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EE101: BJT basics

M. B. Patil
mbpatil@ee.iitb.ac.in
www.ee.iitb.ac.in/~sequel
Department of Electrical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Bombay

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Bipolar Junction Transistors

Emitter

p
Base

pnp transistor

Collector

Emitter

Collector

Base
npn transistor

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Bipolar Junction Transistors

Emitter

p
Base

pnp transistor

Collector

Emitter

Collector

Base
npn transistor

* Bipolar: both electrons and holes contribute to conduction

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Bipolar Junction Transistors

Emitter

p
Base

pnp transistor

Collector

Emitter

Collector

Base
npn transistor

* Bipolar: both electrons and holes contribute to conduction


* Junction: device includes two p-n junctions (as opposed to a point-contact
transistor, the first transistor)

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Bipolar Junction Transistors

Emitter

Collector

Base
pnp transistor

Emitter

Collector

Base
npn transistor

* Bipolar: both electrons and holes contribute to conduction


* Junction: device includes two p-n junctions (as opposed to a point-contact
transistor, the first transistor)
* Transistor: transfer resistor
When Bell Labs had an informal contest to name their new invention, one engineer pointed
out that it acts like a resistor, but a resistor where the voltage is transferred across the
device to control the resulting current.
(http://amasci.com/amateur/trshort.html)

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Bipolar Junction Transistors

Emitter

Collector

Base
pnp transistor

Emitter

Collector

Base
npn transistor

* Bipolar: both electrons and holes contribute to conduction


* Junction: device includes two p-n junctions (as opposed to a point-contact
transistor, the first transistor)
* Transistor: transfer resistor
When Bell Labs had an informal contest to name their new invention, one engineer pointed
out that it acts like a resistor, but a resistor where the voltage is transferred across the
device to control the resulting current.
(http://amasci.com/amateur/trshort.html)

* invented in 1947 by Shockley, Bardeen, and Brattain at Bell Laboratories.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Bipolar Junction Transistors

Emitter

Collector

Emitter

Base
pnp transistor

Collector

Base
npn transistor

* Bipolar: both electrons and holes contribute to conduction


* Junction: device includes two p-n junctions (as opposed to a point-contact
transistor, the first transistor)
* Transistor: transfer resistor
When Bell Labs had an informal contest to name their new invention, one engineer pointed
out that it acts like a resistor, but a resistor where the voltage is transferred across the
device to control the resulting current.
(http://amasci.com/amateur/trshort.html)

* invented in 1947 by Shockley, Bardeen, and Brattain at Bell Laboratories.


* A BJT is two diodes connected back-to-back.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Bipolar Junction Transistors

Emitter

Collector

Emitter

Base
pnp transistor

Collector

Base
npn transistor

* Bipolar: both electrons and holes contribute to conduction


* Junction: device includes two p-n junctions (as opposed to a point-contact
transistor, the first transistor)
* Transistor: transfer resistor
When Bell Labs had an informal contest to name their new invention, one engineer pointed
out that it acts like a resistor, but a resistor where the voltage is transferred across the
device to control the resulting current.
(http://amasci.com/amateur/trshort.html)

* invented in 1947 by Shockley, Bardeen, and Brattain at Bell Laboratories.


* A BJT is two diodes connected back-to-back.
WRONG! Let us see why.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Bipolar Junction Transistors


Consider a pnp BJT in the following circuit:
E
R1

5V

1 k I1

p n p
B
I3

C
I 2 R2 1 k

10 V

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Bipolar Junction Transistors


Consider a pnp BJT in the following circuit:
E
R1

1 k I1

p n p

I 2 R2 1 k

B
I3

5V

10 V

If the transistor is replaced with two diodes connected back-to-back, we get,


E
R1

5V

1 k I1

C
D1

B D2
I3

I 2 R2 1 k

10 V

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Bipolar Junction Transistors


Consider a pnp BJT in the following circuit:
E
R1

1 k I1

p n p

I 2 R2 1 k

B
I3

5V

10 V

If the transistor is replaced with two diodes connected back-to-back, we get,


E
R1

5V

1 k I1

C
D1

B D2

I 2 R2 1 k

I3

10 V

Assuming Von = 0.7 V for D1, we get


5 V 0.7 V
I1 =
= 4.3 mA,
R1
I2 = 0 (since D2 is reverse biased), and
I3 I1 = 4.3 mA.
M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Bipolar Junction Transistors


Using a more accurate equivalent circuit for the BJT, we obtain,

E
R1

5V

1 k I1

p n p
B

E
I 2 R2 1 k

R1

I3

5V
10 V

1 k I1

I1

C
I2 R2 1 k

I3

10 V

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Bipolar Junction Transistors


Using a more accurate equivalent circuit for the BJT, we obtain,

E
R1

5V

1 k I1

p n p
B

E
I 2 R2 1 k

R1

I3

5V
10 V

1 k I1

I1

C
I2 R2 1 k

I3

10 V

We now get,
5 V 0.7 V
I1 =
= 4.3 mA (as before),
R1

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Bipolar Junction Transistors


Using a more accurate equivalent circuit for the BJT, we obtain,

E
R1

5V

1 k I1

p n p
B

E
I 2 R2 1 k

R1

I3

1 k I1

5V
10 V

I1

C
I2 R2 1 k

I3

10 V

We now get,
5 V 0.7 V
I1 =
= 4.3 mA (as before),
R1
I2 = I1 4.3 mA (since 1 for a typical BJT), and

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Bipolar Junction Transistors


Using a more accurate equivalent circuit for the BJT, we obtain,

E
R1

5V

1 k I1

p n p
B

E
I 2 R2 1 k

R1

I3

1 k I1

5V
10 V

I1

C
I2 R2 1 k

I3

10 V

We now get,
5 V 0.7 V
I1 =
= 4.3 mA (as before),
R1
I2 = I1 4.3 mA (since 1 for a typical BJT), and
I3 = I1 I2 = (1 ) I1 0 A.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Bipolar Junction Transistors


