jaar lank of meer reeds simptome van
rolbladvirus-infeksie toon, kan dus nie met die onkruiddoders, toedieningstegnieke of dosisse wat in die studie
getoets is, beheer word nie. Sommige van die kombinasies onkruiddoders en toedieningstegnieke het potensiaal
getoon om beide die bo- en onderstok van die 15-jaar oue Chardonnay/99 Richter-stokke te beheer wat hewig met
die rolbladvirus genfekteer was.
In n opvolgstudie (Fase 2) is geselekteerde behandelings op voldraende wingerdstokke toegepas wat onlangs met die
rolbladvirus genfekteer is (twee seisoene of minder). Hierdie resultate word in die opvolgartikel (Fase 2) bespreek.
Vir meer inligting, stuur n e-pos na Johan Fourie by fouriej@arc.agric.za.

85

FOTO: EDO HEYNS.

ROLBLAD-GENFEKTEERDE WINGERDSTOKKE (FASE 2)

86

Onkruiddoders
en toedieningstegnieke
vir die beheer van
rolblad-genfekteerde voldraende
wingerdstokke (Fase 2)

Die doel van Fase 2 was om n kombinasie van onkruiddoder(s) en toedieningstegnieke te


identifiseer om voldraende wingerdstokke, wat twee jaar lank of minder met die
rolbladvirus genfekteer was, dood te maak. Deur Johan Fourie, Roleen Carstens, Karen
Freitag, Charles Ochse & Elleunorah Allsopp

INLEIDING

METINGS

Meganiese verwydering van besmette stokke laat


lewendige wortels in die grond agter, waarop die
wingerdwitluis [Planococcus ficus (Signoret)] moontlik kan
oorleef en sodoende nuutgeplante wingerdstokke, wat
ingeboet word om die genfekteerde stokke te vervang,
kan kontamineer.
Gebaseer op die resultate van Fase 1 en in samewerking
met die agrochemiese maatskappye wat die
onkruiddoders verskaf het, is die dosis van die
suksesvolste onkruiddoders in Fase 2 verhoog. Dit is
gedoen om vas te stel of voldraende wingerd wat
rolbladsimptome twee jaar lank of minder toon, chemies
beheer kan word. Daar is gesorg dat die huidige dosisse
om eksotiese indringerbome in rivierbeddings,
landbougrond of inheemse woude te beheer, nie oorskry
word nie.

MATERIAAL EN METODES
Fase 2 van die studie is in n sesjaar oue Chardonnay/
Ramsey-wingerd uitgevoer wat rolbladsimptome twee
jaar lank of minder getoon het. Die wingerd is op grond
met n medium tekstuur op die plaas Nietvoorbij naby
Stellenbosch gevestig. Die behandelings soos in Tabel 1
beskryf, is tydens die 2009/10- en 2010/11-seisoen
toegepas. Die behandelings is drie keer in n ewekansige
blokontwerp herhaal. Elke herhalingsplot het uit drie
genfekteerde stokke bestaan wat van die ander
behandelings gebuffer is soos uiteengesit in die artikel
wat oor Fase 1 rapporteer.
Die wingerdstokke wat effektief bogronds en gedeeltelik
ondergronds beheer is, is vroeg in Junie 2010 en Julie
2011 verwyder, en daar is met Cabernet/Richter 99-stokke
op 3 Augustus 2010 en 30 Augustus 2011 ingeboet.
n Rooidruifkultivar is gebruik, aangesien die
rolbladsimptome makliker op rooidruifkultivars
uitkenbaar is.

EFFEKTIWITEIT VAN ONKRUIDDODER


Die wingerdstokke is bogronds visueel vir hergroei
gevalueer. Die wortels van een wingerdstok per
herhalingsplot van n behandeling waar geen hergroei
waargeneem is nie, is nagegaan soos beskryf in die artikel
wat oor Fase 1 handel.

VOORKOMS VAN ROLBLADVIRUS IN DIE


NUUTGEPLANTE WINGERDSTOKKE
Die jong inboetstokke is visueel vir een (op 30 Augustus
2011 geplant) en twee (op 3 Augustus 2010 geplant)
seisoene gemonitor. Blare is vroeg in April 2012
gemonster van die wingerdstokke wat geen visuele
simptome getoon het nie. Indirekte ELISA vir spesifieke of
gesamentlike bepaling van GLRaV-1, GLRaV-2 en GLRaV-3
in wingerd, soos ontwikkel deur dr Goszczynsk, is op di
stokke uitgevoer ten einde vas te stel of dit met
rolbladvirus besmet is.

ONKRUIDDODER-FITOTOKSISITEIT
Die nuutgeplante wingerdstokke is visueel gemonitor vir
twee seisoene n plant vir enige simptome wat op
onkruiddoder-opname vanuit die grond dui.
Grondmonsters is geneem van die 0 - 30 cm grondlaag
van elke herhaling naby die stam van die wingerdstokke
wat einde Augustus 2011 geplant is. n Biotoets is op
hierdie grondmonsters gedoen met tamatiesaailinge as
indikatorplante ten einde te bepaal of daar
onkruiddoderresidu in die grond voorkom.

