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Ministry of Education and Youth of Moldova

Technical University of Moldova


The Faculty of Engineering and Management in Electronics and
Telecommunications

Report
Theme: Personal computer (PC)

Made by student

Gin Denis
gr. SOE-141

Checked by

Ababii Mariana

Plan
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Types of PCs
PC assemblage
PCs in the late 1970s
Faster, smaller, and more-powerful PCs
Modern PCs

Key words:
Personal computer (PC) - a small, relatively inexpensive computer designed for an
individual user.

Microprocessor - IC (integrated circuit) chip for controlling the system and processing the
data.

Chip (microchip) - small electronic component with an integrated circuit on a piece of silicon.
IC (integrated circuit) - electronic circuit containing many components on a single silicon
chip.

Microelectronics - electronics using integrated circuits.


DVD - digital video disc.
WLAN - wireless local area network.
Hardware - the mechanical, magnetic, electronic, and electrical devices that form a computer
system, as the CPU, disk drives, keyboard, or screen.

Software - the programs used to direct the operation of a computer.


Motherboard - is the main printed circuit board (PCB) found in computers and other
expandable systems. It holds many of the crucial electronic components of the system, such as
the central processing unit(CPU) and memory, and provides connectors for other peripherals.

All are based on the microprocessor technology that enables manufacturers to put an
entire CPU on one chip.

Types of PCs
There are 2 types of personal computers: Stationary and Portable.
Stationary PCs are: Workstation, Desktop computer, Gaming computer, Single unit, Nettop, and Home
theater PC.
Portable PCs are: Laptop (notebook), Desktop replacement, Netbook, Tablet, Ultra-mobile PC and
Pocket PC.

PC assemblage
A typical personal computer assemblage consists of:

1. CPU (Microprocessor)
2. Two types of computer memory, main memory, such as digital random-access memory
(RAM), and auxiliary memory, such as magnetic hard disks and special optical compact
discs, or read-only memory (ROM) discs (CD-ROMs and DVD-ROMs)
3. Expansion cards (graphics cards, etc.)
4. Power supply
5. Optical disc drive
6. Storage (Hard disk)
7. Motherboard
8. Speakers
9. Display
10.System software
11.Application software
12.Keyboard
13.Mouse

Personal Computers in the Late 1970s


Personal computers first appeared in the late 1970s. One of the first and most popular personal
computers was the Apple II, introduced in 1977 by Apple Computer. During the late 1970s and

early 1980s, new models and competing operating systems seemed to appear daily. Then, in
1981, IBM entered the fray with its first personal computer, known as the IBM PC. The IBM PC
quickly became the personal computer of choice, and most other personal computer
manufacturers fell by the wayside. One of the few companies to survive IBM's onslaught was
Apple Computer, which remains a major player in the personal computer marketplace.

Faster, smaller, and more-powerful PCs


The memory capacity of personal computers had increased from 64 kilobytes (64,000 characters)
in the late 1970s to 100 megabytes (100 million characters) by the early 90s to several gigabytes
(billions of characters) by the early 2000s to several terabytes nowadays.

Modern PCs
Modern personal computers often have connections to the Internet, allowing access to the World
Wide Web and a wide range of other resources. Personal computers may be connected to a local
area network (LAN), either by a cable or a wireless connection.
Today's users have access to a wide range of commercial software, freeware and free and opensource software, which is provided in ready-to-run or ready-to-compile form. Since the early
1990s, Microsoft operating systems and Intel hardware have dominated much of the personal
computer market, first with MS-DOS and then with Windows. Popular alternatives to Microsoft's
Windows operating systems include Apple's OS X and the free opensource Linux and BSD operating systems. AMD provides the major alternative to Intel's central
processing units. Applications and games for PCs are typically developed and distributed
independently from the hardware or OS manufacturers, whereas software for many mobile
phones and other portable systems is approved and distributed through a centralized online store.
Today, the world of personal computers is basically divided between Apple Macintoshes and
PCs.

Sources
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personal_computer
http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/P/personal_computer.html
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/452928/personal-computer-PC