Using a more accurate equivalent circuit for the BJT, we obtain,

E
R1

5V

1 k I1

p n p
B

E
I 2 R2 1 k

R1

I3

1 k I1

5V

I1

C
I2 R2 1 k

I3

10 V

10 V

We now get,
5 V 0.7 V
I1 =
= 4.3 mA (as before),
R1
I2 = I1 4.3 mA (since 1 for a typical BJT), and
I3 = I1 I2 = (1 ) I1 0 A.
The values of I2 and I3 are dramatically different than the ones obtained earlier.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Bipolar Junction Transistors


Using a more accurate equivalent circuit for the BJT, we obtain,

E
R1

5V

1 k I1

p n p
B

E
I 2 R2 1 k

R1

I3

1 k I1

5V

I1

C
I2 R2 1 k

I3

10 V

10 V

We now get,
5 V 0.7 V
I1 =
= 4.3 mA (as before),
R1
I2 = I1 4.3 mA (since 1 for a typical BJT), and
I3 = I1 I2 = (1 ) I1 0 A.
The values of I2 and I3 are dramatically different than the ones obtained earlier.
Conclusion: A BJT is NOT the same as two diodes connected back-to-back (although
it does have two p-n junctions).

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Bipolar Junction Transistors


What is wrong with the two-diode model of a BJT?

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Bipolar Junction Transistors


What is wrong with the two-diode model of a BJT?
* When we replace a BJT with two diodes, we assume that there is no interaction
between the two diodes, which may be expected if they are far apart.
Emitter

Collector

Base
Emitter

Collector
D1

Base

D2

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Bipolar Junction Transistors


What is wrong with the two-diode model of a BJT?
* When we replace a BJT with two diodes, we assume that there is no interaction
between the two diodes, which may be expected if they are far apart.
Emitter

Collector

Base
Emitter

Collector
D1

Base

D2

* However, in a BJT, exactly the opposite is true. For a higher performance, the
base region is made as short as possible (subject to certain constraints), and the
two diodes therefore cannot be treated as independent devices.
Emitter

Collector

Base

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Bipolar Junction Transistors


What is wrong with the two-diode model of a BJT?
* When we replace a BJT with two diodes, we assume that there is no interaction
between the two diodes, which may be expected if they are far apart.
Emitter

Collector

Base
Emitter

Collector
D1

Base

D2

* However, in a BJT, exactly the opposite is true. For a higher performance, the
base region is made as short as possible (subject to certain constraints), and the
two diodes therefore cannot be treated as independent devices.
Emitter

Collector

Base

* Later, we will look at the Ebers-Moll model of a BJT, which is a fairly


accurate representation of the transistor action.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

BJT in active mode

IE

IC

IC

IE

IB

IE

IC

IC

IE

IB

IB

IB

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

BJT in active mode

IE

IC

IC

IE

IB

IE

IC

IC

IE

IB

IB

IB

* In the active mode of a BJT, the B-E junction is under forward bias, and the
B-C junction is under reverse bias.
- For a pnp transistor, VEB > 0 V , and VCB < 0 V .

- For an npn transistor, VBE > 0 V , and VBC < 0 V .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

BJT in active mode

IE

IC

IC

IE

IB

IE

IC

IC

IE

IB

IB

IB

* In the active mode of a BJT, the B-E junction is under forward bias, and the
B-C junction is under reverse bias.
- For a pnp transistor, VEB > 0 V , and VCB < 0 V .

- For an npn transistor, VBE > 0 V , and VBC < 0 V .


* Since the B-E junction is under forward bias, the voltage (magnitude) is typically
0.6 to 0.75 V .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

BJT in active mode

IE

IC

IC

IE

IB

IE

IC

IC

IE

IB

IB

IB

* In the active mode of a BJT, the B-E junction is under forward bias, and the
B-C junction is under reverse bias.
- For a pnp transistor, VEB > 0 V , and VCB < 0 V .

- For an npn transistor, VBE > 0 V , and VBC < 0 V .


* Since the B-E junction is under forward bias, the voltage (magnitude) is typically
0.6 to 0.75 V .
* The B-C voltage can be several Volts (or even hundreds of Volts), and is limited
by the breakdown voltage of the B-C junction.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

BJT in active mode

IE

IC

IC

IE

IB

IE

IC

IC

IE

IB

IB

IB

* In the active mode of a BJT, the B-E junction is under forward bias, and the
B-C junction is under reverse bias.
- For a pnp transistor, VEB > 0 V , and VCB < 0 V .

- For an npn transistor, VBE > 0 V , and VBC < 0 V .


* Since the B-E junction is under forward bias, the voltage (magnitude) is typically
0.6 to 0.75 V .
* The B-C voltage can be several Volts (or even hundreds of Volts), and is limited
by the breakdown voltage of the B-C junction.
* The symbol for a BJT includes an arrow for the emitter terminal, its direction
indicating the current direction when the transistor is in active mode.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

BJT in active mode

IE

IC

IC

IE

IB

IE

IC

IC

IE

IB

IB

IB

* In the active mode of a BJT, the B-E junction is under forward bias, and the
B-C junction is under reverse bias.
- For a pnp transistor, VEB > 0 V , and VCB < 0 V .

- For an npn transistor, VBE > 0 V , and VBC < 0 V .