RESULTATE EN BESPREKING

EFFEKTIWITEIT VAN ONKRUIDDODER


Al die na-oestoedienings wat gedurende 2009 en 2010
gedoen is, het die bogrondse groei van die onlangs
genfekteerde sesjaar oue Chardonnay/Ramsey-stokke
100% beheer tot Oktober 2009 en November 2010

TABEL 1. Behandelings wat tydens 2009 toegedien is en behandelings wat beide in 2009 en 2010 toegedien is.
Onkruiddoder

Dosisse

Toedieningsmetode

Tyd van
toediening

Brush Off (200 g/ metsulfuronmetiel)

80 g/100 water plus 0.05% Agral 90

Blaartoediening (BT)

Na-oes

Brush Off

100 g/100 water plus 0.05% Agral 90

BT

Na-oes

Garlon 480 EC (480 g/ triklopir)

0.5% oplossing plus 0.5% Actipron

BT

Na-oes

Garlon 480 EC

Oplossing van 0.75% plus 0.5% Actipron

BT

Na-oes

Plenum 160 ME (80 g/ pikloram & 80 g/ fluroksipir)

Oplossing van 0.75% plus 0.5% Actipron

BT

Na-oes

Garlon 480 EC

Oplossing van 2% in diesel

Basale stam (BS)

Na-oes

Garlon 480 EC

Oplossing van 0.5% plus 0.5% Actipron

BT

Korrelset

Garlon 480 EC

Oplossing van 0.75% plus 0.5% Actipron

BT

Korrelset

Garlon 480 EC

Oplossing van 2% in diesel

BS

Korrelset

Brush Off

180 g/100 water plus 0.05% Agral 90

Wondbehandeling op
Korrelset
afgesaagde stam (AS)

Brush Off

200 g/100 water plus 0.05% Agral 90

AS

Korrelset

Timbrel 360 SL (360 g/ triklopir)

Oplossing van 3% plus 0.5% Actipron

AS

Korrelset

Timbrel 360 SL

Oplossing van 5% plus 0.5% Actipron

AS

Korrelset

Plenum 160 ME

Oplossing van 1.5% plus 0.5% Actipron

AS

Korrelset

Confront 360 SL (90 g/ triklopir & 270 g/ klopiralied) Oplossing van 3% plus 0.5% Actipron

AS

Korrelset

Confront 360 SL

AS

Korrelset

Oplossing van 5 % plus 0.5% Actipron

87

Oplossing van 2% in diesel

Oplossing van 2% in diesel

Garlon 480 EC

Garlon 480 EC

Nie van toepassing.

Oplossing van 0.75% plus


0.5% Actipron

Plenum 160 ME (80 g/ pikloram &


80 g/ fluroksipir)

BS

Basale stam (BS)

BT

Blaartoediening (BT)

Toedieningsmetode

NVT1

Afwesig

Afwesig

Bogrondse
groei

NVT

Afwesig

Lewendig deur die hele profiel Afwesig

Meeste wortels dood tot n


diepte van 10 cm

Meeste wortels dood tot n


diepte van 10 cm

Wortelgroei

Toediening tydens korrelset

Afwesig

Afwesig

Afwesig

Na-oestoediening

Bogrondse
groei

Al die wortels dood tot op n diepte van 20 cm.

Al die wortels dood tot op n diepte van 20 cm.

Al die wortels dood tot op n diepte van 20 cm.

Meeste wortels dood tot op n diepte van 45 cm.

Wortelgroei

Februarie 2010

Oplossing van 0.75% plus


0.5% Actipron

Oplossing van 2% in diesel

Oplossing van 2% in diesel

Plenum 160 ME (80 g/ pikloram &


80 g/ fluroksipir)

Garlon 480 EC

Garlon 480 EC

Nie van toepassing.

Oplossing van 0.75% plus


0.5% Actipron

Dosisse

Garlon 480 EC (480 g/ triklopir)

Onkruiddoder

BS

Basale stam (BS)

BT

Blaartoediening (BT)

Toedieningsmetode

NVT1

NVT

Afwesig

Lewendig deur die hele profiel Afwesig

50% van die wortels dood tot n diepte van 15 cm.

Al die wortels dood tot n diepte van 30 cm. Die meeste


wortels dood tot n diepte van 30 - 90 cm.

Al die wortels dood tot n diepte van 20 cm en


sommige tot n diepte van 50 cm.

Die meeste wortels dood tot n


diepte van 10 cm en sommige
Afwesig
wortels dood tot n diepte van
40 cm

Wortelgroei

Die meeste wortels dood tot n diepte van 40 cm.

Bogrondse
groei

Februarie 2011

Die meeste wortels dood tot n


Afwesig
diepte van 5 - 20 cm

Wortelgroei

Toediening tydens korrelset

Afwesig

Afwesig

Afwesig

Na-oestoediening

Bogrondse
groei

November 2010

TABEL 3. Die effek van die suksesvolste na-oes- (op 25 Maart 2010 toegedien) en korrelsetbehandelings (op 1 Desember 2010 toegedien) op die bogrondse en wortelgroei van sewejaar oue Chardonnay/
Ramsey-stokke, soos visueel gevalueer gedurende November 2010 en Februarie 2011.

