You are on page 1of 37

Well-Ordering Principle (WOP)

Every non-empty subset of the set of natural


numbers has a least element.

Well-Ordering Principle (WOP)


Proof: By contradiction
Suppose that there is a non-empty subset of
that has no least element.
Let that set be P.
Let Q be another subset of
which contains
all the natural numbers that are not in P.
Clearly,

Well-Ordering Principle (WOP)


Note that 1 cannot be in P.
If this is the case, then P has a least element.
Then, 1 must be in Q.
Note that P cannot also contain the succeeding
natural numbers.
Now, suppose that Q contains an arbitrary
natural number k.

Well-Ordering Principle (WOP)


The succeeding natural number k+1 cannot be
in P.
If this is the case, k+1 would be the least
element of P.
Then, k+1 should also be in Q.
By P5,
Since P and Q are disjoint subsets of ,
P must be an empty set.

Well-Ordering Principle (WOP)


This contradicts our assumption that P is nonempty.
Therefore, no such set P may exist.
This proves the Well-Ordering Principle.

WOP is false for the ff sets:


1. (the empty set) has no least element
since there are no elements at all!
2. The set of all negative integers
3. The set of positive rational numbers
WOP is a property the set of natural

numbers uniquely has.

Archimedean Property

No matter how small a is compared to b, a


finite number of additions of a to itself will
eventually exceed b.
There are no nontrivial infinitesimals in the
set of real numbers.

Consultation Hours
TTh:
230-5

Fri:
8-12, 2-3

Quiz.
Write down the 3 steps in using the Principle of
Mathematical Induction.
1.

Show that the statement holds for 1.

2.

Assume that the statement holds for some arbitrary natural number k.

3.

Show that the statement also holds for the natural number k+1.

SEQUENCES
OF REAL NUMBERS

Question 1.
Can Ryan and James
cross the never-ending
bridge?
Yes
NO
Maybe

Question 2.
Can we color the box completely?

Yes
NO

Maybe

Question 3.
Will the sum of the areas of all squares be finite?

NO
Maybe

1 meter

Yes

Question 4.
Will the ball eventually stop bouncing?

Yes

NO
Maybe

Sequences
A sequence of real numbers
a 1 , a 2 ,..., a n ,...

is a function that assigns to each positive integer


n a number a n .
DOMAIN:
The numbers in the range are called the
elements or terms of the sequence.

Sequences
NOTATIONS:

a n n 1

a n
f n

Whats next in the sequence?

1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1, , , , , , ,
2 3 4 5 6 7 8


1
n

Harmonic Sequence

Whats next in the sequence?

3, 7,11,15,19, 23, 27, 31

4n
1

Arithmetic Sequence

Whats next in the sequence?

3 3 3 3
12, 6,3, , , ,
2 4 8 16

1
12
2

n1

Geometric Sequence

Whats next in the sequence?

0, 3, 8, 15, 24, 35, 48

Whats next in the sequence?

2, 4,8, 16,32, 64, 128

n1

Geometric Sequence

Whats next in the sequence?

1 1 3 1 3 5 1 3 5 7 1 3 5 7 9
,
,
,
,
2 2 4 2 4 6 2 4 6 8 2 4 6 8 10

1 3 5 ... 2n 1
2 4 6 ... 2n

Whats next in the sequence?

1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21

f n

where

f n f n 1 f n 2 and
f 1 f 2 1

Give the 1st 4 terms of the sequences


1
2

3n 1

1 1 1 1
ANS :
,
,
,
2 11 26 47

n
sin
2

ANS :1, 0, 1, 0

Find an expression for the nth term of the sequence

1,4,9,16, 25,...

ANS : an n

1 2 3 4

,...
0, , , ,
8 27 64 125

n 1
ANS : an 3
n

2,6,12,20,30,...

ANS : an n n 1

OUR INTEREST IN SEQUENCES:

f n
n

Behavior of
as

Let

lim f n L .

OUR INTEREST IN SEQUENCES:

Indicators:
increasing

bounded

or decreasing

necess
arynot
but
sufficie
nt

Example 1
Let

f n n 1 .
2

f n 0

15

24

35

48

f n 0

15

24

35

48

10

Example 2
Let

n 1

g n 1

g n 1

g n 1

1
1

Example 3
h n e

h n

1
e

Let

h n

1
e

Example 4
Let

j n 1

j n 1

1
.
n

1
2

1
4

1
6

j n 1

1
1

1
2

1
4

1
6

The Limit of a Sequence


The limit of a sequence f is the real number L

0 , however small, there exists a


number N 0 such that n is a natural
number and if n N , then f n L .
if for any

We write:

lim f n L

Definition.
If in lim f n L
n

, L exists,

Then the sequence is said to be


convergent.
Otherwise it is divergent.