* Since the B-E junction is under forward bias, the voltage (magnitude) is typically
0.6 to 0.75 V .
* The B-C voltage can be several Volts (or even hundreds of Volts), and is limited
by the breakdown voltage of the B-C junction.
* The symbol for a BJT includes an arrow for the emitter terminal, its direction
indicating the current direction when the transistor is in active mode.
* Analog circuits, including amplifiers, are generally designed to ensure that the
BJTs are operating in the active mode.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

BJT in active mode

IE

IC

IC

IE

IB

IE

B
IE

E
IE

C
IC

IB

IC

IC

IE

IB

IB

B
IE

E
IE

IB

C
IC

IB

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

BJT in active mode

IE

IC

IC

IE

IB

IE

B
IE

E
IE

C
IC

IC

IC

IE

IB

IB

B
IE

E
IE

IB

IB

C
IC

IB

* In the active mode, IC = IE , 1 (slightly less than 1).

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

BJT in active mode

IE

IC

IC

IE

IB

IE

B
IE

E
IE

C
IC

IC

IC

IE

IB

IB

B
IE

E
IE

IB

IB

C
IC

IB

* In the active mode, IC = IE , 1 (slightly less than 1).


* IB = IE IC = IE (1 ) .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

BJT in active mode

IE

IC

IC

IE

IB

IE

B
IE

E
IE

C
IC

IC

IC

IE

IB

IB

B
IE

E
IE

IB

IB

C
IC

IB

* In the active mode, IC = IE , 1 (slightly less than 1).


* IB = IE IC = IE (1 ) .
* The ratio IC /IB is defined as the current gain of the transistor.
IC

=
=
.
IB
1

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

BJT in active mode

IE

IC

IC

IE

IB

IE

B
IE

E
IE

C
IC

IC

IC

IE

IB

IB

B
IE

E
IE

IB

IB

C
IC

IB

* In the active mode, IC = IE , 1 (slightly less than 1).


* IB = IE IC = IE (1 ) .
* The ratio IC /IB is defined as the current gain of the transistor.
IC

=
=
.
IB
1
* is a function of IC and temperature. However, we will generally treat it as a
constant, a useful approximation to simplify things and still get a good insight.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

BJT in active mode

IE

IC

IC

IE

IB

IE

B
IE

E
IE

C
IC

IB

IC

IC

IE

IB

IB

B
IE

E
IE

IB

C
IC

IB

IC

=
IB
1

0.9

0.95

19

0.99

99

0.995

199

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

BJT in active mode

IE

IC

IC

IE

IB

IE

B
IE

E
IE

0.9

0.95

19

0.99

99

0.995

199

IC

IC

IE

B
IE

IC

IC

=
IB
1

n
IB

IB

IE

IB

C
IC

IB

IB

* is a sensitive function of .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

BJT in active mode

IE

IC

IC

IE

IB

IE

B
IE

E
IE

0.9

0.95

19

0.99

99

0.995

199

IC

IC

IE

B
IE

IC

IC

=
IB
1

n
IB

IB

IE

IB

C
IC

IB

IB

* is a sensitive function of .
* Transistors are generally designed to get a high value of
(typically 100 to 250, but can be as high as 2000 for
super- transistors).

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

BJT in active mode

IE

IC

IC

IE

IB

IE

B
IE

E
IE

0.9

0.95

19

0.99

99

0.995

199

IC

IC

IE

B
IE

IC

IC

=
IB
1

n
IB

IB

IE

IB

C
IC

IB

IB

* is a sensitive function of .
* Transistors are generally designed to get a high value of
(typically 100 to 250, but can be as high as 2000 for
super- transistors).
* A large IB  IC or IE when the transistor is in the
active mode.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

A simple BJT circuit

1k

RC

C
100 k B
RB
2V
VBB

VCC

= 100 10 V

A simple BJT circuit

10 V VCC
1k

RC

C
100 k B
RB
2V
VBB

1k
VCC

= 100 10 V

RC

n
2V
VBB

100 k p
RB

= 100

A simple BJT circuit


10 V VCC
10 V VCC
1k

RC

C
100 k B
RB
2V
VBB

1k
VCC

= 100 10 V

1k

RC

IE

n
2V
VBB

100 k p
RB

= 100

RC
IC

2V
VBB

100 k IB
RB
IE

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

A simple BJT circuit


10 V VCC
10 V VCC
1k

RC

C
100 k B
RB
2V
VBB

1k
VCC

= 100 10 V

1k

RC

IE

n
2V
VBB

100 k p
RB

= 100

RC
IC

2V
VBB

100 k IB
RB
IE

Assume the BJT to be in the active mode VBE = 0.7 V and IC = IE = IB .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

A simple BJT circuit


10 V VCC
10 V VCC
1k

RC

C
100 k B
RB
2V
VBB

1k
VCC

= 100 10 V

1k

RC

IE

n
2V
VBB

100 k p
RB

= 100

RC
IC

2V
VBB

100 k IB
RB
IE

Assume the BJT to be in the active mode VBE = 0.7 V and IC = IE = IB .


VBB VBE
2 V 0.7 V
IB =
=
= 13 A.
RB
100 k

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

A simple BJT circuit


10 V VCC
10 V VCC
1k

RC

C
100 k B
RB
2V
VBB

1k
VCC

= 100 10 V

1k

RC

IE

n
2V
VBB

100 k p
RB

= 100

RC
IC

2V
VBB

100 k IB
RB
IE

Assume the BJT to be in the active mode VBE = 0.7 V and IC = IE = IB .


VBB VBE
2 V 0.7 V
IB =
=
= 13 A.
RB
100 k
IC = IB = 100 13 A = 1.3 mA.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

A simple BJT circuit


10 V VCC
10 V VCC
1k

RC

C
100 k B
RB
2V
VBB

1k
VCC

= 100 10 V

1k

RC

IE

n
2V
VBB

100 k p
RB

= 100

RC
IC

2V
VBB

100 k IB
RB
IE

Assume the BJT to be in the active mode VBE = 0.7 V and IC = IE = IB .