Oplossing van 0.75% plus


0.5% Actipron

Dosis

Garlon 480 EC (480 g/ triklopir)

Onkruiddoder

Oktober 2009

TABEL 2. Die effek van die suksesvolste na-oes- (op 30 Maart 2009 toegedien) en korrelsetbehandelings (op 2 Desember 2009 toegedien) op die bogrondse en wortelgroei van sewejaar oue Chardonnay/
Ramsey-stokke, soos visueel gedurende Oktober 2009 en Februarie 2010 gevalueer.

88

(Tabel 2 en 3). Slegs die wortels van die wingerd in die


behandelings waar blaartoedienings (BT) met die oplossing
van 0.75% Garlon 480 EC en Plenum 180 ME gemaak is,
het tydens Oktober 2009 en November 2010 begin
disintegreer. Dit was die enigste behandelings waar geen
bogrondse groei gedurende Februarie 2010 en Februarie
2011 plaasgevind het nie en waar die wortels ook
gedeeltelik beheer is.
Die basale stambehandeling (BS) met n oplossing van 2%
Garlon 480 EC is die enigste korrelsetbehandeling wat die
bogrondse groei effektief beheer het en die wingerdwortels
tot op n diepte van 20 cm doodgemaak het (Tabel 2 en 3).

VOORKOMS VAN ROLBLADVIRUS IN DIE


NUUTGEPLANTE WINGERDSTOKKE
Geen visuele rolbladsimptome of onkruiddoderfitotoksisiteitsimptome is waargeneem op die
wingerdstokke wat op 3 Augustus 2010 en 30 Augustus
2011 geplant is nie. n Jaar nadat die wingerdstokke gevestig
is (30 Augustus 2011 geplant), het een stok in die Plenum
160 ME- (BT) behandeling positief vir die rolbladvirus
getoets. Twee jaar nadat die wingerdstokke gevestig is (3
Augustus 2010 geplant), het een stok in elk van die
oplossings van 0.75% Garlon 480 EC- (BT) en 2% Garlon 480
EC- (BS) behandelings positief vir die rolbladvirus getoets.
In al drie gevalle het die Chardonnay/Ramsey-stokke
naasliggend aan die genfekteerde Cabernet/Richter
99-stokke geen simptome getoon toe die nuwe stokkies
geplant is nie, maar wel tydens die visuele evaluasie
gedurende April 2012. Dit is moontlik dat die nuutgeplante
Cabernet/99 Richter-stokke van die genfekteerde
Chardonnay/Ramsey-stokke gekontamineer is.

OPSOMMING
Die meganiese verwydering van die wingerdstokke
los lewendige wortels in die grond waarop
wingerdwitluis oorleef en vanwaar dit die
nuutgeplante stokke met rolbladvirus kan infekteer.
Die Garlon 480 EC-dieseloplossing van 2% wat n
oes as n basale stambehandeling toegedien is, het
n volle seisoen (Maart tot Maart) geneem om al die
wortels tot op n diepte van 20 cm of 30 cm dood te
maak. Afhangende van die seisoen, is die meeste
wortels ook in die grondlaag tot op n diepte van 30
- 90 cm doodgemaak. n Na-oes blaarbehandeling
van Plenum 160 ME kan ook oorweeg word,
aangesien die wingerdwortels n n volle seisoen
tot op n diepte van 20 cm of 30 cm doodgemaak is,
met sommige wortels wat tot en met n diepte van
50 cm doodgemaak is, afhangende van die seisoen.
Navorsing wat tans uitgevoer word, sal bepaal tot
watter diepte die wingerdwitluis op
wingerdwortels in die afwesigheid van bogrondse
groei kan oorleef.
Die huidige resultate is aan die agrochemiese
maatskappy voorgel wat die patentreg op
bogenoemde twee onkruiddoders het ten einde
registrasie van di onkruiddoders vir die beheer
van rolblad-genfekteerde wingerdstokke te help
fasiliteer.

Vir meer inligting, stuur n e-pos na Johan Fourie by fouriej@arc.agric.za.

Dirk Bosman se o begin glinster wanneer


hy met jou sy loopbaan deel. Elke tree
wat hy die afgelope 37 jaar geneem het,
het hom geskoei en voorberei vir hierdie
fase in sy lewe. Ek is terug by my eerste
liefde, om boere by die hand te neem en
meer winsgewend te maak sonder om op
kwaliteit prys te gee, glimlag Dirk.
Sy sien is glo benadering het vir hom as jong
man reeds geloofwaardigeid in die industrie
verdien. Toe hy nog nat agter die ore was,
het hy in die Worcester-omgeweging begin
om proewe op plase te doen om te bewys
dat teorie in verskillende areas of klimate
getoets en aangepas moet word. Alhoewel
hy aanvanklik skepties ontvang is, het sy
deursettingsvermo en die onwrikbare geloof
dat seker praktyke getoets moet word, hom
die geloofwaardigheid gegee wat gelei het tot
groot deurbrake onder sy leiding.
Sy internasionale blootstelling aan die
Smart-Dyson en die Balletrok-stelsels, het
lowerbestuur in die wynindustrie hervorm.
Die balans tussen ho produksie en
wynkwaliteit is waarskynlik soos die naam
van die Balletrok-stelsel insinueer, n kuns
wat slegs met baie ervaring, vervolmaak
word. Vandag word hierdie stelsels/tegnieke
al meer kommersieel toegepas.

die afgelope jare verswak het, dryf hom om


sy kundigheid meer te deel.

