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Home Economics

Home economics, now known as family and consumer sciences (FCS), is the profession and field of study that deals with
the economics and management of the home and community. The field deals with the relationship between individuals,
families, and communities, and the environment in which they live. As a subject of study, FCS is taught in secondary schools,
colleges and universities, vocational schools, and in adult education centers; students include women and men. It prepares
students for homemaking or professional careers, or to assist in preparing to fulfill real-life responsibilities at home. As an
academic profession, it includes educators in the field and human services professionals. The field represents many disciplines
including consumer science, nutrition, food preparation, parenting, early childhood education, family economics, human
development, interior design, textiles, apparel design, as well as other related subjects. Family and Consumer Sciences
education focuses on individuals and families living in society throughout their lifespan, thus dealing not only with families but
also with their interrelationships with the communities. Other topics such as sexual education and fire prevention may also be


The Home Economics Education (HELE) aims:
1. To expose students to varied activities that develop in them the skills of organization and systematic planning, the value of
creativity, resourcefulness, industry, the desire for functionality and concern for the environment;
2. To develop awareness of self-help habits and active participation in decision-making at home, in school, and in the
3. To help the students in achieving healthy, wholesome family and community relationships
4. To develop an appreciation of what is truly Filipino by using indigenous materials in their projects.
Topics taught in this subject include the following:

Health & Personal Hygiene

Clothing & Accessories
Learning Embroidery
Managing a Home
Caring & Furnishing the Home
Caring for the Sick
Cooking for the Family

Table Setting
Safety in the Home
Leisure Time
Food Preservation
Computer Education


Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock, is a socially or ritually recognized union or legal contract between spouses
that establishes rights and obligations between them, between them and their children, and between them and their inlaws. The definition of marriage varies according to different cultures, but it is principally an institution in which
interpersonal relationships, usually sexual, are acknowledged. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered
to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity. When defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal.

Collection of rights

Edmund Leach criticized Gough's definition for being too restrictive in terms of recognized legitimate offspring and
suggested that marriage be viewed in terms of the different types of rights it serves to establish. In 1955 article in Man,
Leach argued that no one definition of marriage applied to all cultures. He offered a list of ten rights associated with
marriage, including sexual monopoly and rights with respect to children, with specific rights differing across cultures.
Those rights, according to Leach, included:

1. "To establish a legal father of a woman's children.

2. To establish a legal mother of a man's children.
3. To give the husband a monopoly in the wife's sexuality.
4. To give the wife a monopoly in the husband's sexuality.
5. To give the husband partial or monopolistic rights to the wife's domestic and other labour services.
6. To give the wife partial or monopolistic rights to the husband's domestic and other labour services.
7. To give the husband partial or total control over property belonging or potentially accruing to the wife.
8. To give the wife partial or total control over property belonging or potentially accruing to the husband.
9. To establish a joint fund of property a partnership for the benefit of the children of the marriage.
To establish a socially significant 'relationship of affinity' between the husband and his wife's brothers."

Types of Marriage


Monogamy is a form of marriage in which an individual has only one spouse during their lifetime or at any one time
(serial monogamy). Anthropologist Jack Goody's comparative study of marriage around the world utilizing the
Ethnographic Atlas found a strong correlation between intensive plough agriculture, dowry and monogamy. This pattern
was found in a broad swath of Eurasian societies from Japan to Ireland. The majority of Sub-Saharan African societies that

practice extensive hoe agriculture, in contrast, show a correlation between "Bride price," and polygamy. A further study
drawing on the Ethnographic Atlas showed a statistical correlation between increasing size of the society, the belief in
"high gods" to support human morality, and monogamy. In the countries which do not permit polygamy, a person who
marries in one of those countries a person while still being lawfully married to another commits the crime of bigamy. In
all cases, the second marriage is considered legally null and void. Besides the second and subsequent marriages being
void, the bigamist is also liable to other penalties, which also vary between jurisdictions.