VBB VBE
2 V 0.7 V
IB =
=
= 13 A.
RB
100 k
IC = IB = 100 13 A = 1.3 mA.
VC = VCC IC RC = 10 V 1.3 mA 1 k = 8.7 V .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

A simple BJT circuit


10 V VCC
10 V VCC
1k

RC

C
100 k B
RB
2V
VBB

1k
VCC

= 100 10 V

1k

RC

IE

n
2V
VBB

100 k p
RB

= 100

RC
IC

2V
VBB

100 k IB
RB
IE

Assume the BJT to be in the active mode VBE = 0.7 V and IC = IE = IB .


VBB VBE
2 V 0.7 V
IB =
=
= 13 A.
RB
100 k
IC = IB = 100 13 A = 1.3 mA.
VC = VCC IC RC = 10 V 1.3 mA 1 k = 8.7 V .
Let us check whether our assumption of active mode is correct. We need to check
whether the B-C junction is under reverse bias.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

A simple BJT circuit


10 V VCC
10 V VCC
1k

RC

C
100 k B
RB
2V
VBB

1k
VCC

= 100 10 V

1k

RC

IE

n
2V
VBB

100 k p
RB

= 100

RC
IC

2V
VBB

100 k IB
RB
IE

Assume the BJT to be in the active mode VBE = 0.7 V and IC = IE = IB .


VBB VBE
2 V 0.7 V
IB =
=
= 13 A.
RB
100 k
IC = IB = 100 13 A = 1.3 mA.
VC = VCC IC RC = 10 V 1.3 mA 1 k = 8.7 V .
Let us check whether our assumption of active mode is correct. We need to check
whether the B-C junction is under reverse bias.
VBC = VB VC = 0.7 V 8.7 V = 8.0 V ,
i.e., the B-C junction is indeed under reverse bias.
M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

A simple BJT circuit (continued)


10 V VCC
1k
IC

2V
VBB

10 k

RB I B

RC

n
= 100

What happens if RB is changed from 100 k to 10 k?

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

A simple BJT circuit (continued)


10 V VCC
1k
IC

2V
VBB

10 k

RB I B

RC

n
= 100

What happens if RB is changed from 100 k to 10 k?


Assuming the BJT to be in the active mode again, we have VBE 0.7 V , and
IC = IB .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

A simple BJT circuit (continued)


10 V VCC
1k
IC

2V
VBB

10 k

RB I B

RC

n
= 100

What happens if RB is changed from 100 k to 10 k?


Assuming the BJT to be in the active mode again, we have VBE 0.7 V , and
IC = IB .
VBB VBE
2 V 0.7 V
IB =
=
= 130 A.
RB
10 k
IC = IB = 100 130 A = 13 mA.
VC = VCC IC RC = 10 V 13 mA 1 k = 3 V .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

A simple BJT circuit (continued)


10 V VCC
1k
IC

2V
VBB

10 k

RB I B

RC

n
= 100

What happens if RB is changed from 100 k to 10 k?


Assuming the BJT to be in the active mode again, we have VBE 0.7 V , and
IC = IB .
VBB VBE
2 V 0.7 V
IB =
=
= 130 A.
RB
10 k
IC = IB = 100 130 A = 13 mA.
VC = VCC IC RC = 10 V 13 mA 1 k = 3 V .
VBC = VB VC = 0.7 V (3) V = 3.7 V ,

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

A simple BJT circuit (continued)


10 V VCC
1k
IC

2V
VBB

10 k

RB I B

RC

n
= 100

What happens if RB is changed from 100 k to 10 k?


Assuming the BJT to be in the active mode again, we have VBE 0.7 V , and
IC = IB .
VBB VBE
2 V 0.7 V
IB =
=
= 130 A.
RB
10 k
IC = IB = 100 130 A = 13 mA.
VC = VCC IC RC = 10 V 13 mA 1 k = 3 V .
VBC = VB VC = 0.7 V (3) V = 3.7 V ,
VBC is not only positive, it is huge!
The BJT cannot be in the active mode, and we need to take another look at the
circuit.
M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Ebers-Moll model for a pnp transistor


Active mode ("forward" active mode): BE in f. b., BC in r. b.
IE

n
B

IC

IC

IE

IB

IB

C
IE

IB

F IE

IC

Ebers-Moll model for a pnp transistor


Active mode ("forward" active mode): BE in f. b., BC in r. b.
IE

IC

IC

IE

IB

C
IE

IB

IB

F IE

IC

Reverse active mode: BE in r. b., BC in f. b.


IE

n
B

IC

R (IC )

IC

IE

IB

IB

(IC )

E
IE

IC

IB

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Ebers-Moll model for a pnp transistor


Active mode ("forward" active mode): BE in f. b., BC in r. b.
IE

IC

IC

IE

IB

C
IE

IB

IB

F IE

IC

Reverse active mode: BE in r. b., BC in f. b.


IE

n
B

IC

R (IC )

IC

IE

IB

IB

(IC )

E
IE

IC

IB

In the reverse active mode, emitter collector. (However, we continue to refer to the
terminals with their original names.)

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Ebers-Moll model for a pnp transistor


Active mode ("forward" active mode): BE in f. b., BC in r. b.
IE

IC

IC

IE

IB

C
IE

IB

IB

F IE

IC

Reverse active mode: BE in r. b., BC in f. b.


IE

n
B

IC

R (IC )

IC

IE

IB

IB

(IC )

E
IE

IC

IB

In the reverse active mode, emitter collector. (However, we continue to refer to the
terminals with their original names.)
The two s, F (forward ) and R (reverse ) are generally quite different.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Ebers-Moll model for a pnp transistor


Active mode ("forward" active mode): BE in f. b., BC in r. b.
IE

IC

IC

IE

IB

C
IE

IB

IB

F IE

IC

Reverse active mode: BE in r. b., BC in f. b.