Wanneer Dirk gesels oor hoogtepunte in sy


loopbaan is dit weer eens daardie egtheid
wat opval. Hy gesels met soveel passie en
drif oor proewe waar hy sukses behaal het.
Boere en plase waar hy diep spore getrap het
en oor opbrengste wat verhoog is. Resultate
van hierdie proewe by elke plaas en area
kan hy tot op die persentasie weergee al het
die proef al 20 jaar gelede plaasgevind. Die
ontginning van nuwe kwaliteit areas soos
onder andere Philadelphia en Darling is na
aan sy hart. Ook die suksesvolle toepassing
van nuwe tegnieke wat in samewerking met
innoverende produsente, eers by Worcester
Somerloof-studiegroep en later ook by Distellstudiegroepe, toegepas is. Kwelpunte soos
die ekonomiese situasie van produsente wat

Verhoudings wat oor jare gebou is met


produsente, bied aan Dirk die geleentheid
om nou in sy sogenaamde aftree-jare steeds
te konsulteer en sy passie uit te leef. Ek glo
ek kan nog baie waarde toevoeg. Alles gaan
mos oor n balans in die lewe, byna soos n
stoel. As een van die stoel se pote sou breek,
gaan die hele stoel omtuimel. So is daar ook
vier pote in my lewe; my geloof in God as
anker, my gesin, my werk en my gesondheid
wat natuurlik n goeie rondte gholf nou en
dan insluit, skerts Dirk.
Netafim is trots om met groot geeste soos
Dirk Bosman n pad te kan stap om die
produsent te help om meer met minder te
produseer.

DIE FYN BALANS


VAN DIE LEWE
Tel: +27 21 987 0477
infoza@netafim.com
www.netafim.co.za

How to protect
your wine against

oxidation

during ageing

NEW LIFE OUT OF OLD BARRELS

This article reports on results obtained from a trial


where oak barrel alternatives, in this case barrel inserts,
was used in conjunction with tannins to demonstrate
how an older barrel can still be used to store and
mature wine for 12 months in a cost-effective way and
without any detrimental effect on the quality of the
wine. By Ernst Kleynhans & Danie Malherbe

90

INTRODUCTION
Thousands of years ago, in ancient Egypt, traders and
armies used clay amphorae to transport wine over long
distances. Wine traders did it for financial gain, but for
soldiers wine was safer to drink than water and it
provided calories to malnourished troops when there
was a shortage of food. With the rise of the Roman
Empire and its spread north into Europe and away from
the Mediterranean Sea, transporting the clay amphorae
grew increasingly difficult.
It was not until the Romans encountered the Gauls that
they discovered wooden barrels, often made of oak,
were used to transport beer. While the Romans were
aware of palm wood barrels, the price and difficulty of
bending the wood to be used as barrels made them a
poor choice.
The Romans quickly realised theyd found a solution for
transporting their wine. The newfound oak, with its tight
grain, offered a waterproof storage medium and was
abundant throughout the forests of Europe. The wood
was also much softer than palm wood, so minimum
toasting was necessary to bend and shape the wood for
barrel-making.

They also discovered that oak barrels imparted new,


pleasant qualities to wine when it is stored in barrels for
some time. The contact with the wood made the wine
smoother and softer, and in some cases it also made the
wine taste better. Due to the toasting of the wood, wines
developed added aromas and flavours. As the practice of
using oak barrels for transportation continued it was
found that the longer wine was kept inside a barrel, the
more qualities from the oak would be imparted to the
wine. And thus began the practice of ageing wine in
oak.
Today winemakers use barrels made by different
cooperages and create building blocks when blending
their wines, enhancing the complexity and aromatic
profile of the wine. Cooperages source their wood from
various regions as each regions wood has slightly
different characteristics. They use various processes to
treat the wood until varying degrees of toasting are
obtained which influence the aromatic, flavour and
structural contribution.
The most common type of oak used in winemaking is
probably from France and America, although oak can
also come from countries like Slovenia and Hungary. In
France, Quercus petraea (white oak) is considered

superior to Quercus robur (common oak) for its finer grain, richer
contribution of aromatic components methyl-octalactone and tannins,
and volatile aldehydes and phenols. Barrel oak, which is selected for its
consistently fine-grained texture, commands the highest price.
Ageing wine in oak barrels is probably one of the most expensive steps
during the winemaking process as the price of oak barrels varies
significantly. It can range from R9 000 to R15 000 a barrel, which
translates to about R30 to R50 a litre. In a country like South Africa where
the exchange rate can drastically change overnight, buying new barrels
can be a costly exercise. This has compelled many wineries to use barrel
alternatives to reduce ever-increasing production costs. Barrel
alternatives come in various forms, for example powder, granules, chips,
blocks, staves and barrel inserts.
When wine ages in an oak barrel, a new barrel not only adds aromatic
complexity to the wine, but also protects the wine against oxidation.
This is done by regulating the oxidation-reduction phenomenon during
maturation and/or micro-oxygenation. The component which is primarily
responsible for this phenomenon is ellagic tannins. These are tannins that
are hydrolised to ellagic acid, which in turn is a natural phenol
antioxidant. The amount of ellagic tannins in a barrel decreases
significantly every time its used. More than 50% is lost during the first
year of use and theres hardly any ellagic tannins left in a barrel after three
years of use. In Figure 1 the loss of ellagic tannins is graphically
demonstrated.