Polygamy is a marriage which includes more than two partners. When a man is married to more than one wife at a time,
the relationship is called polygyny, and there is no marriage bond between the wives; and when a woman is married to
more than one husband at a time, it is called polyandry, and there is no marriage bond between the husbands. If a
marriage includes multiple husbands and wives, it can be called group marriage. A molecular genetics study of global
human genetic diversity argued that sexual polygyny was typical of human reproductive patterns until the shift to
sedentary farming communities approximately 10,000 to 5,000 years ago in Europe and Asia, and more recently in Africa
and the AmericasMarriages are classified according to the number of legal spouses an individual has. The suffix "-gamy"
refers specifically to the number of spouses, as in bi-gamy (two spouses, generally illegal in most nations), and polygamy (more than one spouse).


Polygyny usually grants wives equal status, although the husband may have personal preferences. One type of de facto
polygyny is concubinage, where only one women get the wife right and status, while other women remain legal house
mistresses. Although a society may be classified as polygynous, not all marriages in it necessarily are; monogamous
marriages may in fact predominate. It is to this flexibility that Anthropologist Robin Fox attributes its success as a social
support system: "This has often meant given the imbalance in the sex ratios, the higher male infant mortality, the
shorter life span of males, the loss of males in wartime, etc. that often women were left without financial support from
husbands. To correct this condition, females had to be killed at birth, remain single, become prostitutes, or be siphoned
off into celibate religious orders. Polygynous systems have the advantage that they can promise, as did the Mormons, a
home and family for every woman."


Polyandry is notably more rare than polygyny, though less rare than the figure commonly cited in the Ethnographic Atlas
(1980) which listed only those polyandrous societies found in the Himalayan Mountains. More recent studies have found
53 societies outside the 28 found in the Himalayans which practice polyandry. It is most common in egalitarian societies
marked by high male mortality or male absenteeism. It is associated with partible paternity, the cultural belief that a
child can have more than one father. The explanation for polyandry in the Himalayan Mountains is related to the scarcity
of land; the marriage of all brothers in a family to the same wife (fraternal polyandry) allows family land to remain intact
and undivided. If every brother married separately and had children, family land would be split into unsustainable small
plots. In Europe, this was prevented through the social practice of impartible inheritance (the dis-inheriting of most
siblings, some of whom went on to become celibate monks and priests).

Marriage law
Rights and obligations

A marriage bestows rights and obligations on the married parties, and sometimes on relatives as well, being the sole
mechanism for the creation of affinal ties (in-laws). These may include, depending on jurisdiction:


Giving a husband/wife or his/her family control over a spouse's sexual services, labor, and property.
Giving a husband/wife responsibility for a spouse's debts.
Giving a husband/wife visitation rights when his/her spouse is incarcerated or hospitalized.
Giving a husband/wife control over his/her spouse's affairs when the spouse is incapacitated.
Establishing the second legal guardian of a parent's child.
Establishing a joint fund of property for the benefit of children.
Establishing a relationship between the families of the spouses.


Dating is a stage of romantic and/or sexual relationships in humans whereby two or more people meet socially, possibly
as friends or with the aim of each assessing the other's suitability as a partner in a more committed intimate relationship
or marriage. It can be a form of courtship consisting of social activities done by the couple. The protocols and practices of
dating, and the terms used to describe it, vary considerably from country to country and over time. While the term has
several meanings, the most frequent usage refers to two or more people exploring whether they are romantically and/or

sexually compatible by participating in dates with the other. With the use of modern technology, people can date via
telephone or computer or meet in person.

Going Steady

Going steady means committed to one only.

If they call while you're out, you're expected to explain your absence.
If they drop in unexpectedly you welcome them.
You remain available weekends and possibly some week day evenings.
They are obligated to spend most of their free time with you
Call you regularly and give up all other dating prospects.
Going steady is restrictive and should not be done without some thought.


An engagement, betrothal, or fiancer is a promise to wed, and also the period of time between a marriage
proposal and a marriage. During this period, a couple is said to be betrothed, "intended", affianced, engaged to be
married, or simply engaged. Future brides andgrooms may be called the betrothed, a wife-to-be or husband-tobe, fiance or fianc, respectively (from the French word fiancer). The duration of the courtship varies vastly, and is
largely dependent on cultural norms or upon the agreement of the parties involved. Long engagements were once
common in formal arranged marriages, and it was not uncommon for parents betrothing children to arrange marriages
many years before the engaged couple were old enough.

