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WOP-Limit Definition

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numbers has a least element.

Proof: By contradiction

Suppose that there is a non-empty subset of

that has no least element.

Let that set be P.

Let Q be another subset of

which contains

all the natural numbers that are not in P.

Clearly,

Note that 1 cannot be in P.

If this is the case, then P has a least element.

Then, 1 must be in Q.

Note that P cannot also contain the succeeding

natural numbers.

Now, suppose that Q contains an arbitrary

natural number k.

The succeeding natural number k+1 cannot be

in P.

If this is the case, k+1 would be the least

element of P.

Then, k+1 should also be in Q.

By P5,

Since P and Q are disjoint subsets of ,

P must be an empty set.

This contradicts our assumption that P is nonempty.

Therefore, no such set P may exist.

This proves the Well-Ordering Principle.

1. (the empty set) has no least element

since there are no elements at all!

2. The set of all negative integers

3. The set of positive rational numbers

WOP is a property the set of natural

Archimedean Property

finite number of additions of a to itself will

eventually exceed b.

There are no nontrivial infinitesimals in the

set of real numbers.

Consultation Hours

TTh:

230-5

Fri:

8-12, 2-3

Quiz.

Write down the 3 steps in using the Principle of

Mathematical Induction.

1.

2.

Assume that the statement holds for some arbitrary natural number k.

3.

Show that the statement also holds for the natural number k+1.

SEQUENCES

OF REAL NUMBERS

Question 1.

Can Ryan and James

cross the never-ending

bridge?

Yes

NO

Maybe

Question 2.

Can we color the box completely?

Yes

NO

Maybe

Question 3.

Will the sum of the areas of all squares be finite?

NO

Maybe

1 meter

Yes

Question 4.

Will the ball eventually stop bouncing?

Yes

NO

Maybe

Sequences

A sequence of real numbers

a 1 , a 2 ,..., a n ,...

n a number a n .

DOMAIN:

The numbers in the range are called the

elements or terms of the sequence.

Sequences

NOTATIONS:

a n n 1

a n

f n

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1, , , , , , ,

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1

n

Harmonic Sequence

4n

1

Arithmetic Sequence

3 3 3 3

12, 6,3, , , ,

2 4 8 16

1

12

2

n1

Geometric Sequence

n1

Geometric Sequence

1 1 3 1 3 5 1 3 5 7 1 3 5 7 9

,

,

,

,

2 2 4 2 4 6 2 4 6 8 2 4 6 8 10

1 3 5 ... 2n 1

2 4 6 ... 2n

1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21

f n

where

f n f n 1 f n 2 and

f 1 f 2 1

1

2

3n 1

1 1 1 1

ANS :

,

,

,

2 11 26 47

n

sin

2

ANS :1, 0, 1, 0

1,4,9,16, 25,...

ANS : an n

1 2 3 4

,...

0, , , ,

8 27 64 125

n 1

ANS : an 3

n

2,6,12,20,30,...

ANS : an n n 1

f n

n

Behavior of

as

Let

lim f n L .

Indicators:

increasing

bounded

or decreasing

necess

arynot

but

sufficie

nt

Example 1

Let

f n n 1 .

2

f n 0

15

24

35

48

f n 0

15

24

35

48

10

Example 2

Let

n 1

g n 1

g n 1

g n 1

1

1

Example 3

h n e

h n

1

e

Let

h n

1

e

Example 4

Let

j n 1

j n 1

1

.

n

1

2

1

4

1

6

j n 1

1

1

1

2

1

4

1

6

The limit of a sequence f is the real number L

number N 0 such that n is a natural

number and if n N , then f n L .

if for any

We write:

lim f n L

Definition.

If in lim f n L

n

, L exists,

convergent.

Otherwise it is divergent.

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