GENERAL OVERVIEW
Barrel inserts were used to introduce integrated oaky notes and enhance
the flavour and aromatic profile of wine. Tannins were used to restore the
levels of ellagic tannins that are lacking in older barrels and necessary to
protect a wine from oxidation, and becoming brown and oxidative during
the maturation process. The cost to treat these wines is about R1,70 a
litre.
The trial was conducted during the 2014 vintage in the Robertson Valley.
This region is nestled between the Atlantic Ocean and Klein Karoo and
enjoys a unique combination of coastal and continental climates, making
it one of the most distinctive terroirs in South Africa.

OVERVIEW OF WINEMAKING PROCESS


Premium Shiraz grapes were harvested at 25 Balling. SO2 was added at
crushing and the grapes were treated with Lafase HE Grand Cru, a
purified pectolytic enzyme that assists in the release of colouring matter
and structural tannins which are important for ageing. Tartaric acid was
added to the juice to adjust the pH and it was cold-soaked for four to five
days at 10C. During this time hour-long pump overs were performed
twice a day.
Zymaflore RX60 was used for the alcoholic fermentation. It was
rehydrated in Superstart Rouge prior to inoculation. Fermentation took
place on the skins in a stainless steel tank at 25 to 30C. From 25 to 15
Balling the must received regular pump overs, where the wine is pumped
from the bottom of the tank onto the cap of skins.
During alcoholic fermentation the must received two Nutristart
(a complex nutrient) additions. One additional nitrogen adjustment, in
the form of DAP, was made. Degrees Balling and temperature were
recorded on a daily basis during the course of the alcoholic fermentation
until the wines were dry and the fermentation activity ceased. Lactoenos
450 PreAc was inoculated into the wine after alcoholic fermentation.
The malolactic fermentation took two weeks to complete and the wine
was then drained off the skins and racked into barrels.

MATURATION OF WINE
Maturation of the wine took place in barrels. For this trial 10 barrels from
the same cooperage were selected to reduce variability. Four of these
barrels were new 2014 barrels. The other six barrels were older, from the
2004 vintage, thus 10th fill barrels. Nobile Barrel Refresh (barrel inserts)
was used to simulate the new wood component and Quertanin (stave

91

FIGURE 1. Ellagic tannins that can be extracted from oak during maturation are drastically reduced in older barrels,
causing them to lose their protective effect and the wine to possibly become subject to premature oxidation.

FIGURE 2. Wine scores as rated by the tasters. Wines are numbered 1 to 10 and were scored out of 20 points. Wines 1 to 6 were
from the older 2004 10th fill barrels and all received Quertanin (QT). Wine 1 was the control. Wines 2 to 6 all had Nobile barrel
inserts and wines 7 to 10 were from the new 2014 first-fill barrels.

92

FIGURE 3. A comparison of the various wines that were aged in the 2004 barrels that were given Quertanin.
These wines had higher scores compared with the wines that were in the new 2014 barrels.

FIGURE 4. A comparison of the various wines that were aged in the 2004 barrels and were given regular (every three
months) dosages of Quertanin. These wines had higher scores compared with the wines that were in the new 2014 barrels.

FIGURE 5. A comparison of the five top-scoring and most preferred wines. These wines overall scores were very
close to each other. It demonstrates how a wine stored in an older barrel can be treated using oak barrel
alternatives to integrate flavour, aroma and structure without using a new oak barrel.

wood-quality ellagic tannins) was used to adjust the level


of ellagic tannins lacking in the older oak barrels. See
Table 1 for a complete summary of all the treatments.
The 2014 barrels were filled with wine and werent given
any additional treatment. These barrels however did have
different toasting levels (L/M, Light/Medium; M, Medium;
M+, Medium Plus) and the wood had various grains (FG,
Fine Grain; OG, Open Grain). See Table 1.
As the wine was drained off the skins and racked into the
respective 2004 barrels, each was given a Quertanin dose
of 1 g/h. These six barrels continued to be given 1 g/h
of Quertanin every three months for the duration of the
12-month ageing period. In addition, five of these barrels
had one Nobile barrel insert. Each Nobile barrel insert
resembles 20% of a new 225 barrel. The barrel that was
not given a barrel insert served as a control. The maturing
red wine barrels were checked at regular intervals and
topped up as necessary.