IE

n
B

IC

R (IC )

IC

IE

IB

(IC )

E
IE

IB

IC

IB

In the reverse active mode, emitter collector. (However, we continue to refer to the
terminals with their original names.)
The two s, F (forward ) and R (reverse ) are generally quite different.
Typically, F > 0.98, and R is in the range from 0.02 to 0.5.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Ebers-Moll model for a pnp transistor


Active mode ("forward" active mode): BE in f. b., BC in r. b.
IE

IC

IC

IE

IB

C
IE

IB

IB

F IE

IC

Reverse active mode: BE in r. b., BC in f. b.


IE

n
B

IC

R (IC )

IC

IE

IB

(IC )

E
IE

IB

IC

IB

In the reverse active mode, emitter collector. (However, we continue to refer to the
terminals with their original names.)
The two s, F (forward ) and R (reverse ) are generally quite different.
Typically, F > 0.98, and R is in the range from 0.02 to 0.5.
The corresponding current gains (F and R ) differ significantly, since = /(1 ).

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Ebers-Moll model for a pnp transistor


Active mode ("forward" active mode): BE in f. b., BC in r. b.
IE

IC

IC

IE

IB

C
IE

IB

IB

F IE

IC

Reverse active mode: BE in r. b., BC in f. b.


IE

n
B

IC

R (IC )

IC

IE

IB

(IC )

E
IE

IB

IC

IB

In the reverse active mode, emitter collector. (However, we continue to refer to the
terminals with their original names.)
The two s, F (forward ) and R (reverse ) are generally quite different.
Typically, F > 0.98, and R is in the range from 0.02 to 0.5.
The corresponding current gains (F and R ) differ significantly, since = /(1 ).
In amplifiers, the BJT is biased in the forward active mode (simply called the active
mode) in order to make use of the higher value of in that mode.
M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Ebers-Moll model for a pnp transistor


The Ebers-Moll model combines the forward and reverse operations of a BJT in a single
comprehensive model.
IE

n
B

IC

p
IB

E
p

IC

IE
IB

F IE

IE

D1
IE

D2

C
R IC

IC

IB

IC

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Ebers-Moll model for a pnp transistor


The Ebers-Moll model combines the forward and reverse operations of a BJT in a single
comprehensive model.
IE

n
B

IC

p
IB

E
p

IC

IE
IB

F IE

IE

D1
IE

D2

C
R IC

IC

IB

IC

The currents IE0 and IC0 are given by the Shockley diode equation:

VEB
VCB
1 , IC0 = ICS exp
1 .
IE0 = IES exp
VT
VT

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Ebers-Moll model for a pnp transistor


The Ebers-Moll model combines the forward and reverse operations of a BJT in a single
comprehensive model.
IE

n
B

IC

p
IB

E
p

IC

IE

F IE

IE

D1
IE

D2

C
R IC

IB

IC

IB

IC

The currents IE0 and IC0 are given by the Shockley diode equation:

VEB
VCB
1 , IC0 = ICS exp
1 .
IE0 = IES exp
VT
VT
Mode

B-E

B-C

Forward active

forward

reverse

IE0  IC0

Reverse active

reverse

forward

IC0  IE0

Saturation

forward

forward

IE0 and IC0 are comparable.

Cut-off

reverse

reverse

IE0 and IC0 are negliglbe.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Ebers-Moll model
pnp transistor
IE

IC

p
IB

E
p

IC

IE

F IE

IE

D1
IE

D2

C
R IC

IB

IC = ICS [exp(VCB /VT ) 1]

IC

IB

IC

IE = IES [exp(VEB /VT ) 1]

npn transistor
IE

IC

n
IB

B
E

D1

n IE
IC

IE

F IE

IE

IB

D2

C
R IC

IC = ICS [exp(VBC /VT ) 1]

IC

IB

IC

IE = IES [exp(VBE /VT ) 1]

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Ebers-Moll model
pnp transistor
IE

IC

p
IB

E
p

IC

IE

F IE

IE

D1
IE

D2

C
R IC

IB

IC = ICS [exp(VCB /VT ) 1]

IC

IB

IC

IE = IES [exp(VEB /VT ) 1]

npn transistor
IE

IC

n
IB

B
E

D1

n IE
IC

IE

F IE

IE

IB

D2

C
R IC

IC = ICS [exp(VBC /VT ) 1]

IC

IB

IC

IE = IES [exp(VBE /VT ) 1]

For an npn transistor, the same model holds with current directions and voltage
polarities suitably changed.
M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

IC -VCE characteristics

IE

IC

n
IB

B
E

IB

IE = IES [exp(VBE /VT ) 1]

D1

n IE
IC

IE

F IE

IE

D2

C
R IC

IC

IB

IC

IC = ICS [exp(VBC /VT ) 1]


F = 0.99, ISE = 1 1014 A
R = 0.50, ISC = 2 1014 A

A BJT is a three-terminal device, and its I -V chatacteristics can therefore be


represented in several different ways. The IC versus VCE characteristics are very useful
in amplifiers.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

IC -VCE characteristics

IE

IC

n
IB

B
E

IB

IE = IES [exp(VBE /VT ) 1]

D1

n IE
IC

IE

F IE

IE

D2

IC

C
R IC

IC

IB

IC = ICS [exp(VBC /VT ) 1]


F = 0.99, ISE = 1 1014 A
R = 0.50, ISC = 2 1014 A

A BJT is a three-terminal device, and its I -V chatacteristics can therefore be


represented in several different ways. The IC versus VCE characteristics are very useful
in amplifiers.
To start with, we consider a single point, IB = 10 A, VCE = 5 V .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

IC -VCE characteristics

IE

IC

n
IB

B
E

IB

IE = IES [exp(VBE /VT ) 1]

D1

n IE
IC

IE

F IE

IE

D2

IC

C
R IC

IC

IB

IC = ICS [exp(VBC /VT ) 1]