Mutual understanding

A relation of affinity or harmony between people; whatever affects one correspondingly affects the other; "the two of them were in
close sympathy.

Family Planning

Family planning, simply put, is the practice of controlling the number of children in a family and the intervals between
their births, particularly by means of artificial contraception or voluntary sterilization. Because "family" is included in the
concept's name, consideration of a couple's desire to bear children, in the context of a family unit, is often considered
primarily. Contemporary notions of family planning, however, tend to place a woman and her childbearing decisions at
the center of the discussion, as notions of women's empowerment and reproductive autonomy have gained traction in
many parts of the world. Family planning may involve consideration of the number of children a woman wishes to have,
including the choice to have no children, as well as the age at which she wishes to have them. These matters are
obviously influenced by external factors such as marital situation, career considerations, financial position, any
disabilities that may affect their ability to have children and raise them, besides many other considerations. If sexually
active, family planning may involve the use of contraception and other techniques to control the timing of reproduction.
Other techniques commonly used include sexuality education, prevention and management of sexually transmitted
infections, pre-conception counseling and management, and infertility management.

Table Manners

Table manners are the rules of etiquette used while eating, which may also include the appropriate use of utensils.
Different cultures observe different rules for table manners. Each family or group sets its own standards for how strictly
these rules are to be enforced.

Table Manner DO'S

Sit properly (and straight) in your chair

Talk about pleasant things
Place your napkin on your lap
Wait until everyone is seated before starting to eat
Watch others, or ask, if you're not sure how to eat
Ask someone to pass the food, rather than reach
across the table

Table Manner DONT

Chew with your mouth closed

Don't talk with your mouth full
Use a knife and fork to cut your meat
Say "excuse me" or "I'm sorry" if you burp
Say "no thank you" if you don't want a certain dish or
are full
Say "may I please be excused" before leaving the


talk about gross things

ask for seconds before others have had firsts
take more than your fair share
overload your fork or plate
gobble your food
chew with your mouth open


talk with your mouth full

play at the table
hum or sing at the table
tip your chair or lean on the table
eat with or lick your fingers
push your plate away when you're finished

Go Foods are the type of food that provide fuel and help us
go and be active. Examples of Go foods include bread,
rice, pasta, cereals and potato. These foods give our
muscles fuel to run, swim, jump, cycle and our brain fuel to
concentrate. If we dont eat enough Go foods then we can
feel tired and wont have enough fuel to get through the
day. Its important to include Go foods at all meals and
especially breakfast so that our body and brain can get
ready for the busy school day ahead.

Grow Foods help our body grow bigger and stronger.

Grow foods help build our bodys bones, teeth and
muscles. Examples of Grow foods include chicken, meat,
fish, eggs and milk, cheese and yoghurt. All of these foods
help to keep us feeling full so that we dont get hungry
straight away. Grow foods also help keep our brain bright
and focused. If we dont eat enough Grow foods our bodies
wont have the right building blocks to make us taller and
stronger. Protein is building food ("grow" food) that the body
uses to maintain muscles and tissues. Some proteins are complete -- they have all of the amino acids your body needs.
Other proteins are incomplete and must be combined to create complete proteins. Therefore, it is important to eat food
from a variety of protein sources.

Glow Foods are full of vitamins and minerals to keep our skin, hair and eyes bright and glowing. Glow foods can keep
our immune system strong so that we can fight bugs and viruses. Examples of Glow foods include all fruits and
vegetables. Brightly colored fruits and vegetables are full of vitamins and minerals and we need to eat different types
every day.

The Three Food Groups

A food pyramid or diet pyramid is a pyramid-shaped diagram representing the optimal number of servings to be eaten
each day from each of the basic food groups. The first food pyramid was published in Sweden in 1974. The food pyramid

introduced by the United States Department of Agriculture in the year 1992 was called the "Food Guide Pyramid". It was
updated in 2005 and then replaced by MyPlate in 2011.

Table setting

Table setting (laying a table) or place setting refers to the way to set a table with tablewaresuch as eating utensils and
for serving and eating. The arrangement for a single diner is called a place setting.

The formal place setting is used at home for a meal of more than three courses, such as a dinner party or a holiday meal.
Its simply the informal place setting taken to the next level, adding glassware, dishes and utensils for the foods and
beverages served with the additional courses. Its also used at high-end restaurants that serve multiple courses.
Everything on your table should be crisp and sparkling. White linens are still considered the most formal, but colored or
patterned tablecloths or place mats, and napkins can be just as elegant. Other possible elements include candles, a
centerpiece or multiple flower arrangements, and place cards. Place mats (if used) are entered in front of each chair,
about one to two inches from the edge of the table. A tablecloth is spread to hang evenly on each end and on the sides.
The average drop is 12 to 18 inches, but dont worry if it is a little long or shortyou just dont want it hanging too low,
or it will end up in the diners lap.

1. Service Plate: This large plate, also called a charger, serves as an under plate for the plate holding the first course, which
will be brought to the table. When the first course is cleared, the service plate remains in place for any other courses, such
as a soup course, until the plate holding the entre is served, at which point the two plates are exchanged. The charger may
serve as the under plate for several courses which precede the entre.

2. Butter Plate: The small butter plate is placed above the

forks at the left of the place setting.
3. Dinner Fork: The largest of the forks, also called the place
fork, is placed on the left of the plate. Other smaller forks
for other courses are arranged to the left or right of the
dinner fork, according to when they will be used.
4. Fish Fork: If there is a fish course, this small fork is placed
to the left of the dinner fork because it is the first fork used.
5. Salad Fork: If the salad is served after the entre, the
small salad fork is placed to the right of the dinner fork,
next to the plate. If the salad is to be served first, and fish
second, then the forks would be arranged (left to right):
salad fork, fish fork, dinner fork.
6. Dinner Knife: The large dinner knife is placed to the right
of the dinner plate.
7. Fish Knife: The specially shaped fish knife goes to the right
of the dinner knife.
8. Salad Knife (Note: there is no salad knife in the
illustration): If used, according to the above menu, it would
be placed to the left of the dinner knife, next to the dinner
plate. If the salad is to be served first, and fish second, then the knives would be arranged (left to right): dinner knife, fish
knife, salad knife.
9. Soup Spoon or Fruit Spoon: If soup or fruit is served as a first course, then the accompanying spoon goes to the right of
the knives.
10. Oyster Fork: If shellfish are to be served, the oyster fork goes to the right of the spoons. Note: It is the only fork ever
placed on the right of the plate.
11. Butter Knife: The small spreader is paced diagonally on top of the butter plate, handle on the right and blade down.
12. Glasses: These are placed on the right, above the knives and spoons. They can number up to five and are placed in the
order they will be used. When there are more than three glasses, they can be arranged with smaller glasses in front. The
water goblet (la) is placed directly above the knives. Just to the right are placed a red (lc) or white (ld) wine glass. A sherry
glass or champagne flute (le), to accompany a first course or for an opening toast, go to the right of the wine glasses.
Glasses used for a particular course are removed at the end of the course.
13. Napkin: The napkin is placed on top of the charger (if one is used) or in the space for the plate. It can also go to the left
of the forks, or under the forks if space is tight.

In General:

Knife blades are always placed with the cutting edge toward the plate.
No more than three of any implement are ever placed on the table, except when an oyster fork is used in addition
to three other forks. If more than three courses are served before dessert, then the utensils for the fourth course
are brought in with the food; likewise the salad fork and knife may be brought in when the salad course is served.
Dessert spoons and forks are brought in on the dessert plate just before dessert is served.

The placement of utensils is guided by the menu, the idea being that you use utensils in an outside in order. For the
illustrated place setting here, the order of the menu is:

Appetizer: Shellfish
First Course: Soup or fruit
Fish Course