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The economical design of your

infrastructure
Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 1

Plant layout

1 Pre-expanding
2 Silos
3 Steam generation plant
4 Compressed air plant
5 Cooling water supply
6 Shape moulding machines
7 Recycling plant
8 Extruder

5
4

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 2

Plant layout
Media

Steam
Water
Air
Vacuum
Electricity
Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 3

Plant layout
Steam supply

Steam

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 4

Plant layout
Steam supply
Chimney
Pressure reducing
valve 0.2-1.2 bar

Feed water tank


Locking valve
Steam boiler

To shape
moulding
machines

Water
conditionin
g plant

To preexpander

Pressure reducing valve


Main steam line

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 5

Plant layout
Steam supply, steam boiler

Taking out of steam


in batches

Steam consumption
during purging and autoclave steaming higher than
capacity of generator (steam boiler)

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 6

Plant layout
Steam supply, principle steam accumulator

Energy output by opening of steam valves:


low evaporation temperature
water evaporates abruptly by pressure decrease

Baffle sheets
Steam pipe
Steam

Water level control

Water
Steam from boiler
Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 7

Plant layout
Steam supply, pipes

Steam pipe

Steam velocity 25 m/s

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 8

Water quality
Conditioning of the boiler feed water

Conditioning of the boiler feed water


Aim:

to eliminate negative effect of water components

Negative components:

lime (water hardness)


iron
silicates
oxygen
carbon dioxide

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 9

Water quality
Conditioning of boiler feed water

Optimum temperature of feed water between


95 and 110 C

Feed water tank designed as degassing station


(pressure 0.2 0.6 bar)

Removal of the gases responsible for corrosion


(CO2 + O2)

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 10

Water quality
Conditioning of the boiler feed water

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 11

Water quality
Corrosion - Carry Over, example

Corrosion at
steam chamber,
2 years old !

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 12

Water quality
Corrosion - Carry Over, example

Steam outlet:
original material
thickness 15 mm,
in this case only
3 mm !

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 13

Water quality
Corrosion - Carry Over, example

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 14

Water quality
Corrosion - Carry Over, example

Steam chamber useless because of corrosion


Cause: Carry Over of steam accumulator
Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 15

Water quality
Corrosion - Carry Over

Carry Over caused by...


1. High decrease of pressure in accumulator or boiler
2. Unfavourable removing outlet at accumulator or boiler
3. Pipe diameter too small

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 16

Water quality
Corrosion - Carry Over

Indication and increase of Carry Over effects in case of ...


unusually strong corrosion
excessive conductivity values of the condensate
boiler or steam accumulator not regularly cleared from mud
frequent stand-still times of machines

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 17

Water quality
Corrosion - Carry Over

How a Carry Over is indicated and noted


recommended conductivity value for boiler:

< 5 mS/cm

recommended conductivity value accumulator:

<< 1 mS/cm

(theoretical conductivity inside the accumulator

= 0 mS/cm)

at a sample temperature of 25 C
recommended pH value boiler water:

between 8 and 9

condensate has pH value of 7


region 1 - 7:

acid

(drags at finger test)

region 7 - 14:

alkaline/soapy

(smears at finger test)

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 18

Water quality
Corrosion - Carry Over

4. Regular measuring and control of the water values of the plant

measuring of
total hardness
of water

pH - value
measuring
conductivity
measuring

measuring
content of
ferrous metals

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 19

Plant layout
Water supply

Water

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 20

Plant layout
Water supply

Water is required for:


Condenser cooling
Mould cooling
Vacuum pumps
Steam generation

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 21

Plant layout
Water supply
Cooling tower

Cooling water
circulation pumps

Water circuit
Condenser and vacuum
pumps

Water pressure
tank

Fresh water
supply
max.
min.

Hot water cycle for


mould cooling
Level switch

Hot water 50C


Pumps for
hot water

Overflow
Pumps for cold
water

Cold water 25C

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 22

Plant layout
Water supply
Optimum:

2 Water circuits

Hot water circuit

Cold water circuit

50C

25C

to cool moulds

to cool condenser
seal water for vacuum
pumps

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 23

Plant layout
Water supply

Advantages of 2 water circuits


Reduced water consumption
Faster temperature decrease at mould
Reduced cooling tower capacity
Dryer mouldings

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 24

Plant layout
Water supply

Principle of heat transfer during vacuum cooling


Phase 1:

Aluminium plate (hot) under steam atmosphere


(condition of steam chamber before cooling)

Steam

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 25

Plant layout
Water supply

Principle of heat transfer during vacuum cooling

Phase 2:

Water is injected, (step condensation)

Water injection
Water film

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 26

Plant layout
Water supply

Principle of heat transfer at vacuum cooling

Phase 3:

Water evaporates under vacuum (stabilization)

Vacuum (< - 0.6 bar)


Water film

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 27

Plant layout
Vacuum system

How a condenser works


Steam
Vacuum

Water
Outlet
Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 28

Plant layout
Water supply
Condensate
with
EPS beads

EPS beads accumulate at surface

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 29

Plant layout
Vacuum supply

Vacuum

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 30

Plant layout
Vacuum supply

Reasons for the use of vacuum during stabilization :


faster cooling through evaporation
moisture reduction in the mouldings
reduction of stabilization time
shorter cycle times

