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Department of Technical Education

DIPLOMA IN CIVIL ENGINEERING


FOURTH SEMESTER CIVIL ENGINEERING/ CIVIL DSHIP
SUBJECT: WATER RESOURCES ENGG

Contact Hrs/Week: 4 Hrs.


CHAPTER
NO
1
2
3
4

Contact Hrs/Sem:64 Hrs.


CONTENTS

PART-A
Introduction to water resources engineering
Hydrology
Irrigation water requirements for crops
Irrigation system and methods of irrigation

NO OF
HOURS

MARKS
WEIGHTAGE
IN EXAM

02
06
04
06

05
17
12
16

12
06

30
16

PART-B
5
6

Reservoirs and Dams


Distribution works
PART-C

7
8
9
10

Cross drainage works


Diversion and river training works
Ground water engineering
Water resource management

04
06
04
05

10
15
12
12

10

Seminars, field/technical visit, inventions/innovations,


demonstrations, workshops etc

05

----

11

Tests and revision

04

----

64

145

FOURTH SEMESTER CIVIL ENGINEERING


SUBJECT: WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
DETAILS OF CONTENTS
PART-A
1. INTRODUCTION TO WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
Introduction and objects of water resource development, world water resources, water
resources of India and Karnataka
Advantages and disadvantages of irrigation
2. HYDROLOGY
Introduction and importance of hydrology
Hydrologic cycle
Precipitation and its types
Rainfall and its distribution
Measurement of rainfall , rain gauges types (Simons rain gauge and floating type rain
gauge ).
Mean annual rainfall and method of computation of average rainfall , (simple problems)
Water losses
Run-off and its measurements (no problems), factors affecting run-off
3. IRRIGATION WATER REQUIREMENT OF CROPS
Quality of irrigation water
Base period, duty, delta and their relationship (simple problems)
Crop seasons Rabi and Kharif
Factors affecting duty, methods of improving duty
Irrigation efficiency
4. IRRIGATION SYSTEM AND METHODS OF IRRIGATION
Introduction to irrigation systems and methods of irrigation
Gravity irrigation, lift irrigation, well irrigation tank irrigation and tube well irrigation
Subsurface irrigation, surface irrigation, sprinkler irrigation, drip irrigation , advantages
and disadvantages of various methods
Tube wells , open wells and their types

PART-B

5. RESERVOIRS AND DAMS


Introduction , site selection for reservoirs and dams
Earthen dams, gravity dams
Typical cross section of a gravity dam and earthen dam
Forces acting on gravity dams
Spillways and spillway gates
Reservoir sedimentation
Maintenance and restoration of tanks
6. DISTRIBUTION WORKS
Canal and its classification
Different methods of canal alignment
Layout of canal system
Canal lining , types
Canal drops, sluices and escapes
Maintenance of canals
PART-C
7. CROSS DRAINAGE WORKS
Definitions functions and necessity of cross drainage works
Selection of site for cross drainage works
Types of cross drainage works, aqueduct , siphon , super passage, level crossing, inlet and
outlet
8. DIVERSION AND RIVER TRAINIG WORKS
Definition of various diversion head works
Location , layout and components of diversion head works
Weirs, barrage and their differences
Body wall of a weir, divide wall- sketches and description
Approach channel , canal head regulator, Fish ladder
Marginal bunds, guide banks, weir protection works
Definition , importance and necessity of river training works
9. GROUND WATER ENGINEERING
Introduction , occurrence of ground water, importance
Aquifer, aquiclude, aquitard , aquifuge
Definition of porosity, ground water yield, specific yield, specific retention, permeability,
transmissibility
Types of aquifers
Measurement of yield, methods of measurement
Artificial recharge of ground water and its methods
Ground water pollution
protection of wells

10. WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMETN

water conservation- rain water conservation, rain water harvesting


Methods of rain water harvesting
Flood water management, water quality management, fresh water management , waste
water management and ground water management
Cloud seeding- definition , technique of operation
Watershed management and its importance
REFERENCE BOOKS
1. Irrigation and water power engineering-by B.C.Punmia, Pande, B.B.Lal
Lakshmi Publications, 7/21, Ansari Raod, Daryaganj, New Delhi - 110 002.
2. Water Resource Engineering By H S Vishwanath, Sapna Publications.
3. Principles and practice of irrigation engineering S.K.Sharma (S.Chand and
company Pvt. Ltd. Ramnagar, New Delhi - 110 055
4. Irrigation and Hydraulic structures S.K.Garg (Khanna Publishers, Delhi)
5. Irrigation Engineering - voi I, II and III K.R. Sharma
6. Theory and design of irrigation structures Varshney, S.C., Gupta And R.L.Gupta
7. A text book of irrigation engineering and Hydraulics structures R.K.Sharma
(Oxford - IBH publishing Co.,)
8. Ground water- H.M.Raghunath, New age international publisher
9. Hydrology Principles, Analysis and design, New age international publisher

* * * * ** * * * *

Department of Technical Education

DIPLOMA IN CIVIL ENGINEERING


FOURTH SEMESTER
SUBJECT: WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
Contact Hrs/Week: 4 Hrs.
Contact Hrs/Sem:64
GENERAL EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES:
Upon the completion of the study of the subject the student should be able to:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Know the importance of water resources and irrigation in India


Understand the concept of hydrology and its components
Estimate the water requirements of different crops and duty of water
Understand the various systems and methods of irrigation.
Understand the various types of dams, and their constructional aspects
Understand the methods of canal alignment, distribution systems and maintenance
of canals
7. Know the various types of cross drainage works and their importance
8. Understand the functions of various components of diversion and river training
works
9. Know the importance of ground water and various parameters of ground water
engineering
10. Understand the importance of water conservation and water management
SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES:
1.0 Know the importance of water resources and irrigation in India
1.1 Objects of water resource development and irrigation
1.2 World water resources.
1.3 Water resources projects of India and Karnataka
1.4 List the advantages and disadvantages of irrigation.
2.0 Understand the concept of hydrology and its components
2.1 Definition of Hydrology and its importance and scope
2.2 Concept of Hydrologic cycle and its components and process
2.3 Definition of precipitation and forms of precipitation.
2.4 Definition of Rainfall interception, infiltration , depression storage and overland
flow
2.5 Measurement of rainfall using rain gauges, non recording rain gauges(symons rain
gauge), recording type rain gauge (floating type rain gauge used by Indian
Meteorological Dept)
2.6 Definition of Mean annual rainfall and method of computation of average rainfall ,
By arithmetic average method and Thiessen polygon method(simple Problems)
2.7 Water losses due to evaporation, infiltration , transpiration and evapo- transpiration
2.8 Components of runoff , list the methods of estimating of runoff (no problems)
2.9 List the various factors affecting runoff
3.0 Estimate the water requirements of different crops and duty of water

.
3.1 Quality of irrigation water and the impurities of irrigation.
3.2 Definition of crop period or base period , duty and delta of a crop.
3.3 Crop seasons in India , definition of rabi and Kharif season and crops grown
3.3 Duty of water , relationship between duty and delta simple problems
3.4 List the factors on which duty depends.
3.5 Brief explanation of various methods of improving duty
3.6 Definition of irrigation efficiency and kinds of irrigation efficiency and their
definition
4.0 Understand the various systems and methods of irrigation
4.1 List the different types of irrigation systems and methods of irrigation
4.2 Brief explanation of gravity irrigation, lift irrigation ,well irrigation, tank irrigation
and
tube well irrigation their advantages and disadvantages
4.3 Definition and brief explanation of Sub surface irrigation and surface irrigationsprinkler irrigation and drip irrigation their advantages and disadvantages
4.4 Types and construction of open wells, various types of tube wells.
5.0 Understand the various types of dams, and their constructional aspects
5.1 List the types of reservoirs and dams
5.2 Factors governing the selection of dam site.
5.3 Explain brief with sketches the construction of earthen and gravity dams
5.4 Forces acting on dams- water pressure, uplift pressure, earthquake pressure, silt
pressure, wave pressure , weight of dam and combination of forces
5.5 Definition ,types of spillways and spillway gates.
5.6 Reservoir sedimentation- definition and ill effects of sedimentation in reservoirs
5.7 Explain the maintenance aspect of a tank and method of restoring an old tank
.