F = 0.99, ISE = 1 1014 A
R = 0.50, ISC = 2 1014 A

A BJT is a three-terminal device, and its I -V chatacteristics can therefore be


represented in several different ways. The IC versus VCE characteristics are very useful
in amplifiers.
To start with, we consider a single point, IB = 10 A, VCE = 5 V .
There are several ways to assign VBE and VCB so that they satisfy the constraint:
VCB + VBE = (VC VB ) + (VB VE ) = VCE = 5 V .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

IC -VCE characteristics

IE

IC

n
IB

B
E

IB

IE = IES [exp(VBE /VT ) 1]

D1

n IE
IC

IE

F IE

IE

D2

IC

C
R IC

IC

IB

IC = ICS [exp(VBC /VT ) 1]


F = 0.99, ISE = 1 1014 A
R = 0.50, ISC = 2 1014 A

A BJT is a three-terminal device, and its I -V chatacteristics can therefore be


represented in several different ways. The IC versus VCE characteristics are very useful
in amplifiers.
To start with, we consider a single point, IB = 10 A, VCE = 5 V .
There are several ways to assign VBE and VCB so that they satisfy the constraint:
VCB + VBE = (VC VB ) + (VB VE ) = VCE = 5 V .
Let us consider some of these possibilities.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

IC -VCE characteristics

IE

IC

n
IB

B
E

n
IC

IE

IB

F IE

IE

IE = IES [exp(VBE /VT ) 1]

D1
IE

D2

C
R IC

IC

IB

IC

IC = ICS [exp(VBC /VT ) 1]


F = 0.99, ISE = 1 1014 A
R = 0.50, ISC = 2 1014 A

Constraints: IB = 10 A, VCE = 5 V .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

IC -VCE characteristics

IE

IC

n
IB

B
E

n
IC

IE

F IE

IE

D1
IE

D2

C
R IC

IB

IE = IES [exp(VBE /VT ) 1]

IC

IB

IC

IC = ICS [exp(VBC /VT ) 1]


F = 0.99, ISE = 1 1014 A
R = 0.50, ISC = 2 1014 A

Constraints: IB = 10 A, VCE = 5 V .
5V
E

IC

n IE
IB

1V B

C
n

6V

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

IC -VCE characteristics

IE

IC

n
IB

B
E

n
IC

IE

F IE

IE

D1
IE

D2

C
R IC

IB

IE = IES [exp(VBE /VT ) 1]

IC

IB

IC

IC = ICS [exp(VBC /VT ) 1]


F = 0.99, ISE = 1 1014 A
R = 0.50, ISC = 2 1014 A

Constraints: IB = 10 A, VCE = 5 V .
5V
E

IC

n IE
IB

1V B

C
n

D1 and D2 are both off, and we cannot satisfy the


condition, IB = 10 A, since all currents are much
smaller than 10 A.

6V

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

IC -VCE characteristics

IE

IC

n
IB

B
E

n
IC

IE

F IE

IE

D1
IE

D2

C
R IC

IB

IE = IES [exp(VBE /VT ) 1]

IC

IB

IC

IC = ICS [exp(VBC /VT ) 1]


F = 0.99, ISE = 1 1014 A
R = 0.50, ISC = 2 1014 A

Constraints: IB = 10 A, VCE = 5 V .
5V
E

IC

n IE
IB

1V B
p

6V

C
n

D1 and D2 are both off, and we cannot satisfy the


condition, IB = 10 A, since all currents are much
smaller than 10 A.
This possibility (and similarly others with both
junctions reverse biased) is ruled out.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

IC -VCE characteristics

IE

IC

n
IB

B
E

IB

IE = IES [exp(VBE /VT ) 1]

D1

n IE
IC

IE

F IE

IE

D2

C
R IC

IC

IB

IC

IC = ICS [exp(VBC /VT ) 1]


F = 0.99, ISE = 1 1014 A
R = 0.50, ISC = 2 1014 A

Constraints: IB = 10 A, VCE = 5 V .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

IC -VCE characteristics

IE

IC

n
IB

B
E

C
D2

C
R IC

IB

IE = IES [exp(VBE /VT ) 1]

D1

n IE
IC

IE

F IE

IE

IC

IB

IC

IC = ICS [exp(VBC /VT ) 1]


F = 0.99, ISE = 1 1014 A
R = 0.50, ISC = 2 1014 A

Constraints: IB = 10 A, VCE = 5 V .
5V
E

IC

n IE
IB

6V B

C
n

1V

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

IC -VCE characteristics

IE

IC

n
IB

B
E

C
D2

C
R IC

IB

IE = IES [exp(VBE /VT ) 1]

D1

n IE
IC

IE

F IE

IE

IC

IB

IC

IC = ICS [exp(VBC /VT ) 1]


F = 0.99, ISE = 1 1014 A
R = 0.50, ISC = 2 1014 A

Constraints: IB = 10 A, VCE = 5 V .
5V
E

IC

n IE
IB

6V B

C
n

D1 and D2 are both conducting; however, the forward


bias for the B-E junction is impossibly large.