SENSORY EVALUATION
After 12 months the SO2 levels were adjusted and the
respective wines were hand-bottled. They were then
stored under cellar conditions until they were evaluated in
four tasting sessions by winemakers from various wine
regions. The wines were evaluated and scored out of a
total of 20 points. Evaluation was based on certain criteria,
namely the wines Appearance (2), Colour (2), Hue (2),
Aroma/Wood Notes (2), Sweetness/Fruit (3), Body/
Structure (2), Flavour/Complexity (4) and Finish/Length
(3). The combined data is summarised in Figure 2.
Looking at the top five wines, wine 10 was the most
preferred wine and scored 16.3. It was from one of the
new 2014 barrels with a fine grain and a medium plus
toasting. The wine with the second highest score of 15.7
was also from a new 2014 barrel. The oak had a fine grain
and medium toasting. Hot on the heels of this wine was a
wine from one of the older 2004 barrels. It scored 15.6 and

93

TABLE 1. A summary of the individual barrel treatments during this trial.


Barrels
Wine

Barrel age

2004

2004

2004

Barrel refresh

Toast

Fill

Profile

Dosage

Fresh
Sensation
10th

Additional treatment

2004

Intense

2004

Revelation

2004

American
Revelation

2014

20% New
wood
20% New
wood
20% New
wood
20% New
wood
20% New
wood

Tannin

Dosage
(at racking)

Dosage
(3-months
intervals)

Trial duration
(months)

Quertanin

1 g/h

1 g/h

12

Quertanin

1 g/h

1 g/h

12

Quertanin

1 g/h

1 g/h

12

Quertanin

1 g/h

1 g/h

12

Quertanin

1 g/h

1 g/h

12

Quertanin

1 g/h

1 g/h

12

L/M, FG

2014

M, FG

2014

M+, OG

10

2014

M+, FG

12
12

1st

12
12

TABLE 2. A comparison of the wine descriptors used to evaluate the various wines. Scores are expressed as a percentage,
with 0 being the lowest and 100 the highest. The highest points for each descriptor are highlighted in green and the lowest in red.
Wine 6
American
Revelation
QT

Wine
7

Wine
8

Wine
9

Wine
10

97

97

94

98

92

97

92

98

98

94

94

85

95

94

98

94

88

93

78

92

85

71

77

84

65

78

73

84

63

69

61

67

68

60

68

58

71

61

69

75

77

85

80

82

85

78

92

51

55

61

57

61

57

60

66

56

66

61

62

67

66

72

68

64

70

64

76

Wine 1
QT

Wine 2
Fresh
QT

Appearance

98

98

97

97

Colour

92

94

87

Hue

85

94

84

63

64

66

Aroma/
Wood notes
Sweetness/
Fruit
Body/
Structure
Flavour/
Complexity
Finish/
Length

Wine 3
Wine 4
Wine 5
Sensation Intense Revelation
QT
QT
QT

contained one Nobile Barrel Refresh Revelation insert


and had been given a Quertanin dose every three
months. The wine that came fourth with a score of 15.4
also came from a 2004 barrel, but it contained one Nobile
Barrel Refresh American Revelation insert and had also
been given Quertanin dosages. The fifth-placed wine was
wine 3 with a score of 15.2. This wine also contained the
combination of Quertanin and barrel insert, namely
Nobile Barrel Refresh Sensation. The Control wine (1) had
the lowest score and was the least preferred. The average
score of the six wines aged in the older barrels was 14.9.
Compared with the four wines that were aged in the new
barrels and scored an average of 15.1, there is no
significant difference.

94

A closer look at the criteria according to which the wines


were evaluated is warranted. To be able to compare the
various descriptors used to evaluate the wines, the weight
in points of each descriptor was converted and expressed
as a percentage. The data comparison of the various wine
descriptors is summarised in Table 2.

The first three rows reflect how the wines performed


visually (Appearance, Colour and Hue). Overall the wines
had a good colour and the hue indicated that not a lot of
oxidation and browning took place over the course of 12
months. Wine 9 had the poorest hue and the lowest
overall score (78%). This wine came from one of the new
2014 barrels and was also lacking in colour and
appearance. The wines (1 to 6) that received the
Quertanin scored better overall and wine 5 performed
the best. A closer look at the data of these wines shows
there are important differences that need to be explained
and understood (Figure 3).
Wine 1 (Control, no barrel insert) and wine 3 (Sensation
barrel insert) scored the lowest. These wines were from
10-year-old barrels which had no ellagic tannins left to
protect the wine. Wine 3 had a barrel insert, namely
Nobile Barrel Refresh Sensation. This barrel insert is
convection-oven toasted. The convection-oven toasting
process creates a uniform toast throughout the oak which
drastically reduces the ellagic tannin concentration.
Therefore this barrel insert contributes mostly to the