6.0 Understand the methods of canal alignment, distribution systems and


maintenance of canals
6.1 Definition and classification of canals.
6.2 List the various methods of canal alignment with brief explanation
6.3 Explain the layout of canal system
6.4 Explain the various methods of canal lining
6.5 Explain with sketches of canal drop, canal sluice and canal escape .
6.6 Explain the maintenance aspect of canals
7.0 Know the various types of cross drainage works and their importance
7.1 Definition and necessity of cross drainage work sand their function
7.2 Factors affecting the selection of site for cross drainage works.
7.3 Explain aqueduct, Canal siphon, super passage, level crossing inlet and outlets
with sketches
8.0 Understand the functions of various components of diversion and river training
works

.
8.1 Definition of various diversion head works.
8.2 Explain with sketches the various components of diversion head works.
8.3 Explain the construction of the body wall of a weir and divide wall
8.4 Explain approach channel, canal head regulator and fish ladder with sketches.
8.5 Definition of river training works, their importance and necessity .
8.6 Sketch and explain marginal bunds, guide banks and weir protection works
9.0 Know the importance of ground water and various parameters of ground water
engineering
.
9.1 Introduction , Occurrence of ground water saturate zone , aerated zone
9.2 Define aquifer, aquitard, aquiclude and aquifuge.
9.3 Define aquifer properties like porosity, specific yield , specific retention ,
permeability , water table ,co-efficient of permeability and transmissibility
9.4 Types of aquifers confined and unconfined aquifers
9.5 Define yield of a well and list the methods of measurement of yield of a well
9.6 Define recharge and artificial recharge of ground water and methods of artificial
recharge
9.7 Explain causes of ground water pollution.
9.8 Explain protection of wells ,
10.0 Understand the importance of water conservation and water management
10.1 Introduction to rainwater conservation and rain water harvesting
10.2 Explain the small scale and small tank harvesting and urban rainwater
harvesting
Explain flood water management , water quality management, fresh water
management , waste water management and ground water management
Definition and techniques of cloud seeding
Definition of watershed management and its importance

DEPARTMENT OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION


DIPLOMA IN CIVIL ENGINEERING
FOURTH SEMESTER
SUBJECT: WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
MODEL QUESTION PAPER
Duration : 3 Hours

Max. Marks: 100

Instructions: 1. SECTION-I is compulsory.


2. Answer any two full questions from the remaining sections
SECTION-I
Q1

(a)
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)

Fill in the blanks

1 x 5=05

(b)

Write short notes on ground water management

05

SECTION-II
Q2

(a)

Name the major water resources projects in India and


Karnataka.
Write the advantages and disadvantages of drip irrigation.
What are the factors affecting duty

05

10

(b)

Explain various processes of hydrologic cycle with a neat


sketch
Define 1)infiltration 2) runoff

(a)
(b)

What are the advantages and disadvantages of irrigation


Explain sprinkler irrigation and drip irrigation

08
07

(b)
(c )
Q3

Q4

(a)

05
05

05

SECTION-III
Q5

(a)
(b)
(c )

Draw the typical cross section of a gravity dam and mention


its components
What is a spillway? List and explain any one type of
spillway
Write short notes on reservoir sedimentation

05
05
05

Q6

(a)
(b)
(c )

Mention the various forces acting on a gravity dam


Explain earthen dam with a neat sketch
Write short note on maintenance of tanks

05
06
04

Q7

(a)
(b)
(c )

Define canal alignment and explain any one of them


Define canal lining and state the objects of canal lining
State the purpose of canal drop, canal sluice and canal escape

07
05
03

SECTION-IV
Q8

(a)
(b)
(c )

Define cross drainage works ? Explain their necessity


With a neat sketch explain canal aqueduct
What are diversion head works? explain the difference
between weir and barrages

05
05
05

Q9

(a)

Draw the typical layout of diversion head works and locate


its components
Explain confined and unconfined aquifer

10

Explain porosity and specific yield


Explain the importance of rainwater conservation and
rainwater harvesting
Define cloud seeding and watershed management

05
06

(b)
Q10

(a)
(b)
(c )

05

04