1V

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

IC -VCE characteristics

IE

IC

n
IB

B
E

C
D2

C
R IC

IB

IE = IES [exp(VBE /VT ) 1]

D1

n IE
IC

IE

F IE

IE

IC

IB

IC

IC = ICS [exp(VBC /VT ) 1]


F = 0.99, ISE = 1 1014 A
R = 0.50, ISC = 2 1014 A

Constraints: IB = 10 A, VCE = 5 V .
5V
E

IC

n IE
IB

6V B

1V

C
n

D1 and D2 are both conducting; however, the forward


bias for the B-E junction is impossibly large.
This possibility is also ruled out.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

IC -VCE characteristics

IE

IC

n
IB

B
E

n
IC

IE

IB

F IE

IE

IE = IES [exp(VBE /VT ) 1]

D1
IE

D2

C
R IC

IC

IB

IC

IC = ICS [exp(VBC /VT ) 1]


F = 0.99, ISE = 1 1014 A
R = 0.50, ISC = 2 1014 A

Constraints: IB = 10 A, VCE = 5 V .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

IC -VCE characteristics

IE

IC

n
IB

B
E

n
IC

IE

F IE

IE

D1
IE

D2

C
R IC

IB

IE = IES [exp(VBE /VT ) 1]

IC

IB

IC

IC = ICS [exp(VBC /VT ) 1]


F = 0.99, ISE = 1 1014 A
R = 0.50, ISC = 2 1014 A

Constraints: IB = 10 A, VCE = 5 V .
5V
E

IC

n IE
IB

0.7 V B

C
n

4.3 V

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

IC -VCE characteristics

IE

IC

n
IB

B
E

n
IC

IE

F IE

IE

D1
IE

D2

C
R IC

IB

IE = IES [exp(VBE /VT ) 1]

IC

IB

IC

IC = ICS [exp(VBC /VT ) 1]


F = 0.99, ISE = 1 1014 A
R = 0.50, ISC = 2 1014 A

Constraints: IB = 10 A, VCE = 5 V .
5V
E

IC

n IE
IB

0.7 V B
p

4.3 V

C
n

D1 is on, D2 is off. This is a realistic possibility. Since


the B-C junction is under reverse bias, IC0 and R IC0 are
much smaller than IE0 , and therefore the lower branches
in the Ebers-Moll model can be dropped (see next
slide).

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

IC -VCE characteristics

5V
E

IC

n IE
0.7 V B

IB

C
n

4.3 V

n IE

F IE

IE

E
D1

C
IC

IB

(The actual values for VBE and VCB obtained by solving the Ebers-Moll equations are
VBE = 0.656 V and VCB = 4.344 V .)
The BJT is in the active mode, and therefore
F
IB = 99 10 A = 0.99 mA.
IC = IB =
1 F

IC -VCE characteristics

5V
IC

n IE
0.7 V B

IB

C
n

4.3 V

p
E
n IE

F IE

IE

D1

C
IC

IB

IC (mA)

n
0

3
VCE (V)

(The actual values for VBE and VCB obtained by solving the Ebers-Moll equations are
VBE = 0.656 V and VCB = 4.344 V .)
The BJT is in the active mode, and therefore
F
IB = 99 10 A = 0.99 mA.
IC = IB =
1 F

IC -VCE characteristics

5V
IC

n IE
0.7 V B

IB

C
n

4.3 V

p
E
n IE

F IE

IE

D1

C
IC

IB

IC (mA)

n
0

3
VCE (V)

(The actual values for VBE and VCB obtained by solving the Ebers-Moll equations are
VBE = 0.656 V and VCB = 4.344 V .)
The BJT is in the active mode, and therefore
F
IB = 99 10 A = 0.99 mA.
IC = IB =
1 F
If VCE is reduced to, say, 4 V , and IB kept at 10 A, our previous argument holds, and
once again, we find that IC = IB = 0.99 mA.

IC -VCE characteristics

5V
IC

n IE
0.7 V B

IB

C
n

4.3 V

p
E
n IE

F IE

IE

D1

C
IC

IB

IC (mA)

n
0

3
VCE (V)

(The actual values for VBE and VCB obtained by solving the Ebers-Moll equations are
VBE = 0.656 V and VCB = 4.344 V .)
The BJT is in the active mode, and therefore
F
IB = 99 10 A = 0.99 mA.
IC = IB =
1 F
If VCE is reduced to, say, 4 V , and IB kept at 10 A, our previous argument holds, and
once again, we find that IC = IB = 0.99 mA.
Thus, the plot of IC versus VCE is simply a horizontal line.

IC -VCE characteristics

5V
IC

0.7 V B

IB

C
n

p
E
n IE

F IE

IE

D1

C
IC

IB

4.3 V
IC (mA)

n IE

IC (mA)

n
0

3
VCE (V)

3
VCE (V)

(The actual values for VBE and VCB obtained by solving the Ebers-Moll equations are
VBE = 0.656 V and VCB = 4.344 V .)
The BJT is in the active mode, and therefore
F
IB = 99 10 A = 0.99 mA.
IC = IB =
1 F
If VCE is reduced to, say, 4 V , and IB kept at 10 A, our previous argument holds, and
once again, we find that IC = IB = 0.99 mA.
Thus, the plot of IC versus VCE is simply a horizontal line.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

IC -VCE characteristics

5V
IC

0.7 V B

IB

C
n

p
E
n IE

F IE

IE

D1

C
IC

IB

4.3 V
IC (mA)

n IE

IC (mA)

n
0

3
VCE (V)

3
VCE (V)

(The actual values for VBE and VCB obtained by solving the Ebers-Moll equations are
VBE = 0.656 V and VCB = 4.344 V .)
The BJT is in the active mode, and therefore
F
IB = 99 10 A = 0.99 mA.
IC = IB =
1 F
If VCE is reduced to, say, 4 V , and IB kept at 10 A, our previous argument holds, and
once again, we find that IC = IB = 0.99 mA.
Thus, the plot of IC versus VCE is simply a horizontal line.
However, as VCE 0 V , things change (see next slide).
M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

IC -VCE characteristics

0.7 V
E

IC

n IE
0.7 V B

IB

C
n

0V

When VCE 0.7 V (and IB kept at 10 A), the B-C drop is about 0 V .

IC -VCE characteristics

0.7 V
E

IC

n IE
0.7 V B

IB

C
n

0V

p
0.3 V
E

IC

n IE
IB

0.7 V B

C
n

0.4 V

When VCE 0.7 V (and IB kept at 10 A), the B-C drop is about 0 V .
As VCE is reduced further, the B-C junction gets forward biased. For example, with
VCE = 0.3 V , we may have a voltage distribution shown in the figure.
(The numbers are only representative; the actual VBE and VBC values can be obtained
by solving the E-M equations.)