flavour and aroma of the wine, but is not as effective in


preventing oxidation.
On the other hand wine 2 (Nobile Barrel Refresh Fresh),
wine 5 (Nobile Barrel Refresh Revelation) and wine 6
(Nobile Barrel Refresh American Revelation) all had barrel
inserts that were either untoasted (Fresh) or received a
toasting similar to fire toasting (Revelation and American
Revelation). Toasting takes place on the surface of the
wood and therefore doesnt affect the concentration of
the ellagic tannin as much compared with the convectionoven toasted oak products. It therefore comes as no
surprise that wines 2, 5 and 6 scored the highest.
The comparison of aroma and flavour data for the various
treatments of Nobile Barrel Refresh inserts/Quertanin
combinations can be seen in Figure 4. The two barrels that
contained the Nobile Barrel Refresh Revelation and
Nobile Barrel Refresh American Revelation performed
best according to the tasters. Both these barrel inserts
closely resembles original French and American oak
barrels. These inserts show a good balance between
aroma and flavour, and the overall body/structure and
finish/length of the wines. The wine that was the least
impressive was wine 2. Because the barrel insert was
untoasted, it lacked the flavour and aromatic complexity
of the other barrel inserts, but expressed good body and
structure in the aged wine.
Wine 3 from the barrel that contained Nobile Barrel
Refresh Sensation scored the highest for aroma, while
wine 10 from the 2014 barrel which had a medium plus
toasting and fine grain was perceived to have better
sweetness and fruit, a slightly longer finish on the palate
and exhibit slightly more complexity and flavour than any
of the other wines (Table 2).
Figure 5 indicates how similar the five wines were that
scored the highest in this trial. The two most preferred
wines (8 and 10) were both from new 2014 oak barrels.
They were closely followed by the Nobile barrel Refresh/
Quertanin combinations wines 3, 5 and 6 (see also
Table 2). The 2004 barrel with the Nobile Barrel Refresh
Revelation and Quertanin combination and 2014
medium, fine-grained barrel compared best with each
other. The Nobile Barrel Refresh Revelation and
Quertanin combination was perceived to produce wine
with a better colour and hue than the other wines. They
had a similar aroma profile, but slightly less flavour and
complexity when compared with the 2014 medium plus,
fine-grained barrel. The latter was described as having the
best body and palate length compared to the other wines.

CONCLUSIONS
All wines were well received by the tasters who
evaluated them. All the wines from the 10-yearold barrels did exceptionally well compared with
the wines aged in new oak barrels. Although the
wines from the barrels with Nobile Barrel
Refresh and Quertanin combinations didnt
have the highest score and complexity and
structure of wine from a new barrel, they clearly
demonstrate that Nobile barrel alternatives
used in conjunction with the correct tannins can
be used to extend the life of older barrels, while
protecting the wine.
This experiment had a positive outcome and
succeeded in demonstrating that you can use
various oak products in older barrels during wine
ageing to create complexity in wines similar to
that of wines aged in new oak barrels. The wines
that were treated with the various Nobile Barrel
Refresh and Quertanin combinations performed
well enough to be bottled individually or used as
building blocks in a blend.
The question that needs answering is: Is the
combined use of barrel alternatives and tannin
additions sufficient to replace a new barrel?
The answer to this question will be debated for a
long time. For now, what this trial proves is that
using oak alternatives can provide wine made in
older barrels with body, structure, flavour and
complexity, and improve the finish, length and
palate weight. It also shows how you can
reintroduce ellagic tannins to improve the
agebility of a wine.
If youre fortunate enough to be able to buy new
barrels every year, these oak alternatives will
probably not appeal to you. There is however a
place for these products and if used correctly,
they can be a useful tool to introduce oaky notes
to wines that cant be aged in new barrels due to
budget constraints. These oak alternatives, used
in conjunction with tannins, can also help extend
the life of older barrels, which can in turn help to
increase storage space in a cellar.

For more information, email Ernst Kleynhans at ernst.kleynhans@laffort.com or


Danie Malherbe at danie.malherbe@laffort.com.

ADVERTEERDERS IN HIERDIE UITGAWE / ADVERTISERS IN THIS ISSUE


Adams and Adams _______________ 6
African Cellar Supplies __________ 51
Anchor _______________________ 60
BASF _________________________ 66
Beverage Trade network __________ 8
Britt Org _______________________ 8
Cape Agricultural Products _______ 69
Cape Cooperage _________ 53, 62, 63
CDS Vintec ____________________ 64
Coravin _______________________ 24
Daikin ________________________IBC
Dow Chemicals ________________ 40
Enartis ____________________ 54, 55

FS Smit & Co ___________________ 56


Guala ________________________OBC
Intervitis Interfructa _____________ 7
John Deere ____________________ 28
Laffort _____________________ 58, 59
Landini _______________________ 42
Lelienfontein ___________________ 5
Nampak Closures ______________IFC
Netafim ______________________ 89
NSF __________________________ 65
Old Mutual ____________________ 38
Origin Wine __________________ OFC

Paarl Labels ____________________ 3


PWC ______________________ 44, 45
Radoux _______________________ 49
Rotolabel _____________________ 13
SA Litho _______________________ 9
Standard bank __________________ 4
Terroir Wine Awards ____________ 46
Tonneliers Cavin ________________ 60
Veritas Labels ___________________ 4
Vina SA ______________________ 52
Vigntellect ____________________ 48
Vititec _______________ 20, 21, 22, 23
Wijnland Eng/Vinpilot ___________ 15

95

DANKIE TOG VIR

Met tuinslang en broekiekouse byderhand


kan jy menig n krisis afweer.
Deur Christo Conradie

k was in standerd 8 en laat.


Met die uithardloop skree ek
vir Pa, Ek vat sommer gou die
Morris.

Ry net versigtig, kom sy antwoord.


En van daardie dag het ek en die
Blou Karretjie se besonderse reis
begin.

Rewind. Vroer die aand het ek my


lyf fotograaf by die Cape Sun gehou.
Ek was laat vir die okkasie en het
gedink met vier rolletjies Fuji-film in
die hand en n geleende driepoot op
die agterste sitplek, ek darem vir VIPparkering sou kwalifiseer.
Dis toe nie so maklik nie. Met n
moermeter wat net-net in die rooi
beweeg, druk ek die Morris bult op
in die Kaapse stegies en jaag drie
keer om die hotel om n gaping te
probeer kry. Met die laaste draai,
kry ek n plek. Stop dood en ruk met
Etzebeth-aggressie die handrem

CHEEERS VI EERS

ILLUSTRASIE: KONRAD BRAND

Sommer gou het ek n klankstelsel


ingebou sodat Bonnie Tyler ons
met Faster Than the Speed of Night
vorentoe kon dryf. Ons was soms
effe bewerig en moes een slag in Du
Toitskloof se stormsterk wind heel
bo stop en drie groot klippe in die
kattebak pak vir ekstra gewig. En toe
kom die vloed van 1981. Gelukkig
kon ons die Morris met n hosepipe
anker oor die dak en deur die
vensters geryg en met sewe draaie
om n akkerboom vasgebind.

Jare later en toe die soveelste motor


my met flitsende ligte van agter
verbysteek, besef ek dis nie omdat
almal my herken en groet nie, maar
dat ek om n gans ander rede n
middernag op die N1 aandag trek.

96

op. Net om te hoor hoe iets met n


knal meegee en ek met n lewelose
handrem sit. Maar ek is laat en die
probleem moet wag tot later.
Fast forward. Met n klomp woes
beduidende Maties wat by hul
motor se vensters uithang (hulle sou
vandag eerder in n Uber tuis hoort)
besluit ek om van die pad af te trek.
Dit blyk toe dat die handremkabel
gebreek het en die twee punte
op die teer sleep. Tot ander
padgebruikers se groot vermaak
of kommer het ek letterlik vir
vuurwerke op die N1 gesorg.
Al genade is om vir my vriendin
te s sy moet nou baie vinnig
haar pantyhose uittrek. Sy wil nog
protesteer, maar toe ek beduie dat
as die stukkie kledingstuk nie n
te voorskyn kom nie, is daar n ander
opsie wat hor sit, het sy besef ek is
ernstig. Sekondes later is die twee
kabels in n pantyhose-greep om die
as vasgedraai. Bonnie Tyler maak
plek vir Words van FR David, die
Morris se naald sak terug tot 40 mpu
en ek glimlag toe ek besef pantyhose
het tog n doel in n student se lewe.
In 1988 beleef ons die openingsdag
van die Hugenote-tonnel en kon
ons in top gear deur die berg ry,
danksy kundigheid op tegnologiese
gebied. Ja, reg geraai. In 2016
is ons nog steeds hier sonder
lugversorging, ABS-brieke, lugsakke
of veiligheidsgordels maar wel met
n slim GPS en Google in die hand.
Ons word almal gedwing om iewers
op pad off the beaten track te gaan of
track changes aan te bring. Miskien
dreig vloedwater, stormsterk winde,
flitsende ligte, blasende toeters en
spattende vonke.

34
CCD 10

Trek daai nano-tegnologiese


hosepipe nader, hou stil en maak
seker jy trek aandag om die regte
redes. Moenie skroom om n
swaargewig in te laai of selfs n
pantyhose in te span nie. Ruil soms
die bladmusiek en druk n rock star
in die MP3. Draai dan die volume
oop, want uitdagings is daar om
oorwin te word.
Enjoy the ride! w

OUR TEMPERATURE CONTROL,


YOUR VINTAGE.
A close relationship between wine maker, specialist installer and chiller manufacturer underpins the production of high quality
wines. Daikin chillers offer the ultimate in flexibility and control. Unique in their precision, power, low operating noise, easy
maintenance and low running costs, Daikin chillers represent the sure and safe route to an indoor environment that is comfortable,
clean and consistent. Call 021-528 3500 or visit www.daikin.co.za

SAVIN PREMIUM CLOSURES


The Excellent choice.
Premiumise your brand, with the finest locally manufactured metal closures.

High quality appearance


Large variety of design and colour options
Convenient easy to open and close
Tamper evident
No apparent threading after capping
Full technical assistance with bottling and application

Lester Boniface
079 883 5562
lboniface@gualaclosures.co.za
Office: 021 508 7100

Dayle Dohne
078 165 8019
ddohne@gualaclosures.co.za

93 Carlisle Street , Paarden Eiland, Cape Town, 7405

Clinton Holmes
078 842 3076
cholmes@gualaclosures.co.za

www.gualaclosures.co.za

Find us on:

@GualaClosuresSA

Guala Closures South Africa