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 31

Plant layout
Vacuum supply

Single vacuum

Central vacuum

one or several
pumps at one
machine

central vacuum
station with 4 or 6
vacuum pumps

pumps are running


continuously

some pumps are


running continuously
remaining pumps are
only used when
needed

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 32

Plant layout
Vacuum supply

Advantages of the central vacuum system:


Vacuum is available much faster
Fewer pumps are required than for single
vacuum
reduced energy consumption
energy saving ~ 30 - 50 %
reduced need for spare parts
Increased production safety
Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 33

Plant layout
Compressed air supply

a
b
9

a
b
4

ir
a
r

ir
a
r

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 34

Plant layout
Compressed air supply

Air is required for :


Control air
Fill injector

High pressure

Compressed air in
general

Pressure fill tank

Low pressure

Demoulding
Drainage
Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 35

Plant layout
Compressed air supply
Kick back valve

Air tank HP
(control and filling air 9.0 bar)

Air tank LP
(Transfer and
ejection air 4.0 bar)

Compressor
HP 9.0 bar

Condensate
outlet
Fresh air
Compressor
LP 4.0 bar

Stand by
compressor

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 36

Plant layout
Compressed air supply

Optimum:

2 air circuits
Low pressure

High pressure

3...4 bar

7...9 bar

Demoulding

Control air

Drainage

Filling air

Pressure fill device


Air quality:

clean, dry, oil-free


use filter, oil separator and cooler

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 37

Plant layout
Compressed air supply

Specifications for compressed air


Temperature

: < 30 C

Techn. dust-free

: No solid particles > 10 m


particle size

Techn. oil-free

: Content of residual oil < 0,01mg/m

Humidity

: When a cooler is used only


water drops < 3 m are in the
compressed air, low humidity

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 38

Plant layout
Compressed air water content depending on the temperature

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 39

Plant layout
Water content in compressed air

Quelle:

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 40

Raw material and product transport


Ways of conveying

Mechanical transport systems


Pneumatic transport systems

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 41

Material conveying
Basics

Material transport

Raw material
transport

Transport or pre-expanded
material

To pre-expander

Mechanical
transport

From pre-expander
to silo

Pneumatic
transport

Pneumatic
transport

3
From silo to
moulding machines

Pneumatic
transport

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 42

Raw material and product transport


Raw material conveying

Careful transport
Avoidance of abrasion of the thin material coating
Avoidance of lumps

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 43

Raw material and product transport


Raw material conveying to the pre-expander
Material feeding
through suction pipe

air

Material feeding
through hopper

air

fan

dust
separator

fan

dust
separator

material

material
suction
pipe
hopper
octabin

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 44

Material transport
Ways of conveying

Low loading (1....10%)


EPS share

Air share

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 45

Material transport
Means of conveying

Packing density (%)

Density (g/l)

Conveying distances (m)

Venturi

Suction

Cellular wheel

0,75 - 1

3 10

8 20

8 20

10 40

10 150

- 10

- 150

- 300

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 46

Filling methods
Conveying speed

Conveying speed (m/sec)


between 10 u. 16 m/sec
< 8 m/sec danger of clogging
> 18 m/sec density increase
Venturi highest conveying speed
Cellular wheel lowest conveying speed, most careful conveying

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 47

Cellular wheel sluice


Basic design
Conveying
pipe

Material

Cellular wheel sluice

Fan

Cellular wheel

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 48

Raw material conveying


Pneumatic conveying
Injector principle
Material

Fan

Air

Conveying pipe

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 49

Raw material conveying


Pneumatic conveying

Suction and conveying via fan

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 50

Material conveying
Outlet box

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 51

Material conveying
Discharge of the silos

Even flow

Uneven flow

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 52

Material conveying
Discharge of the silos

Bridges are built

Wells are built

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 53

Material conveying
Discharge of the silos

Discharge with uneven flow

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 54

Material conveying
Pipes

Aim:

From the feeding station to the material processing


place the density has to be kept as constant as
possible!

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 55

Material conveying
Pipes / pipe bends
Bending radius R = < 2 x D

Bending radius R = > 2 x D

Bending radius = R
Pipe diameter = D

Bending radius = R
Pipe diameter = D

Material accumulation

no material accumulation

no even material flow

Even material flow

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 56

Material conveying
Pipes
hard pipe fitting

soft pipe fitting

Material accumulation

no material accumulation

no even material flow

even material flow

danger of clogging

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 57

Material conveying / blowing


Density and conveying distance depending on pipe diameter
Density EPS
[g/l]

P ... const.
i ... const.

30

20
D ... 50 mm
D ... 100 mm

10

D ... 200 mm

100

Conv. distance L [m]


200

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 58

Material conveying / blowing


Density and conveying distance depending on number of bends
Density EPS
[g/l]

P ... const.
D ... const.

30

20
4 pipe
bends
6 pipe
bends

10

8 pipe
bends

100

Conveying distance L
200[m]

Kurtz GmbH
03.09.00.smvs-mb/jd-us

In-house fair 2002

page 59