IC -VCE characteristics

0.7 V
E

IC

n IE
0.7 V B

IB

0V

F IE

IE

D1

n IE

D2

IC

0.3 V
E

IC

n IE
IB

0.7 V B

0.4 V

C
n

R IC

IC

IB

When VCE 0.7 V (and IB kept at 10 A), the B-C drop is about 0 V .
As VCE is reduced further, the B-C junction gets forward biased. For example, with
VCE = 0.3 V , we may have a voltage distribution shown in the figure.
(The numbers are only representative; the actual VBE and VBC values can be obtained
by solving the E-M equations.)
Now, the component IC0 in the E-M model becomes significant, IC = F IE0 IC0
reduces, and IC becomes smaller than IB .

IC -VCE characteristics
saturation
0.7 V
IC

n IE
0.7 V B

IB

0V

1
C

D1

n IE

D2

0.3 V
E

IC

n IE
IB

0.7 V B
p

0.4 V

C
n

linear

F IE

IE

R IC

IC

IB

IC

IC (mA)

p
0

3
VCE (V)

When VCE 0.7 V (and IB kept at 10 A), the B-C drop is about 0 V .
As VCE is reduced further, the B-C junction gets forward biased. For example, with
VCE = 0.3 V , we may have a voltage distribution shown in the figure.
(The numbers are only representative; the actual VBE and VBC values can be obtained
by solving the E-M equations.)
Now, the component IC0 in the E-M model becomes significant, IC = F IE0 IC0
reduces, and IC becomes smaller than IB .
The region where IC < IB is called the saturation region.
M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

IC -VCE characteristics

saturation
linear

IC (mA)

IB = 20 A

IB = 10 A

3
VCE (V)

If IB is doubled (from 10 A to 20 A), IC = IB changes by a factor of 2 in the linear


region. Apart from that, there is no qualitative change in the IC VCE plot.

IC -VCE characteristics

saturation
linear

IC (mA)

IB = 20 A

IB = 10 A

3
VCE (V)

If IB is doubled (from 10 A to 20 A), IC = IB changes by a factor of 2 in the linear


region. Apart from that, there is no qualitative change in the IC VCE plot.
Clearly, the IC VCE behaviour of a BJT is not represented by a single curve but by a
family of curves, known as the IC VCE characteristics.

IC -VCE characteristics

saturation

saturation

linear

5
IB = 20 A

50 A

4
IC (mA)

IC (mA)

linear

IB = 10 A

40 A

30 A

20 A

1
0

3
VCE (V)

0
0

IB = 10 A

3
VCE (V)

If IB is doubled (from 10 A to 20 A), IC = IB changes by a factor of 2 in the linear


region. Apart from that, there is no qualitative change in the IC VCE plot.
Clearly, the IC VCE behaviour of a BJT is not represented by a single curve but by a
family of curves, known as the IC VCE characteristics.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

IC -VCE characteristics

saturation

saturation

linear

5
IB = 20 A

50 A

4
IC (mA)

IC (mA)

linear

IB = 10 A

40 A

30 A

20 A

1
0

3
VCE (V)

0
0

IB = 10 A

3
VCE (V)

If IB is doubled (from 10 A to 20 A), IC = IB changes by a factor of 2 in the linear


region. Apart from that, there is no qualitative change in the IC VCE plot.
Clearly, the IC VCE behaviour of a BJT is not represented by a single curve but by a
family of curves, known as the IC VCE characteristics.
The IE VCB and IC VBE characteristics of a BJT are also useful in understanding
BJT circuits.
M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

A simple BJT circuit (revisited)

10 V VCC
1k
IC

2V
VBB

RC

n
= 100

RB I B
IE

We are now in a position to explain what happens when RB is decreased from 100 k
to 10 k in the above circuit.

A simple BJT circuit (revisited)


saturation
linear

15
10 V VCC

IC

2V
VBB

RC

n
= 100

RB I B
IE

130 A (RB = 10 k)
IC (mA)

1k

10

5
13 A (RB = 100 k)

n
0

4
6
VCE (V)

10

We are now in a position to explain what happens when RB is decreased from 100 k
to 10 k in the above circuit.
VBB 0.7 V
Let us plot IC VCE curves for IB
for the two values of RB .
RB

A simple BJT circuit (revisited)


saturation
linear

15
10 V VCC

IC

2V
VBB

RC

n
= 100

RB I B
IE

130 A (RB = 10 k)
IC (mA)

1k

10
load line

5
13 A (RB = 100 k)

n
0

4
6
VCE (V)

10

We are now in a position to explain what happens when RB is decreased from 100 k
to 10 k in the above circuit.
VBB 0.7 V
Let us plot IC VCE curves for IB
for the two values of RB .
RB
In addition to the BJT IC VCE curve, the circuit variables must also satisfy the
constraint, VCC = VCE + IC RC , a straight line in the IC VCE plane.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

A simple BJT circuit (revisited)


saturation
linear

15
10 V VCC

IC

2V
VBB

RC

n
= 100

RB I B
IE

130 A (RB = 10 k)
IC (mA)

1k

10
load line

5
13 A (RB = 100 k)

n
0

4
6
VCE (V)

10

We are now in a position to explain what happens when RB is decreased from 100 k
to 10 k in the above circuit.
VBB 0.7 V
Let us plot IC VCE curves for IB
for the two values of RB .
RB
In addition to the BJT IC VCE curve, the circuit variables must also satisfy the
constraint, VCC = VCE + IC RC , a straight line in the IC VCE plane.
The intersection of the load line and the BJT characteristics gives the solution for the
circuit. For RB = 10 k, note that the BJT operates in the saturation region, leading
to VCE 0.2 V , and IC = 9.8 mA.
M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay