Sie sind auf Seite 1von 182

Helminth parasites of domesticated

animals in the Sudan


Bibliography
With abstract
(1958 2014)

Compiled and edited by


Dr. Osman Mukhtar Osman

First edition

Helminth parasites of domesticated


animals in the Sudan
Bibliography
With abstract
(1958 2014)
First Edition

Compiled and Edited by

Dr. Osman Mukhtar Osman


Department Of Parasitology
CentralVeterinary Research Laboratory

Published by:
Central Veterinary Research Laboratory
Animal Resources Research Corporation
Ministry of Livestock
2016 Central Veterinary Research Laboratory

Deposit No: 2016/525

Forward
Man and his animals have been plagued by helminth parasitic diseases
that cause huge economic losses. It is well known that helminth
infections are associated with significant loss of condition in infected
hosts while others cause serious clinical diseases characterized by high
morbidity and mortality. In the Sudan the magnitude of this problem is
huge and this is reflected by the considerable amounts of antihelminthics
used that cost the country millions of dollars annually. On the other hand
Sudan is now entering a new era in the field of animal production. The
intensification of livestock farming in dairy, fattening and poultry
production and the new approaches of fish farming and bees keeping
necessitate the in-depth understanding of helminth parasitic diseases in
such fields.
This bibliography will serve as an essential reference for parasitologists
in the Sudan. It is a valuable source of information for researchers in the
field of helminthology, veterinarians and animal breeders in general. The
book is the product of huge efforts of collecting and organizing most of
the scientific work published in helminths and the diseases they cause in
the Sudan. It includes 302 summaries of published scientific papers in
local and international journals, M. Sc. and Ph. D thesis and papers
reported in workshops and conferences during the period 1958-2014.
Communications from scientists whose work is not included here will be
a very useful addition to this effort.
It is anticipated that this book will have a considerable impact on
helminthological research as it consolidated all the information about
helminth parasites in Sudan for the last fifty years, in one volume with
all the references needed in the different aspects of this topic. The
bibliography will be a gold mine for the researchers who want to learn
about the history, accomplishment and problems of helminths in the
Sudan.
It is an honor to have been asked to write these introductory remarks and
I wish the author a bright future in this field which needs synergistic
efforts to proceed forward.
Prof. Ahmed Hussein Abdelrahman
Central Veterinary Research Laboratory

Preface
This work may be regarded as an attempt to index all the reports ever
published regarding helminth parasites of domestic animals in Sudan,
dating from the earliest known records (Malek EA, 1958) to the end of
2014. The first section consists of the bibliography and contains 302
abstracts from different recognized local and international scientific
periodicals, plus references from non-periodical literature (conferences,
workshops and postgraduate qualification degrees theses). The next
section of the book is index contains parasite list (Trematodes, cestodes,
and nematodes) set out with the Latin names. A simplified author index,
alphabetically arranged, concludes this section.
Although, it is possible that some papers may have been missed because
they were not in the databases searched, it is hoped that this book will
help anyone wishing to trace any literature dealing with helminth
parasites of domestic animals in Sudan.

Osman Mukhtar Osman


November 2014

Check list of Helminth parasites recorded from the Sudan

Phylum: Nematoda
Order:
Ascaridida Skrjabin and Schulz, 1940
Superfamily: Ascaridoidea Railliet and Henry, 1915
Family:
Ascarididae Baird, 1953
Genera: Ascaris, Parascaris, Toxascaris, Toxocara
Parascaris equorum
Toxascaris spp
Toxocara canis
Toxocara cati
Toxocara vitulorum
Superfamily: Oxyuroidea Railliet, 1916
Family: Oxyuridae Cobbold, 1864
Genera: Oxyuris, Skrjabinema.
Oxyuris equi
Skrjabinema ovis
Superfamily: Subuluroidea Travassos, 1918
Family: Heterakidae Railliet and Henry, 1914
Genera: Heterakis, Ascaridia
Heterakis gallinae
Ascaridia galli
Family: Subuluridae York and Maplestone, 1926
Genus: Subulura
Subulura brumpti
Order: Rhabditida Chitwood, 1933
Superfamily: Rhabditoidea Travassos, 1920
Family:
Strongyloididae Chitwood and McIntosh, 1934.
Genus: Strongyloides
Strongyloides papillosus
Strongyloides westeri
Order: Strongylida Molin, 1861
Superfamily: Strongyloidea Weinland, 1858.
Family: Strongylidae Baird, 1858
Genera: Strongylus, Triodontophorus
Strongylus equi
Strongylus edentatus
Strongylus vulgaris
Triodontophorus serratus
6

Family: Trichonematidae Witenberg, 1925


Genera: Oesophagostomum, Cyathostoma, Chabertia.
Oesophagostomum colombianum
Oesophagostomum radiatum
Oesophagostomum venulosum
Cyathostoma
Chabertia ovina
Superfamily: Ancylostomatoidea Chabaud, 1965
Family: Ancylostomatidae Looss, 1905
Subfamily: Ancylostominae Stephens, 1916
Genus: Ancylostoma
Ancylostoma tubaeforme
Ancylostoma caninum
Subfamily: Necatorinae Lane, 1917
Genera: Bunostomum, Gaigeria
Bunostomum phlebotomum
Gaigeria paschycelis
Superfamily: Trichostrongyloidea
Family: Trichostrongylidae
Genera : Cooperia, Trichostrongylus, Haemonchus, Nematodirus.
Genus: Cooperia
Cooperia pectinata
Cooperia pinctata
Genus: Trichostrongylus
Trichostrongylus axei
Trichostrongylus probolurus
Trichostrongylus colubriformis
Genus: Haemonchus
Haemonchus contortus
Haemonchus longistipes
Genus: Nematodirus
Nematodirus spathiger
Nematodirus filicollis
Order: Spirurida Chitwood, 1933
Superfamily: Spiruroidea Railliet and Henry, 1915
Family: Spiruridae Oerley, 1885
Genus: Habronema
Habronema megastoma
Habronema muscae
Family: Thelaziidae Railliet, 1916
7

Genera: Thelazia, Spirocerca, Gongylonema


Thelazia rhodesii
Spirocerca lupi
Gongylonema ingluvicola
Gongylonema pulchrum
Family: Acuariidae Seurat, 1913
Genus: Dispharynx
Dispharynx spiralis (Syn: Acuaria spiralis)
Family: Tetrameridae
Genus: Tetrameres
Tetrameres americana
Superfamily: Physalopteroidea Sobolev, 1949
Family: Physalopteridae Leiper, 1909
Genus: Physaloptera
Physaloptera canis
Superfamily: Filaroidea Weinland, 1858
Family: Setariidae Skrjabin and Schikhobalova, 1945
Genus: Setaria, Dipetalonema
Setaria cervi
Setaria equi
Dipetalonema evansi
Family: Onchocercidae Chabaud and Anderson, 1959
Genus: Onchocerca
Onchocerca armilata
Onchocerca cervicalis
Onchocerca gutturosa
Onchocerca raillieti
Subclass: Adenophorea Chitwood, 1958
Order: Enoplida Schuurmans, Stekhoven and Deconinck, 1933
Superfamily: Trichuroidea Railliet, 1916
Family: Trichuridae Railliet, 1915
Genus: Trichuris
Trichuris ovis
Trichuris globulosa
Trichuris vulpis
Phylum: Acanthocephala Rudolphi, 1808
Order: Archiacanthocephala Meyer, 1931
Family: Oligacanthorhynchidae Meyer, 1931
Genus: Oncicola
Oncicola canis
8

Cestoda
Class Eucestoda Southwell, 1930
Order: Anoplocephalidea Wardle, McLeod and Radinovsky, 1974
Family: Anoplocephalidae Blanchard, 1891
Genera: Anoplocephala, Moniezia
Anoplocephala magna
Moniezia expansa
Moniezia benedeni
Family: Thyasanosomidae Fuhrmann, 1907
Genera: Avitellina, Thysanosoma, Stilesia, Thysaniezia
Avitellina centripunctata
Avitellina woodlandi
Thysanosoma actinioides
Stilesia vittata
Stilesia hepatica
Stilesia globipunctata
Thysaniezia giardi
Order: Davaineidea Wardle, McLeod and Radinovsky, 1974
Family: Davaineidae Fuhrmann, 1907
Genera: Raillietina, Cotugnia
Raillietina cesticillus
Raillietina echinobothridia
Raillietina tetragona
Cotugnia digonopora
Order: Dilepididea Wardle, McLeod and Radinovsky, 1974
Family: Dilepididae Railliet and Henry, 1909
Genus: Amoebotaenia
Amoebotaenia sphenoides
Family: Dipylidiidae Wardle, McLeod and Radinovsky, 1974
Genera: Choanotaenia, Dipylidium
Choanotaenia infundibulum
Dipylidium caninum
Order: Hymenolepididea Wardle, McLeod and Radinovsky, 1974
Family: Hymenolepididae Railliet and Henry, 1909
Genus: Hymenolepis
Hymenolepis carioca
Order: Taeniidea Wardle, McLeod and Radinovsky, 1974
9

Family: Taeniidae Ludwig, 1886


Genera: Taenia, Echinococcus
Taenia saginata
Taenia hydatigena
Taenia pisiformis
Taenia taeniformis
Echinococcus granulosus
Phylum: platyhelminth
Class: Trematoda
Subclass: Digenea Van Beneden, 1858
Family: Dicrocoeliidae
Genus: Dicrocoelium
Dicrocoelium dendriticum
Dicroecelium hospes
Family: Fasciolidae Railliet, 1895
Genus: Fasciola
Fasciola gigantica
Family: Paramphistomatidae Fischoer, 1901
Generas: Cotylophoron, Gasrodiscus
Gasrodiscus agyptiacus
Family: Schistomatidae, Poche, 1907
Genus: Schistosoma
Schistosoma bovis

10

Helminth Parasites according to animal host species


Helminth Parasites of cattle in Sudan
Name of worm
Haemonchus contortus
Oesophagostomum
radiatum
Chabertia ovina
Onchocerca armillata
Onchocerca gutturosa
Nematodes

Trichuris ovis
Nematodirus spp
Setaria labiatopapillosa
Strongyloides papillosus
Cooperia pectinate
Trichostrongylus spp
Trichostrongylus axei
Dipetalonema sp
Hydatid cysts

Cestodes

Cysticercus bovis
Avitellina spp
Schistosoma bovis

Trematodes

Paramphistomum spp
Fasciola gigantica

Dicrocoelium hospes

11

Records
287
71, 215, 287
215
37, 42, 45, 75, 77, 146,
194
76, 90, 91, 92, 93, 142,
143, 144, 146, 154
212
71
75
212
287
215
287
220
4, 68, 71, 206, 210,
254,286
39,46, 63, 71, 83, 84, 85,
172, 212, 265, 266
287
6, 16, 23, 30, 53, 54, 59,
66, 70, 71, 126, 151, 188,
189, 200, 201, 203, 208,
212, 282, 287
71, 287
2, 16, 20, 65, 71, 136, 137,
139, 152, 153, 208, 212,
233, 234, 237, 257, 262,
282, 284, 287, 290
212

Helminth Parasites of Sheep and Goats in Sudan


Name of worm

Nematodes

Cestodes

Haemonchus contortus
Haemonchus
longistipes
Oesophagostomum spp
Oesophagostomum
columbianum
Chabertia ovina
Trichostrongylus spp
Trichostrongylus axei
Trichostrongylus
probolurus
Trichostrongylus
colubriformis
Trichuris spp
Trichuris ovis
Trichuris globulosa
Cooperia
pectinata

Records
3, 13, 26, 71,113, 114, 115,
116, 118, 121, 122, 239, 278
79, 145
98, 99,
26, 38, 71, 121, 122, 301
99
26, 35, 122
35
122
121
26, 182
35, 71, 122
120, 121
121

Strongyloides
papilosus
Impalaia tuberculata

26, 35, 98, 121, 122

Skrjabinema ovis
Hydatid cysts
Monezia spp
Monezia expansa
Moniezia benedeni
Avitellina spp
Avitellina
centripunctata
Cysticercus tenuicollis
Coenurus
gaigeri
(Coenurus cerebralis)
Stilesia globipunctata
Stilesia hepatica

95, 120, 121


4, 18, 68, 71, 253, 286
26, 182
35, 71,121
121
71
120, 121

12

122

72
73, 124,
120, 121
69

Fasciola gigantica

Trematodes

Schistosoma bovis
Paramphistomum spp
Dicrocoelium dendriticum

13

1, 14,15, 19, 21, 25, 71, 86,


123, 131, 133, 134, 135, 166,
181, 182, 262, 280, 289
71, 100, 150, 182, 240, 242
71, 182
122

Helminth Parasites of Camels in Sudan


Name of worm
Haemonchus longistipes

Nematodes

Cestodes

Oesophagostomum
columbianum
Oesophagostomum
venulosum
Chabertia ovina
Cooperia pectinate
Cooperia pinctata
Trichostrongylus spp.
Trichostrongylus
probolurus
Trichuris globulosa
Strongyloides spp.
Strongyloides
papillosus
Impalaia spp.
Impalaia tuberculate
Nematodirus spp.
Nematodirus spathiger
Parapronema skrijabini
Hydatid cysts

Stilezia spp.
Stilezia hepatica
Avitellina spp
Avitellina woodland
Monezia spp
Monezia expansa
Thysanosoma actinoide
Thyzanesia giardia
Stilezia vittata
Cysticercus tenuicollis
14

Records
31, 32, 33, 34, 50, 67, 78,
79, 80, 106, 111, 145, 184,
195, 213, 214, 268, 296,
297, 301
50, 213
195

213, 296
50
213
67, 111,213, 296
50,184, 195, 213, 296
213
268, 296
111, 195
213, 296
195
184,
184
17, 60, 127, 232, 236, 238,
246, 248 , 249, 250, 254,
255, 256, 286
268
268, 269
195
213
106, 195, 268, 269
269
269
106
72

Trematodes

Fasciola gigantica
Schistosoma bovis
Paramphistomum spp

15

291
190, 195
64

Helminth Parasites of poultry in Sudan


Name of worm
Subulura brumbti

Nematodes

Tetrameres Americana
Gongylonema ingluvicola
Ascaridia galli
Acuaria
(Syn:
Dispharynx) spiralis
Raillietina tetragona
Raillietina cesticilus

Cestodes
Raillietina echinopothrida
Choanotaenia
infundibulum
Cotugnia digonopora
Hymenolepis carioca
Amoebotaenia sphenoides

16

Records
7, 61, 74, 193, 222, 226,
251, 272
7, 61, 74, 222, 251
61, 74, 222, 251
7, 128, 222, 226,
272
61, 74, 222, 251
7, 61, 74, 104, 170, 216,
222, 224, 225, 226, 229,
251, 272
7, 103, 105, 129,
130, 222, 226
7, 222, 226
7, 129, 130, 222,
226, 229, 272
7, 222, 226
7, 130, 222, 226, 29
222

Helminth Parasites of Equine in Sudan

Nematode

Cestode
Trematode

Name of worm
Strongylus equi
Strongylus edentates
Strongylus vulgaris
Habronema megastoma
Habronema muscae
Onchocerca cervicalis
Onchocerca reticulate
Setaria equine
Oxyuris spp
Oxyuris equi
Parascaris equorum
Trichonema spp
Triodontophorus serratus
Trichostrongylus spp
Trichostrongylus axei
Dictyocaulus arnfieldi
Strongyloides westeri
Gongylonema pulchrum
Anoplocephala spp
Anoplocephala magna
Cyathostomes spp
Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus
Schistosoma bovis

17

Records
64
260
260
64
64
81, 110, 211, 109
110
260
258
64
5, 260
223
264
10
264
264
5, 10, 264
64
5
64
10
192, 197

1.

2.

3.

A/Gadir H, Haroun EM, Gameel AA (1987). The protective effect of


irradiated metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica against homologous
challenge in sheep. J Helminthol. 61(2):137-42.
Five lambs were each sensitized with 400 metacercariae of Fasciola
gigantica irradiated at 3 kr gamma rays. Eight weeks later, they were
each challenged together with 5 controls with 500 non-irradiated
metacercariae. Eight weeks later, all of the animals were necropsied and
the worm burdens determined. The lambs which received the sensitizing
infections had 80% less worms than the controls. The sensitized lambs
also showed less hepatic damage compared with the controls as indicated
by lower levels of the serum enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase. The
blood indices showed insignificant reductions in the sensitized lambs
whereas marked reductions were found in the erythrocytes, packed cell
volume and haemoglobin values of the challenge controls.
Bilirubinaemia was also evident in this latter group.
A/Rahman, M. B.; Zakia A. Mohammed; Osman, A. Y.; Bakhiet, H.
A.; Mohammed-Ahmed, O. and Halima M. Osman. 2007
.Concurrent Infection of Schistosoma bovis and Fasciola gigantica in
a dairy cattle in Khartoum State, Sudan, The Sud. J. Vet. Res., 22:
63-70.
The present study describes the pathological and haematological changes
of natural concurrent infection of Schistosoma bovis and Fasciola
gigantica in cattle at Soba west Irrigated Agricultural Scheme, Khartoum
State. Affected animals were local zebu dairy cattle and their cross bred
lines with the Holstein-Friesians. Both sexes were affected. They
manifested malaise, emaciation, rough coat, haemorrhagic diarrhoaea
and a decline in milk production. The most prominent macroscopic
features were pale carcasses, ascitis, green to black and small size livers,
distended-gall bladder and congested intestines. Microscopically,
chronic hyperplastic chollangitis associated with chronic hepatic
syndrome were noticed. Anaemia represented by a declined haemoglobin
concentration (Hb%) and a fall in PCV were encountered.
Abakar AD., El Amin EA., and Osman AY, (2000). Clinical response
to experimental Haemonchus contortus infection in desert lambs.
Sudan Journal of Veterinary Research, 16:1-10.
Changes in live body weight, faecal egg count, haematological and
biochemical values were studied in lambs experimentally infected with
3500 Haemonchus contortus third stage larvae over a period of 48 days.
18

4.

Infected animals showed loss of body weight and development of


clinical haemonchosis associated with anaemia, hypoproteinaemia and
reduced serum iron, calcium and sodium concentrations.
Abbakar Adam Mohammed (2005). Some Epidemiological Aspects
of Echinococcus granulosus And Isolate Charcterization In Animals
In Darfur States. Ph.D. University of Khartoum.
In this study, various epidemiological aspects of hydatidosis/
echinococcosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus in camels, cattle,
sheep and goats as intermediate hosts, and dogs and foxes as final hosts
in Darfur Region, Western Sudan were investigated. An abattoir survey
was carried out for hydatidosis in 565 camels, 4318 cattle, 13727 sheep
and 7523 goats slaughtered in the study area during October 2001 to
September 2003. New data were presented on prevalence of hydatidosis
in animals and humans. The highest rate of infection was found in
camels (61.42%), followed by sheep (10.88%%, cattle (5.23%) and goats
(1.58%). The size of the cysts, the volume of the fluid they contained,
the biological status of cysts, their predilection sites in different organs
and the intensity of infection in these organs were investigated. Cysts
collected from camels and cattle had high fertility rate (73.84 and
27.49% respectively) compared to the low fertility rate of sheep and
goats cysts (9.24 and 2.63% respectively). Daughter cysts were observed
in fertile cysts removed from camel and cattle lungs and livers. Cysts
predilection sites in camels was the lung (65.56%) followed by the liver
(34.09%), spleen (0.2%) and kidneys (0.15%), while in cattle, the
predilection site was the liver (55.26%) and lungs (44.74%). In sheep
and goats, the predilection site was the mesentery (83.13 and 48.69%
respectively.), followed by the lungs (11.71 and 28.95% respectively)
and the liver (5.15 and 22.37% respectively). The prevalence of the adult
parasite (Echinococcus granulosus) in 548 stray dogs and 116 wild foxes
in Darfur region was investigated. The prevalence rate in dogs was found
to be 19.16% but none of the foxes examined was found to be infected
with Echinococcus granulosus. This high infection rate in dogs
coincided with high rate of cyst recovery from camels (61.42%) in the
study area. Experimental transmission of infection through feeding
viable cysts from camels to dogs and also from camels, cattle and sheep
to foxes was conducted to compare the suitability of dogs and foxes as
definitive hosts of E. granulosus. The infection was established in all
animals fed viable cysts with variable numbers of adult worms recovered
at the end of the experiment. Worms developmental characteristics in
dogs and foxes that experimentally infected with hydatid material of the
19

5.

same source (camel) was studied. The average worm burdens in foxes
(19552) was less than in dogs (28807) and the proportion of worms with
gravid segments in foxes (24.5 31%) was also lower than in dogs (37
56%). The prepatent period was longer in foxes (69 79 days) than in
dogs (46 55 days). No significant differences in total worm length and
dimensions of scolex, hooks and suckers (P>0.05) were found between
worms harvested from dogs and foxes. This is the first record on
experimental transmission of Echinococcus granulosus to foxes in the
Sudan. The results provided evidence that foxes are potential definitive
hosts for the camel strain of E. granulosus in the Sudan although their
role in the epidemiology of hydatidosis is uncertain as none was found
naturally infected. The infectivity of E. granulosus of camel/dog strain to
local sheep and goats, and to wild gazelles (Gazella dorcas) was
investigated to monitor the possibility of their respective role in
maintenance of the parasite cycle. The results showed that 75% sheep
and 25% goats were infected with hydatid cysts. No fertile cysts were
recovered from these experimental animals. All cysts encountered were
either sterile, calcified or caseated. Most of the cysts in sheep and goats
were found in the mesentery. It is the first time to conduct experimental
transmission of Echinococcus granulosus to gazelles in the Sudan. None
of the two gazelles (Gazella dorcas) that inoculated orally with infective
eggs of E. granulosus of camel origin raised in dogs was found to
harbour hydatid cysts. This may be due to host immunity, parasite
characteristics or to the small number of animals used in the experiment.
A study on molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus
isolates encountered from different intermediate hosts (camel, cattle and
sheep) and from different localities of Darfur region were genotyped by
molecular methods. Samples of adult worms of camel, cattle and sheep
origin experimentally raised in foxes were also genotyped by the same
molecular methods. Polymerase chain Reaction-Restriction Fragments
Length Polymorphism (PCR RFLP) and mitochondrial cytochrome c
oxidase submit 1 (CO1) sequencing techniques were used to determine
the extent and distribution of Echinococcus granulosus genetic variation
in Darfur region. The findings of the study indicated that camel strain
(G6) is prevalent in Darfur region and was identified in camels, cattle
and sheep. Other strains of the parasite were not recorded in this study.
Abdalla M Ibrahim, Tamador E Angara and Ahmed A Ismail
(2011). Gastro-intestinal parasites of working donkeys in Khartoum
State. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry,
Vol. 50 (1&2): 178-186.
20

6.

7.

The present study was undertaken during April 2009 to January 2010. A
number of 203 questionnaires and 187 faecal samples of working
donkeys in Khartoum state were investigated. Out of 187 faecal samples,
119 (63.64%) were found to be positive for gastro-intestinal parasites.
Strongyles (67.38%), Strongyloides westeri (55.46%) , Parascaris
equorum (20.17%), Anoplocephala spp. (5.88%) and Eimeria leucarti
(13.45%). Gross faecal examinations revealed only sand. About 53.78%
of infected donkeys were severely infected. 6.72% heavily, 12.61%
moderately and 26.89% were mildly infected. Mixed infections were
detected in 60.50% of the infected donkeys. There was insignificant
difference in the infection rate between the three districts. According to
the questionnaire, only 32.5% of the owners used to deworm their
animals.
Abdalla, M. A (2014). Schistosoma bovis Prevalence in Rural
Surrounding Areas of Duiem District, White Nile, Sudan. 3rd
International Conference on Automation, Robotics and Mechanical
Engineering (ICAMR'2014) Jan. 5-6, 2014 Dubai (UAE).
We carried out a survey to determine the infection rates of Schistosoma
bovis, endemic to the Northern parts of Duiem district, White Nile State,
Sudan. Three villages, namely, Al-Oshara, Al-Hussien and Al-Goz were
selected for the survey which was conducted during the three seasons of
summer, winter and autumn from July 2011 to June 2012. Fecal samples
were collected and examined for detecting Schistosoma bovis eggs. The
incidence rate of infection in cattle was calculated seasonally. The
overall incidence of Schistosoma bovis in the study area was 6.6%,
where 19 animals of 287 examined were infected. The highest rate of
infection was in Al-Hussien village in the summer season being 16.1%.
The incidence was high in calves (>2 years) being (13.4%), but it
decreased according to sex which it was (8.2%) in females and (5.9%) in
males. In the same study period about 2911 of Bulinus truncatus snails
the intermediate host of Schistosoma bovis were collected. The infection
rate in snails were calculated which being (4%).
Abdel Nasir Ismail Mohamed Reian (1990). Parasites of Chickens in
the Sudan. M.Sc., University of Khartoum.
Four breeds of chicken investigated for ectoparasites and endoparasites,
from Khartoum province, Shendi and Port Sudan. The survey covered
586 birds which belong to the indigenous breed (Baladi) and three
introduced ones i.e. Fayoumi, White Leghorn and New Hampshire.
Beside morphological descriptions of the parasites, other parameters
were studied. These included the association of breed, age, seasonal
21

8.

9.

variation and geographic distribution on the prevalence, density and


frequency of these parasites. Species identified are: 1. Ectoparasites
Three species of lice, Menopon gallinae (100%), Menacanthus
stramineus (100%) and Lipeurus caponis (100%). One species of fleas,
Echidnophaaa gallinacea (9.5%). One species of ticks, Argas persicus
(5.1%). and one speices of mites, Cnemidocoptes mutans (2.3%). 2.
Endoparasites: Three species of protozoans, plasmodium gallinaceum
(2.0%). Eimeria acervulina (5.3%) and Eimeria maxima (5.4%). Six
species of tapeworms, Raillietina tetragone (15.35%), Raillietina
cesticillus (4.6%), Raillietina echinobothrida (3.4%), Cotugnia
digonopora (8.7%), Choanotaenia infundibulum (10.75%) and
Hymenolepis carioca (8.7%). Three species .of nematodes, Ascaridia
galli (22.5%), Subulura brumpti (21.6%) and Tetrameres americana
(1.7%). In addition to the survey, a small experiment on artificial
infection of chicken with Ascaridia galli eggs was conducted. The
course of experimental Ascaridiasis was monitored over a period of sixty
nine days. The dissertation ends with a general discussion of these
results and their relevance to methods of control.
Abdel Rahman, M. B.; Osman A.Y.; and Hunter A.G. Parasites of
the one-humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius) in the Sudan: A
review.
In the Sudan the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) is affected
by many parasites. These include protozoans, helminths and
ectoparasites. The most important diseases that threat camel health in the
country are trypanosomosis, mange and haemonchosis. Camel is also
infected with coccidiosis, toxoplasmosis, sarcocystosis, tapeworms,
hydatidosis, and ticks and nasal myiasis.
Abu sarra Hassan Yaggob Elzaki. (2011) Investigations on
Trypanosoma evansi and the gastrointestinal helminthes in
camels(Camelus dromedarius) at Elkhwai ,Kordofan.MVSc. theses
University of Khartoum.
Examination of 200 foecal samples from camels revealed the occurance
of the following helminthes in more than 90% of the samples.
Tichostrongylus spp. Haemonchus spp. Strongylus spp. Trichuris
trichura, Eimeria spp. Fasciola, gigantica, Paramphistomes spp and
Moniezia spp. The round worms were detected by direct and floatation
techniques while Fasciola was detected by direct and sedimentation
technique. In vitro cultivation of larvae revealed infections with
Oesophagostumum spp. and Nematodirus spp. The concurrent T.evansi
and gastrointestinal parasites appeared in 13(6.5%) of the surveyed
22

10.

11.

camels. The results indicate high prevalence of worm burden, which


requires control measures.
Adam A. A., Suliman S. E., Seri H. I. The Prevalence and Intensity
of Gastro-Intestinal helminths in Equine in North Darfur, Sudan.
Journal of Science and Technology,14 (1) 102-107.
A survey of equines (horses and donkeys) arriving at water points and
markets in El Fasher, North Darfur state, Sudan was carried out during
the period October 2011 and May 2012 to study the prevalence of
gastrointestinal helminth parasites. A total number of 1400 animal (900
donkeys and 500 horses) were examined for gastrointestinal helminths.
The overall prevalence with helminth parasites was 24.6%. 5% of the
horses and 35.5% of the donkeys examined were proved to harbour
gastro-intestinal nematodes. In donkeys and horses, the overall mean egg
per gram (epg) count was 642.238.0 and 352.073.3 with a range of
100-2900 and 100-1700 (epg), respectively. The animals harbouring
mild infection reported the highest incidence of 69.7% (donkeys) and
84% for horses, while moderate infection reported 15.6% (donkeys) and
8% for horses; and 14.7%, 8%for severe infection in donkeys and horses
respectively. The most dominant genera of gastro-intestinal nematodes
were Strongylus spp, Cyathostomes spp, Trichostrongylus spp, and
Strongyloides westeri.
Adam SE, Magzoub M. (1976). Susceptibility of desert sheep to
infection with Schistosoma mansoni of Northern Sudan. Vet Pathol.
13(3):211-5.
Each of two Desert Sheep was infected with 1500 cercariae of
Schistosoma mansoni of Northern Sudan. Signs of infection were
anorexia, soft faces, progressive weakness and loss of wool. The sheep
were killed 254 and 269 days after infection. The findings were heavy
infiltration of the lamina propria with inflammatory cells, numerous ova
in the submucosa, hyperplasia of lymphoid tissue, oedema of the
mesenteric lymph nodes, and focal pulmonary oedema and congestion.
There were egg granulomas, focal necrosis, schistosomal pigment, fatty
change, depletion of glycogen and reduction in the activity of adenosine
triphosphatase, succinic tetrazolium reductase and glucose-6phosphatase in the liver. In one sheep 1330 cercariae penetrated and 700
matured to produce males and females in a 5:2 ratio. In the other sheep,
about one third of the cercariae penetrated and matured. The ratio of
males to females was 3:1.

23

12.

13.

Adanan Ibrahim Hashim (1995). The Sero-epidemiology of Human


Toxoplasmosis and Internal Parasites of Cats in Khartoum. M.Sc.
University of Khartoum.
Six helminth species were recorded from the gastro-intestinal tract of 34
adult cats as follows: Cestodes were Diplopylidium genttae (8.8%);
Diplopylidium monoophoroides (26.4%); Joyeuxiella kofend (41.2 %).
Nematodes were Pterygodermatites spp. (8.8%); Toxascaris leonina
(3%); Physaloptera praeputialis (35.3 %).
Ahmed Abd Elrhman Ismail Ahmed (2002). Studies on Haemonchus
contortus Infection in Desert Goats in South Darfur State, Sudan.
MVSc. University of Khartoum.
The present study comprises a 12 month abattoir survey on the
prevalence of H. contortus in desert goats combined with experimental
studies on the disease course as induced by different dose levels of
infective larvae (150, 300 and 500 L/Kg bwt.). The results of the survey
demonstrated the prevalence of the parasite with seasonal variation
throughout the year. The highest percentage (100%) was recorded in
July, September and October while the lowest percentage (32%) was
recorded in March. The overall mean worm burden per animal was 369.6
11.4 for total worm count, 118.2 27.0 for adult worm and 306.2 62
for immature larvae. The prevalence of the parasite and the mean worm
burden were positively correlated with rainfall and relative humidity
rather than with temperature. The results of the experimental infection
demonstrated the susceptibility of desert goats to different levels of
infective dose of 150 L/Kg bwt.and above. The clinical signs were
manifested by dullness, weakness, inappetence, emaciation, constipation,
pallor of visible mucous membranes and reduced body weight gain.
Anaemia was further evident by the significant reduction in Hb.
concentration and PCV. H. contortus eggs were detected in faeces 17 to
18 days post infection with a maximum shedding on day 23 or 24. Death
occurred within 5 to 35 days in 50%, 83% and 100% of goats infected
with 150, 300 and 500 L/Kg bwt. respectively. The pathological
alterations of H. contortus infected animals were mainly confined to the
abomasum which showed diffuse congestion, haemorrhages and
multifocal erosions. Adult worms were present inside the abomasum or
attached to the mucosa. The histopathological alterations were mainly
dominated by oedema and congestion of the submucosa with moderate
infiltration of inflammatory cells on the lamina propria. The mucosal
surface was occasionally interrupted with scattered areas of superficial
erosions and desquamations of the lining epithelium. The biochemical
24

14.

15.

alterations of the disease course were characterized by significant


reduction in total protein, albumin and iron concentration in the serum of
infected goats.
Ahmed Abdalla Ahmed El Sanhouri (1984).Studies on resistance to
Fasciola gigantica in goats. M.V.Sc. University of Khartoum.
The results of the experiments carried out in this work were preceded by
a review of literature on aspects pertaining to pathology,
pathophysiology and resistance to fascioliasis in various host species. It
was found that removal of one or two mature infections with F. gigantica
by anthelmintic resulted in stunted growth of flukes recovered from
challenge infection and a significant reduction in their number compared
with sizes and numbers of fluke recovered form challenge controls.
Haemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume slightly decreased in
both groups. The previously infected animals also showed higher
eosinophil counts than the controls. Liver sections of the test groups
generally showed mononuclear cell infiltrations in addition to
haemosiderin deposition. Migration tracts traversed the parenchyma and
in case of two mature infections there were recent migration tracts
superimposed on older lesions. It was also found that removal of a 4
week primary immature infection with F. gigantica by anthelmintic
using (Ranide) resulted in a significant reduction in fluke burden due to
homologous challenge in goats. Ranide failed to remove all immature
flukes in the test group. Hb and PCV decreased in both groups and
eosinophilia was higher in the test group than the controls. Liver sections
of the test animals showed pronounced lymphocytic haemosiderin
deposition. Vaccination of goats with irradiated cysts of F. gigantica
resulted in a significant reduction in worm recovery after homologous
chal1enge with normal cysts. Few worms escaped irradiation and
reached maturity. There was a decrease in Hb concentration and PCV in
both groups. Peripheral eosinophilia was also marked in both groups.
Histopathologically, liver sections revealed lymphocytic aggregation,
mononuclear cell infiltration and haemosiderin deposition. Vaccination
of goats with irradiated cercariae of S. bovis failed to initiate resistance
against heterologous challenge with F. gigantica. Blood indices reflected
development of anaemia in both groups. There was also a marked
peripheral eosinophilic response in the test and control groups.
Histopathologically, liver sections showed lymphocyte infiltration and
deposition of fibrous tissue.
Ahmed El Tahir Ahmed (1990). Pathological and Immunolgical
Studies On Sheep Fascioliasis. M.V.Sc. University of Khartoum.
25

16.

An attempt to measure quantitatively the amount of damage caused by


Fasciola gigantica in liver of sheep was carried out in three groups of
sheep. One group was infected with 150 metacercariae; a second group
was infected with 500 metacercariae and a third group was left as a
control. The percentage volumes of the various components of the livers
i.e. hepatocytes, blood vessels, bile ducts, connective tissue and necrotic
hepatocytes were determined by the point counting method (Dunnil,
1962 and Wiebel, 1963). In normal livers, the highest percentage volume
was scored by the hepatocytes which had a mean value of 88.80.57%.
Percentage volumes of 8.4 0.7%, 2.3 0.5% and 0.50.1% were
recorded for blood vessels, connective tissue and bile ducts, respectively.
In livers, infected with 150 metacercariae, the percentage volumes of the
various components were 76.4+5.5% for hepatocytes, 7.74% for blood
vessels, 0.80.5% for bile ducts and 6.82.5 for connective tissue. In
livers infected with 500 metacercariae, hepatocytes constituted 635.7%
while blood vessels connective tissues and bile ducts had percentage
volumes of 6.20.31%, 10.12.4% and 1.50.2%, respectively. The
percentage volumes of necrotic hepatocytes were 6.0 1.34%, and 10.3
3.7% in livers infected with 150 and 500 metacercariae, respectively.
Studies on the resistance of sheep to infection with F. gigantica were also
carried out to evaluate the protective effect of sensitizing sheep with
250.3 Krad irradiated metacercariae for two weeks, eight weeks and 16
weeks. The results showed that duration of the primary sensitization of
sheep with irradiated metacercariae had an important role in conferring
resistance to subsequent challenge. No protective effect was detected in
sheep challenged after two weeks of sensitization with irradiated
metacercariae. On the other hand, a significant reduction in worm
recoveries from the livers of 29.3% and 17.8% were detected in sheep
sensitized for 8 weeks and 16 weeks, respectively. Generally, better
carcass weight, dressing percentage, haematological and biochemical
parameters were shown by the vaccinated animals compared to the
challenge controls after challenge infection with also less severe
pathological lesions.
Ahmed Ibrahim Yagi (1984). Studies on the pathology and
resistance to Fasciola gigantica and Schistosoma bovis in cattle.
Ph.D., University of Khartoum.
The studies recorded in the present thesis were preceded by a review of
literature on various pathological, pathophysiological and immunological
aspects of fascioliasis and schistosomiasis. An investigation of the effect
of high level infection with Fasciola gigantica showed that calves
26

infected with 5000 metacercariae of F. gigantica showed


pathophysiological changes comprised of anaemia, hypoalbuminaemia,
hyperglobulinaemia and marked peripheral eosinophilia. Marked liver
damage was reflected by increases in glutamate dehydrogenase and
sorbitol dehyrogenase activities in serum. Histopathologically, there was
thickening of Glisson's capsule, excessive fibrous tissue deposition in
liver and pseudolobulation. Some hepatocytes showed fatty change and
others were necrotic. Haemorrhage characterized some area with some
lymphocytic infiltration. Migration tracts containing cellular debris,
erythrocytes and haemosiderin deposits were infiltrated with eosinophils,
lymphocytes and fibroblasts. They traversed the parenchyma and in
some sections superseded large areas of hepatic cells. Eosinophilic
aggregations containing some lymphocytes were frequently encountered.
The portal triads were characterized by thickened and hyperplastic bile
ducts and mononuclear cells infiltration. Blood vessels were thickened
and veins were congested. Active regenerative processes were indicated
by newly formed bile ducts which were commonly encountered. The
parasitic burden recovered from the bile ducts comprised 21% of the
infective dose. This rate of recovery indicated a competitive effect due to
the high level of infection. Experiments on cross resistance between F.
gigantica and Schistosoma bovis in cattle showed that following primary
infection with F. gigantica and challenge with S. bovis, many
pathophysiological changes have taken place including peripheral
eosinophilia and elevated GD and SD activities (indicating liver
damage). Liver sections revealed degenerative changes involving bile
ducts and hepatocytes. There were old migration tracts with
haemosiderin deposits. Portal tracts showed much collagen deposition
and mononuclear cells infiltration. Bile ducts were hyperplastic. Number
of schistosomes recovered after challenge was significantly reduced
(94.2%) compared with the challenge controls. Tissue egg counts also
showed marked reductions (a reduction of 25% in the liver, 93% in the
small intestine and 91% in the large intestine). Calves primarily infected
with S. bovis and challenged with F. gigantica showed peripheral
eosinophilia with markedly less hepatic damage indicated by the slight
changes in GD and SD activities. Histopathologically, changes were
mainly degenerative. The hepatic cords and lobules were intact and there
were few migration tracts characterized by lymphocytic and eosinophilic
infiltrations. Scattered small lymphocytic aggregations infiltrated with
eosinophils were also evident. There was a significant reduction in the
parasitic burden recovered from challenge infection (84.5%) compared
27

with the challenge controls. Vaccination of calves against challenge


infection with F. gigantica was attempted using metacercariae of F.
gigantica gamma-irradiated at 3 kilorads. Following challenge, there
were no significant pathophysiological changes. Serum enzyme activities
(GD and SD) were markedly reduced indicating little hepatic damage.
Liver sections showed intact hepatic cords and lobules, but there was
intensive infiltration with mononuclear cells particularly lymphocytes
and eosinophils which superseded hepatic parenchyma. Lymphocytic
granulomata and aggregations of eosinophils were seen within massive
mononuclear infiltration. The parasitic burden recovered from challenge
infection was reduced by 62.4% compared with the challenge controls.
Elimination of mature primary infection with F. gigantica followed by
homologous challenge in calves resulted in insignificant
pathophysiological changes with marked peripheral eosinophilia. The
activities of GD and SD in serum increased indicating hepatic damage.
Histopathologically, liver sections revealed pseudolobulation and
separated hepatic cords in addition to isolated islands of newly formed
hepatocytes. There were also localized areas of haemorrhage surrounded
by mononuclear cells and fibroblasts. Many migration tracts were
characterized by fibrous connective tissues and haemosiderin deposition
and an abundance of newly formed bile ducts and hepatocytes indicative
of stimulated regenerative activity. Moreover, there were areas
characterized by burden from challenge infection was reduced by 45%
compared with the challenge controls. Removal of immature primary
infection with F. gigantica resulted in a dramatic peripheral eosinophilia
following homologous challenges. Serum GD and SD activities
increased indicating hepatic damage. Liver sections revealed more or
less intact hepatic cords and lobules but there was diffuse and localized
lymphocytic infiltration in addition to areas of necrosis which were
characterized by haemorrhage and mononuclear infiltrations. There was
no reduction in the number of worms recovered from the challenge
infection compared with the challenge controls. Cercariae of S. bovis
gamma-irradiated at 3 kilorads were also used to vaccinate calves against
heterologous challenge with F. gigantica. There was a marked peripheral
eosinophilic response. The activities of GD and SD increased. Liver
sections were dominated by areas of necrosis and haemorrhage. There
were aggregations of lymphocytes and eosinophils in addition to
migration tracts which were infiltrated with mononuclear cells. Bile
ducts were hyperplastic. The number of worms recovered from the
challenge infection was not reduced compared with the challenge
28

17.

18.

controls. The significance of these results was discussed in a concluding


chapter and the areas which need further investigations were pointed out.
Ahmed ME, Eltom KH, Musa NO, Ali IA, Elamin FM, Grobusch
MP, Aradaib IE. First report on circulation of Echinococcus ortleppi
in the one humped camel (Camelus dromedaries), Sudan. BMC Vet
Res. 2013 Jun 25;9:127.
Echinococcus granulosus (EG) complex, the cause of cystic
echinococcosis (CE), infects humans and several other animal species
worldwide and hence the disease is of public health importance. Ten
genetic variants, or genotypes designated as (G1-G10), are distributed
worldwide based on genetic diversity. The objective of this study was to
provide some sequence data and phylogeny of EG isolates recovered
from the Sudanese one-humped camel (Camelus dromedaries). Fifty
samples of hydatid cysts were collected from the one- humped camels
(Camelus dromedaries) at Taboul slaughter house, central Sudan. DNAs
were extracted from protoscolices and/or associated germinal layers of
hydatid cysts using a commercial kit. The mitochondrial NADH
dehydrogenase subunit 1 (NADH1) gene and the cytochrome C oxidase
subunit 1 (cox1) gene were used as targets for polymerase chain reaction
(PCR) amplification. The PCR products were purified and partial
sequences were generated. Sequences were further examined by
sequence analysis and subsequent phylogeny to compare these sequences
to those from known strains of EG circulating globally. The identity of
the PCR products were confirmed as NADH1 and cox1 nucleotide
sequences using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) of
NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information, Bethesda, MD).
The phylogenetic analysis showed that 98% (n = 49) of the isolates
clustered with Echinococcus canadensis genotype 6 (G6), whereas only
one isolate (2%) clustered with Echinococcus ortleppi (G5). This
investigation expands on the existing sequence data generated from EG
isolates recovered from camel in the Sudan. The circulation of the cattle
genotype (G5) in the one-humped camel is reported here for the first
time.
Ahmed Sid Ahmed El Sawi (1995). .Natural and Experimental
Infection of Sheep and Goats with Hydatid Cysts (Hydatidosis).
M.V.Sc. University of Khartoum.
The situation of hydatidosis in sheep and goats was evaluated. A survey
involved 1362 sheep and 164 goats slaughtered at Omdurman Central
Abattoir revealed an overall infection rate of 8.9% in sheep and 4.2% in
goats. Liver was the predilection site of infection followed by the lungs.
29

19.

No cysts were encountered elsewhere. The incidence in sheep was 89.3%


in livers and 10.6% in lungs. About 73.5% of the infected sheep
harboured one cyst only while the remaining one carried multiple
infections. About 92% of the cysts recovered from sheep were small in
size (less than 2 cm) while the remaining ones showed medium size. The
incidence in goats was 4.2% in livers and 1.2% in lungs. Single and
multiple cysts most of which were of medium size were encountered. No
fertile cysts were found in sheep and goats and all of them were either
calcified or under calcification. Experimental transmission of hydatidosis
was conducted in 2 - 6 months old sheep and goats. Four sheep and four
goats were fed 100 gravid segments (approximately 2000 eggs) obtained
from infected puppies. Two non-infected animals were kept as control
for each group. Among the infected sheep, three developed hydatid
cysts, one in liver and two in lungs. The cysts were 2 cm in size and they
were sterile calcified. Out of the four goats, only one was infected. A
sterile 2.5 cm cyst was recovered from its lungs. Although the results
illustrated natural and experimental infectivity of sheep and goats with
hydatidosis, the limited magnitude of infection coupled with the
biological status of the cysts suggest that their role in transmission and
consequently epizootiology of the disease is not defined.
Ali Abdel Razig Ali Lutfi (1989). Studies on the Efficacy and Safety
of Certain Fasciolicidal Drugs in Sudanese Desert Sheep. M.V.Sc.
University of Khartoum.
The efficacy and safety of three fasciolicidal drugs; nitroxynil, niclofolan
and triclabendazole against mature (11-week-old) and immature (5week-old) Fasciola spp. infection were investigated in male desert
sheep. Nitroxynil (Trodax) at a dose rate of 10 mg/kg, Subcutaneously
caused a 99% reduction of mature fluke burden while the drug at the
same dose was 70% effective against immature infection. The coated
form of niclofolan tablets (Bilevon- M) at a dose rate of 4 mg/kg,
orally was 100% effective against mature flukes in contrast to the
uncoated form (Deertil-O) which caused only 15% reduction of the
mature parasite. Triclabendazole (Fasinex) at a dose rate of 10 mg/kg,
orally, had a 100% efficacy against, mature infection while the same
treatment with dug was 73% effective against immature flukes. The
clinical, hematological, pathological and biochemical changes produced
by the experimental infection with 500 viable F. gigantica metacercariae
were typical to those previously described in the literature. Infected
animals showed dullness, weakness, reduced appetite and progressive
loss of weight. In addition, paler of the visible mucous membranes and
30

20.

submandibular oedema were observed in chronic infection. In blood,


there was reduction in haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume
and red blood cells count and increased number of peripheral
eosinophils. The pathological lesions were dominated by the presence of
multiple necrotic foci haemorrhagic tracts and perforations on the liver
capsule. The main bile ducts were thickened and distended with flukes.
Histologically, the haemorrhagic tracts consisted of central core of cell
debris, necrotic hepatocytes and erythrocytes and infiltrated with
eosinophils and macrophages. There was increased thickening of portal
area with considerable hyperplasia of the bile duct epithelium and
periductal fibrosis. Biochemically, there were elevations in the plasma
enzyme activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) sorbitol
dehydrogenase and glutamate dehydrogenase and reductions in the
plasma concentrations of protein, albumin glucose and ascorbic acid.
There were also increased bilirubin and cholesterol concentrations. The
clinical, haematological, pathological and plasma biochemistry
alterations were considerably ameliorated to a similar extent in sheep
treated with nitroxynil, coated niclofolan and triclabendazole. The
administration of niclofolan at 3 or 6 times of the recommended dose (12
or 24 mg/kg) and triclabendazole at 10 times of the recommended dose
(100 mg/kg) did not result in any serious effects in the clinical condition
or plasma constituents in treated sheep. However, nitroxynil when given
at 3 or 6 times of the recommended dose (30 or 60 mg/kg) produced
transient clinical changes including hyperthermia and hyperpnoea
accompanied with a rise in the plasma AST activity and ammonia
concentration.
Ali Babiker Osman (1994). The Wholesomeness of Bovine Livers
Infested With Flukes. M.V.Sc. University of Khartoum.
The aim of this study was to assess the wholesomeness of the bovine
livers which were infested with flukes. Assessment was based on the
gross pathological changes and the types of micro flora present taking
into consideration the meat inspector judgment of the infested livers and
of the carcass in each case. A total of 250 samples of infested livers were
collected from Omdurman Central Abattoir. Out of the 250 samples, 133
(53.2%) were infested with Fasciola gigantica and 117 (46.8%) with S.
bovis. The gross pathological changes of the livers infested with F.
gigantica showed variations in intensity and were, therefore,
distinguished into three pathological classes. 93.2% of the livers infested
with F. gigantica were totally condemned and 6.77% of them were
passed after the removal of bile ducts. Meanwhile 97.74% of the
31

21.

carcasses were passed and 2.26% were totally condemned due to


jaundice, tuberculosis and emaciation with generalized oedema in
addition to the fluke infestation. Eight genera of Gram negative bacilli
and 6 genera of Gram positive cocci and bacilli were isolated from the
livers which were infested with F. gigantica. The gross pathological
changes of bovine livers infested with S. bovis were distinguished into
two pathological classes. Out of 117 livers infested with S. bovis,
21.37% were passed and 78.63% were totally condemned. Meanwhile all
the carcasses which were infested with S. bovis were passed as fit for
human consumption. Eight genera of Gram negative bacilli and six
genera of Gram positive cocci and bacilli were isolated from the livers
infested with S. bovis. Based on the gross pathological changes and the
bacteriological findings, the bovine livers infested with flukes should be
judged as unfit for human consumption since they were repugnant and
may harbour potential human pathogens.
Ali BH, Hassan T, Haroun EM, Abu Samra MT (1985). The effect of
niclofolan on desert sheep experimentally infected with immature
Fasciola gigantica. J. Vet Pharmacol Ther: 8(4):398-403.
Eight desert sheep were each infected orally with 500 metacercariae of
Fasciola gigantica and, after 4 weeks, four of the animals were given
niclofolan orally at the recommended therapeutic dose rate of 7 mg/kg,
the other four remaining as controls. One week later, the animals were
slaughtered and the fasciocidal effect of the drug was evaluated on the
basis of worm burden, haemogram, some plasma constituents, and gross
and histopathological lesions of the liver, as indicators of efficacy. The
treatment was found to be ineffective, the degree of infection remaining
the same as in the untreated control group. The experiment was repeated
using eight infected sheep: four were given the drug orally at a dose rate
of 10.5 mg/kg, i.e., 1.5 times the recommended dose; and the same
parameters were measured as described above. The drug failed to cure
the infected sheep, and caused depression, anorexia and weakness. In a
third experiment six sheep were infected as before and three were treated
with niclofolan by deep i.m. injection at the recommended therapeutic
dose of 2 mg/kg. A week later the animals were killed and examined as
before. The drug was effective in treating the infection and produced no
untoward effects except for transient signs of pain at the site of injection.
It seems possible that the oral dose, unlike the i.m. dose, of niclofolan is
not absorbed and/or metabolized sufficiently to prevent elimination of
the infection.
32

22.

23.

Ali EA, Bushara HO, Ali FS, Hussein MF (2009). Age-dependent


susceptibilities of Bulinus truncatus snails to an aqueous extract of
Pulicaria crispa (Forssk.) Oliv. (Asteraceae) leaves. Southeast Asian
J Trop Med Public Health.,40(3):463-70.
This study was carried out to investigate the potential use of the herb
Pulicaria crispa in the biological control of different developmental
stages of Bulinus truncatus, a major snail intermediate host of urinary
schistosomiasis. Age-dependent susceptibilities of mature adult snails,
immature snails, juveniles, and one-day old egg masses to aqueous
extracts of Pulicaria crispa leaves collected from Khartoum (Sudan) and
Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) was determined and compared. The results show
the juvenile snails are the most susceptible, followed in descending order
by one-day old egg masses, immature snails, and mature adult snails.
The P. crispa sample collected from Riyadh was significantly more
potent against B. truncatus than that collected from Khartoum, as
indicated by the least (LC50) and (LC90) values for all B. truncatus
ages.
Ali Mohamed Abdel Magid (1979). Studies on Schistosoma bovis in
the White Nile Province, Sudan. Ph.D., University of Khartoum.
Infection with Schistosoma bovis is very widespread among domestic
ruminants in many African, Mediterranean and Middle Eastern
countries. In the Sudan, the parasite was blamed for causing severe
epizootics in cattle in the White Nile Province in the late 1960s. Despite
this, very little is known about the epizootiology of S. bovis. At present,
the available methods of control are also unsatisfactory because of the
lack of suitable chemotherapeutic agents in animals and since nomadic
patterns of animal husbandry in countries like the Sudan render the use
of molluscicides impracticable. The studies recorded in this thesis
include investigations on the prevalence and the intensity of S. bovis
infection in animals in the White Nile Provinces, Sudan. Studies are also
reported on the seasonality of transmission and on the occurrence of
naturally acquired resistance to S. bovis in Sudanese cattle besides, this
thesis describes the results of a field vaccination trial in which a recentlydeveloped irradiated schistosomular vaccine was tested. Following the
establishment of a field laboratory at Kosti, preliminary studies were
made of S. bovis infection in slaughtered cattle at Kosti abattoir. Initial
surveys were also conducted to determine the prevalence and the
intensity of schistosomiasis in cattle and sheep in three nearby villages:
Umm Hani, Hissay and Abba lsland, by the Pitchford and Visser's faecal
egg counting technique. In these surveys, it was shown that the
33

prevalence and the intensity of S. bovis were high in bovines but tended
to decrease when the animals became older. It was also shown that
schistosomiasis was common in sheep but not to the same extent as in
cattle and it seemed that, unlike cattle, sheep exhibited no evidence of an
age-related decline in their infection rates and intensities. The highest
rates of prevalence and intensity of schistosomiasis in cattle were
recorded at Umm Hani village, which lies in an irrigated area, in
comparison to the other two villages where cattle depended directly on
the river (White Nile) for drinking. Because of this and since large herds
of stable cattle were kept by villagers at Umm Hani, this 1atter site was
chosen for further investigations. The seasonal pattern of S. bovis
incidence at Umm Hani was studied by surveying populations and
cercarial infection rates of Bulinus snails at water contact points at
monthly intervals and a1so by following 'tracer' calves. The latter were
used in cohorts of 70 100 initially uninfected individuals, which were
monitored for a period of 24 months to determine their monthly
conversion rates into 'positives'. The resu1ts obtained indicated that the
incidence or schistosomiasis was high and that there was a markedly
seasonal pattern of transmission; most of the infections were acquired by
calves during the hot summer months between February and July. It was
also evident that the intensity of transmission differed significantly
between the two years during which these investigations were carried
cut. An age-profiled decrease in S. bovis infection was apparent from the
preliminary slaughter-house and field surveys; this was confirmed by
more detailed investigations at Umm Hani. A cross-sectional
examination was made on 500 cattle representing different age groups,
and checked six months 1ater in a subsanp1e of the same animals in
1976. In the following year (1977), a further similar group of 500 cattle
of different ages was investigated. The prevalence of schistosomiasis and
its intensity in these animals were determined by the faeca1 egg counting
technique. When the results were analysed, it was found that the
prevalence of the disease was consistently higher in younger cattle
reaching its maximum level (90%) in calves 1-2 years old and
subsequently declining markedly with the increasing age. Similarly, a
significant reduction was found in the intensity of infection as
determined by the faecal egg counts in older catt1e. Since the animals
seemed to follow a similar pattern of dai1y contact with water,
irrespective of their age, it appeared that this decline in the prevalence
and the intensity of S. bovis with advancing age was due to the
acquisition of natural resistance. To confirm this hypothesis, o1d cattle
34

with low faecal egg counts were selected randomly at umm Hani, and
together with similar cattle from a schistosome-free area (Kuku village,
near Khartoum). The animals were challenged with massive cercarial
dose. The groups were then compared by various clinical, patho1ogical
and parasitological parameters. It was found that whi1e cattle from the
schistosome-free area contracted overwhelming infections and
deteriorated rapidly; those from Umm Hani almost completely resisted
the challenge. Thus, while the former showed a rapid and massive rise in
their faeca1 egg counts from zero to a mean of 680 e.p.g. at 9 weeks post
challenge, the faecal egg output of the Umm Hani cattle rose to only
about 20 (average). Shortly after exposure to cercariae, the 'non-resistant'
cattle began to lose bodyweight rapidly and by the end of the
experiment, their mean bodyweight had fallen by 25%. None of the
resistant cattle lost weight. Equally, clear differences were seen in
clinica1 and pathological parameters. This study provided the first
conclusive evidence of the acquisition of resistance to S. bovis by cattle
as a result of repeated natural exposures. The recently reported success in
laboratory immunized of cattle against S. bovis and of sheep against S.
mattheei by irradiated schistosomular vaccines, coupled with the results
of epizootiological surveys and the demonstration of a strong degree of
natural resistance to the parasite encouraged the assessment of this type
of immunological control under field conditions. An experiment was,
therefore, carried out in which 30 calves were vaccinated each with a
single intramuscular inoculation of 10,000 3krd-irradiated S. bovis
schistosomula and 30 calves were used as non-vaccinated controls. The
animals were then taken to the village of Umm Heni and allowed to
graze and water in the same way as local herds for 10 months. During
this period, their faecal egg counts and bodyweights were monitored
fortnightly. At the end of the experiment, all the surviving calves were
perfused to determine their worm and tissue egg counts and compare
their pathology. The results indicated that vaccination produced an
effective degree of partial protection against natural infections; this was
evidenced by significant reductions of 82.4%, 61 - 67% and 68.5% in the
faecal egg counts, tissue egg counts and adult worm recoveries,
respectively, in vaccinated compared to non-vaccinated calves, and
consequently by reduced clinical and patho1ogica1 manifestations in the
former animals. Further evidence of the usefulness of vaccination was
shown in the higher survival rate and ability of the vaccinated calves to
withstand adverse conditions (such as harsh weather) concurrent
35

24.

25.

infections and poor grazing which prevailed in the field. This is the first
known field vaccination trial in schistosomiasis from anywhere.
Amany Abdallah Mohammed Ahmed (2003). Helminth Parasites in
the Digestive Tract of Slaughtered Sheep in OmdurmanM.V.Sc.
University of Khartoum.
This study was conducted about the year of 1999 to 2000 in Omdurman
Slaughterhouse. The sheep slaughtered were brought from different
places in Sudan. They came from ElAmiria, a place where the sheep
were kept until they were slaughtered, at (46.4%) also the sheep, which
came from Western Sudan was (14.6%), from Eastern Sudan (18.4%)
and from Central Sudan were (20.6%). We took about 500 samples. 408
of sheep were found affected by different kinds of helminthes in
different stages. The range of affection was different from one part to
another in the digestive system. Also the number of helminthes in one
sheep varied. We found in one sheep five kinds of helminthes. The
stomach showed infection with one helminth only, but the intestine had
from two to five types of worms. This research showed that the infection
rate was high in the hot season than the rainy season, whereas the rate of
infection was very low in cool dry season. Also in this research was
found six kinds of helminthes were recorded: Haemonchus (36.6%),
Strongylus (35%) and Trichostrongylus (9.8%), this is for Nematodes.
For Cestodes: Monizia (29.2%), Avitellina (8.9%) and Hydatid cyst
(4%). No Trematodes were found. There were no differences between
female and male infection because females were not slaughtered but in
special time.
Amna E. Babiker; Osman, A. Y; Azza A. Adam; Elmansory, Y. H
and Majid, A. M. Efficacy of Oxyclozanide against Fasciola
gigantica Infection in Sheep under Sudan condition. The Sudan J.
Vet. Res. (2012), 27: 43-47.
The current study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of oxyclozanide
against F. gigantica in experimentally infected desert sheep in the Sudan.
Nine desert male lambs weighting 18-24 kg were divided randomly into
three groups (each of 3 lambs). Each lamb was inoculated orally with
400 metacercariae of F. gigantica obtained from laboratory colonies of
Lemnia natalensis infected with miracidia of bovine origin obtained
from Alsahafa abattoir. Group 1was drenched with triple dose of
oxyclosanide (1mg/1 Kg B.W) 4 weeks post infection. Lambs in group 2
received the dose recommended by the manufacturer (1mg/3kg B.W) 8
weeks post infection, whereas, group 3 lambs were kept as infected
untreated controls. The lambs were slaughtered and the average number
36

26.

27.

of worms recovered was 26, 10 and 74, respectively. The number of


worms recovered was significantly different (p 0.05). The efficacy of
oxyclozanide was 64.57% and 86.16% in group 1and 2, respectively. It
seems that Oxyclozanide is more effective against 8 than 4- week-old F.
gigantica infection in desert sheep in Sudan. Neither significant
difference (p 0.05) in worm size nor clinical side effects were observed
in all experimental groups.
Anwor Magzoub Abdul Elaziz Eldabbagh (2010). Detection of
Anthelmintic Resistance to Gastrointestinal Nematodes in sheep:
Laboratory and Survey Investigation in Khartoum State. M.V.Sc.
University of Khartoum.
The present study was conducted mainly for evaluation and tackling the
problem of anthelmintic resistance and the appropriate tests for
measuring it in the field, under Sudan condition. A survey of
gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep was made and 796 faecal samples
were collected in Khartoum, State and examined during the period June
2005 May 2006. In the present study sheep were found to be infected
by different types of parasites eggs. These were Strongyles,
Strongyloides spp, Trichuris spp, Monezia spp and Coccidia. The peak of
nematodes eggs count occured in October. Identification of infective
third stage larvae from faecal samples cultures revealed the following;
Heamonchus
contortus,
Oesophagostomum
columbianum,
Trichostrongylus spp and Strongyloides papillosus. In the in-vitro test of
anthelmintic resistance, the ED50 obtained from larval paralysis assay
(LPA) was 0.890862 g/mL for levamisole powder and 0.000107 ng/ml
for abamectin injection. The results revealed the resistance for
levamisole and no resistance was detected in abamectin. In egg hatch
assay (EHA), the ED50 showed resistance of 482.444521 ng/ml for
ivermectin and 256.525577 ng/ml for doramectin and 6.924595 g/mL
for levamisole. But albendazole 0.003162 g/mL and abamectin
7.410285 ng/ml showed no resistant.
Aradaib I E, B. Abbas, H.O. Bushara, M.G. Taylor.(1993).
Evaluation of Schistosoma bovis adult worm extract for vaccination
of calves. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 16, (2):77-84.
Six calves were immunized with adult worm extract of Schistosoma
bovis emulsified in Freund's adjuvant. The immune response was
monitored by agar-gel immunodiffusion. Precipitin lines were observed
when sera from immunized calves were tested against adult worm
antigen, but no lines were observed with sera from control calves. The
immunized calves together with six control calves were each challenged
37

28.

29.

with 20 000 cercariae of Schistosoma bovis administered percutaneously


to the shaved tail. There was no significant difference between the
immunized and the control groups as judged by fecal and tissue egg
counts, worm recovery and hematological parameters (including packed
cell volume and hemoglobin concentration). This indicates failure of S.
bovis adult worm extract to induce resistance against S. bovis challenge.
Hence, the antibody response detected in the AGID test seemed to have
no association with protection.
Aradaib I E, Bennie I. Osburn. (1995). Vaccination of cattle against
bovine schistosomosis: current status and future prospects: a review
article. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 22, (4): 285-291.
Bovine schistosomosis, caused by Schistosoma bovis, constitutes a
serious veterinary problem in many parts of the world. The vaccination
approaches for the control of bovine schistosomosis include the use of
irradiation-attenuated S. bovis cercarial or schistosomular vaccines, S.
bovis adult worms or whole-egg antigens and defined antigen vaccine.
Irradiated S. bovis cercarial or schistosomular vaccines provide partial
protection against S. bovis infection. However, this type of vaccine
requires live infectious cercariae or viable schistosomula for induction of
protection. Unfortunately, experimental immunizations with dead
schistosome antigens have been largely unsuccessful. The surge of new
techniques in cellular immunology and molecular biology has made
possible the development of potential candidate vaccine antigens from
various species of schistosomes including S. bovis. The efficiency of
these vaccines has been evaluated in experimentally infected calves.
These vaccines will probably replace the irradiated S. bovis vaccines. A
broad-spectrum antischistosome vaccine which can kill a variety of
human and animal schistosome species is yet to be produced.
Aradaib I E, Osama H. Omer, Babiker B. Abbas, Hamid O.
Bushara, Khitma H. Elmalik, Amir M. Saad, Bennie I. Osburn,
Martin G. Taylor. (1995). Schistosoma bovis whole egg antigen did
not protect Zebu calves against experimental schistosomosis.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Vol, 21, (4): 339-345.
Six calves were immunized with whole egg antigen of Schistosoma
bovis emulsified in Freund's adjuvant. The immune response was
monitored by agar-gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and enzyme- linked
immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Using AGID and ELISA, antibodies to
whole egg antigen were detected in sera from all immunized calves, but
not in sera from control calves. The immunized calves and six control
calves were challenged 6 months after the beginning of the
38

30.

31.

immunization with 20 000 cercariae of Schistosoma bovis administered


percutaneously to the shaved tail. There was no significant difference
between the immunized and the control calves as judged by fecal and
tissue egg counts, worm recovery and hematological parameters. There
was a lack of association between antibody production and protection.
Aradaib Imadeldin Elamin., Elabbas Mohamed Ahdelmageed.,
Sanaa Ali Hassan Hans Peter Riemann (1995). A review on the
diagnosis infection in cattle of Schistosoma bovis: Current status and
future prospects. Cienc. Rural vol.25 no.3 Santa Maria.
Bovine schistosomiasis, caused by Schistosoma bovis, is a serious
veterinary problem in many parts of the worid. The current methods used
for the diagnosis of the disease include clinical signs, pathological
lesions, parasitological and serological techniques. As clinical signs and
parasitological lesions caused by S. bovis are indistinguishable from
those induced by other trematode parasites, confirmation of diagnosis by
these methods is unreliable. Parasitological techniques used to
demonstrate eggs of the parasite in fecal or tissue samples represent the
most accurate method for detection of an active S. bovis infection. The
tissue of choice for detection of S. bovis infection is the liver because of
the visible macroscopic lesion that can be seen in that organ and the
rapid detection of the parasite eggs under the microscope using crush
smears. The serological techniques used for diagnosis of the disease do
not necessarily identify an active infection. In addition, some of the
positive reactions are non specific. However, serology is useful to
identify previous infection in epidemiologic study. The ELISA has been
recentiy validated for the diagnosis of bovine schistosomiasis and will
probably replace the other serological tests. The immunoblotting
technique has been proven satisfactory to detect antibodies to defined
and recombinant schistosome antigen vaccines. Nucleic acid
hybridization techniques have been described for the study of
schistosome species-specific identification. However, these molecular
techniques have not yet revolutionarized diagnosis of schistosomiasis.
These techniques will probably serve as the basis for future diagnostic
tests.
Arzoun I H, H.S. Hussein, M.F. Hussein (1984). The pathogenesis of
experimental Haemonchus longistipes infection in camels. Veterinary
Parasitology, Vol. 14, (1):43-53.
The pathogenesis and clinical signs of Haemonchus longistipes infection
were studied in four experimentally infected camels two of which were
adults and the other two were young. In the former animals, an acute
39

32.

33.

34.

infection developed, characterized by mucoid diarrhoea, anorexia,


anaemia, loss of body weight, oedema of the lower parts of the limbs,
general malaise and death at 810 weeks post-infection. In the two
younger camels, a less dramatic disease was encountered with less
severe symptoms and no oedema, but also terminating fattaly at 1920
weeks post-infection. Parasitological, haematological and biochemical
parameters were determined during the course of the infection and were
mostly comparable with those usually encountered in haemonchosis of
other animals.
Arzoun I.H., H.S. Hussein, M.F. Hussein (1983). The pathogenesis of
experimental Haemonchus longistipes infection in goats. J. Comp.
Path 93: 619-628.
Goats are highly susceptible to Haemonchus longistipes and could
therefore serve as an inexpensive model to study camel haemonchosis.
The course of the disease in goats in similar to that in camels and to H.
contortus infection in sheep and goats. Unlike the age-dependency of
camel haemonchosis, however, the severity of H. longistipes infection in
goats is dose-dependent and varies from mild to hyperacute.
Arzoun I.H., H.S. Hussein, M.F. Hussein (1984). The prevalence and
pathogenesis of naturally-occurring Haemonchus longistipes
infection in Sudanese camels. J. Comp. Path 94: 169-174.
Camel haemonchosis is prevalent in the Sudan, especially during the
rainy season, with a decrease in prevalence in the dry season possibly
due to delayed maturation of the worms. The naturally occurring disease
in Sudanese camels is characterized by emaciation, anaemia, oedema of
the lower parts of the limbs, eosinophilia, hypoproteinaemia,
hypoalbuminaemia, hyperglobulinaemia and eosinophilia, as well as
elevated blood urea concentrations.
Arzoun, Ibrahim Hussein. Studies on Camel Haemonchosis Caused
by Haemonchus Longistipes (Railliet and Henry, 1909) in the Sudan.
Ph.D theses, U of K.
The clinico-pathological features and parasitological aspects of
naturally-occurring and experimentally-induced Haemonchus longistipes
infection of camels together with that induced in a co-habiting host, the
goat, were studied. The infected animals were examined ante-mortem
and post-mortem and jugular blood was obtained from each animal for
haematological and biochemical determination. It was found that the
naturally occurring disease in camel was more prevalent during the rainy
season than during the dry season. Experimental H. longistipes infection
in camels and goats was characterized by inappetence, weakness,
40

35.

diarrhoea, oedema, anaemia, loss of body weight, alopecia and pica. In


both animal species, the haematological investigations indicated a
decrease in RBCs number, Hb concentration and PCV; increases in
WBC counts, especially the eosinophils and neutrophils while
lymphocytes were very much reduced. These changes coincided with
high faecal egg per gram values and the Wintrobe indices indicated
presence of normochromic normocytic anaemia during the infection. The
biochemical parameters determined during the infections showed
increases in blood urea and blood urea nitrogen contents indicating
kidney damage; this is, also confirmed by histopathological
investigations. The globulin level is very much increased while the
albumin level is depressed and the total serum protein level is drastically
decreased during the infection. Other parameters showed decreases in
serum magnesium and calcium levels of infected animals, while sodium,
potassium and blood glucose concentrations showed no deviation from
normality. The main pathological lesions comprised of abomasitis with
erosions, haemorrhages, ulcerations and hypertrophy of the organ. Other
changes included paleness and discolouration of the liver, congestion
and scattered haemorrhages in the lungs, cortical tubular necrosis with
patchy interstitial congestion of the kidneys, hydropericarditis and
ascites. Cellular infiltrations and haemosiderin deposition were also
found in most of the organs, especially in the spleen whose germinal
centres were very much depleted. Morphological studies on H.
longistipes from naturally and experimentally infected camels as well as
from experimentally infected goats revealed a noticeable retardation in
size and measurements of adult worms collected from infected goats as
compared with those collected from camels, while measurements of
larvae showed no differences. Vulvar region of female H. longistipes
from infected camels were smooth in shape (unflapped). The prepatent
period was much shorter (6 - 9 days) in infected camels when faecal
culture technique was used (11 - 14 days) then when assessed by
detecting eggs using sodium chloride floatation technique. Thus, faecal
culture was a better method for detection of early infections.
Atta El Mannan AM (1983). Investigation on gastrointestinal
parasites in sheep and goats in Sinnar district, Sudan. Sudan
Journal of Veterinary Research, 5: 69-77.
Eggs of parasites of five genera were encountered during this fied study
on sheep and goats in Sennar district: Trichostrongylids spp., Eimeria
spp., Moniezia expansa., Strongyloides papilosus and Trichuris ovis. The
incidence of parasitism in sheep and goats is 83.9%, 95.2% respectively.
41

36.

37.

38.

39.

40.

The intensity of the infection is of highest worm burden in


Trichostrongylus axei. The infection with parasites varies according to
the type of husbandry system.
Atta El Mannan AM and Zain El Din EA. (1986). Observation on
the development of Taenia hydatigena in dogs in the Sudan. Sudan
Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry vol. 25 (2):
93- 96.
Taenia hydatigena the common tapeworm of dogs was studied by the
authors. Clinical and parasitological observations were made after
experimental infection of puppies.
Atta El Mannan AM, Hussein HS, el Sinnary K, Magzoub M. (1984).
Onchocerca armillata: prevalence and pathology in Sudanese cattle.
Ann Trop Med Parasitol;78(6):619-25.
Cattle of various ages from Khartoum Province and western Sudan were
surveyed for Onchocerca armillata infection by skin snip examination
and some also at post-mortem examination. The former method reliably
detected infection in cattle aged between nine months and eight years.
Several of the older infected animals had no microfilariae in their skin.
Prevalence rate and number of microfilariae per gram of skin were
higher in male than in female cattle and in animals from western Sudan
than those from Khartoum province. Severe pathological changes were
seen in the thoracic aorta, brachiocephalic, costocervical and brachial
arteries and posteriorly in the abdominal aorta to its bifurcation into the
iliac arteries.
Atta El Mannan AM., Abdalla HS., and El Badawi ES (1983).
Oesophagostiomum columbianum in sheep in Sennar Distrct (Midle
Region). Sudan Journal of Veterinary Research, 5: 157-158.
No abstract.
Atta El Mannan AM., and Abdalla HS., (1994). Sudan Journal of
Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Vol 33(1&2):129-130.
Some observation on Cysticercosis in central region of the Sudan.
No abstract.
Atta El Mannan AM., and Hussein S Hussein (1992). Studies on the
possible vector of Onchocerca armillata in the Sudan. Sudan Journal
of Veterinary Research, 11: 39-42.
The transmission of Onchocerca armillata was studied in the university
farm at Shambat in Sudan, when the parasite is present and a high
percentage of cattle are infected. Epidemiological and experimental
evidences concentrated on Culicoides kingi as the candidate vector. The
majority of flies found to be feeding on the hump of cattle were
42

41.

42.

43.

44.

Culicoides kingi. Two Onchocerca armillata microfilariae and two


Onchocerca developmental stages were detected in the dissected C.
kingi. The shorter mouth parts of C. kingi were found to be more suited
to pick up microfilariae of O. armillata.
Atta El Mannan, A. M.; Bushara, H. O. and Majid, A. M. (2001).
Some Aspects of the Epidemiology of Bovine Fasciolosis in Northern
Gazira and Khartoum State. The Sudan Journal of Veterinary
Research. (2001 ) 17: 35-40.
A study on the epidemiology of fasciolosis was conducted in northern
part of Gazira scheme and the south of Khartoum State. The results
revealed that the average population of lymnaea snails was different in
the four sites examined. The number of the snails increased during
summer and rainy season and decreased during winter. The snail
infection rate with Fasciola varied between 17% and 29%. The highest
rate was recorded during May and the lowest during December. Thirty
percent of the cattle examined in these areas were found to be infected
with Fasciola gigantica.
Atta Elmannan AM., Hussein HS., and Magzoub M, (1983).
Morphological and taxonomic studies on Onchocerca armillata
Railliet and Henry, 1909, from Sudanese cattle. Journal of
Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Vol 24(1&2):27-34.
Complete male specimens and large portion of female O. armillata were
released from the aorta of infected Sudanese cattle by the injection of
normal saline in tunnels and nodules followed by gentle traction of the
worms. These specimens have facilitated a detailed morphological study
of the nematode that has ascertained its taxonomic status. The
morphological fetures herein determined could also be used to separate
O. armillata fom other Onchocerca species.
Awad G. Mohammed, Atif E. Abdelgadir and Khitma H. Elmalik
(2011). Study on prevalence of internal parasites in semiintensive
dairy production system of Sudan. Journal of Cell and Animal
Biology Vol. 5(9), pp. 196 -199.
A cross sectional study was conducted in the dairy cattle of Al-Rodwan
dairy project in Omdurman town during the three different seasons of the
year. The results of the faecal examinations (n-290) showed that the
prevalence of the internal parasites was 16, 8.42, and 7.36% for dry cool,
dry hot, and wet hot season, respectively. The prevalence of coccidiosis
was found to be 13, 4.21, and 2.10% for dry.
Awad Mahgoub Atta El Mannan (2001). Biological Control of
Lymnea natalensis snails using a Molluscicidal Indigenous Plant
43

Pulicaria crispa (Frosk) Oliv. Compositae. PhD theses, University of


Khartoum.
This study was conducted to investigate molluscicidal potency of the
indigenous herb Pulicaria crispa (Eltagar) against Lymnea natalensis
snails, the intermediate host of Fasciola gigantica as possible means of
control of animal fascioliasis in the Sudan. A study of epidemiology of
fascioliasis was done in northern part of Gazira Scheme and Khartoum
State (Soba, EI Bagair, EL Hafear and Kab EL gidad area). The snails
were collected from the minor canals and ponds. The seasonal
fluctuation of Lymnea spp. population and their transmission pattern was
recorded. The results revealed that the average population of Lymnea
spp. was not similar in the four sites.The number of snails increased
during summer and rainy season and decreased during winter. The snail
infection rate varied between 17% and 29% and the highest rate of
infection was during May and the lowest during December. Thirty per
cent of cattle examined in the area were found infected with fascioliasis.
Field evaluation of the molluscicidal activity of P. crispa whole plant
was carried out against L. natalensis. The plant was collected from Soba
area. It was air dried under shade. The Canal used was at the irrigated
land in the premises of the Central Veterinary Research Laboratories
Centre, Soba. The canal was divided into five equal sections where equal
numbers (100) of L. natalensis were put in separate cages and exposed to
different doses of the aqueous extract of P. crispa. The results were
analyzed using probit analysis. The assessment of the plant activity was
based on calculating the lethal dose for 50% and 95% of the snails
(LD50 and LD95). The aqueous extracts of P. crispa showed a high
molluscicidal potency against L. natalensis without toxic effects to non
target organisms. Toxicology screening of P. crispa was carried out by
studying clinical, biochemical and pathological effects of orally dosing
20 Nubian goats with the aqueous extract of P. crispa. The goats were
divided into four groups. Each group was given a different dose. Blood
samples were collected for haematological and biochemical
investigations. The results showed that there are no deviations from the
normal health of the animals. The red blood cells white blood cells,
packed cell volume and haemoglobin concentrations were not affected
and there were no significant changes in the normal levels of the total
protein albumin, creatinine and urea. No histopathological changes were
observed. The ability of P. crispa in changing chemical and/or physical
properties of canal's water was tested. Water samples analysis, showed
that, chemical, and physical properties of water appeared within the
44

45.

normal level, and not exceeding the maximum allowable concentrations


according to Sudanese standards (1989).
Awad Mahgoub Atta El Mannan 1981. Studies on Bovine
Onchocerciasis Caused by Onchocerca Armillata, Railliet and Henry
1909, In the Sudan. M.V.Sc theses University of Khartoum.
A survey was undertaken to determine prevalence of aortic
onchocerciasis amongst Sudanese cattle. Skin biopsies were collected
from 315 animals of different age groups and from different localities in
the country. The skin snips were taken with a snipper and were shredded
in saline or Tyrode's solution for the release of microfilariae. Skin
microfilariae were detected in 100/315 (35%) animals surveyed and the
prevalence increased with age of the animals where 7% of 1-year old
calves, 53% of 5- year old, and 75% of 8- year old cattle were infected.
More male animals were infected than females (36% and 20%) and
animals from different localities had different infection rates 7% and
13% in animals at Kuku village and the University Farm, respectively
and 43% in animals from Western Sudan. The skin snip survey was
supplemented by an aortic survey carried out at Omdurman Central
Abattoir and Kosti Slaughter House. This survey revealed a higher rate
of infection (92%) indicating that the skin snip method is an underestimation of the rate of infection as many animals that had been
negative for skin microfilariae were found infected at postmorten
examination. Similarly, aortic infection was found to increase with the
age of the animals: 78% in young animals, 92.7% and 96.5% in adults
and aged animals, respectively. A large number of aortic vessels were
collected and thoroughly examined for gross pathological lesions, and
some sections were made for histopathological study. The thoracic aorta,
brachiocephalic trunks, brachial arteries, costocervical arteries and the
abdominal aorta up to the biforcation of the iliacs were found with
moderate to severe lesions. Nevertheless, no clinical manifestations
could be detected in these animals. A thorough morphological study was
carried out using fresh specimens including a sizeable number of
complete male worms, posterior and anterior extremities of females and
fragments of both sexes. Studies were also undertaken to determine the
possible vector of O. armillata in the Sudan which could well be
Culicoides spp., but definite vector determination was hampered by the
failure of microfilarial intrathoracic injections. The technique used needs
to be refined and will be reattempted at a later date.

45

46.

47.

Babiker HA, Eldin ES (1987). Preliminary observations on


vaccination against bovine cysticercosis in the Sudan. Vet Parasitol;
24(3-4):297-300.
Four Zebu calves, 1-1.5 years old, were vaccinated subcutaneously with
hatched ova of Taenia saginata. The immunity elicited protected the
animals from subsequent oral infections with this cestode as manifested
by the early degeneration of the metacestodes and failure to attain
maturity in three of four animals. Three viable cysts were found in the
fourth calf compared to more than 300 specimens in non-vaccinated
controls.
Bashir M, Bickle Q, Bushara H, Cook L, Shi F, He D, Huggins M,
Lin J, Malik K, Moloney A, et al.Evaluation of defined antigen
vaccines against Schistosoma bovis and S. japonicum in bovines.
Trop Geogr Med. 1994;46:255-8.
Our objective is to contribute to the development of defined antigen
vaccines for schistosomiasis by evaluating the protective efficacy of
Schistosoma bovis and S. japonicum antigens in their natural bovine
hosts. Antigens under evaluation include some already identified as
vaccine candidates: glutathione S-transferases (GSTs); KLH, which
shares protective epitopes with the protective antigen GP38 of S.
mansoni; and Sj23, the analogue of the vaccine candidate Sm23 antigen.
In another approach, since crude freeze/thaw schistosomular antigen plus
BCG(F/T vaccine) has proved protective against S. japonicum in
bovines, as it was against S. mansoni in mice, we are carrying out further
evaluations both of this crude antigen and of recombinant-derived
paramyosins. In a third line of work, novel vaccine candidate antigens
identified by screening our cDNA libraries with various passively
protective animal sera are being evaluated in animal experiments. In the
Sudan we have shown that vaccination of calves with either native S.
bovis GSTs or KLH induces high levels of fecundity-suppression
without causing a significant reduction in adult worm recoveries.
Therefore, recombinant-derived S. bovis 28kD GST is now being
evaluated, as are the effects of combined GST/KLH vaccination. In
China, sheep have been vaccinated with either S. japonicum GSTs, with
KLH, or with the F/T vaccine, as a prelude to trials in bovines. As
judged by adult worm recoveries, each type of vaccine induced
significant protection, and there was also evidence, particularly with the
GST and F/T vaccines, of fecundity-suppressive effects. As with the S.
bovis/cattle system therefore, both GST and KLH showed protective
effects against S. japonicum in sheep.
46

48.

49.

50.

Bickle QD, Taylor MG, James ER, Nelson GS, Hussein MF,
Andrews BJ, Dobinson AR, Marshall TF. (1979). Further
observations on immunization of sheep against Schistosoma mansoni
and S. bovis using irradiation-attenuated schistosomula of
homologous and heterologous species. Parasitology;78(2):185-93.
This paper describes further characteristics of the immunization of sheep
against schistosomes using live, irradiation schistosomula. Sheep
immunized with a non-virulent strain of Schistosoma mattheei were
protected against a more virulent strain of the same species for over a
year. As there was no evidence that the irradiated parasites were able to
persist this long, it was concluded that the vaccine had induced a sterile
resistance. Heterologous vaccination, using irradiated S. mattheei
schistosomula to immunize against S. bovis or irradiated S. mansoni
schistosomula to immunize against S. mattheei, failed to induce any
protection.
Bol Kolock Manjing (1979). Survey of Helminthes of Cats in the
Sudan. M.Sc., University of Khartoum.
Fifty cats from Khartoum and Sawakin areas were examined for
helminthes. The frequencies of infection in cats were: Ancylostoma
tubaeforme, Physaloptera praeputiale, Rictularia cahirensis,
Dipylidiinae (Diplopylidium sp. and Joyeuxiella sp.) very few
representatives of Hydatigera taeniaeformis (multiceps), few Raillietina
sp. Echinopardalis lerouxi. Related works by others especially Dr. K.
Rohde on cats revealed occurrence of trematode worms in Malaya while
this survey shows their complete absence. This may be due, probably, to
fewer trematode life cycles occurring in terrestrial intermediate hosts
than in aquatic ones, whereas both cestode and nematode life cycles are
more common in terrestrial hosts.
Burger, HJ; Fadl,M; Magzoub,M (1988). Incidence of
gastrointestinal nematodes of the camels in Butana. Proc. Intr.
Symp. Develop Anim. Resour. Sudan. Khartoum. Jan.3rd -7th ,
1988.pp 54-57.
Faecal examinations and autopsy survey studies on 429 camel in Butana
area of the Central Sudan, showed the presence of 7 species of
gastrointestinal nematodes. These were, Haemonchus longistipes,
Trichostrongylus spp., Cooperia pinctata, Impalia tuberculate,
Oesophagostomum columbianum and Trichuris glopulosa. C. pinctata
and O. columbianum are for the first time reported from camels in the
Sudan. Trichostrongylus spp. Were the most prevalent nematode
parasites in camels in the study area. Positive correlation between rain
47

51.

52.

fall and egg counts was established. The highest incidence of infection
was detected in the rainy season.
Bushara H. O., M. F. Husseina1, A. M. Saad, M. G. Taylor, J. D.
Dargie, T. F. De C. Marshall and G. S. Nelsona (1978).
Immunization of calves against Schistosoma bovis using irradiated
cercariae or schistosomula of S. bovis Parasitology,77(3): 303-311.
Fourteen 9-month-old zebu calves were immunized with 10000
irradiated Schistosoma bovis schistosomula given in 13 intramuscular
or subcutaneous doses, and 4 more calves were immunized with 10000
irradiated cercariae administered percutaneously in a single dose. Eight
weeks after the beginning of the experiment these calves, together with
four non-immunized controls were challenged percutaneously with
10000 normal S. bovis cercariae/calf. Comparative clinical,
parasitological, pathological and pathophysiological observations
subsequently revealed significant differences between the vaccinated and
non-vaccinated calves. The vaccinated calves showed significantly
higher growth rates, and a superior body composition as indicated by
their lower total body water content. The beneficial effects of
vaccination were also shown by significantly lower faecal egg outputs in
the vaccinated calves and by their lower tissue egg and adult worm
counts. The reduced tissue egg counts were also reflected in the milder
histopathological changes seen in the vaccinated calves. The vaccinated
calves had significantly higher packed cell and circulating red blood cell
volumes than the challenged controls, longer red blood cell half lives,
and somewhat lower blood volumes and rates of red blood cell synthesis.
No untoward clinical effects that could be attributed to vaccination were
recorded. These results indicate that zebu cattle can be effectively
protected against S. bovis by vaccination with irradiated organisms. We
are now evaluating this type of vaccine in a field trial in an enzootic area
in the Sudan.
Bushara HO, Bashir ME, Malik KH, Mukhtar MM, Trottein F,
Capron A, Taylor MG. (1993). Suppression of Schistosoma bovis egg
production in cattle by vaccination with either glutathione Stransferase or keyhole limpet haemocyanin. Parasite Immunol.
15(7):383-90.
Two of the antigens which have shown vaccine potential in animal
experiments against Schistosoma mansoni are glutathione-S-transferase
(GST) and GP38, protective epitopes of which are shared with keyhole
limpet haemocyanin (KLH). We therefore tested S. bovis GST and KLH
for vaccine efficacy against S. bovis in the natural Zebu cattle host. In a
48

53.

preliminary experiment three vaccinations with a total of 1.39 mg of


native GSTs of S. bovis induced specific antibody at the time of
challenge as detected by Western blotting and ELISA and mean faecal
egg counts between weeks 6-10 post-challenge were reduced by 56.4 to
82.5% compared to non-vaccinated controls. Mean adult worm
recoveries and tissue egg densities in large intestine and liver samples
were also reduced in the vaccinated group, but these differences were not
statistically significant. In a subsequent experiment one group of calves
was vaccinated with a similar schedule to that used above; a second
group of calves was given only two injections of GST (total 0.48 mg
protein); a third group of calves was vaccinated twice with a total of 2.0
mg KLH in PBS. All three vaccination schedules induced specific
antibody. Both GST vaccination schedules induced significant
reductions in faecal egg counts compared to non-vaccinated controls and
in this experiment tissue egg densities were also significantly reduced. A
striking finding, however, was that adult worm counts were not reduced
by vaccination. An essentially similar outcome resulted from KLH
vaccination, since there were significant reductions in faecal and tissue
egg counts in the absence of a reduction in adult worm numbers.
Bushara HO, Gameel AA, Majid BY, Khitma I, Haroun EM, Karib
EA, Hussein MF, Taylor MG (1983).Observations on cattle
schistosomiasis in the Sudan, a study in comparative medicine. VI.
Demonstration of resistance to Schistosoma bovis challenge after a
single exposure to normal cercariae or to transplanted adult worms.
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 32(6):1375-80.
Calves were immunized with Schistosoma bovis by a single
experimental exposure to 10,000 normal cercariae. Some of these calves
were perfused 14 weeks later, and a part of their worm loads was
surgically transplanted into groups of normal recipient calves: "WPR"
group calves received 500 pairs of worms; "MR" group calves received
between 650 and 1,000 male worms alone. All three groups were
subsequently challenged 10 weeks after surgery with 20,000 cercariae, as
were a previously unexposed group of controls ("CC"). Mean postchallenge fecal egg counts in the animals immunized with cercariae
("PC" group) rose to a maximum of only 60 eggs per gram (e.p.g.),
compared to 376 e.p.g. in the CC, and maximum fecal egg counts in the
WPR and MR groups were also somewhat lower than in the CC, at 152
and 250 e.p.g., respectively. In spite of the much lower fecal egg counts
in the PC than in the CC group, calculated adult "challenge" worm
recoveries were only reduced by 11%, but PC group tissue egg densities
49

54.

55.

derived from the challenge were 78-100% lower than in the CC. The
WPR and MR groups had 43% and 37%, respectively, fewer worms than
the CC, and mean tissue egg densities were lower by 39-63% and 6376%, respectively, though in most cases there were no statistically
significant differences from the CC.
Bushara HO, Hussein MF, Majid MA, Musa BE, Taylor MG.
(1983). Observations on cattle schistosomiasis in the Sudan, a study
in comparative medicine. IV. Preliminary observations on the
mechanism of naturally acquired resistance. Am J Trop Med Hyg.
32(5):1065-70.
Suppression of egg production is the main parasitological manifestation
of naturally acquired resistance to Schistosoma bovis in Sudanese cattle.
In preliminary investigations on the mechanisms involved, 700-4,000
"suppressed" adult worms were surgically transplanted from six
"resistant" donor cattle with very low fecal egg counts (0-8 eggs/g, epg)
into six normal recipients. After transplantation, large numbers of eggs
were excreted in the feces of the recipient cattle, beginning at between 5
and 16 days after operation, and reaching counts of 55-405 epg at
between 6 and 20 days post transplantation. In the cattle with the highest
egg counts, egg counts soon fell sharply from peak levels, whereas in
cattle with lower peak counts, more steady counts were maintained. All
the recipients were perfused at days 46-56, when between 0.1% and
78.5% of the transplanted worms were recovered. In the second
experiment, 1,000-ml quantities of pooled sera from "resistant" donors
were injected intraperitoneally into each of four normal recipient calves,
while another four were injected with pooled sera from uninfected cattle.
All the calves were challenged percutaneously the next day with 7,500
cercariae each, and the course of infection was followed by
parasitological and clinical measurements until perfusion 18 weeks later.
The results showed that the "immune" sera had a negligible effect on the
numbers of worms which developed, and had no significant effect on the
fecal egg counts or clinical parameters studied. There was, however,
some evidence from the tissue egg counts of a reduction in the fecundity
of the worms in calves injected with "immune" sera.
Bushara HO, Hussein MF, Majid MA, Taylor MG (1982). Effects of
praziquantel and metrifonate on Schistosoma bovis infections in
Sudanese cattle. Res Vet Sci. 33(1):125-6. Twelve nine-month-old zebu
calves were each experimentally infected with 10,000 Schistosoma bovis
cercariae. Four were treated orally with 20 mg/kg praziquantel at weeks
9 and 14 after infection, and four were treated orally three times with
50

56.

57.

metrifonate at week 11 (25 mg/kg) and again at week 14 (50 mg/kg).


Praziquantel proved to be highly effective, reducing faecal egg counts
near to zero; the mean live worm count in the treated calves at week 16
was only 32, compared to 2850 in the untreated group, a reduction of
98.9 per cent. In contrast, metrifonate treatment caused only a very shortlived, partial reduction in faecal egg counts, and no reduction in live
worm counts.
Bushara HO, Majid AA, Saad AM, Hussein MF, Taylor MG, Dargie
JD, Marshall TF, Nelson GS. (1980). Observations on cattle
schistosomiasis in the Sudan, a study in comparative medicine. II.
Experimental demonstration of naturally acquired resistance to
Schistosoma bovis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 29(3):442-51.
Epizootiological observations on Schistosoma bovis in cattle at Kosti,
Sudan, showed a significant fall in age-specific prevalence and intensity
with age, based on fecal egg count. To test the possibility that this is due
to acquired resistance, Kosti cattle and a control group of cattle of
similiar breed and age from a nonenzootic area were experimentally
challenged with 70,000 S. bovis cercariae. Clinical observations showed
very clearly that the Kosti cattle were able to withstand almost
completely the effects of the challenge, whereas the controls developed
lethal infections. Resistance was further demonstrated by clear
differences between the two groups in terms of their body weights,
hematological measurements, histopathological and pathophysiological
responses, and worm and egg counts. The data suggested that the main
basis of the resistance was a suppression of egg production by the worms
from the challenge, rather than absolute prevention of their maturation.
There was also evidence of a suppression of the fecundity of worms in
the naturally infected Kosti cattle.
Bushara HO, Majid BY, Majid AA, Khitma I, Gameel AA, Karib
EA, Hussein MF, Taylor MG. (1983). Observations on cattle
schistosomiasis in the Sudan, a study in comparative medicine. V.
The effect of praziquantel therapy on naturally acquired resistance
to Schistosoma bovis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 32(6):1370-4.
Studies in the White Nile area of the Sudan have shown that Zebu cattle
acquire a high degree of resistance to Schistosoma bovis as a result of
repeated natural exposures without, however, being able to eliminate
their populations of adult schistosomes, although these do show greatly
suppressed fecundity. To test whether these adult worms are necessary
for the maintenance of resistance we cured six "naturally resistant" cattle
(TC group) with a double treatment of 25 mg/kg praziquantel and
51

58.

compared their response to a 70,000 cercariae challenge with groups of


"naturally resistant" but untreated cattle (UC group) and with previously
unexposed, challenged cattle (CC group). Challenge was carried out 7
weeks after the second dose of praziquantel. The results confirmed that
untreated cattle are "naturally resistant" and also showed that resistance
was not abrogated by cure of the naturally-acquired infections. Thus,
fecal egg counts after challenge reached mean maxima of 2,432 eggs per
gram (epg) in the CC, but only 5 epg and 28 epg in the TC and UC
groups, respectively. Similarly, mean worm counts were 85% and 69%
lower in the TC and UC groups, respectively, and mean tissue egg
densities were reduced by 72-99%, and 56-80%. Histopathologically, the
TC and UC groups were also far less affected than the CC. Effective
praziquantel treatment does therefore not destroy naturally acquired
resistance to S. bovis, and may benefit infected livestock even in the
absence of transmission control. The situation in human schistosomiasis
is less clear, but there are several epidemiological and experimental
indications of a similar conclusion for S. mansoni.
Bushara HO, Omer OH, Malik KH, Taylor MG. (1994). The effect
of multiple transfers of immune serum on maturing Schistosoma
bovis infections in calves. Parasitol Res. 80(3):198-202.
To investigate the role of humoral factors in immunity, serum from cattle
with naturally acquired immunity to Schistosoma bovis was injected
intraperitoneally into calves that had been infected 4 weeks earlier with
10,000 S. bovis cercariae. Serum was injected weekly until 12 weeks
post-infection to a total of 4,500 ml per calf and controls received normal
serum or saline. No significant difference in worm or in faecal or tissue
egg counts were seen in the three groups of recipients in spite of the
observation that the serum donors had proved highly resistant to
experimental challenge. In a second experiment, pre-infection or 4-, 8- or
12-week post-infection serum from donors given a single experimental
infection with 10,000 S. bovis cercariae was injected intraperitoneally
into groups of calves that had been infected 4 weeks earlier with 20,000
S. bovis cercariae. Injections were given weekly up to week 10 postinfection to a total of 2000-3500 ml serum per calf. In calves injected
with immune serum there was a reduction in faecal and tissue egg counts
and in the numbers of worms recovered as compared with the controls.
In recipients of 8- and 12-week serum the reductions in faecal and tissue
egg counts were higher than those in worm recovery, suggesting that 8and 12-week post-infection sera contained factors capable of causing, in
addition to worm death, suppression of worm fecundity. This provides
52

59.

60.

61.

further evidence of the importance of fecundity suppression in immunity


to schistosomiasis.
Dargie JD. (1980). The pathogenesis of Schistosoma bovis infection
in Sudanese cattle. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 74(5):560-2.
No abstract available.
Dinkel A, Njoroge EM, Zimmermann A, Wlz M, Zeyhle E,
Elmahdi IE, Mackenstedt U, Romig T. (2004). A PCR system for
detection of species and genotypes of the Echinococcus granulosuscomplex, with reference to the epidemiological situation in eastern
Africa. Int J Parasitol. 34(5):645-53.
We describe the development of a specific and sensitive PCR/seminested PCR system for the rapid diagnosis of Echinococcus granulosus
genotype G1, E. granulosus genotype G6/7, and Echinococcus ortleppi
(G5). Diagnosis of G1 and the group G5/6/7 is performed by a simple
PCR, while discrimination between E. ortleppi (G5) and G6/7 involves a
subsequent semi-nested PCR step. The target sequence for amplification
is part of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene. Specificity of the PCRs was
100% when evaluated with isolates of 16 species of cestodes, including
Echinococcus multilocularis, Echinococcus equinus, E. ortleppi and
three strains of E. granulosus (G1, G6 and G7). Sensitivity threshold was
0.25pg of DNA. This new approach was compared with published
protocols of restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR and
sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and NADH
dehydrogenase 1 genes using Echinococcus isolates of human, sheep,
goat, camel, cattle and pig origin from Kenya and Sudan. Additionally,
two internal DNA probes were developed, one hybridising only with G1,
the other with G5, G6 and G7 amplification products. Preliminary
epidemiological results obtained with this PCR approach include the
detection of a camel strain (G6) infection for the first time in a human
patient from eastern Africa, and the first reports of E. ortleppi (G5) in
livestock from Kenya and the Sudan.
Eisa AM., El Badawi ES., and Saad MB, (1976). Helminth parasites
of the local breed of poulty in the Sudan., Sudan Journal of
Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry ,17: 68-76.
Out of 2532 viscera of poultry aged 4-12 months examined for helminth
parasites during the period October 1969 to June 1974 (2190 birds in
Khartoum, 165 birds in Kasala, and 177 birds in Medani), 2257 birds
(89%) were infested.The percent incidence of the different helminth
parasites encountered in Khartoum, Kassala and Medani were as
follows: Raillietina tetragona 60.9%; Subulura brumpti 68.5%;
53

62.

63.

64.

65.

66.

Tetrameres americana 42.8%; Gongylonema ingulvicola 30.4%;


Acuaria (Dispharynx) spiralis 5%.
Eisa, A. M. (1962). Preliminary survey of parasites of dogs in Upper
Nile Province. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal
Husbandry.3, 109-117.
No abstract.
Eisa, A. M., Mustafa, A. A. & Soliman, K. N.(1962). Preliminary
report on cysticercosis and hydatidosis in Southern Sudan. Sudan
Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry.3, 79-107.
No abstract.
Eisa, A. M.; El Badawi, E. S.; Saad, M. B. A.; Ibrahim, A. M. and
ElGezuli, A. Y. (1979). Check list and first records of helminth
parasites of domestic and wild animals reported in the Sudan during
the period 1902-1975. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Research. 1: 5563.
No abstract.
Eisa, A.M.(1963).Incidence of parasites in bovine livers. Journal of
Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Vol 4 (2): 72-76.
No abstract.
El Amir Mustafa Saad (1979). Pathogenesis of Schistosoma bovis
Infections in Domestic Ruminants. Ph.D., University of Khartoum.
Within the bounds of this project, the other carried out investigations to
define and elucidate the pathogenesis of primary S. bovis infections in
domestic ruminants and to assess both naturally-acquired and artificiallyinduced resistance to this parasite in Sudanese Zebu cattle through
various clinical, parasitological, pathophysiological and pathological
parameters. Sections 1, 2 and 3 of this thesis have been devoted to
studying the clinicopathological disturbances induced by a primary S.
bovis infection in Zebu calves. These studies have shown that infected
calves develop a haemorrhagic diarrhoea and become anaemic,
hypoalbuminaemic, hyperglobulinaemic and eosinophilic. In addition,
they either lose or fail to gain bodyweight in comparison to worm-free
calves. The development of all these features coincides with the
appearance of schistosome eggs around the 7th week of infection and
their severity is closely related to the number of eggs excreted. The
disease has been found to be most severe around 3 - 4 months postinfection when faecal egg output and the worm burdens reach their
maximal levels. Concurrent radioisotopic measurements (Section 2) have
also shown that accelerated rate of red cell breakdown due to loss from
the circulation occurs and is more pronounced again around the 7th week
54

67.

of infection increasing in severity during the subsequent 2 months.


Erythropoiesis is also increased but does not keep pace with the rate of
red cell breakdown. Moreover, the disease is associated with
hypoalbuminaemia which is produced by increased rate of albumin
catabolism and is accompanied by marked depletion of all albumin
levels but particularly of the extra vascular pool. The pattern of albumin
catabolism follows closely that of red cell loss suggesting that passage of
plasma as a whole is the basic cause of this hypoalbuminaemia.
El Awad Mohamed El Hassan (1988). Experimental and Field
Studies of Some Gastro-Intestinal Nematodes of Ruminants in the
Sudan. MVSc theses, University of Khartoum. This study consisted of
three major pacts. The first part dealt with the degree of pasture
infestation with trichostrongylid nematode larvae in the University Farm
and Butana area (camels grazing area). Samples of vegetations were
monthly examined throughout a period of one year for the presence of
larvae. The examination revealed presence of Trichostrongylus. spp. and
Haemonchus spp. larvae in both areas. Trichostrongylus spp. larvae were
found to predominate in both areas. Larvae of Trichostrongylus spp. in
both areas were detected in high numbers during the rainy season and
their number started to decrease towards winter, till they disappeared
from herbage during the following summer. On the other hand,
Haemonchus spp. larvae behaved in the same pattern in the University
Farm while in the Butana area they were detected only during the rainy
season. The second part of the study dealt with transmission experiments
of Trichostrongylus probolurus from camels to lambs. The effect of this
worm on lambs was also studied. No apparent clinical signs or postmortem lesions were detected. Haematological parameters showed
moderate eosinophilia, but no signs of anaemia were observed during the
course of infection. Morphology of the adult worm and the infective
larvae was also studied. In this part, the efficacy of Ivermectin (IvomecMSD), administered subcutaneously at a dose rate of 200 mg/kg b.wt. to
the experimentally infected lambs, against Trichostrongylus probolurus
was also studied. The drug was found to be 100% effective against this
worm. The third part dealt with the transmission of Haemonchus
longistipes from camels to sheep and its effect on the latter host. This
worm was less successfully adapted to sheep. Infected animals showed
no apparent clinical signs. However, during post-mortem examination,
there was slight oedema and focal areas of congestion in the abomasal
wall. Histologically, there were few focal areas of erosion of the lining
epitheliurn and moderate inflammatory infiltration of mononuclear cells
55

68.

69.

70.

71.

and eosinophils. Haematologically, there was a slight reduction in


erythrocyte counts. haemoglobin concentration and PCV. Morphological
studies on H. longistipes from naturally infected camels and
experimentally infected sheep revealed a noticeable retardation in size
and measurements of adult worms collected from infected sheep as
compared with those collected from camels. Slight reduction in length of
the infective larvae obtained from faecal cultures of experimentally
infected sheep, was also detected. The vulvar region of the female H.
longistipes from both camels and sheep has a small lateral knob.
Prolongation in the pre-patent period was observed, where it reached 31
days.
El Badawi EK, Eisa AM, Slepenev NK, Saad MB. Hydatidosis of
domestic animals in the central region of the Sudan. Bull Anim
Health Prod Afr. 1979 Dec;27(4):249-51.
No abstract.
El Badawi EK., Slepnov NK., and Eisa AM (1976). A survey of
helminth parasites of cattle, sheep and goats in the southern region
of the Sudan. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal
Husbandry, Vol 17:60-67.
A survey of helminth parasites of cattle, sheep and goats was conducted
in Malakal, Juba and Wau during January and February 1975. Regular
visits were made to the slaughterhouses, in all a total of 434 carcasses of
cattle, 32 of goats and 14 of sheep were searched for helminth parasites.
Eight different genera of helminth parasites were encountered in all
animal species examined. Six genera were encountered in cattle of
Equatoria province, 5 genera were encountered in cattle of Bahr El
Ghazal province, 4 genera in goats of Equatoria and also 4 genera in
sheep of Upper Nile province. Stilezia hepatica in goats was recorded for
the first time in Juba.
El Badawi ES., and Slepnov NK, (1976) A note on bovine
Schistosomiasis in the Southern region of the Sudan. Journal of
Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Vol 17(1):41-43.
Bovine Schistosomiasis appears to be prevalent in the southern region of
the Sudan. Most of grazing areas in the southern region are very suitable
habitat for the snail population due to the accumulation of water in
different places during the flooded and rainy seasons.
El Badawi, E. S.; Eisa, A. M.; Ibrahim, A. M.; Slepnev, N. K. and
ElGezuli, A. Y. (1978). Incidence of helminth parasites in ruminants
slaughtered in western provinces of the Sudan. Sud. J. Vet. Sci. and
Anim. Husb. 19 (1): 58-65.
56

72.

73.

74.

75.

270 carcasses of cattle, 1397 of sheep and 794 of goats slaughtered at


Nyala and El Fashir abattoirs were examined for some helminth
parasites. Twelve genera of parasites were encountered, 3 trematodes
(Fasciola gigantica, Paramphistomum spp and Schistosoma bovis), 4
cestodes and larval cestodes (Avitellina spp, Moniezia expansa,
Cysticercus bovis and hydatid cysts) and 5 genera of nematodes
(Trichuris ovis, Oesophagostomum radiatum, O. columbianum,
Haemonchus contortus, and Nematodirus spp.). Eight, 7 and 6 genera of
helminth parasites were encountered in sheep, cattle and goats
respectively. The maximum combination og genera found in any one
animal was four. The incidence was determined and findings discussed.
El Badawi, E. S.; ElGezuli, A. Y.; Eisa, A. M. and Slepnev, N. K.
(1978). Incidnce of Cysticercus tenuicollis in animals slaughtered for
human consumption in the Sudan. Sud. J. Vet. Sci. Anim. Husb. 19
(2): 87-91.
3478 carcasses of sheep, 960 of goats, 1871of cattle and 116 of camels
were examined at slaughterhouse in the different provinces of the Sudan
during the period 1975-1977. To determined the incidence of
Cysticercus tenuicollis. It was found that 32.4% of sheep and 29% of
goats harbored C. tenuicollis. No cysts were detected in the carcasses of
cattle and camels examined. The significance of these findings is
discussed.
El Badawi, E. S.; Slepnev, N. K. and ElGezuli, A. Y. (1978). A new
record of Coenurus gaigeri associated with sheep in the Sudan. Acta
Veterinaria (Beograd). 28: 213-215.
No abstract.
El Badawi, El-Khawad., and Eisa AM. (1977). Helminths in chickens
in Sudan. Angew Parasitol.18 (3):142-5.
The identification of the helminthic parasites of the poultry in Khartoum
province, during the months of October and November, 1969, 230 hens,
6--12 months old, were examined in the laboratory; 87% of the hens
exhibited mono- and polyinfections. The following species were found:
Subulura brumpti, Raillietina tetragona, Tetrameres americana,
Gongylonema ingluvicola and Dispharynx spiralis, mostly as
polyinfections. [Article in German].
El Bihari S, Gadir FA , Suleiman H (1974). Incidence and behavior
of microfilariae in cattle. Sud. J. Vet. Anim. Husb., 15(2): 82-85.
In this short communication the authors reported on a preliminary
assessment of the incidence of microfilariae of Onchocerca amillata and
57

76.

77.

78.

79.

Setaria labiatopapillosa in cattle in Nuba Mountains, Southern Darfur


and Khartoum.
El Bihari S, Hussein HS.(1978). Onchocerca gutturosa (Neumann,
(1910) in Sudanese cattle. I. The microfilariae. Rev Elev Med Vet
Pays Trop.;31(2):179-82.
The skin distribution of microfilariae of Onchocerca gutturosa in
Sudanese cattle is different from that reported from European calttle.
Microfilarae are found in the midline of the back, the highest densities
being in the region of the hump. Microfilariae did not occur in the ears or
umbilical region.The prevalence rate of O. gutturosa in a Khartoum herd
containing all age groups was determined ante mortem and found to be
27 P. 100 ; prevalence distinctly Increased with age.
El Bihari S, Hussein HS. (1975). Location of the microfilariae of
Onchocerca armillata. J Parasitol. 61(4):656.
No abstract.
El Bihari S. (1985). Helminth of the camel: A review. Br. Vet. J.:
141, 3 1 5.
Conditions under which camels are usually kept are not conducive to
parasite transmission; in spite of this a large number of helminth
parasites are known to occur in the camel. Most of these infections do
not precipitate frank clinical disease; some species, however, are
important as aetiological agents of clinical conditions which are often the
result of mixed infections. These include the camel stomach worm
Haemonchus longistipes. This helminth, either alone or in mixed
infections with Trichostrongylus spp., may cause a debilitating and
sometimes fatal condition. Other common helminth infections of the
camel include onchocerciasis caused by Onchocerca fasciata,
Dipetalonema evansi infection, Fasciola hepatica, F. giganttca, Stilezia
vittata, Moniezia expansa and larval Echinococcus granulosus.
Information available about helminths of the camel is presented and
discussed.
El Bihari, S., Kawasmeh, Z.A., Ashour, N.A. and Elnaiem, A.H.,
(1984). Experimental infection of sheep by the camel stomach worm,
Haemonchus longistipes. Vet. Parasitol., 15: 257--261.
An attempt has been made to infect sheep by Haemonchus longistipes
with the objective of developing a relatively cheap and manageable
model of camel haemonchosis. A large proportion of inoculated animals
(28/34) developed patent infections; the prepatent period was short,
lasting for 3 to 4 weeks in the majority of infected animals. Worm
58

80.

81.

82.

burdens were low and so was the total egg output. Most of the recovered
worms were reduced in size.
El Hussein AM., Hassan N., Taha KM., and Ali SM (1991). A note
on hydatidosis in camels in Eldamer Province, Northern State,
Sudan. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Research, 10: 63-64.
No abstract.
EL Kheir Ibrahim Dafalla (1985). Studies on Onchocerca Cervicalis
(Railliet & Henry, 1910) in Sudanese Horses. MVSc theses,
University of Khartoum. Onchocerca cervicalis was found to be a
common parasite of Sudanese horses, 63% were found naturally
infected, and this percentage increased with age. The adult worms
inhabit the ligamentum muchae of infected horses, but the microfilariae
were found predominantly along the abdominal mid-line. Morphological
description of male and female worms has been studied in details.
Distinct morphological differences were found between microfilariae in
the uterus of the adult worm, and those in the skin of the host. This
suggests that development occurs during the migration from the adult
worm to the skin and it may mean that uterine microfilariae are not
infective to the vectors. The uterine microfilariae themselves are divided
into three types, representing three stages of development. The
pathological effect of adult O. cervicalis, has been studied. In heavy and
long standing condition the pathological changes are more recognized.
Small calcified or caseous nodules in moderate infection were seen.
Chronic inflammatory conditions (poll evil or fistulous withers) were not
seen in examination of over 50 infected horses. Pathological conditions
due to microfilariae, in either, the skin or the eyes of the host were also
studied in details.
El Rawda Adam Ali (1998). Gastrointestinal Parasites of Captive
Animals in Khartoum State. M.Sc., University of Khartoum.
This piece of work which is intended to study the gastrointestinal
parasites of captive animals has been carried out in 3 zoological gardens
in Khartoum state, namely Shaab Park, Gorashi Park and the Sudan
Naturai History Museum. A total of 768 samples from different animal
species including mammals, birds and reptiles were investigated through
direct faecal examination; faecal culture and post mortem examination.
The results obtained have indicated that animals under zoo conditions
are vulnerable to parasitic infection with varying degrees. Statistical
comparison of prevalence rates showed that significant differences
between some sites do occur. Overall parasitic infection in the 3 sites
(Shaab Park, Gorashi Park, and the Sudan Natural History Museum)
59

83.

84.

amounted to 57.6%, 28.6% and 27.3% respectively. Analyses have


shown predomination of nematodes at prevalence rates of 33.3% in
Shaab Park, 14.3% in Gorashi Park, and 12.7% in the Natural history
Museum. Where by infection was represented by the genera
Strongyloides, Haemonchus, Oesophagostomum, Ostertagia and
Toxocara among herbivores and the genera Ascaris, Toxascaris and
Physaloptera in carnivores. Primates were susceptible to Ascaris sp. and
Trichuris sp. and birds were infected by Capillarids and Suburura sp.
While reptiles were infected by species of the genus Thubunaea.
Trematodes occurred at rates of 6.8% in Shaab Park, 10.2% in Gorashi
Park and were lacking in the Natural History Museum. The Trematode
genera Fasciola, Dicrocoelium, Paramphistomum and Schistosoma were
isolated from herbivores and primates. As for cestodes, prevalence rates
of 5.3% 2.0% and 9.0% could be recorded at Shaab park, Gorashi park
and the Natural History Museum respectively; where by the generz
Fomezia, Diplopylidium, Joyeuxiella and Hymenolepis were detected in
different animal species. Protozoans prevailed in the 3 sites as 12.1 % in
Shaab Park, 2.0% in Gorashi park and 5.5% in the Natural History
Museum. Coccidians of the genera Eimeria, isospora were isolated from
herbivxes and carriers where as the genus Entamoeba was detected in
primates. The present study has confirmed some of the findings of
former workers in the Sudan, however some species have been identified
in cestrum hosts for the first time, namely Toxocara vitulorum in the
African buffalos and Ascaris sp. in the Nubian Ibex, lions, baboons and
chimpanzee, and the genus Diplopylidium in the Egyptian gompose.
Susceptibility of pigeons to Capillarids, Hymenolepids and rabbits to
Eimeria was not preceded by such records.
El Sadig A Zain El Din (1981). Clinical and Haematological finding
in bovine cysticercosis. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Research. Vol3:
83-85.
Eight calves 3-5 months old were orally infected with eggs of Taenia
saginata. The manifested post infection clinical signs were rise in
temperature, arrhythmia & dysopnia. Other observed clinical symptoms
were weakness and pain of limbs, staggering gate, recummbency and
death. Haematological changes included increased leukocytes and
peripheral eosinophilia. Serum total protein was significantly increased.
El Sadig A Zain El Din (1981). Immunomorphological changes in
experimental bovine cysticercosis. Sudan Journal of Veterinary
Research.Vol.3: 93-96.
60

85.

86.

87.

88.

Histopathological and histochemical studies on experimental bovine


cysticercosis revealed that, host response to infection with Cysticercus
bovis was an inflammatory reaction manifested by cellular infiltration
and the formation of parasitic granuloma. The reaction varied according
to the stage of infection and was accompanied by obvious histochemical
change in tissues and organs of infected animals. Distinct
immunomorphological changes were also observed in lymph nodes and
spleen.
EL Sadik (A.), 1979. Distribution of bovine cysticercosis in Sudan
from an abattoir survey in Khartoum. Sbornik Nauchn. Trudov
Medical Veterinary Akademy, 108: 120-122.
No abstract available.
El Samani F, Mahmoud OM, Fawi MT, Gameel AA, Haroun EM.
Serum enzyme activity and bilirubin concentration in sheep
experimentally infected with Fasciola gigantica. J Comp Pathol.
1985 Oct;95(4):499-503.
Fasciola gigantica infection in sheep produced liver and lung lesions
characterized by damage to blood vessels and parenchymal necrosis. In
the lungs, the lesions were those of parasitic bronchopneumonia. The
damage to the liver and lung tissues was accompanied by increased
activity in serum of AST after 2 weeks, GD and SD after 4 to 5 weeks
and GGT and 5'-NT from 8 weeks onwards. Bilirubin concentration was
not affected.
El Sammani SE, Hussein HS.(1983). Onchocerca raillieti: adult
location and skin distribution of the microfilaria in Sudanese
donkeys. J Helminthol. 57(4):355-60. Onchocerca raillieti is the only
Onchocerca species infecting Sudanese donkeys; it occurs only in the
ligamentum nuchae, especially in the lamellar part of the ligament. The
morphological features of both uterine and skin microfilariae were
determined. Skin microfilariae are shorter than uterine ones and tend to
accumulate in the regions of Linea alba and withers of infected donkeys.
The possible identity of the vector of this worm in the Sudan is
discussed.
El Sanhouri AA1, Haroun EM, Gameel AA, Bushara HO. (1987).
Protective effect of irradiated metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica
and irradiated cercariae of Schistosoma bovis against fascioliasis in
goats. Trop Anim Health Prod.19(4):245-9.
Sensitisation of goats for eight weeks with metacercariae of Fasciola
gigantica gamma-irradiated at 3 kr resulted in significant resistance to an
homologous challenge with normal metacercariae. However, serum
61

89.

90.

sorbitol dehydrogenase assay suggested that, whereas little damage was


produced by immunising infections, considerable hepatic damage was
caused by flukes remaining from challenge infections. On the other hand
sensitisation with cercariae of Schistosoma bovis gamma-irradiated at 3
kr did not stimulate any resistance against heterologous challenge with F.
gigantica.
El Sayed Ishag El Shafea (1998). Immunization of Calves against
Experimental Bovine Schistosomiasis Using Glutathione-STransferase and Keyhole Limpet Haemocyanin. M.V.Sc., University
of Khartoum.
The enzymes recombinant Glutathione -s- transferase (Rec. G,S,T),
Native GST and the glycoprotein Keyhole limpet Haemocyanin (KLH)
were subcutaneously and intramuscularly injected in different sites in the
animal body to study their safety, efficacy and potency to produce
immunity against experimental infection with Schistosoma bovis. Forty
Zebu calves were divided into four equal groups A, B, C, and D. Group
A calves were injected with three doses of Recombinant GST. Group B
calves were injected with three doses of Native GST, Group C calves
were injected with a combination of Rec. GST plus KLH (Two doses).
Group D calves were left as controls. The vaccinated groups together
with the controls were challenged by S. bovis cercariae at a dose rate of
10.000 per calf. Faecal egg count was reduced compared to the controls
by 23% in group A, 16% and 22% in Group B and C, respectively.
Hatchability of eggs was also lowered to about 49%, 53% and 44% in
group A, B, and C, respectively than that obtained from the controls.
Eggs recovered from different tissues was reduced to 56% in group A,
53% in group B and 58% in group C compared to the controls. It was
observed that calcified (black) eggs constituted 62%, 48% and 50% of
the eggs counted in the livers, small and large intestines of the
vaccinated animals. The total worm recovery in all animals' groups,
including the controls, was almost the same. There was, also, slight
difference in the packed cell volume values and no difference in the
haemoglobin concentrations. Using ELISA all vaccinated animals
showed highly significant differences in titre till the second week after
challenge, then declined and started again to rise in all groups, including
controls, starting from week five after challenge onwards till the end of
the experiment.
El Sinnary K, Hussein HS., Williams JF., and Atta Almannan AM
(1989). Natural and experimental infection of Culicodies kingi with
62

91.

92.

93.

94.

Onchocerca gutturosa (Neumann, 1910. In Sudan. Sudan Journal of


Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Vol 28 (1):17-26.
The transmission of Onchocerca gutturosa was studied in Shambat
(Khartoum North) in Sudan where the parasite is endemic and a high
percentage of cattle are infected. Culicodies kingi and Simulium
griseicolle were found to be the only biting arthropods feeding on the
hump region of cattle. Experimental and epidemiological evidence
excluded S. griseicolle as natural vector, and studies concentrated on C.
kingi. Females of this species that fed on carriers of O. gutturosa as well
as flies experimentally infected by intra-thoracic inoculation were
dissected at daily intervals. All flies which survived for seven days or
more after exposture contained infective larvae found were identical to
those of O. gutturosa described by previous workers. C. kingi probably
serves as a natural vector of O. gutturosa in the Sudan.
El Sinnary K, Hussein HS.Culicoides kingi, Austen: a vector of
Onchocerca gutturosa (Neumann, 1910) in the Sudan. Ann Trop Med
Parasitol. 1980 Dec;74(6):655-6.
No abstract available.
El Sinnary K., and Bianco AE (1983). Extraction of complete living
adult Onchocrca gutturosa from ligamentum nuchae. Sudan Journal
of Veterinary Research Vol 4:.
No abstract available.
El Sinnary KA, Hussein MF, Hussein SH. (1994). Onchocerca
gutturosa infection of the ligamentum nuchae in two cows in the
Sudan. Rev Elev Med Vet Pays Trop. 47(2):183-4. Severe lesions of
the ligamentum nuchae are described for the first time in two cows in the
Sudan. Post mortem and histopathological examination of the nodules
reveals inflammatory process the causal agent of which is Onchocerca
gutturosa.
Elamin, EA., Mohamed, GE., Fadl M., Seham Elias., Saleem MS.,
Elbashir M.O.A. (1993). An outbreak of cameline filariasis in the
Sudan. British Veterinary Journal, 149 (2): 195-200.
Sheathed microfilariae (mean length 27810m sem; mean width
7.20.8 m) were detected in the blood of 7/14 housed camels (Camelus
dromedarius). Microfilaraemic camels of either sex were inappetent,
lethargic, and reluctant to move and exhibited weakness in the hind
limbs; some remained in sternal recumbency. Cardiac disorders, orchitis
and skin nodules were conspicuously absent. The microfilariae showed a
biphasic pattern in the blood that peaked at 20:00 and plateaued betwen
04:00 and 06:00. Adult filarial worms were recovered from the
63

95.

96.

97.

mesenteric and femoral arteries. Marked clinical improvement within 1


2 weeks was seen in three camels treated at 10:00 with a single
subcutaneous injection of 0.2 mg/kg of ivermectin. These camels became
amicrofilaraemic 25 days after treatment and remained so for the length
of the observation period (133 days). Treatment of two camels at the
time of high microfilaraemia (06:30) resulted in adverse reaction and
death.
ElGezuli, A. Y.; El Badawi, E. S. and Eisa, A. M. (1978). First record
of Skrjabinema ovis (SKRJABIN, 1915) in goats in the Sudan. Sud.
J. Vet. Sci. Anim. Husb. 19 (2): 127-129. This paper reports on the first
record of Skrjabinema ovis in Sudan from goats at kassala
slaughterhouse.
ElGezuli, A. Y.; El Badawi, E. S. and Eisa, A. M. (1978). Nemafax
against some gastro-intestinal nematodes of camel in the Sudan. Sud.
J. Vet. Sci. Anim. Husb. 19 (1): 42-46. Twelve naturally parasitized
camels were used to study the anthelmintic efficacy of Nemafax
(thiophanate) against some gastro-intestinal nematodes of camels in the
Sudan. Eleven camels were given the drugas a suspension, at the rate of
175mg/kg to animals with high egg counts and at half this dose to
animals with low egg counts. Camel number 12 was kept as an untreated
control. No side effects were noticed in the treated animals. The efficacy
of Nemafax in this study, based on reduction of egg counts, was 94.5%.
All larvae recovered from faecal cultures before treatment were
identified as Haemonchus spp. Larvae. No worms were recovered by
washing faeces colleted from animals for 3 days after treatment. From
results obtained, the authors could not definitely conclude that the
reduction in egg counts obtained was due to actual death of the worms as
it could also be due to suppression of egg production. Another controlled
trial will be performed in order to settle this question.
Elham A Abdalla and Elmalik, KH, (1997). Effect of Nematode
Parasite on Weight Changes of Sudanese Desert Sheep. Sudan
Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Vol 36(
1&2): 50-54.
The study was done to evaluate the effect of anthelmintic treatment on
the weight gain of sheep naturally infected with nematodes. Since sheep
in Sudan are owned by nomads, they are mostly moving in search of
water and grazing areas. Aggregation of large numbers around water
sites and good pasture leads to continuous contamination of these sites
by parasite eggs and larvae. The effect of nematode infection on sheep
production as reflected in weight gain and PCV was measured. There
64

98.

99.

was a positive correlation between these parameters in treated animals


which is significantly different from untreated controls.
Elham A Abdalla and Elmalik, KH, (1997). Prevalence of nematodes
parasitism in desert sheep brought to Khartoum state. Sudan
Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Vol 36(
1&2): 44-49.
A study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of nematodes of
sheep brought to Khartoum for marketing and local consumption. It was
found that sheep harboured four genera of nematodes with rates of
infection as follows: Haemonchus sp.(56.3%) followed by that of
Strongyloides papillosus(36.6%), Oesophagostomum sp.(3.7%) and the
lowest was that of Trichostrogylus sp.(3.4%). Nematode infection was
highest in the Watish breed (58.6%) and lowest in the Baladi breed (
21.1%) while in the Kabbashi and Hamari breeds it was (58%) and
(47.7%) respectively. The infection was highest during the rainy season
reaching up to (100%), and declined during the cold months of the
winter reaching (31%) and (5.88%) in November and December
respectively.
Elham Abdalla Ahmed (1995). Prevalence of Nematodes in Sudanese
Sheep brought to Khartoum State. M. V. Sc., University of
Khartoum.
This study was conducted in Khartoum, Omdurman and Khartoum North
(Bahri) areas. The prevalence of Nematode helminth parasites was
investigated in sheep markets, slaughter houses and some farms at
different localities in these three areas including sheep markets in Hillat
Kuku, Halfaya and Riyadh areas, farms in Shambat area belonging to
individuals and the University of Khartoum Farm, one farm at Soba,
Alrawasi Export Farm at Butri and slaughter houses in both Omdurman
and Alkadaro. The prevalence of nematode infection in different breeds
of Sudanese sheep was investigated (i.e. Hamari, Baladi, Watish and
Kabbashi). It was found that infection was almost equal in both Watish
breed (58.6%) and the Kabbashi breed (58%) while in the Hamari and
Baladi breeds it was lower 47.7% and 21.1%, respectively. The
prevalence of nematode infection in Khartoum, Omdurman and Bahri
was 51.5%, 93.6% and 33%, respectively as detected by the e.p.g
technique. The prevalence of nematodes in sheep during different
months of the year and their seasonality was also investigated. It was
found that the high risk of infection with nematodes was during the rainy
season (August-October) and lowest during the cold season being less at
the beginning of the cold months (November-December) and starting to
65

rise in January and February. In summer (April), the infection rates


started to elevate again Faecal examination for ova suggested presence of
Haemonchus spp., Trichostrongylus spp., Strongyloides papillosus,
Oesophagostomum spp., and Chabertia ovina. The average sizes of
nematode ova detected were 68.4 x 45.6 m. Cultures of faecal samples
from 32 out of 100 from Omdurman slaughter house revealed 56.3%
infection with Haemonchus spp., 3.4% with Trichostrongylus spp., 3.7%
with Oesophagostomum spp. and 36.6% with S. papillosus, with average
larval lengths of 563.4 - 692.8 m for Haemonchus spp., 520.4 - 577.6
m for S. papillosus, 552.7 - 605.5 m for Trichostrongylus spp. and
663 - 694 m for Oesophagostomum spp. Effect of parasitism on weight
gain and PCV was evident. The group of animals treated with
Thiabendazole showed increase in body weight as well as a high
average of PCV compared with the untreated group.
100. Elham Elsayed Siddig Kardman (2008). Pathogenesis of
experimental Schistosoma bovis in goats at different levels of
infection. M. Sc., University of Khartoum.
Schistosoma bovis is an important veterinary and economical problem in
the Sudan and other African, Mediterranean and Middle Eastern
countries. Schistosomiasis causes severe outbreaks associated with high
mortality rates among cattle, sheep and goats. Experimental; work on
schistosomiasis involved the establishment of the complete life cycle of
the parasite under laboratory conditions. An active breeding colony of
the suitable snail host was established to provide a steady supply of
cercariae for goats infection. The effect of experimental Schistosoma
bovis infection on the clinical and pathological alternations was
investigated in male goats (10-12month old). Twenty goats were divided
into four groups A, B C and D. body weight and haemogram were
measured for every week of experiment. Each animal in group A, B and
C was infected with 500, 2000 and 5000 Schistosoma bovis cercariae
percutaneously respectively. Animals in group D were kept as uninfected
control. Serum and faecal samples were collected after infection. The
experimental goats were slaughtered by the end f the experiment (27
weeks after infection) for worm recovery and tissue egg count. The
representative tissue portions wee fixed and processed routinely for
histopathology. Infected goats developed clinical signs of illness 6 to 8
weeks for group A, B and C respectively. These included inappetance,
dull appearance, general weakness and sunken eyes. The appearance of
symptoms coincided with the start of oviposition and passage of
schistosome eggs in faeces. The results obtained showed significant
66

decrease between the infected groups in body weights, haemoglobin


concentration, total RBC counts and albumin values whereas total WBC
counts, total protein and globulin showed no significant increase. Faecal
egg counts, worm recovery and tissue egg counts showed significant
changes associated with the level of infection. The main
histopathological findings in the livers of infected animals were
granuloma formation and hepatocelular swelling and vacuolation. Ova
granuloma were also noticed in the lung, lymph node and intestine.
Glomerulo-inertial nephritis was observed in the kidneys. Haemosiderin
pigment was deposited in the spleen. In the heart, myocarditis was
observed. These lesions were frequently encountered in tissue of animals
of group C followed by group B and were scarcely detected in tissues of
group A.
101. Elmahdi IE1, Ali QM, Magzoub MM, Ibrahim AM, Saad MB,
Romig T.(2004). Cystic echinococcosis of livestock and humans in
central Sudan. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 98(5):473-9.
New information was collected on cystic echinococcosis in livestock
(camels, cattle and sheep) and humans in the central region of Sudan.
The livestock data were collected in abattoir-based surveys in the towns
of Omdurman, Tamboul and Wad Madani, between 1998 and 2001, and
covered a total of 8205 animals. The highest prevalence of infection was
found in the camels (44.6% of 242 infected), followed by the sheep
(6.9% of 5595) and cattle (3.0% of 2368). Records were made of the
sizes of the 1320 hydatid cysts detected in the livestock (907 in sheep, 71
in cattle, and 342 in camels), whether or not each cyst was fertile, and
where it occurred in the body of the host. Cysts collected from cattle and
camels where much more likely to be fertile (22% and 24%,
respectively) than those from sheep (1%). Camels and cattle therefore
appear to be the principal intermediate hosts for Echinococcus
granulosus in central Sudan, whereas sheep apparently play a marginal
role in transmission. In 2002, as a preliminary assessment of the publichealth impact of the disease, 300 residents of a rural village 60 km west
of Wad Madani were surveyed using a portable ultrasound scanner. Only
one (0.33%) of the villagers investigated was found infected. The
implications of these finding are discussed in terms of the various strains
of E. granulosus and the role of each in human disease.
102. Elmahdi, Ibrahim Elhag ,Abedelmoniem , Elhag Elmahdi
,AbdAlmalaik , Abdelhakeim Aballaha ,Abakar Adam Mohammed
,Eldaw, Abdelrahim Ahmed ,Omer, Hassan Mohammed Hassan
Abakar., Adam Dawoud., Kern Peter .,Romig Thomas.(2013)
67

103.

104.

105.

106.

Echinococcosis: Epidemiology and Genotyping of Echinococcus


Speices in Sudan. Journal of Science and Technology,14 (1) 69-79.
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is considered as a re-emerging disease in
various regions, e.g. the Middle East, central Asia, and northern and
eastern Africa. In sub-Saharan Africa, CE is highly endemic. In this
study, data were collected in abattoir-based surveys in Tamboul town
(Central-Eastern Sudan,) and in Nyala abattoir (Darfour region). Out of
1012 camels examined in Tampoul (713) and Nyala (299) an infection
rate of 16.1% and 29.1% was reported, respectively. The favorite site for
camels cysts is the lung (81%). Fertility rate of cysts encountered from
camels is about 57%. This finding appears to reflect the importance of
the camel as a major intermediate host of this zoonotic disease in
Tamboul and Nyala area. Echinococcus isolates (81) collected from
camels were genotyped by PCR-RFLP and specific G5/6/7 PCR. In all
cases, the G6 genotype of E. canadensis was found. The public-health
impact of these finding are discussed in terms of the various species and
genotypes of Echinococcus and the role of each in human health.
Elowni EE, Hopkins CA. (1981). Raillietina cesticillus: rejection by
bursa-deficient chickens. Res Vet Sci. 31(3):373-6.
Chickens in which antibody-forming capacity was abrogated by
bursectomy and irradiation developed protective immunity against
Raillietina cesticillus as effective as controls which had specific
antiworm antibodies in their sera and immunoglobulin positive cells in
splenic and intestinal tissues. It is concluded that antibodies are not
essential for the rejection of the tapeworm by chickens and may even
retard rejection.
Elowni EE, Nurelhuda IE, Hassan T. (1989). The effect of
niclosamide on Raillietina tetragona. Vet Res Commun. 13(6):451-3.
No abstract.
Elowni EE. (1984). Raillietina cesticillus: variability of infections in
experimentally infected chickens. J Helminthol. 58(4):287-9.
In experimental Raillietina cesticillus infections in chickens, the age of
cysticercoids, the method by which the cysticercoids are administered
and prior starvation of the host are factors that influence the development
of infections.
Elowni EE., Gameel AA., and El Sanousi SM (1986). On some
helminthes from a camel in the Sudan. Sudan Journal of Veterinary
Science and Animal Husbandry vol. 25 (2): 93- 96.
The authors reported the presence of Haemonchus longistipes, Stilezia
vittata and Moniezia expansa in a camel (Camelus dromedarius).
68

107. Elsheikh HA, Ali BH (1997). The effect of experimental fascioliasis


on the pharmacokinetics of antipyrine and sulphadimidine in desert
sheep. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 20(3):167-72.
Healthy adult male desert sheep were experimentally infected with
Fasciola gigantica, to investigate the influence of experimental
fasciolasis on the pharmacokinetics of antipyrine and sulphadimidine.
Each animal received 500 metacercariae orally. The experimental
infection was confirmed histologically, by detection of Fasciola eggs in
faeces and by measuring the activities of the enzymes sorbitol
dehydrogenase (SD), glutamate dehydrogenase (GD) and aspartate
aminotransferase (AST) in plasma during the course of the disease.
Changes in the pharmacokinetics of antipyrine and sulphadimidine were
reported in the experimentally infected animals. Significant prolongation
of antipyrine half life was observed 16 weeks after infection. The halflife of sulphadimidine was also significantly prolonged 5, 9 and 16
weeks after infection. Clearance of the sulphonamide was decreased
significantly 5 and 9 weeks after infection and it regained its preinfection value 16 weeks after infection.
108. Elsheikh HA, Ali BH, Homeida AM, Lutfi AA, Hapke HJ.
(1992).The effects of fascioliasis on the activities of some drugmetabolizing enzymes in desert sheep liver. Br Vet J. 1992 MayJun;148(3):249-57.
Desert sheep experimentally or naturally infected with Fasciola gigantica
were used to study the influence of infection on the activities of some
drug-metabolizing enzymes found in the liver. The enzymes investigated
were aminopyrine N-demethylase, aniline 4-hydroxylase and UDPglucuronyltransferase. The experimental infection was confirmed
histologically by detection of Fasciola eggs in faeces and by measuring
the activities of sorbitol dehydrogenase (SD), glutamate dehydrogenase
(GD) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in plasma during the course
of the disease. Liver specimens from naturally infected sheep were
obtained from the slaughter house. The activities of aminopyrine Ndemethylase and aniline 4-hydroxylase were significantly decreased in
sheep either naturally infected or during the acute stage of experimental
fascioliasis (killed 5 weeks post-infection). The activity of UDPglucuronyltransferase was decreased in naturally infected sheep and
those killed 9 or 13 weeks post-experimental infection.
109. Fadia Y Ali., Adam D Abakar and Mohamed E Hamid
(2000).Haematological and blood chemical analysis of horses
infected with Onchocerca cervicalis and Strongylus spp., Sudan
69

Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Vol. 39: 106110.


Selected haematological and blood chemical parameters were
investigated in 43 horses naturally infected with Onchocerca cervcalis in
Nyala area, western Sudan. The results with non-infected controls and
with horses infected with gastrointestinal nematodes notably Strongylus
spp. And with horses harbouring both infections. Anaemia as measured
by drops in haemoglubin concentration (Hb) and backed cell volume
(PCV) were noticed among horses infected with Onchocercae and those
infected with nematodes (p<0.001). The proteins and glucose levels were
similarly affected with an obvious decrease (p<0.001). Marked
eosinophilia was recorded in horses with onchocerciasis (20.85) and
among horses with the concurrent infection (21.34.5), but less so with
strongylus infection (15.74.1). The percentage increase in eosinophils
was mainly substituted with decrease in percentage of nutrophils. No
change was noticed in the number of lymphocytes, monocytes or
basophils. The obvious drops in the above measured parameters can
explain the noticeable health deterioration among infected horses.
110. Fadia Yagoub Ali Hamid (2000). Studies on Equine Onchocerciasis
in Southern Darfur State. M. V. Sc. University of Khartoum.
A total of 1111 horses and donkeys were examined for presence of
onchocerciasis in Southern Darfur State. The study also emphasized on
the clinical, haemtological, blood chemical and treatment aspects. The
survey was carried out from September 1998 to August 1999 on horses
and donkeys presented to Nyala Veterinary Teaching Hospital and
selected villages in the state. Out of 546 horses and 565 donkeys, 53
(9.7%) and 63 (11.15%), respectively were found positive for
microfilaria in the blood samples. The age of infected animals ranged
between 5.3 and 7.4 years old. The infection was high in rainy seasons
12.6% and less in the dry seasons, because of activity of the vector in
rainy seasons. The microfilariae were identified as Onchocerca
cervicalis (9.7%) and O. reticulata (0.7%). The main symptoms
observed among infected horses were anaemia (28.3%), lacrimation
(52.8%), weakness (39.6%) and various forms of skin lesions ranging
from dermatitis (5.6%) to subcutaneous nodules (18.8%). Body
temperature of the infected horses gave mean values of (38.28) and
showed no significant variation from those of control healthy horses (P >
0.05). Similarly, body temperature of the infected donkeys gave mean
values of (37.90.0) (P < 0.001). Various levels of anaemia as measured
by drop in haemoglobin and packed cell volume among horses (34.2%)
70

and donkeys (25.8%) infected with Onchocerca spp. but less so among
those infected with both onchocerciasis and nematodes. The biochemical
proteins constituent and glucose levels were similarly affected with a
significant drop (P < 0.001). Marked eosinophilia was encountered
among horses (21.34.5) and among donkeys (21.53.1) infected with
both onchocercaiasis and nematodes. Among horses (20.85) and among
donkeys (19.83.5) infected with onchocerciasis, but less among those
with infected with nematodes. Eosinophilia was 15.74.1 among horses
and 18.22.6 among donkeys. The increase in eosinophils was mainly
substituted with a decrease in the percentage of neutrophils. The marked
obvious drop in the above measured parameters can explain the
noticeable health deterioration among infected cases induced by these
parasites. Twenty two of onchocerciasis infected horses and donkeys
received treatment subcutaneously with ivermectin at a dose rate of 10
mg/kg body weight. The result of treatment in terms of clinical,
haematological and biochemical aspects showed a significant increase
compared with infected animals before treatment. Ivermectin had broad
spectrum anthelminitic activity in horses and donkeys and their efficacy
was 97.5%.
111. Fadl M, Magzoub M, Brger HJ. (1992). Prevalence of gastrointestinal nematode infection in the dromedary camel (Camelus
dromedarius) in the Butana plains, Sudan. Rev Elev Med Vet Pays
Trop. 1992;45(3-4):291-3.
The prevalence and intensity of gastro-intestinal nematode infection in
their relation to season and rainfall were investigated from 429 female
dromedary camels at Tambul market in the Butana plains (Sudan),
during 1985-1986. The investigation revealed a similar seasonal pattern
in the prevalence as well as the intensity of egg output. The seasonality
is mainly brought about by Haemonchus spp. and Impalaia spp. while
Trichostrongylus spp. seem to be present as adults throughout the year.
There is a good correlation between high egg counts and rainfall
ensuring optimal development of preparasitic stages.
112. Fatima El Sammani El Sheikh (1985). Effects of zinc deficiency,
Fasciola gigantica and Schistosoma bovis Infection in sheep and
irradiated S. bovis Cercariae on calves. M.V.Sc. University of
Khartoum.
The study was preceded by an introduction on the metabolism and
deficiency of copper, zinc and iron and on the pathological and
pathophysiological aspects of fascioliasis and schistosomiasis. Zinc
deficiency was investigated in a sheep breeding farm in Khartoum fed
71

solely on Rodes grass. Reduced appetite, skin lesions and death occurred
in sheep. Concentration of zinc in the grass, serum and liver of affected
animals was low. These findings and the favourable response to the
injection of zinc suggested that the clinical condition was due to a
deficiency of zinc in the diet of the sheep. Infection of Desert sheep with
200 or 1000 metacercariae of F. gigantica produced liver and lung
lesions characterized by damage to blood vessels and parenchymal
necrosis. Chronic lesions were confined to the bile ducts and were
present as biliary hyperplasia. In the lungs, the lesions were those of
parasitic bronchopneumonia. The damage to the liver and lung tissues
was accompanied by increased activity of GOT (AST), GD, SD, GGT
and 5NT in serum and reduced BSP excretion. Bilirubin concentration
was not affected. Infected sheep had low serum iron, copper and zinc
concentrations and their livers contained low copper and zinc amounts.
The pathological effect of S. bovis infection in Desert sheep was
investigated. Infected animals lost weight and developed a mucoid
haemorrhagic diarrhoea, inappetence and became anaemic. The damage
produced by the parasite lead to increased serum enzymes GGT and
GOT. No detectable change of GD, 5NT and bilirubin concentration was
noted. It did not affect the ability of the liver to excrete BSP. The
infection resulted in a decrease in serum iron, copper and zinc
concentrations and in liver zinc concentration. Liver copper content was
not affected. Irradiated S. bovis cercariae in calves produced the least
effect on haemoglobin, packed cell volume and body weight loss
compared with infected controls. It has no effect on liver enzymes
activity in the serum except GGT which might be of value in the
diagnosis of chronic S. bovis infection in sheep and calves.
113. Fayza A Omer., Bushara HO., Osman AY., and Majid AM, (2003).
The immune response of lambs and adult sheep infected with single
or repeated doses of Haemonchus contortus larvae. Sudan Journal
of Veterinary Research, 18:81-87.
This study shows that all lambs given single or repeated doses of the
third stage H. contortus larvae were unable to withstand the
pathophysiological consequences of the infection. Although adult sheep
that were naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes including H.
contortus and treated with Ivermectin at the dose of 200 g/kg b.wt.
were highly resistant to the infection with repeated triple dose of 300 L3
H. contort. This indicates that treatment with Ivermectin did not abolish
the acquired immunity resulting from natural infection.
72

114. Fayza A Omer., Bushara HO., Osman AY., and Majid AM, (2003).
The seasonal prevalence of adult and arrested L4 larvae of
Haemonchus contortus in naturally infected Sudanese desert sheep.
Sudan Journal of Veterinary Research, 18:89-92.
A survey was conducted at Omdurman slaughterhouse during July1993
to June 1994 to study the seasonal fluctuation of H. contortus in sheep.
One thousand and two hundred rams 1-2 year-old were examined. One
hundred and eighty abomasa, in which adult worms were residing, were
randomly selected and processed for detection of arrested L4 larvae. The
prevalence rate of H. contortus was 32% and had a definite seasonal
distinction. There was a clear seasonal variation in worm burden. Higher
worm burdens were evident during rainy season rather than dry season.
The overall prevalence of arrested L4 larvae was 43.6% with a monthly
prevalence that varied from 20 to 60%. This study revealed, for the first
time, the occurrence of arrested H. contortus L4 larvae in Sudanese
desert sheep throughout the year.
115. Fayza A. Omer; Bushara, H.O.; Osman , A.Y. and Majid, A. A.
Ivermectin against Haemonchus contortus in naturally infected
Sudanese Sheep. The Sudan J. Vet. Res. (2001), 17: 47-53.
Ten naturally parasitized rams, 1-2 year old, were used to study the
anthelmintic efficacy of ivermectin against Haemonchus contortus. Five
sheep were given ivermectin (drench form) at a dosage rate of 200 g/kg
body weight. The remaining five served as infected untreated control.
The drug produced a substantial reduction in egg production after 24
hours post treatment and reached its maximum effect by 96 hours post
treatment. The postmortem finding revealed absence of the worms and
arrested larvae. No toxic effects were observed. It is concluded that
ivermectin at a dose of 200g/kg bodyweight is highly effective against
H. contortus.
116. Fayza Ahmed Omer (1999). Pathogenesis of Haemonchus contortus
in naturally and experimentally infected Sudanese desert sheep.
Ph.D. University of Khartoum.
This study was carried out on 1100 male sheep (1-2 years old)
slaughtered at Omdurman slaughterhouse during July 1993 to June 1994.
The results indicated that natural H. contortus infection was prevalent
among with an overall prevalence of 32%. Maximum worm per animal
(2592 worms) was in August and minimum (94 worms) was in March.
The highest monthly prevalence rate was in August (55%), September
(55%) and October (66%). A total of 180 sheep abomasae were
randomly selected from the positives and the mucosal scraping from
73

each abomasum was subjected to pepsin-HCl artificial digestion for


detection of arrested larvae. The overall prevalence of arrested larvae
was 43.6% and the monthly prevalence varied between 20-60%. The
result of occurrence of arrested development of larvae of H. contortus in
Sudanese sheep throughout the year is considered as a first report.
Infected young lambs developed clear evidence of H. contortus infection
in the form of severe classical clinical signs such as oedema of the
submandibular area (bottle jaw), anaemia and weakness. Post mortem
and histopathological changes were typical of ovine haemonchosis. The
gross lesions showed severe abomasitis characterized by oedema,
haemorrhages and ulcerations of the abomasal mucosa. In addition, adult
H. contortus found in the abomasal contents of lambs in group 2 and
group 3 were 600, and 650, respectively. Histopathological changes of
the abomasum were of severe mucosal and submucosal haemorrhages.
Epithelial cells showed degeneration and other showed hypertrophy.
Gastric glands showed some changes and contained, mononuclear cells
dominated with eosinophils. Experimental studies showed that adult
sheep that were previously infected with gastrointestinal nematodes
including H. contortus treated with ivermectin (200 mg/kg B.wt.) and
then received repeated doses of the third stage larvae of H. contortus
showed high resistance to repeated doses of H. contortus larvae, which
means that treatment with ivermectin does not abolish acquired
immunity.
117. Gaffar Elamin, MA.; Tageldin, MH.; Yagoub, IA., 1984:
Investigation on camel haemonchosis in the eastern region of Sudan.
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 324: 412-414.
No abstract available.
118. Galal El Tayeb Osman Ali (1998). Comparative Efficacy of
Levamisole and Albendazole against Experimental Haemonchus
contortus Infection in Nubian Goats.
The present investigations were to evaluate efficacy of levamisole and
albendazole against experimental caprine haemonchosis. The
development of the clinical signs and lesions in goat kids orally infected
with 1400 or 1800 third stage larvae of Haemonchus contortus was
studied. Inappetence, soft faeces, weakness of the hind limbs, rough coat
and anaemia were the main signs of experimental haemonchosis in goats.
The main lesions were abomasitis, haermorrhagic foci and erosion on the
abomasal mucosa, focal catarrhal enteritis, hepatorenal fatty change,
hydropericardium, hydroperitonium and serous atrophy of the renal
pelvis and cardiac fat. Concentrations of copper, zinc, iron, total protein,
74

albumin, total cholesterol, calcium and sodium were decreased, and urea
and potassium levels were increased in the serum of H. contortus
infected goats. Faecal egg counts and numbers of the adult worms in the
abomasae of infected goats were recorded. Efficacy of levamisole and
albendazole against experimental caprine haemonchosis was
investigated. H. contortus infected goats were treated with single oral
doses of 5 and 25 mg/kg B.wt. of albendazole and the clinical,
haematological, serobiochemical and pathological changes associated
with successful therapy of caprine haemonchosis were described.
Although levamisole at single oral doses of 8 and 40 mg/kg B.wt. was
effective in eliminating H. contortus in goats, retreatment with 8 mg/kg
B.wt. of the drug in three weeks was found necessary for the most
effective therapy. Administration to H. contortus infected goats of single
oral doses of 40 mg/kg B.wt. of levamisole was accompanied within 2075 minutes of dosing with transient signs of toxicity including grinding
of teeth, salivation, tremors and dyspnoea. The animal returned to
normal within 4 hours following onset of signs of toxicity. The feed-lot
performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality attributes and
chemical composition of infected and treated goats were also studied.
119. Gameel, AA and Evans IA (1981). Phagocytic and bactericidal
activity of polymorphonuclear leucocytes of Guinea pigs
experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica. Sudan Journal of
Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Vol.22, No. (1): 19-28.
Twenty-four guinea pigs fed on ascorbic acid-free diet were divided into
two groups, A and B. Each animal in group A was given an oral dosage
of 0.5mg ascorbic acid per day and each animal in group B was given 20
mg of ascorbic acid daily. Eight animals from each group were infected
each with 33 F. hepatica metacercariae and the remaining ones were kept
as uninfected controls. The phagocytic activity of blood neutrophils and
eosinophils were assessed by their ability to reduce the Nitroblue
Tetrazolium dye and their bactericidal activity by their ability to kill
Salmonella Dublin in-vitro. The number of neutrophils, and particulary,
eosinophils reducing the N.B.T. dye were more in infected guinea pigs
than in controls. Similarly, the efficacy to kill S. Dublin organisms invitro was significantly higher (3-4 times) in blood obtained from infected
animals than in that from uninfected controls. The results were little
affected by the high or low ascorbic acid doses given.
120. Ghada H. Abdel Nabi; Elowni, E. E. and Abdalla, H. S. Some
helminths from the gastrointestinal tract of sheep in the Sudan. The
Sudan J. Vet. Res. (2005). 20: 87-88.
75

Four species of helminths viz Skrjabinema ovis (Skrjabin), Trichuris


globulosa (Linstow), Stilesia globipunctata (Rivolta) and Avitellina
centripunctata (Rivolta) were identified from the gastrointestinal tract of
75 sheep of different age and sex slaughtered at Omdurman Central
Abattoir during the period November 1997 to October 1998. The sheep
originated from Central Kordofan and White Nile State. To our
knowledge, this constitutes the first record of these parasites in Sudanese
sheep.
121. Ghada Hassan Abdel Nabi Hassan (2000). Prevalence of
gastrointestinal helminthes in sheep from some localities of the
Sudan. M.V.Sc., University of Khartoum.
This study was carried out from November 1997 to October 1998 to
determine species and prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthes infecting
sheep from two major sheep production areas in the Sudan at
Oumdurman Central Abattoir and from sheep designated for export. A
total of 1005 faecal samples and 75 gastrointestinal tracts were randomly
collected and were processed using microscopic coprological
examination, faecal culture and post-mortem examination. Faecal
examination revealed that strongyle/ trichostrongyle eggs were the
commonest from both areas. Other eggs encountered were Strongyloides
papillosus, Trichuris spp., Moniezia expansa, Moniezia benedeni and
Paramphistomum spp. The third stage infective larvae obtained from
faecal culture were identified as Haemonchus contortus,
Trichostrongylus spp., Coopeia spp., Oesophagostomum spp. and
Strongyloides papillosus. Mixed helminth infection was found common
with 92% of the gastrointestinal tracts harbouring concurrent infections.
Nematode infection was the commonest reaching 86.7% in the animals
with H. contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis having the highest
prevalence (72% and 70.7%, respectively). Other nematode species
identified were Cooperia pectinata, Oesophagostomum columbianum, S.
papillosus, Trichuris globulosa and Skrjabinema ovis with frequencies of
37.3, 44.6, 24 and 6.7%, respectively. Cestodes were identified in 66.7%
of gastrointestinal tracts. The species identified were Moniezia expansa,
Moniezia benedeni, Avitellina centripunctata and Stilesia globipunctata.
The most prevalent species were A. centripunctata and S. globipunctata
with frequencies of 46.7% and 49.3%, respectively. These results from
post-mortem examination substantiate those reported from faecal
examination. The study indicated that there was a seasonal effect on
nematode infection in sheep from both areas of study as judged by egg
output and worm burden. Both parameters showed their highest levels in
76

the rainy season. It is concluded that nematodes may be involved in


causing significant losses in sheep production in this country. This is
evidenced by the involvement of some of the potentially pathogenic
forms such as H. contortus and T. colubriformis and the high prevalence
of these specific parasites. The fact that worm burdens were mostly
moderate suggests presence of chronic infections, which may precipitate
continuous loss in productivity. It is imperative, therefore, that effective
programs be constructed to control this group of parasites. Four species
of helminthes were reported for the first time in sheep in the Sudan.
These were Trichuris globulosa, skrjabinema ovis, Avitellina
centripunctata and Stilesia globipunctata.
122. Gundi Suliman Gasmir (2004). Applications of anthelmintic
resistance tests for gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in the Sudan.
The present study was conducted mainly for evaluation and tackling the
problem of anthelmintic resistance and the appropriate tests of measuring
it in the field under Sudan condition. A survey of gastrointestinal
nematodes of sheep was made and 339 visceral organs and 307 faecal
samples were examined during the period 1999-2002. Adult nematodes
species identified from visceral organs contents were; Haemonchus
contortus, Oesophagostomum columbianum, Strongyloides papillosus
and Trichuris ovis from both sheep and goats. In addition
Trichostrongylus probolurus, Impalaia tuberculata and the trematode
Dicrocoelium dendriticum were reported in sheep for the first time in
Sudan.The identification of the infective third stage larvae from faecal
cultures
revealed
the
following;
Haemonchus
contortus,
Oesophagostomum columbianum, Strongyloides papillosus and
Trichostrongylus spp. The importance of wild ruminants and camels on
the epidemiology of gastrointestinal parasites of sheep is discussed. A
survey of anthelmintic resistance was made using the in vivo and in vitro
methods. In the in vivo method of detecting anthelmintic resistance, the
faecal egg count reduction test was used (FECRT). Thirty six naturally
parasitized adult sheep were used. Animals were divided into four
groups; a control group and the remaining three groups received
anthelmintics at day (0) according to the manufacturers recommend dose
rates; 1 ml/50 kg body weight Ivomec 1%; 5mg/kg body weight
albendazole and 1200 mg/50 kg body weight levamisole. Faecal samples
were collected at day (0) and day (14) post treatment and all animals
were necropsied on day (14) post treatment. The faecal egg count
reduction test calculation was performed for all groups and the results
showed 100% efficacy for both ivomec injection and levamisole bolus,
77

whereas the albendazole showed efficacy of 97% which is considered as


low resistance according to the guide lines of the World Association of
the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.). In the in
vitro test of anthelmintic resistance, the egg hatch assay and larval
development test were carried for the experimental animals using ivomec
and thiabendazole for each test. The ED50 obtained from the egg hatch
assay is, 0.796 ng/ml using ivomec injection and > 0.1 g/ml using
thiabendazole. The ED50 obtained from the larval development test is
0.769 ng/ml using ivomec injection and >0.1g/ml using albendazole
drench. These in vitro tests confirm the results obtained in the in vivo
test when the faecal egg count reduction test was used in the
experimental animals. The egg hatch paralysis assay and the larval
paralysis assay were performed on composite faecal sample collected
from naturally infected sheep, using albendazole drench and levamisole
bolus. The ED50 of egg hatch paralysis assay obtained for both
albendazole and levamisole were 3.596 g/ml and 3.69 g/ml
respectively. The larval paralysis assay using levamisole failed to obtain
ED50 values in the present study. We conclude from the present study
and recommend the use of egg hatch and larval development assays for
field monitoring of anthelmintic resistance of sheep nematodes in Sudan.
The test should be carried in conjunction with the in vivo faecal egg
count reduction test for larval identification, comparison and correlation
of the in vivo and in vitro results.
123. Hagga Abdel Gadir Abdel AlIa Abu Rig Gaila (1984). Studies on
Naturally Occurring and Experimental Ovine Fascioliasis in the
Sudan. M.V.Sc. University of Khartoum.
The White Nile area which has been chosen for a clinic pathological
study of the naturally occurring disease. The clinico-pathological
features of the experimentally induced Fasciola gigantica infection in
sheep have also been investigated. It has been found that the incidence of
the naturally occurring disease in sheep increase during the dry season
(January - May) when animals are crowded in large numbers around
drinking sites. These sites provide suitable breeding habitats for
Lymnaea natalensis snails, the intermediate host for Fasciola gigantica
and animals become exposed to the infection when they graze on the
surrounding infected pasture. Fasciola giganitca infection in sheep is
characterized by inappetance, weakness, anaemia, and general
emaciation. In both the naturally occurring and experimental disease,
there is a decrease in RBC counts, haemoglobin concentrations, and
PCV. This is associated with increase in total WBC counts especially the
78

eosinophils. The Wintrobe indices indicate that a normochromic


normocytic anaemia develops during infection. The biochemical
parameters determined during infection show significant increases in the
serum enzymes glutamate dehydrogenase and sorbitol dehydrogenase
indicating severe liver damage; this is also confirmed by
histopathological investigations. Serum globulins are slightly increased
while albumin levels are markedly decreased resulting in a decrease in
total serum proteins. Elevations of serum glutamate oxaloacetic acid
transaminase and slight rise in bilirubin have also been observed. The
pathological lesions comprise various degenerative changes in
hepatocytes associated with haemorrhages, fibrosis, and increased
lobulation of the liver, mononuclear cell infiltration with haemosiderin
deposition in fluke tracts and portal triads and the formation of granule
Mata around fluke eggs and fluke remnants. An attempt to vaccinate
sheep against F. gigantica has also been carried out. Five lambs were
vaccinated with 400 metacercarise of F. gigantica irradiated at the level
of 3 kilorads gamma-rays. Eight weeks later, they were each challenged
together with 5 control lambs with 500 non-irradiated cysts. A high level
of resistance against challenge was obtained as shown by a statistically
significant reduction in the number of flukes recovered from the
vaccinated sheep as compared with the controls (P < 0.005 by
Wilcoxon's two sample test). The vaccinated sheep also showed less
hepatic damage compared with the controls as indicated by lower levels
of the specific enzymes serum glutamate dehydrogenate and sorbitol
dehydrogenate. At post-mortem, the carcasses of vaccinated sheep
appeared normal and no significant gross lesions were found in the liver.
However, microscope examination revealed some degree of hepatic
degeneration, haemorrhages and slight fibrosis and mononuclear cell
infiltration in fluke tracts and portal areas. The blood indices showed
insignificant reductions in vaccinated sheep whereas marked reductions
were found in the Hb, PCV and RBC values in the control animals.
124. Hago, B.E.D, Mukhtar T. Abu-SamraA case of Multiceps gaigeri
coenurosis in goat. Veterinary Parasitology, Volume 7, Issue 3,
November 1980, Pages 191-194.
A fatal case of Multiceps gaigeri coenurosis in a goat is described.
125. Hamid ME, Mohamed GE, Abu Samra MT, Hamad AA. First
report of infectious necrotic hepatitis (black disease) among Nubian
goats in Sudan. Rev Elev Med Vet Pays Trop. 1991;44(3):273-5.
In a flock of 425 female and male Nubian goats in the Khartoum
Province, an outbreak of a disease causing sudden death of 18 apparently
79

healthy goats occurred (11 females and 7 males, 3-6 years old). Adult
Fasciola gigantica were found in the livers of all goats and in seven of
them Cysticercus tenuicollis cysts. These organs showed necrotic and
severe histopathological changes. Clostridium novyi type B was isolated
from necrotic areas of all livers and found to be highly pathogenic and
toxigenic to laboratory animals. The disease was diagnosed as infectious
necrotic hepatitis (black disease). Faecal examination revealed the
presence of F. gigantica eggs. Lymnaea natalensis snails were found to
be prevalent in the water canals. As the Khartoum Province is regarded
as an endemic area for black disease, routine vaccination is highly
recommended for its control in goats and sheep.
126. Hamid Omer Bushara (1979). Studies on Resistance to Schistosoma
bovis in Sudanese Cattle and Sheep Ph.D., University of Khartoum.
Bovine schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma bovis constitutes a
serious veterinary problem in the Sudan, However, there are no suitable
drugs for its mass chemotherapy and it does not seem practicable to
control it by molluscicides. This is because under the prevailing nomadic
conditions, in the Sudan, cattle management is poor and animals migrate
over large areas in search of grass and/or water. Such a situation
encourages attempts towards immunological control. In the light of this,
a collaborative project between the Department of Veterinary Pathology,
Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Khartoum and the
Department of Medica1 Helminthology, London School of Hygiene and
Tropical Medicine, University of London has been designed to
investigate the possibility of controlling bovine schistosomiasis in
Sudanese cattle through vaccination. Within the bounds of this project,
the other has carried out some experiments under laboratory and field
conditions which have shown that this type of approach may be a
practical possibility. Hence, it has been proven for the first time that
Sudanese Zebu cattle living in a hyperenzootic area of S. bovis can
acquire a striking degree of natural resistance to reinfection as
manifested by their ability to almost completely withstand a cercaria1
challenge lethe1 to previously unexposed cattle. This resistance has been
demonstrated by various clinical, parasito1ogica1, pathological and
pathophysiological techniques; it's nature is, however, unknown and may
involve some kinds of immunological mechanism e.g., lethal antibodies
capable of killing most of the invading parasites; growth inhibition
factor(s) causing stunting of the penetrating schistosomes and/or
antioogenesis factor(s). Three laboratory immunisation experiments have
also been incorporated in this thesis: these have been based exclusively
80

on the use of live vaccines since other forms of vaccination in


schistosomiasis have so far been unsuccessful. These experiments have
shown that Sudanese cattle can be artificially protected against S. bovis
by prior exposure to a single dose of heterologous irradiated S. mansoni
cercariae; giving further evidence of cross protection between animal
and human schistosomes, and emphasizing the importance of natural
heterologous immunity. Sheep can be partially immunized against S.
bovis by previously exposing them to irradiated homologous cercariae,
and an even better protection against S. bovis has been induced in cattle
by homologous S. bovis vaccines (either cercariae or schistosomula)
irrespective of the number of immunising doses and the routes of
immunization. The resistance engendered by such irradiated parasites
has been shown to deve1op rather rapidly (more so in cattle than in
sheep) appears to be long-lasting, and does not seem to require the
presence of adult worms. The vaccinations lead to reduced faecal and
tissue egg counts, decreased parasite numbers, reduced severity of
clinical and pathological manifestations and improved condition of the
vaccinated animals. It is also clear that vaccination in cattle is safe, no
untoward clinical effects that can be attributed to vaccination being
recorded. The final part of this thesis constitutes the first study of its kind
to test an irradiated schistosomal vaccine under field conditions. Calves
vaccinated with a single intramuscular injection of 10,000 3krad
irradiated schistosonula have been compared with non-vaccinated
controls in S. bovis enzootic area in the White Nile Province. The results
again indicated that vaccination enables the animals to stand well to the
natural challenges as reflected by their reduced faecal and tissue egg
counts, fewer worm burdens and lighter pathology in comparison to their
non-vaccinated counterparts. In conclusion, it appears that there are
prospects for applying vaccination in the control of S. bovis. A
description of the field study area and of the epizootiology of S. bovis
can be seen in the attached paper entitled "Observations on the
epizootiology of Schistosoma bovis in cattle in the White Nile Province,
Sudan by A. A Majid, T. F. docMarshall, M .F Hussein, H. O. Bushara,
M .G. Taylor and G. S. Nelson".
127. Hamza Mohamed Ahmed Tola (1988). On the Seroepidemiology of
Hydatid Disease in the Sudan. M.V.Sc, University of Khartoum.
Various sero-epidemiological aspects of hydatid disease (hydatidosis
/echinococcosis) caused by Echinococcus granulosus, in some selected
areas in the Sudan were investigated. High infection rates were obtained
in camels from Butana area (61.3%), Khartoum (415%) and 53.2% in
81

Sudanese camels exported to Egypt. The average prevalence rate in


camels was (56.4%). Prevalence rates in sheep and cattle, 2% and 2.1%,
respectively were, also, recorded. The average infection rates in sheep in
Butana area and in Khartoum were 3.4 and 2.6, respectively. Infection
rates in cattle were 2.4% in Butana and 2% in Khartoum. The type,
location and structure of the cysts were observed in the infected animals.
Fertile cysts were the most common (59.8%) and in cysts from sheep the
fertility rate obtained was 60.4%. Cysts from cattle were frequently
extensively calcified (36.4%) and the role of cattle in the disease cycle
and serology seemed to be negligible. The majority of cysts collected
from the different areas were of moncystic growth with thin transluscent
wall and laminated layer. Large size cysts (up to 20 cm. in diameter)
were reencountered in camel', while in sheep and cattle the average size
was 5 cm in diameter The normal intensity of infection was 1 or 2
cysts/animal but multiple infections (with more cysts/animal) were also
observed. The predilection sites of hydatid cyst in camel, sheep and in
cattle were found to be the lung, the liver (more than 80%) and less
frequently in other organs. An incidence rate of about 1.2 per 100,000
was observed in human population in Khartoum Province. A total of 20
cysts were removed from 14 patients. The liver, the lung and the
peritoneum were the most common predilection sites. Most of the cysts
(60%) were fertile and monocystic growth was common more than 68%
of the patients were male and 68% were adult patients. The majority of
the patients were from rural areas. They came to Khartoum from
southern region (6 cases), eastern region (3 cases), northern region (2
cases) western region (2 cases) and only one patient was from Khartoum
town. Highly sensitive (=reactive) camel HCF antigens were prepared,
characterized and successfully applied. The semi-crude camel HCF
antigen was selected as the antigen of choice with optimal dilution of
1:5; and 20-25 g N2/ml (protein level) were the optimal conditions for
maximum sensitivity (reactivity) of the antigen. The efficiency of
serological tests in detecting echinococcal antibodies in the infected
sheep, camel and human patients was determined. The IRA test showed
varying sensitivity of 80% in human, 85.6% in camel and a very low rate
(6%) in sheep. LA test showed sensitivity of about 68% in human, 69%
in camels and 6% in sheep. LA test was of greater specificity, compared
to IHA test. Field surveys, applying IHA and LA tests revealed infection
rates of 63% in camels and 6% in sheep applying IHA test; and 38% in
camels and 16% in sheep when applying LA test. IHA and LA tests gave
an acceptable sensitivity and specificity especially if combined, for both
82

routine diagnosis as well as for field surveys to detect human, sheep and
camels echinococcosis (hydatidosis).
128. Hanan A.M. Karar; Abdalla, H.S and. Elowni, E. E. Prevalence
Rate of Ascaridia galli in some poultry farms in Khartoum State,
Sudan. The Sudan J. Vet. Res. (2005), 20: 55-60.
In this study, 760 intestines of slaughtered commercial exotic and
indigenous chickens were examined during the period April-October,
2000. The chickens originated from poultry farms at El Bageir, Hillat
Kuku, El Hag Yousif, El Gereif East, Shambat and El Halfaya and Bahri
market. Out of these 760 intestines, 250(32.89%) were infected with
Ascaridia galli (A. galli). The prevalence rate was 46.53% and 10.18%
in the exotic and indigenous chickens, respectively. This indicated that
the overall prevalence rate was high.
129. Hanan D. Mohammed Ahmed; EL Owni, E. E. and Susan F. Ali.
New Reports for Some Intermediate Hosts of Poultry Tapeworms in
Khartoum State. The Sudan J. Vet. Res. (2006). 21: 45-51.
A search for natural intermediate hosts for poultry cestodes was carried
out during 2000-2001 in poultry houses at Elhalfaya and Shambat
localities in Khartoum State. Four species of beetles were found carrying
cysticercoides infections. Two of them namely Alphitobius diaperinus
(Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Anthicus formicarius (Coleoptera:
Anthicidae) were infected with Choanotaenia infundibulum cysticercoid
whereas the other two, Carcinops troglodytes (Coleoptera: Histeridae)
and Hypocalccas praecox (Coleoptera: Histeridae), were found
harbouring Raillietina cesticillus cysticercoids. No cysticercoids were
encountered in adult Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)
or Musca domestica larvae (Diptera: Muscidae). This is the first record
of Anthicus formicarius, Carcinops troglodytes and Hypocalccas praecox
as intermediate hosts for Choanotaenia infundibulum and Raillietina
cesticillus.
130. Hanan Dafalla Mohammed Ahmed (2003). Establishment Studies of
the life cycle of Raillietina cesticillus, Choanotaenia infundibulum
and Hymenolepis carioca. M.V.Sc. University of Khartoum.
Establishment of the life cycle of three cestodes Raillietina
cesticillus,Choanotaenia infundibulum and Hymenolepis carioca was
studied in three insects that act as intermediate hosts, namely Tribolium
castaneum, Alphitobius diaperinus and Musca domestica and in white
Leghorn chicks, the definitive host. Insects were experimentally infected
with gravid segments of the three cestodes. White Leghorn chicks were
reared in insect- proof cages and experimentally infected with
83

cysticercoids previously established in adult T. castaneum and A.


diaperinus. In a field study, 1205 different insects collected in Shambat
and Elhalfaya in Khartuom North, were dissected to determine their
natural infection with poultry cestodes. Raillietina cesticillus, C.
infundibulum and H. carioca established in adult T. castaneum whereas
C. infundibulum was the only tapeworm that established in adult and
larvae of A. diaperinus. Nevertheless, R. cesticillus and C. infundibulum
did not established in M. domestica larvae. R. cesticillus had the highest
infectivity to T. castaneum compared to the other tapeworms. Raillietina
cesticillus, C. infundibulum and H. carioca established in white Leghorn
chicks. Age of the cysticercoid and type of intermediate host in addition
to the procedure of administering the infection affected their
establishment. Search for natural intermediate hosts for poultry cestodes
in the field revealed the presence of four species of beetles carrying
meta- cestode infection. Two of the beetles, Anthicus formicarius and A.
diaperinus, were found infected with C. infundibulum whereas the other
two, Hypocalcculus praecox and Carcinops troglodytes, were found
harbouring R. cesticillus cysticercoids. No metacestodal infection was
found in adult T. castaneum or M. domestica larvae. This is the first
record of A. formicarius, H. praecox and C. troglodytes as intermediate
hosts for C. infundibulum and R.cesticillus in the Sudan. It is concluded
that the present findings contribute to the understanding of the properties
of some experimental models e.g. C. infundibulum in A. diaperinus, R.
cesticillus in T. castaneum and H. carioca in T. castaneum that can be
used in several fundamental investigations (chemotherapy, immunology
etc.). Immune mechanism of the insect may be an essential factor that
reduces the infectivity of C. infundibulum cysticercoids developed in A.
diaperinus. The nature of this reaction requires further investigations. It
is recommended that for the purpose of control of these cestodes it is
essential to manage their potential intermediate host(s).
131. Haroun E M, A.A. Elsanhouri, A.A. Gameel. (1989). Response of
goats to repeated infections with Fasciola gigantica. Veterinary
Parasitology, 30 (4) : 287-296.
One or two mature primary infections with Fasciola gigantica which had
been removed by anthelmintic treatment resulted in a significant
reduction in the number of flukes recovered from challenge infection as
compared with that from controls. Characteristic lesions of fascioliasis
were seen in the livers of the 3 groups, however, goats with two primary
abbreviated infections prior to challenge showed more severe lesions
than those of animals with one primary abbreviated infection or those of
84

challenge controls. The former group also showed the highest serum
glutamate dehydrogenase and sorbitol dehydrogenase peaks following
challenge infections and pulmonary fascioliasis was encountered in one
of the goats of this group. Haemoglobin concentration and packed-cell
volume decreased after infection in the three groups of goats.
132. Haroun E M, George V. Hillyer. (1986). Resistance to fascioliasis. A
review. Veterinary Parasitology, 20, (13): 63-93.
Attempts to actively stimulate or passively transfer resistance to Fasciola
hepatica or F. gigantica in various laboratory and farm animals
including mice, rats, rabbits, sheep, goats and cattle have been reviewed.
These attempts comprised sensitization by primary homologous or
heterologous normal or irradiated infections per os, sensitization by
subcutaneous, intramuscular or intraperitoneal implantation with the
various fluke stages, sensitization by somatic extracts or metabolic
products of mature or immature flukes and passive transfer of resistance
by immune serum or sensitized lymphocytes.
133. Haroun E. M., Haga A/Gadir and A. A. Gameel. (1986). Studies on
naturally-occurring ovine fascioliasis in the Sudan. Journal of
Helminthology, 60 (1): 47-53.
Haematological, biochemical and pathological changes were investigated
in 214 sheep naturally infected with Fasciola gigantica in an endemic
area in the Sudan together with 82 uninfected controls. Infected animals
showed a clear decrease in erythrocyte counts, haemoglobin
concentration and packed cell volume, a normochromic, normocytic
anaemia, leucocytosis and eosinophilia. Serum concentrations of the
enzymes glutamate dehydrogenase, sorbitol dehydrogenase and
glutamate oxaloacetic acid transaminase were also elevated in the
infected group, indicating hepatic damage. This was confirmed by
histopathological changes, which comprised degenerative and necrotic
changes in hepatocytes associated with haemorrhage, fibrosis, increased
lobulation of the liver, mononuclear cell infiltration with haemosiderin
deposition in fluke tracks and portal areas and the formation of
granulomata around fluke eggs and fluke remnants. In the infected group
there was slight hyperglobulinaemia and a marked hypoalbuminaemia,
with a decrease in A/G ratio. A slight rise in the level of serum bilirubin
was also observed.
134. Haroun EM, Elsanhouri AA, Gameel AA. (1989). Response of goats
to repeated infections with Fasciola gigantica. Veterinary
Parasitology;30(4):287-96.
85

One or two mature primary infections with Fasciola gigantica which had
been removed by anthelmintic treatment resulted in a significant
reduction in the number of flukes recovered from challenge infection as
compared with that from controls. Characteristic lesions of fascioliasis
were seen in the livers of the 3 groups, however, goats with two primary
abbreviated infections prior to challenge showed more severe lesions
than those of animals with one primary abbreviated infection or those of
challenge controls. The former group also showed the highest serum
glutamate dehydrogenase and sorbitol dehydrogenase peaks following
challenge infections and pulmonary fascioliasis was encountered in one
of the goats of this group. Haemoglobin concentration and packed-cell
volume decreased after infection in the three groups of goats.
135. Haroun EM, Hillyer GV. (1988). Cross-resistance between
Schistosoma mansoni and Fasciola hepatica in sheep. J Parasitol.;
74(5):790-5.
Five sheep were exposed to 5,000 S. mansoni cercariae percutaneously
and the stools examined for 20 wk to determine patency. The sheep were
found to be partially susceptible to a primary infection and showed great
individual variations in their pathophysiological responses. All of the
sheep acquired a patent infection with S. mansoni and eggs were first
seen in feces 9 wk postexposure with no eggs detected after 14 wk. At
necropsy 20 wk postexposure only dead S. mansoni worms were found.
KOH digests revealed that tissue egg counts were low, ranging from 0 to
133 in the liver, and 0 to 257 in the intestine. Primary infection of sheep
with S. mansoni followed by oral infection with F. hepatica
metacercariae 10 wk later resulted in a reduction of 51% in F. hepatica
worms recovered over controls infected with F. hepatica for 10 wk. All 5
of the S. mansoni-infected/F. hepatica-challenged sheep developed 71 or
less F. hepatica worms. In contrast, 3 of the 5 F. hepatica-infected sheep
developed 113-197 worms. However, although the experimental mean
worm burden was lower than the control group, the variability in the
control group was too great to obtain significance between the groups.
There was a clear tendency toward normocytic normochromic anemia
following a primary infection with S. mansoni; however, blood values
were more reduced in the F. hepatica challenge controls than in the
animals that received primary infection with S. mansoni.
136. Haroun EM, Hussein MF. (1975). Clinico-pathological studies on
naturally-occurring bovine fascioliasis in the Sudan. Journal of
Helminthology;49(3):143-52.
86

An investigation was made of the pathological, haematological and


biochemical aspects of naturally-occurring bovine fascioliasis in the
Sudan. 228 animals infected with Fasciola gigantica and 25 non-infected
controls were used in the study. The infected cattle revealed emaciation,
typical liver pathology, and, occasionally, lesions in the lung and the
pancreas. Analysis of their sera also showed reduced albumin values,
increased globulin concentrations and decrease albumin/globulin ratio, in
addition to increased arginase activity. The serum iron concentration, on
the other hand, was decreased, while the total iron binding capacity
increased and the resultant iron saturation values reduced.
Haematological findings in the infected animals included reduced
erythrocyte counts, decreased haematocrit values, increased mean
corpuscular volumes, eosinophilia and decreased neutrophil, lymphocyte
and monocyte counts. Other parameters were similar in infected and
control cattle.
137. Haroun EM, Hussein MF. (1976). Some clinico-pathological aspects
of experimental Fasciola gigantica infection in calves. J
Helminthol.;50(1):29-30.
No abstract available.
138. Haroun EM; Ali., M.A.M.; Abd El Razig Y.M. and A.A. Gameel
(1991). Epidemiological Studies on Fascioliasis in Central and
Western Sudan. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal
Husbandry. Vol. 30 (1): 51- 56.
Surveys carried out in the white Nile and Southern Darfur provinces in
central and western Sudan showed that Lymnaea natalensis population
and infection rate follow a seasonal pattern in the localities endemic with
fascioliasis. In the White Nile area, more snails were found in the
swamps and small canals compared with the main canals and the white
Nile River. In Southern Darfur province, however L. natalensis was
found only in Gebel Marra area where permanent swamps or small
streams exist. L. natalensis was not found in Bahr el Arab area in
Southern Darfur. In both provinces, population densities and infection
rates of L. natalensis were higher during the dry season than the rest of
the year. Tracer calves surveys in both provinces showed that bovine
fascioliasis occur throughout the year with peak incidence rates during
the rain season.
139. Haroun, E.M. (1975). Studies on bovine Fascioliasis in the Sudan
with particular reference to the White Nile Province, M.V.Sc. U. of
K.
No abstract available.
87

140. Haroun, E.M., Yagi, A.I., Younis, S.A., El Sanhouri, A.A., Gadir,
H.A., Gameel, A.A., Bushara, H.O. and Taylor, M.G. (1988) Use of
ionizing radiation in the developmentof vaccines against Fasciola
gigantica and Schistosoma bovis in Sudanese cattle, sheep and goats.
In: Nuclear Techniques in the Study and Control of Parasitic
Diseases of Livestock. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna,
pp. 121.
No abstract available.
141. Higazi, T.B; Younis, S.A; and Mukhtar, M.M. (1999). A
Comparative Study of Protein and Antigen Profiles of Onchocerca
gutturosa and Onchocerca volvulus Isolates from Sudan. Sudan
Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry vol. 38 (1&2):
124- 130. Fourty four isolates of Onchocerca gutturosa female worms
and one Onchocerca volvulus isolate were separately collected and
extracte by physical homogenization followed by freeze-thawing, and by
partial enzymatic digestion. The lysate were electrophoretically
separated on 12.5% SDS PAGE and stained with Commassie Brilliant
Blue to compare their protein profiles. All Onchocerca guturosa isolates
had identical protein profiles that differed from O. volvulus profile.
Twenty protein bands were detectable in the lysate with Mwt between
12.5 to 130 kd. Immunoblotting of selected lysate with human
hyperimmune sera showed identical reactions and the human sera
reacted more intensely.
142. Husna M. El Bashir; Saadia A. Younis; Zakia A.Mohammed; Fayza
A.Omer; Osman, A. Y and Elmansoury, Y. H. The Effect of
Chloroquine, Ivermectin and Artemether on some Haematological
Indices and Histopathological Changes in Zebu Calves Naturally
Infected with Onchocerca gutturosa. The Sudan J. Vet. Res. (2007).
22: 1-10.
In the present study, some haematological indices and histopathological
changes were investigated in male zebu calves naturally infected with
Onchocerca gutturosa (O.guttursosa), and medicated with either
Ivermectin, Chloroquine or Artemether. Their administration had no
significant effect on Haemoglobin concentration (Hb %), packed cell
volume (PCV) and total white blood cells (WBCs) count (P>0.05).
However, there was an increase in the circulating eosinophils due to the
death of microfilariae (mf) following treatments. Sections of skin before
treatment revealed active cellular reactions due to the presence of
microfilariae. These reactions were more intense after treatment and the
88

subsequent death of dermal mf. No adverse side effects were observed in


the treated calves.
143. Husna,M El Bashir., Osman, AY., Saadia A Younis., and El Sinnary
KA (1998). In vitro effect of two antimalarial compounds, on
Onchocerca gutturosa. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Research, 15: 714.
This study was designed to provide additional information about the
possible filaricidal effects of two antimalarial compounds (Chloroquine
phosphate and Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine) compared to known
filaricidal compounds (Ivermectin and Diethylcarbamazine) using adult
males and microfilariae of Onchocerca gutturosa in vitro. Drug efficacy
was determined in Tyrode,s medium at pH of 7-7.4 and supplemented
with 100iu/ml penicillin and 100g/ml strptomycine. The two drugs
produced a decrease in parasite motility and an increase in mortality rate
in a concentration and time dependent fashion (r > 0.9). Similar results
were obtaine with Ivermectin on adult males and microfilariae and
diethylcarbamazine on microfilariae only. From the lethal concentration
values (Lc 99). Chloroquine was found to be the most potent drug used,
followed by ivermectin. Sulfadoxine and diethylcarbamazine. Adult
males appeared to be more susceptible to chloroquine, sulfadoxine, and
ivermectin than microfilariae.
144. Husna, M. El Bashir., Osman, AY., Saadia A Younis., and El
Sinnary KA (1996). In vitro maintenance of adult males and
microfilariae of Onchocerca gutturosa under different physical and
chemical conditions. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Research, 14: 6166.
The survival of Onchocerca gutturosa adult males and microfilariae was
found to be dependent on both the pH and temperarure when the
parasites were incubated in Tyrods solution, Phosphate Buffer Saline,
Hank,s Buffer Salt solution, Normal Saline or PRMI 1640. All adult
worms survived normally for 7 days at a pH of 7-7.4 and at either room
temperature 37C. At this pH, the survival of microfilariae in various
media on day 7 was ranged between 83-93% and 55-85% at 22-270 C
and 370 C respectively. At 40 C the survival of both adult and
microfilariae was markedly reduced regardless of the pH or the media
used.
145. Hussein HS, Arzoun IH, Hussein MF. (1985). Haemonchus
longistipes Railliet & Henry, 1909 in goats in the Sudan. J
Helminthol.;59(1):79-81.
89

Haemonchus longistipes specimens were collected from experimentally


infected Sudanese goats and camels for morphological studies. The
specimens from goats were much smaller than those from camels, but
their infectivity to camels was not affected by their passage in goats.
Goats inhabiting the same areas as camels in the Sudan were found to be
naturally infected with H. longistipes, but sheep were not and were
resistant to experimental infection.
146. Hussein HS, Atta el Mannan AM, el Sinnary K. (1988). Onchocerca
armillata Railliet and Henry, 1909 and Onchocerca gutturosa
(Neumann, 1910) in camels (Camelus dromedarius L.) in the Sudan.
Vet Res Commun.;12(6):475-80.
A study undertaken to determine the Onchocerca species infecting
camels that live in the same localities as cattle in the Dinder Region,
Blue Nile Province, Sudan revealed concurrent infections with the
bovine parasites Onchocerca armillata in the thoracic aorta,
brachiocephalic trunks and brachial arteries and Onchocerca gutturosa in
the ventral side of the lamellar parts of the ligamentum nuchae. The
microfilariae of both species had the same predilection sites in the skin
of the ears, head and neck regions. Those of O. gutturosa outnumber
those of O. armillata but both are smaller than the respective uterine
microfilariae. Males and microfilariae of both species are smaller than
those of cattle origin.
147. Hussein HS, El Sammani SE (1990). Onchocerca raillieti: release
from skin snips, maintenance in vitro and periodicity of
microfilariae. Vet Res Commun.;14(1):31-9.
Several media were tested for the release of Onchocerca raillieti
microfilariae from skin snips and for their subsequent in vitro
maintenance. Tyrode's solution containing 20% equine serum and
antibiotics was the best medium tested, followed by phosphate buffered
saline. Tyrode's solution alone or distilled water were poor media. A
temperature 7-12 degrees C lower than the host's body temperature
favoured release of the microfilariae from skin snips. The microfilariae
were best maintained at 4-10 degrees C, when they remained alive for up
to 5 days. O. raillieti microfilariae had an evening periodicity which
could be related to a possible vector's peak of feeding activity.
148. Hussein HS., and El Sammani SE, (1983). Morphological studies on
Onchocerca raillieti Bain Muller, Khamis Gullhon and Schilihorn
Van Veen, 1976 from Sudanese donkeys. Journal of Veterinary
Science and Animal Husbandry, Vol 24(1&2):35-42.
90

Onchocerca raillieti from Sudanese donkeys, though different in


predilection site, is similar to the original description of the species.
Males are superficialy located and it is easy to remove complete
specimens, while female occur in deep fibrous capsules intricately
enmeshed with the tissues and difficult to extract. The taxonomic status
of the worm was discussed and its morphological features were
compared to other striated Onchocerca species.
149. Hussein M. F., A. A. Saeed & G. S. Nelson (1970). Heterologous
Schistosome Immunity in Cattle. Bull. World Hlth Org. 429: 745749.
Previous studies have shown that when mice and monkeys are infected
with bovine schistosomes they develop a considerable degree of
heterologous immunity against subsequent challenge with Schistosoma
mansoni. The present report describes a study on the reverse effect in
which calves were first exposed to cercariae of S. mansoni and then
challenged with cercariae of S. mattheei. The calves developed patent
infections with S. mansoni, excreting viable eggs in the faeces, and it is
suggested that cattle may be a source of infection to man under natural
conditions. The immunizing effect of exposure to S. mansoni was
demonstrated by a reduction in the S. mattheei egg load and adult worm
burden in the immunized, as compared with the control, animals. The
results suggest that previous exposure ofcattle to S. mansoni may reduce
the severity ofbovine schistosomiasis in endemic areas.
150. Hussein M. F., H. O. Bushara and K. E. Ali (1976). The pathology of
experimental Schistosoma bovis infection in sheep. Journal of
Helminthology, Vol: 50 (4), 235-241.
Five desert sheep were exposed to 5000 or 10000 Schistosoma bovis
cercariae each, and the parasitological, clinical and pathological
parameters were recorded. The pre-patent period was approximately 7
weeks and from that time onwards, the animals became progressively ill
and emaciated. Following necropsy at the 12th week, a percentage
schistosome recovery ranging from 36%63.6% was found, and there
were high egg densities in the intestinal tract and the liver. These organs
revealed severe pathological lesions which were described in detail along
with the changes occurring in other tissues.
151. Hussein MF (1980). Prospects for the control of Schistosoma bovis
infection in Sudanese cattle. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg.;74(5):55960.
No abstract available.
91

152. Hussein MF and Haroun EM. (1976).The pathology of pulmonary


and pancreatic fascioliasis in cattle. Sudan Journal of Veterinary
Science and Animal Husbandry, Vol 17:60-67.
In 5 Sudanese cattle which were heavily infected with Fasciola
gigantica, flukes and their eggs were found within large fibrosed and
partly calcified nodules in the lungs. These lesions were heavily
infiltrated by eosinophils and surrounded by connective tissue capsules.
Besides, the lungs showed various other lesions e.g., bronchitis and
peribronchitis, interstitial thickening, oedema, focal collapse,
emphysema and diffuse eosinophilic infiltration. Patchily distributed
areas of atypical interstitial pneumonia were also seen in 4 of these
animals; these were indicated by alveolar epithelialization, septal fibrosis
and accumulation of numerous , large phagocytes within the alveolar
lumina. In one animal, the pancreas also showed a nodule containing
flukes and eggs. The whole organ was greatly fibrosed and atrophied,
showing parenchymal degeneration, diffuse infiltration of eosinophils
and giant cells and multiple foci of fat necrosis.
153. Hussein MF, Haroun EM. Pulmonary fascioliasis in Sudanese cattle.
Br Vet J. 1977 May-Jun; 133 (3):316-7.
No abstract available.
154. Hussein MF, Nur OA, Gassouma MS, Nelson GS. (1975).
Onchocerca gutturosa (Neumann, 1910) infection in Sudanese cattle.
Br Vet J.;131(1):76-84.
No abstract available.
155. Hussein MF., Ali KE., Gameel AA., and Bushara HO (1976). Some
aspects of helminth immunity. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Science
and Animal Husbandry, Vol 16( 2):58-66. No abstract.
156. Hussein, M. F. 1972. Preliminary observations on the use of the
indirect fluorescent antibody technique in the diagnosis of bovine
schistosomiasis. Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal
Husbandry, Vol 9: 21-26.
No abstract available.
157. Hussein, M. F., Taylor, M. G. and Dargie, J. D., 1981. Pathogenesis
and immunology of ruminant schistosomiasis in the Sudan. In:
Isotopes and Radiation in Parasitology IV. 75-82. IAEA, Vienna.
No abstract available.
158. Ibrahim K, Thomas R, Peter K, Omer RA. A molecular survey on
cystic echinococcosis in Sinnar area, Blue Nile state (Sudan). Chin
Med J (Engl). 2011 Sep;124(18):2829-33.
92

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonosis caused by the cestodes of the


Echinococcus species. Its life cycle involves dogs and other canids as
definitive hosts for the intestinal tapeworm, as well as domestic and wild
ungulates as intermediate hosts for the tissue-invading metacestode
(larval) stage. The disease has a special impact on disadvantaged
pastoralist communities and is listed now among the three top priority
neglected tropical disease (NTD). Therefore, CE is a neglected disease
even in high endemicity regions. This study aimed at investigation of the
prevalence of CE in different animals slaughtered for food consumption
in Sinnar area, Blue Nile states in Sudan. A survey of CE in livestock
was conducted from April 2009 to March 2011 in Sinnar area, Blue Nile
state in Sudan. Location, parasitological status and fertility conditions
were determined. In addition, 120 hydatid cysts (30 from camels, 62
from cattle and 28 from sheep) were examined by polymerase chain
reaction (PCR) and mitochondrial gene sequencing for the genetic
allocation of Echinococcus strains or species. The prevalence of CE was
29.7% (30/101) in camels, 2.7% (62/2310) in cattle and 0.6% (26/4378)
in sheep. It was shown that infection rates increased with age in camels,
cattle and sheep. In camels, 67% (20/30) of the infected animals were
aged between 2 - 5 years whereas 58% (36/62) of the infected cattle were
> 5 years. In sheep, the prevalence rate was distributed equally between
animals ranging 2 - 5 years and > 5 years. Even though multiple cysts
were found in some animals, the average number of cysts per animal was
close to 1 in all examined species. Lungs were found to be the
predilection sites for the parasite in both camels and cattle, while most of
the cysts found in sheep were located in the liver. About 63.4% of cysts
encountered in camels were considered as large (5 - 7 cm), whereas
those in cattle and sheep were medium (2 - 4 cm) and small (< 2 cm)
respectively. The highest fertility rate was found in camel cysts with
85.4% (35/41) followed by cattle (50.0%, 32/64) and sheep (39.0%,
11/28). All examined cysts belonged to Echinococcus canadensis G6,
which was confirmed to be the overwhelmingly predominant species in
that area. The epidemiological situation in Sinnar area, Blue Nile state is
characterized by intense transmission of Echinococcus canadensis G6,
thereby closely resembling the situation in most other regions of Sudan.
159. Ibrahim K., Romig T., Kern P., and Omer RA, (2013). A molecular
survey on Echinococcosis in dogs in Sennar and Blue Nile States,
Sudan. 25th World Congress of Echinococcosis, Khortoum , Sudan ,
November 2013.
93

A survey of echinococcosis in dogs was conducted from April 2009 to


March 2011 in Sinnar area, Blue Nile state in Sudan. A total of 130 fecal
samples from stray and semi stray dogs around Sinnar and Singa
slaughterhouses were collected randomly. These samples were identified
by the experience technicians who collected the samples recognized the
species of mammal that had excreted each sample, based particularly on
morphology, color and the footprints or tracks left by dogs on the soil.
Some fecal samples collected immediately after defecation. All faecal
samples collected during study were frozen at -80C for two weeks to
kill infectious eggs. Taeniid egg were recovered from feces by zinc
chloride and lysed in 10l of 0.02 N NaoH at 95C for 10 min and used
directly as a template for PCR. Identification and characterization of
genotypes and species of Echinococcus was done using a new method
for differentiation of the known Echinococcus species which are
endemic in Africa, with subsequent digestion of the amplification
products with the restriction enzyme (Hph1). Out of 130 fecal samples
which were examined microscopically, 91(70%) found to be harbored
taeniide eggs. And the average number of eggs/1gm of fecal
sample/animal was 3.3. DNA was isolated from a total of 180 eggs
obtained from the 91 faecal samples in which taeniid eggs were found.
51 of these samples (56%) showed a digestive pattern similar to that of
E.canadensis (G6) when digested with the (Hph1). Sequencing of partial
cox 1 and nad 1 genes of five samples showed 100% homology with the
(camel strain) G6 of E.canadensis when compared with data on
GenBank (Accession No. 208063). From this study we concluded that
the epidemiological situation in Sinnar and Blue Nile States is
characterized by intense transmission of E. Canadensis (G6).
160. Ibtisam A Goraish, Abdelsalam EB, Tartour G. Susceptibility to
homologous reinfection with Fasciola gigantica in goats. Rev Elev
Med Vet Pays Trop. 1991;44(1):69-73.
Goats previously infected with 100 viable Fasciola gigantica
metacercariae and treated with rafoxanide (Ranide, 7.5 mg/kg) at week 4
were not protected against subsequent homologous challenge with 250
metacercariae administered two weeks later. Reinfection resulted in
more severe hepatic lesions and a higher percentage of flukes recovered
as compared with primarily infected controls. However, the size of
flukes originating from the second (challenge) infection was
considerably reduced. The plasma enzyme activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glutamate dehydrogenase (GD) and sorbitol
dehydrogenase (SD) increased to a similar extent with primary and
94

161.

162.

163.

164.

challenge infections. However, the plasma antibody response to F.


gigantica was less pronounced in reinfected goats.
Ibtisam A Goraish., AbdElsalam, E B., Tartour, G. The effect of
Levamezole (L.Tetramezole) treatment on the susceptibility to
Fasciola gigantica infection in goats (1988). Treatment on the
susceptibility to Fasciola gigantica infection in goats. Revue Elev.
Md. vt. Pays trop., 1988, 41 (3) : 283-287.
The repeated administration of a total of six weekly doses of levamisole
(L. tetramisole, 7.5 mg/kg S/C) was found to increase the resistance to
Fasciola gigantica infection in goats. The increased resistance was
refaxed by reduced worm recovery at necropsy and by the development
of less severe hepatic lesions. Elevation of the plasma enzyme activity
associated with Fasciola-induced liver damage was less marked at
levamisole-treated goats. Levamisole treatment was also associated with
a higher antibody response against Fasciola gigantica infection.
Ibtisam A Goraish; Abdelsalam, E.B. and Tartour, G. (1991).The
Prospect of vaccination with gamma irradiated metacercariae
against F. gigantica infection in goats. Acta-Veterinaria-Beagrad,
41(1): 69-72.
No abstract available.
Ibtisam A Goraish; Abdelslam E B; and Tartour G (1995). Study on
the existence of cross resistance between Schistosoma bovis and
Fasciola gigantica in Nubian goat. Sudan Journal of Veterinary
Science and Animal Husbandry vol. 34 (1&2): 106-112.
The susceptibility of Nubian goats to the experimental infection with
Fasciola gigantica was investigated in connection with cross infection
with Schistosoma bovis. The resistance was assessed by the number and
size of worms recovered at necropsy and by the extent of liver damage
and sequential changes in serum enzyme activity in infected goats. The
results showed that cross infection with 100 S. bovis cercariae was found
to induce substantial resistance to heterologous challenge with F.
gigantica. No evidence of resistance was obtained by cross- infection
with 500 S. bovis cercariae.
Ibtisam A. Goraish; Williams, D. J.; McGarry, J.; Abdel Salam, E.
B.; Majid, A. M. and Mukhtar, M. M. Protein Profile of Fasciola
gigantica Antigens Sudan J. Vet. Res. (2008), 23:1-9. Fasciola
gigantica proteins were extracted from its somatic (SO) and excretory
secretary (E/S) products and analyzed for studying their protein
structures that could further be used for detection of its immunoreactive
proteins. These proteins can be used for early diagnosis of the disease
95

and development of a protective vaccine. Separation of both parasite


products by SDS-PAGE resulted in protein bands of different molecular
weights. The execretory/secretory products (E/S) contained fewer bands
compared to the somatic extracts (SO). Dominant bands for both SO and
E/S products were clustered between 11, 27 and 30 Kda. Major bands of
44, 55 and 66 Kda were observed in E/S products. The protein bands
clustered between 11, 27 and 30 Kda contain the major enzymes that
could play important biological and immunemodulatory functions in
juvenile and adult parasites such as saponin-like protein family (FSAP2), cysteine proteinases, glutathione-S-transferase and haemoglobinase.
These proteins can be considered as possible vaccine candidates for the
disease control.
165. Ibtisam A. Goreish; Williams, D. J.; McGarry, J.; Abdel Salam, E.
B.; Majid, A. M. and Mukhtar, M.M. (2009). Identification of Some
Immunogenic Proteins of Fasciola gigantica using Immunoblotting
Technique. Sudan J. vet. Res. 24: 5-10.
Fasciola gigantica antigens were extracted from the somatic (SO) and
excretory secretary (E/S) products and analyzed for detection of
immunoreactive proteins that could be used for early diagnosis and
development of a protective vaccine. SDS-PAGE resulted in protein
bands of different molecular weights in both parasite products. The SO
extracts and E/S products of F. gigantica were then probed by Western
blotting technique using immune sera from naturally and experimentally
infected cattle for identification of immunoreactive antigenic
components. Polypeptides between 27 and 30 KDa were identified by
the sera of all infected animals in both parasite products. Proteins of 44,
50, 60, 100 or 120 KDa were also detected in E/S products with 5 8
weeks post infection antisera.
166. Ibtisam Amin Goraish (1988). Studies on the Susceptibility to
Fasciola gigantica Infection in Goats with Special Reference to
Levamisole Treatment. M.V.Sc., University of Khartoum.
The susceptibility of Nubian goats to the experimental infection with
Fasciola gigantica was investigated in connection with primary
infection, reinfection, cross infection with Schistosoma bovis and
vaccination
with
F.
gigantica-irradiated
metaceraariae.
Immunomodulatory effect of Levamisole (L-tetramisle) was also
evaluated on the primarily infected animals and with vaccination with
irradiated cysts. The results showed that repeated administration of a
total of 6 weekly doses of Levamisole (7.5 mg/Kg s/c) has considerably
increased resistance to the primary infection with the parasite. The
96

resistance was assessed by the number and size of worms recovered at


necropsy and by the extent of liver damage and sequential changes in
serum enzyme activity in infected goats. The percentage recovery of the
liver flukes was reduced from 27.3% in infected animal to 8.9% in
Levamisole treated goats. The previous infection with 100 viable F.
gigantica metacercariae, treated with Ranide at 4 week of age was not
found to induce any degree of resistance to homologous challenge with a
further 250 metacercariae. The number of worms recovered was greater
in the liver of reinfected goats although the size of flukes originating
from the second infection was considerably reduced. In addition, the F.
gigantica induced hepatic lesions were more severe in reinfected goats.
Cross-infection with 1000 S. bovis cercariae was found to induce
substantial resistance to heterologous challenge with F. gigantica.
However, no evidence of resistance was found by cress infection with
500 S. bovis cercariae. Previous administration of 250 irradiated F.
gigantica metacercariae (3- krad) was found to produce partial resistance
to homologous challenge with the same number of viable cysts. More
than 44% reduction of the parasitic burden was produced by the
irradiated metacercariae vaccine when given 4 weeks before challenge.
However, the combined treatment with Levamisole was not found to
alter efficiency of the irradiated vaccine. It was concluded that goats are
probably similar to sheep in their higher susceptibility to fascioliasis and
reduced ability to acquire sufficient resistance to reinfection.
167. Ibtsaim Amin Goreish (2002). Molecular characterization of
Fasciola gigantica antigens for diagnostic purposes and future
development of a candidate vaccine. Ph.D. University of Khartoum.
Fasciola gigantica antigens were extracted from the somatic (SO) and
excretory-secretary (E/S) products and analyzed for detection of
immunreactive proteins that could be used for early diagnosis and
establishment of protective vaccine. Molecular techniques were further
applied for identification of the parasite and differentiation between
different species and strains. Separation of the parasite products by
Sodium dodecyle sulphate Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-P
AGE) resulted in protein bands of different molecular weights in both
parasite products, but the E/S products had fewer bands compared to SO
extracts. Dominant bands for both SO and E/S products were clustered
between 27 and 30 KDa. Major bands of 44, 55 and 66 KDa were also
observed in E/S products. The SO extracts and E/S products of F.
gigantica were then probed by western blotting with immune serum from
naturally and experimentally infected cattle for identification of
97

immunoreactive antigenic components. Polypeptides between 27 and 30


KDa were identified by serum of all infected animals in both parasite
products. Also, protein of 44, 50, 60, 100 or 120 KDa was detection in
E/S produces of 5 -8 weeks post infection. Enzyme -liked
immunosorbant assay (ELISA) was further used for monitoring serum
antibody response in naturally and experimentally infected cattle using
SO extracts and E/S products as antigens. A higher antibody response
was obtained with E/S products than with SO extracts. The results, thus,
confirmed that E/S products contain highly immunogenic proteins and,
therefore, they should be used for early diagnosis. The random
amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was applied for
identification of the parasite and determination of the DNA
polymorphism within the same and different species. A noticeable
difference in the banding profile of the PCR products was observed
between F. giganica (5 bands) and F. hepatica (3 bands). However,
additional two bands were also observed in the amplified DNA of some
F. gigantica flukes. The presence of these bands may well reflect the coexistence of different strains of the parasite. The results indicated that
RAPD is a reliable technique for identification and differentiation
between different Fasciola species and strains.
168. Idris A, Adam SE, Tartour G.The anthelmintic efficacy of d.l.
tetramisole against Haemonchus contortus infection in goats. Rev
Elev Med Vet Pays Trop. 1984;37(2):165-74.
No abstract available.
169. Imad Eldein El Amin El Tahir Aradeib (1988). Serologic Studies on
Bovine Schistosomiasis. M. V. Sc., University of Khartoum.
Bovine schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma bovis is one of the major
veterinary problems in the Sudan. However, little is known in relation to
the immunodiagnosis of the disease in domestic animals. In the present
investigation, three experiments were carried out using the Enzyme
Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) to study the immune response of
calves against S. bovis. In the first experiment, 10 calves were
immunized with schistosomula of S. bovis irradiated at 3 or 20 krad and
three calves were kept as controls. Twenty-four weeks post
immunization, three calves from the 20 krad group and two from the 3
krad (group) were challenged with normal cercariae of S. bovis. The
immune response was monitored by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID)
and the ELISA using adult worm antigen (AWA) and soluble egg
antigen (SEA). By AGID test precipitin lines were observed only with
sera from challenged animals when AWA was used. Using ELISA, the
98

immune response was first detected by the second week, peaking at 4-6
weeks post vaccination. Higher ELISA results were obtained with AWA
than SEA in all vaccinated animals. The immune response of the three
challenged calves was elevated 2 weeks post challenge, peaking at 8-10
weeks post challenge and remained high throughout the experimental
period (3 months post challenge). In the second part of the study, zebu
calves were immunized with a purified 28 kilodaiton antigen (P28), from
S. mansoni, expressed in E. coli (P28-coli) and yeast (P28-yeast). The
control groups were injected with E. coli and yeast extract. The kinetics
of antibody response was monitored by western blot and ELISA. BY
western blot, antisera from calves immunized with P28-coli or P28yeast recognized a protein band at molecular weight of 28 kilodalton 3
weeks after the first immunization. Using ELISA, the antibody response
of P28-coli immunized calves against the homologous antigen was first
detected by day 21 from the first immunization, peaking by day 30,
declining, slowly and remained significantly higher than the controls
throughout the study period. A similar trend with characteristically lower
absorbance values was obtained when the heterologous antigen (P28yeast) was used. The immune response of P28-yeast vaccinated calves
detected by day 21 after the first immunization, peaking by day 52 and
remained significantly higher than the controls throughout the
experiment (day 108). Also it has been concluded that P23 has no
diagnostic potential in the ELISA for immunodiagnosis of experimental
infection with S. bovis. In the third part of the study, two groups of
calves were vaccinated with either whole eggs or adult worm antigens of
Schist soma bovis emulsified in Freunds Adjuvant. These vaccinated
calves together, with a control group were challenged with 20,000
cercariae of S. bovis percutaneously. The immune response which
developed was monitored by Agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and the
enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). By AGID precipitin lines
were first observed at 4 weeks from the first immunization in group D
when AWA antigen was used. However, no precipitin line was observed
when sera from calves in group A or C were used. In ELISA, both AWA
and SEA produced antibody response. The results obtained showed no
significant difference between all the groups as judged by faecal and
tissue egg counts and worm recovery. This indicates failure of
vaccination with crude antigen prepared from adult worms and eggs of
S. bovis to induce resistance against S. bovis challenge. Hence the
antibody response detected in the ELISA seemed to have no correlation
with protection.
99

170. Iman Elnour Mohamed Nurelhuda (1987). The Efficacy of Various


Anthelmintics against Chicken Tapeworm. M.V.Sc., University of
Khartoum.
The efficacy of the three compounds Niclosamide (Yomesan),
Oxfendazole (Systamex), Praziquantel (Droncit) were tested against
immature and mature poultry tapeworm Raillietina tetragona. All
experiments were conducted using the controlled test of Moskey and
Harwood (1941). This test has been advocated to be the most reliable for
screening the anathematic activity of drugs. Niclosamide at 100 mg/kg
b.wt caused only destrobilation of the immature and mature worms.
However, the intact scolices would regenerate another body within 7-10
days. Thus, Niclosamide is unsatisfactory for radical treatment of poultry
tapeworm. Oxfendazole was tried for the first time against poultry
cestodes. The minimal dose of the drug which produced 100% efficacy
against immature R. tetragona in chicken was 10 mg/kg, where the same
effect on mature forms was 7.5 mg/kg. Lower doses than 10 mg/kg
produced very variable effects against immature forms, whereas doses
higher than 10 mg/kg eliminated all worms. Mature worms, however,
responded to a lesser variable degree when exposed to doses lower than
7.5 mg/kg. No report before our present studies is available on the
efficacy of Praziquantel against poultry cestodes. In this study, it was
found that, both immature and mature worms were completely killed by
Praziquantel at all doses tested, i.e. 10, 7.5, 5 and 2.5 mg/kg b.wt.
171. Inas A E and Magzoub M (2009). Validation of the efficacy of
different floatation solutions for the identification of nematode eggs
in camel (Camelus dromedaries). Sudan Journal of Veterinary
Science and Animal Husbandry, vol.48 (1&2) 98-103.
Samples from 166 camels were collected randomly from central Sudan.
The samples were examined by floatation method using McMaster slide
to demonstrate the presence and number of eggs per gram of faeces.
172. Intisar A Badawi., Saad MB., Abdalla HS., and El Tigani T, (1994).
Sudan Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Vol
33(1&2):86-89.
Prevalence of Cysticercus bovis in slaughtered cattle. A survey of C.
bovis conducted in slaughtered cattle at El-Sahafa slaughter house
revealed an overall infection rate of 1.08%. The larval stage was
encountered in liver, heart, messentric muscles and tongue.
173. Intisar Elfadil Saeed (1993). Studies on the Transmission of
Schistosomiasis in Kosti Area, White Nile Province of the Sudan.
M.V.Sc. University of Khartoum.
100

The aim of the study was to provide information concerning


transmission and epidemiology of schistosomiasis, fascioliasis and
paramphistomiasis in Umm Hani Irrigation Scheme, Kosti area, White
Nile Province. The main emphasis was paid to snail related aspects of
the transmission. The study included two phases, which was comprised
of an overall elucidation of occurrence and pattern of distribution of
potential snail hosts for the above mentioned three diseases. Phase 2
comprised of detailed studies of the seasonal variation in the snail
densities and in their infection rates with respective trematode species.
The size distribution of vector snails and their infection rates with the
different trematode species as well as other ecological parameters of the
habitat were considered. Eight species of snails were collected from the
study area, which were expected to be infected with schistosome,
amphistome and fasciolae. These included Bulinus truncatus, B.
ugandae, B. globosus, B. forskalii, B. pfeifferi, B. sudanica, Lymnaea
natalensis and Cleopatra bulimiodes. Biomphalaria spp. were found free
from any trematode infection. The most abundant snail species was B.
ugandae. In spite of the wide distribution of the snails in the area, the
infected snails were found only at few sites, indicating the focality of the
transmission of these diseases. A total of 1390 B. truncatus, 3901 B.
ugandae, 549 B. globosus, 1661 B. natalensis, 97 B. forskalii, 329 B.
sudanica, 109 B. pfeifferi, and 315 B. bulimiodes were collected during
May 1989 May 1990. The number of B. truncatus, B. ugandae and B.
globosus which were found harbouring schistosomes were 84, 38 and 16,
respectively. The number of B. truncatus, B. ugandae and B. globosus
which were harbouring amphistome were 17, 47, and 19, respectively.
The total number of infected L. natalensis with gymnocephalous
cercariae was found in 102 snails. The highest density of snails was
during November to March. Infections with schistosomes, amphistomes
and Fasciola spp. occurred during the hot season (April-May) and the
relatively cold season (November-February). The reproduction of these
snails took place during October-February. Eleven types of aquatic
plants were identified in the area. Nyphoea marinate and Ceratophyllum
demersum were common and were found strongly attractive to B.
ugandae and B. globosus. The presence of different snail species and
different plant species made this area an ideal for snail and water
infections. Physical factors, such as temperature, transparency, current
speed and water depth had a considerable effect on the snail and plant
species. The high infection rates with schistosomes, amphistomes and
Fasciola spp. made these diseases a potential health problem for man and
101

livestock in the area. Control measures such as snail control and


improvement of water resources should be undertaken to reduce
infection of these diseases.
174. Ishraga S Abdel Hafiz, Mohamed OSA, Heyam S Ali, and Adam SEI
(2000). Efficacy of Albendazole and Praziquantel against
experimental Raillietina tetragona infection in Lohmann-type
chicks. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry
vol. 39 (1&2): 27-33.
Forty eight out of sixty 2 week-old male Lohmann-type chicks were each
infected with 3 cysticercoids of the cestode, Raillietina tetragona.
Twelve chicks were the infected untreated controls, thirty six infected
chicks were divided into 3 equal groups. Three weeks post infection
efficacies of Albendazole at oral doses of 2.5 and 12.5 mg/kg/day and
Praziquantel at 300 mg/kg/day for 3 successive days against the
tapeworm infection were 37.14%, 37.7% and 100%, respectively.
Clinical, parasitological, histopathological and serobiochemical
parameters were used to assess the efficacies of the drugs. Neither
albendazole nor praziquantel was toxic to the chicks at doses used.
175. Islim, MW; Mohamed, OSA; and Amin AE (1995). Efficacy of
Albendazole and Rintal (Febantel) against experimental infection of
Raillietina tetragona in broiler chicks. Sudan Journal of Veterinary
Science and Animal Husbandry vol. 34 (1&2): 131-140.
Ninety six day-old Bovan type chicks in 7 groups were infected with
cysticercoids of R. tetragona and given different multible dosages of
Albendazole and Rintal. The efficacies of the drugs were determined
using the slaughter/recovery technique. Parameters for the assessment of
effects on vital organs, carcass yield and meat quality were conducted
and results were correlated.
176. Kamal Ibrahim Bashir (2011). Epidemiological and Molecular
Genotyping of Echinococcus species in Sinnar and Blue Nile States,
Sudan.
M.Sc thesis: Sudan Academy of Science. Cystic
echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonosis caused by cestodes of the
Echinococcus species. Its life cycle involved dogs and other canids as
definitive hosts, as well as domestic and wild ungulates as intermediate
hosts. The disease has special impact on disadvantaged pastoralist
communities. The objectives of this study is the investigation of the
prevalence of CE in intermediate and definitive hosts in Sinnar and Blue
Nile states in Sudan and subsequent identification of its genotypes. A
survey of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in livestock was conducted from
April 2009 to March 2011 in Sinnar and Blue Nile states in Sudan. The
102

prevalence of CE was 29.7% (30/101) in camels, 2.7% (62/2310) in


cattle and 0.6% (26/4378) in sheep. In camels, 67% (20/30) of the
infected animals were aged between 2-5years whereas 58% (36/62) of
the infected cattle were > 5years. In sheep the prevalence rate was
distributed equally between animals ranging between (2-5) years and >
5years. Even though multiple cysts were found in some animals, the
average number of cysts per animal was close to 1 in all examined
livestock species. Lungs were found to be the predilection site for the
parasite in both camels and cattle, while most of the cysts found in sheep
were located in the liver. Most of cysts encountered in camels were
considered as large (5-7 cm), whereas those in cattle and sheep were
medium (2-4 cm) and small (< 2 cm) respectively. The highest fertility
rate was found in camel cysts with 85.37% (35/41) followed by cattle
(50% - 31/62) and sheep (39% - 11/28). Percentages of 82.9 %( 29/35)
and 34.38 %( 11/32) of the fertile cysts in camel and cattle, respectively,
found to be viable, whereas, no viable cyst was found in sheep. Numbers
of 120 hydatid cysts (30 from camels, 62 from cattle and 28 from sheep)
and 130 fecal samples from stray and semi-stray dogs were genotyped by
PCRs and mitochondrial gene sequencing for the genetic allocation of
Echinococcus strains or species. All isolates examined were found to be
E.canadenis (G6), which was confirmed to be the overwhelming species
in that area. The public health impacts of this finding are discussed in
terms of the various species and genotypes of Echinococcus and role of
each in human health.
177. Karib, E.A. (1962). Fascioliasis in cattle and sheep in Sudan. Bulletin
office, International des Epizooties 58:337-346.
No abstract available.
178. Khalid Adam Ali Musa (2008). The Prevailing Causes of Sheep
Liver Condemnations in Nyala North Abattoir.
M. V. Sc.,
University of Khartoum.
Two hundred and four condemned sheep livers were collected from
Nyala North Abattoir to study the gross features of various pathological
conditions encountered. Laboratory techniques that available in Nyala
Veterinary Researches Laboratory, using different material and methods,
were done to identify the different causes of liver condemnations.
Pathological conditions, causing liver condemnations, were classified
into parasitic, bacterial and non-specific caused conditions. Nine percent
of sheep liver condemnations were due to non-specific causes included
congestions, cirrhosis and fatty changes. Parasitic causes such as
fascioliasis, Cysticercosis and hydatidosis represented6% of the liver
103

condemnations. Specific bacterial causes were limited in hepatic necrosis


and abscesses which represented 85% of liver condemnations.
Staphylococcus spp, streptococcus spp, corynebacteria spp,
enterobacteria spp and Pasteurella spp were the main XII isolates. This
study provides important data about meat hygiene and the prevailing
causes of sheep liver condemnations in Nyala for future monitoring of
diseases of the economical importance.
179. Kheir HSM (1978). An investigation on the mode of action of the
anthelmintic Thiophanate (Nemafax). Sudan Journal of Veterinary
Science and Animal Husbandry, Vol 19(2):112-116.
The in-vitro effect of thiophanate (Nemafax) on malate dehydrogenase
activity in homogenates of Ascaris suum was investigated. At 10 -3 M
concentration. Thiophanate was found to cause 50% and 56% inhibition
of malate oxidation and oxaloacetate reduction reactions respectively.
The significance of this inhibition and the possibility of it being the
mode of action of thiophanate was discussed.
180. Kheir HSM (1978). Comparative studies on malate dehydrogenase
(MDH) of Ascaris suum. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Science and
Animal Husbandry, Vol 19(2):105-111.
The level of malate dehydrogenase (MDH) in four different systems of
adult female Ascaris suum and in the one-day old egg and 28-days old
eggs was investigated. No significant differences in the level of MDH
activity between the muscle digestive system and reproductive system
were found. The pseudocoelomic fluid showed a very low level of MDH
activity, the level of MDH activity was found to increase during the
development of Ascaris suum. One-day old egg and 28-days old egg
showed a comparatively lower level of MDH activity than the adult
female worm.
181. Koko W. S. , M. Gala and H. S. Abdalla (2003). Caprine Fascioliasis
in the Gezira State, Central Sudan. Journal of Animal and
Veterinary Advances Vol 2 (7): 396-399.
This work was carried out in northern part of the Gezira State, Hassahisa
Province, in the Central of the Sudan to investigate the prevalence of
caprine fasciolaisis and the epidemiological aspects, which might
influence the prevalence of the disease. 287 goats were sampled faecaly
and serologically for the evidence of Fasciola gigantica infection. 12.5%
of examined goats were positive for F gigantica egg inspection. This
infection was correlated positively with the progress of age from olds,
youngs and kids 16.2, 12 and 1.9% respectively. The prevalence of the
disease was significantly higher in inner irrigated areas (core village)
104

14.7% than peripheral (main road) areas 8.7%. Also the disease is more
prevalent in winter 15% than in summer 9.9%. 79.5% of all examined
goats were found positive for antifasciola antibodies (using crude
antigen). This prevalence was 98.1, 81.5 and 21.2% for olds, youngs and
kids respectively. It was 83.7% for inner irrigating and 71.8% for
peripheral irrigating goats. The anti fasciola antibodies were found
positively higher in winter 85% in comparison with summer 73.8%.
182. Koko W. S. , M. Gala and H. S. Abdalla (2003). Gastrointestinal
Parasites of the Gezira Goats: Central Sudan. Journal of Animal
and Veterinary Advances Vol 2 (7): 392-395.
In the present study 287 goats form the Gezira (Central State of the
Sudan) at 3 different villages resembling two different types of location
were examined parasitologically by faecal sedimentation and flotation
techniques for the presence of gastrointestinal parasites. Generally 43.6%
of the examined animals inflected a parasitical infection, this infection is
significantly higher (P<0.05) within the goats from core (inner irrigated
villages) 50.5% (32% from total) in comparison to those of road located
villages 13.1% (11% from total). 8 parasite genera were reported from
this experiment among them Dicrocoelum spp (5.6%) for the first time in
the Sudanese goats, Trichostrongyle type of egg 18%. Eimmeria ocyst
17%, Fasciola gigantica 12.5%, Monezia spp 2.1%, Schistosoma bovis
2%, Trichuris spp 1.7% and Paramphistomum spp 0.7%. For the general
parasitical infection there was no significant difference observed
between wet and dry seasons, kids, youngs and olds, male and female
goats. But some of these parasites had shown variation according to
season or age factor if they were analyzed as individuals.
183. Magda Mustafa Morgan Mohamed (1997). Incidence of
Gastrointestinal Helminth Parasites of Cats in Khartoum State.
M.Sc., University of Khartoum.
This investigation was conducted to evaluate prevalence of
gastrointestinal helminth parasites of cats in Khartoum State to study
pathological changes caused by these parasites and to assess their
zoopotential. Eighty cats (30 males and 50 females) were trapped,
anaesthestized by Chloroform, necropsied, and then searched for
intestinal helminthes. The results revealed occurrence of 7 species of
helminthes namely Cestodes; Joyeuxiella kofend (66.7%),
Diplopylidium genettae (66.7%), D. monoophoroides (66.7%), and
Dipylidium caninum (1.25%). Nematodes: Physaloptera praeputialis
(57.5%) and Toxocara cati (1.25%). Acanthocephala; Oncicola canis
(1.25%), Alana spp. weres the only Trematode worm found with 1.25%
105

prevalence rate. All these worms encountered in the small intestine


except Physaloptera praeputialis that was found in the stomach. The
infections in males and females in Omdurman, Khartoum, Khartoum
North were similar. Cats of ages between 1-9 years showed 100%
prevalence, while cats less than one year showed 40% prevalence.
Physaloptera praeputialis was found attached to the mucosa of the
Stomach causing hyperemia, ulceration and erosion of the stomach.
Joyeuxiella kofend and Diplopylidium spp. showed by microscopic and
macroscopic lesions leading to mucous exudates represented by catarrhal
enteritis. No apparent pathological changes were induced by Toxocara
cati and Dipylidium caninum.
184. Magzoub M (2009). Seasonality of infection of Sudanease camels
(Camelus dromedaries) with gastro- intestinal nematodes. Sudan
Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, vol.48 (1&2)
94-97.
Examination of the abomasa and intestines of 240 camels for the
presence of adult nematodes duringa 12-months period was carried out.
Gastro-intestinal nematodes including Haemonchus longistipes,
Parapronema skrijbini, Nematodirus spathiger and Trichuris globulosa
were the most frequently encountered worms in Sudanese camels
throughout the different season of the year. Haemonchus longistipes and
Parapronema skrijabini were found in the abomasa while Nematodirus
spathiger and Trichuris globulosa were collected from the intestines.
Haemonchus longistipes, however, showed highest incidence reaching
46.15% during the dry season and highest worm burden obtained from a
single infected camel. Haemonchus 3rd stage larvae were detected in
herbage during the rainy season with an intensity of 40 larvae per
kilogram of dry sample collected from the grazing areas of dromedary
camels. The abomasal worm occurred more frequently with relatively
high incidence during the dry season and the intestinal ones during the
wet season.
185. Magzoub M, el Hassan EM, Brger HJ. Pasture infestation with
trichostrongyles of camels in the Butana area of eastern Sudan. Trop
Anim Health Prod. 1990 Feb;22(1):7-8.
No abstract available.
186. Mahmoud M Mansour (1996). A review: Implication of the
Nematode infections on immune responses to unrelated antigens.
Sudan Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry vol. 35
(1&2): 45- 52.
106

The author discussed the immunomodulation of nematode infections in


laboratory animals, causing either enhancement or depression of immune
responses. He explained the possible implication of this
immunomodulation, which in most cases result in immunosuppressive
effects. This in turn, may predispose to more serious infections in man
and animals. It is also relevant to consider control of nematode infections
when vaccine programs are conducted. It may well be that failure of a
certain vaccine is attributed to the immunosuppressive effects of a
nematode infection at the time of vaccination.
187. Majid AA, Bushara HO, Saad AM, Hussein MF, Taylor MG, Dargie
JD, Marshall TF, Nelson GS.Observations on cattle schistosomiasis
in the Sudan, a study in comparative medicine. III. Field testing of
an irradiated Schistosoma bovis vaccine. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1980
May;29(3):452-5.
Previous work has shown that cattle can acquire a strong resistance to
Schistosoma bovis infection following repeated natural exposure. Partial
resistance to a laboratory challenge with S. bovis has also been
demonstrated in calves after immunization with an irradiated
schistosomular or cercarial vaccine. The aim of the present study was to
see whether this type of vaccine could protect calves under the very
different conditions of natural exposure to S. bovis in the field. Thirty 6to 9-month-old calves were each immunized with 10,000 irradiated S.
bovis schistosomula by intramuscular injection and 8 weeks later were
released into an enzootic area along with 30 unvaccinated animals. The
calves were followed up for 10 months, during which period protection
was evidenced by a lower mortality rate, a slower rate of acquisition of
infection, and lower fecal egg counts in the vaccinated calves. Necropsy
of the survivors showed 60--70% reductions in worm and tissue egg
counts of the vaccinated calves as compared to those not vaccinated.
188. Majid AA, Hussein MF, Taylor MG. Age specific prevalence and
intensity of Schistosoma bovis infection in Sudanese Desert sheep in
the White Nile Province. Res Vet Sci. 1983 Jul;35(1):120-1.
A survey of ovine schistosomiasis was carried out in a Schistosoma bovis
enzootic area in the central Sudan. Three hundred Desert sheep,
representing different age groups, were screened for infection, using
Pitchford's faecal egg counting technique. No infection was detected in
animals under one year old, but from the age of 18 months onward, the
prevalence increased progressively from around 20 per cent to 60 per
cent in six-year-old sheep, and this was accompanied by an increase in
infection intensity, as determined by faecal egg counts. These findings,
107

which suggest that these sheep did not develop an effective resistance to
schistosomiasis, contrasted with those previously recorded in cattle from
the same locality, studied in the same year.
189. Majid AA, Marshall TF, Hussein MF, Bushara HO, Taylor MG,
Nelson GS, Dargie JD.Observations on cattle schistosomiasis in the
Sudan, a study in comparative medicine. I. Epizootiological
observations on Schistosoma bovis in the White Nile Province. Am J
Trop Med Hyg. 1980 May;29(3):435-41.
A 2-year epizootiological study was carried out on Schistosoma bovis in
cattle in an enzootic area of the Sudan. The prevalence of infection, as
judged by the Pitchford fecal egg counting technique, was very high,
approaching 90% in 1.5-year-old animals. There was, however, a lower
prevalence in older cattle, and this trend was also seen with the fecal egg
counts. This suggests that the cattle gradually acquire resistance to
reinfection, particularly since there seems to be little age-related
variation in the amount of water contact. Monthly incidence rates,
estimated from fecal examinations of initially uninfected "tracer" calves
showed a marked seasonal pattern, being much higher in the hot summer
months, and snail infection rates showed a similar seasonal pattern. In
addition, both the monthly incidence measurements and the snail
infection rates showed that transmission was much heavier in 1976 than
in 1977. Epizootics such as those recorded previously in this area
presumably arise from exceptionally intense transmission years.
190. Majid, A.A., Ibtisam A. Goraish, Zakia,A., Elmansoury, Y.H., and
Bushara, H.O. (2002) Experimental Schistosoma bovis infection in
Sudanese camels (Camelus dromedaries).The Camel News Letter No
(19), pp 45- 54.
One-humped camels (Camelus dromedaries) aged 6-8 years were
experimentally infected with cercariae of Schistosoma bovis. Seven
weeks after infection the animals started to shed schistosome eggs in
their faeces. After three weeks from patent infection they showed clinical
symptoms manifested by diarhoea, inappetance, weakness, emaciation
and recumbency that terminated in death. At necropsy there was
congestion of the lungs, heart and mucuse of the small and large intestine
with haemohrragic lesions and enlargement of the accompanying lymph
nodes. The liver was normal in size and spotte with snbcapsular
granulomas. Histologically the most prominent lesion was ova
granuloma scattered in the lung, liver lymph nodes and intestine. The
infected animals showed loss of weight that was not compensated for till
the end of the experiment. Faecal egg output rose sharply to a eak with a
108

drop thereafter. Haemoglobin concentration and packed cell volumes


showed lower levels after infection. Worm count and egg dposition in
the different tissues were recorded.
191. Majid, AA., and Ibtisam A Goraish (2000). Preliminary survey of
internal parasites of camels in eastern and western Sudan., Sudan
Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Vol. 39: 5662.
A total of 935 dromedary camels were surveyed for internal parasites by
the faecal examination in eastern and western Sudan. The camels
examined were male and female aged 1-12 years between July and
October. The overall infection rate was 88, 80, 39% in Gedaref,
Kordofan, Darfur and Kassala states, respectively. On the other hand, the
prevalence of coccidiosis ranged between 6.1 and 13.2%. Of the
helminth parasites Trichostrongylus, Haemonchus and Trichuris
represent the higher record. In Kordofan state the prevalence of
Schistosoma bovis accounts for 19.7% infection which was the first and
highest ever recorded in Sudanese camels. The prevalence of helminthes
and coccidian parasites appeared to increase steadily with age.
192. Malek EA,. (1959). Trematode Infections in Some Domesticated
Animals in the Sudan. Journal of Parasitology, Vol. 45, No. 4,
Section 2: Supplement:, pp. 1-64.
Digenetic trematodes from domesticated animals, particularly cattle and
equines, were col- lected and, together with their known intermediate
hosts, mapped. Special attention was given to schistosomiasis and
fascioliasis. Fasciola gigantica was collected from cattle, sheep and
goats, and Schistosoma bovis from cattle, sheep, horses, camels and pigs.
In the White Nile reservoir seasonal variation in snail colonies and in
their infection rates was observed during five years and recorded in
detail over a year. Colonies of Lymnaea natalensis build up in Octo- ber
and November; infected snails and metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica
are encountered in December. The peak of infection of Lymnaea
natalensis with Fasciola gigantica occurs in late February and March in
the reservoir as a whole, and in April in residual pools. Bulinus truncatus
and Bulinus (Physopsis) ugandae were found to be naturally infected
with S. bovis. In one locality in the White Nile reservoir no schistosome
infection was found in B. (Ph.) ugandae at the end of September. The
infection rate with S. bovis averaged 0.1 percent in November,
December and early January, as compared to 42.1 percent for an
amphistome infection (Paramphistomum microbothrium) in the same
species of snail. In March, the infections were 0.92 percent for S. bovis,
109

65.4 percent for the amphistome, and 0.3 percent for both together. The
amphistomes Paramphistomunm microbothrium and Cotylophoron
cotylophorum were collected from cattle, sheep and goats, and
Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus from equines. The identity of amphistome
cercariae from Bulinus truncatus, B. forskalii, B. (Ph.) ugandae, and
Biomnphalaria sudanica is being determined by feeding encysted
metacercariae to various hosts; sheep, goat, calf, and donkey. Cercariae
from some B. forskalii were similar to those of Gastrodiscus
aegyptiacus.
193. Malek EA. (1958). Life cycle studies on nematode Subulura brumpti
(Lopez-Neyra, 1922) Cram, 1926, and its distribution in the Sudan.
Journal of Parasitology, Vol.44, No. 4, supplement, p31.
Subulura brumpti, a ceacal nematode of poultry, reported to occur in
various area including, in Africa, the Belgian Congo, Dahomey and
Algeria (Cram,1927), is also found in the Sudan in the fowl, guinea fowl
and turkey. Naturally infected beetles were found in the neighborhood of
poultry pens. The life cycle was followed experimentally by forcefeeding grasshoppers on entire female worms, which contain fully
embryonated eggs. Morphology of the larval stages in the intermediate
host coincided with the describtion given by Cuekler and Alicata (1944)
in Hawaii. When 1-day, 1-week and 1-month-old chicks were fed on the
infective encapsulated larvae, sexually mature males and females were
recovered from the ceaca 5 to 6 weeks later. This life cycle is compared
to that of Heterakis gallinae, where no intermediate host is incriminated
and where the egs are deposited in the 1-cell stage and require an
incubation period on the soil. The distribution of both cecal worms in the
Sudan, and also in Egypt, is evidently governed by ecological and
geographical conditions. In the arid northern and central Sudan only
Subulura occurs. In the southern part of the country, with high humidity
and rainfall, both Subulura brumpti and Heterakis are found (in Malakal
and neighborhood) and Heterakis becomes more common still further
south, near the Sudan boarder, it is beleved to be the only cecal
nematode of poultry. Extention of agriculture under irrigation in the
northern and central Sudan may help in the spread of Heterakis.
194. Malek EA. (1958). Occurrence of Onchocerca armillata Railliet and
Henry, 1909, in Sudanese cattle, Bos indicus. Journal of
Parasitology, Vol.44, No. 4, supplement, p30.
The filariid, Onchocerca armillata, is very commonly found in Sudanese
cattle, Bos indicus, where it inhabits the thoracic portion of the aorta and
the brachiocephalic trunk. Originally described from Malaya, it has later
110

been recorded from Bos Taurus in Egypt, Bos indicus in India and from
the African buffalo Bubalus caffer in the Belgian Congo. Large caseous
granular nodules containing the anterior end of the female, sinuous
tracks, often calcified, containing the male and the long posterior end of
the female, and an uneven intima are characteristic of this infection.
Morphological details coincide with those reported by Railliet and Henry
(1912). The following average prevalence have been recorded by the
writer on 18 days over a period of 1 to 2 years: 94% in White Nile cattle
at the Kosti abattoir; 96% in cattle imported from Kordofan and Darfur
provinces in the west, and slaughtered at the Khartoum and Omdurman
abattoirs, and the Kosti meat factory. The prevalence is also very high in
the southern provinces. Specimens of the genetically close Elaeophora
(E. poeli), which has the same habitat as O. armillata, have not yet been
obtained from cattle in the Sudan, but are believed to be common in the
buffalo, from which Elaceophora was reported in the Belgian Congo.
The relationship between the two genera will be discussed later.
195. Malek EA. (1959). Helminth parasites of the camel, Camelus
dromedarius, in the Sudan. Journal of Parasitology, Vol.45, No. 4,
supplement, p38.
Seventeen camels from the central Sudan were examined for their
helminth-parasites, with the following results: Avitellina woodlandi
(small intestine) 70.5%; Trichuris globulosa (colon and caecum), 70.5%;
Echinococcus granulosus cysts (lungs, liver, spleen),52.9%;
Haemonchus lonistipes (4th stomach), 23.5%; Impalia sp. (small
intestine), 23.5%; Oesophagostomum venulosum (colon), 11.7%;
Schistosoma bovis (mesenteric veins), 11.7%; Moniezia expansa (small
intestine), 5.9%; Nematodirus sp. (small intestine), 5.9%; Dictyocaulus
viviparus (bronchi), 0%; and Fasciola gigantica, 0%. Further surveys
might prove the existence of D.viviparus in Sudanese camels, as it
occurs in Egypt in camels imported from the Sudan. It is possible that F.
gigantica is found occasionally in the camel in areas where fascioliasis is
common in cattle and sheep. Haemonchosis in camels is believed to be
the cause of death in some parts of the country, especially in the cases of
heavey infections. Camel hydatid cysts, which are usually improperly
disposed of, have no doubt been partly responsible for the spread of
Echinococcosis in dogs and, of a high incidence of hdatid cysts recorded
in man in cerain parts of the Sudan.
196. Malek EA. (1959). Spirocercosis in Khartoum dogs. Journal of
Parasitology, Vol.45, No. 4, supplement, p39.
111

Of 24 dogs, both stray and pets, examined, 11 or 45.8% were found


infected with Spirocerca lupi. Adult worms occurred in tumours in the
walls of the esophagus, stomach and the thoracic portion of the aorta.
Two cases were fatal aortic spirocercosis, with haemorrhage, pleurisy
and toxemia on post mortem. The vessel wall was ruptured. Partial
obstruction of the esophagus owing to the presence of large nodules was
observed in some cases. The abundance of the intermediate hosts, in the
form of insects, mainly beetles, of various transport hosts and a reservoir
host, the fox, is an important factor causing the spread of the disease.
Four foxes were examined in Khartoum and Kosti, and all harbored this
spiruroid and had large aortal nodules. Reports from veterinarians in
various parts of the country indicate the high incidence of the disease in
dogs.
197. Malek EA. (1971). The life cycle of Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus
(Cobbold, 1876) Looss, 1896 (Trematoda: Paramphistomatidae:
Gastrodiscinae). J Parasitol. ;57(5):975-9.
The life cycle of Gastrodiscus, a parasite of African equines, is
described. Amphistome cercariae of the Diplocotylea type emerged from
naturally infected Bulinus (Bulinus forskalii) and encysted on grass.
Metacercariae fed to a donkey developed to mature adult flukes. The
possible role of other planorbid snail species as intermediate hosts of G.
aegyptiacus is discussed.
198. Malek EA., (1958). Distribution of the intermediate hosts of
bilhrziasis in relation to hydrography, with special reference to the
Nile basin, and the Sudan. Bulletin of the World Health
Organization., 18, 691-734.
The author has made a collection from certain parts of the Sudan of
snails of the genera Bulinus and Biomphalaria that are actual or potential
vectors of bilharziasis. The snails were identified by anatomical
examination and a preliminary interpretation of the finding is given. The
results are related to information already available, not only from Sudan,
but also from adjacent areas, especially from the Nile basin in general.
The distribution of the snails is shown both in tabular and in map form.
With a view to providing a basis for a better understanding of the true
relationships among this group of African planorbids, special
consideration has been given to the hydrographic and hydrogeographical
factors which have brought about the present distribution.
199.
Malek, EA.(1959). Check list of helminth parasites of domesticated
animals in Sudan. Indian Veterinary Journal, 36(6):281-288.
112

The author listed the results of his examinations of cattle, equines,


camels, dogs, cats and fowls in various areas of the Sudan. Tables set for
the helminths found, their location in the host, the number of animals
examined and infected, and the localities involved.
200. Malek, EA.(1969). Studies, on bovine schistosomiasis in the Sudan.
Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol.;63(4):501-13.
No abstract available.
201. Mc Cauley EH, Tayeb A, Majid AA. (1983). Owner survey of
schistosomiasis mortality in Sudanese cattle. Trop. Anim. Health.
Prod. 15 (4):227-33.
The estimated mortality in six- to 30-month-old cattle due to
presumptive schistosomiasis was 7.1% for 155 interviews conducted in
the White Nile Province in 1981. This mortality was higher for those
herds under sedentary management than for migratory herds (9.4% vs
3.6%). The interviews were done through an informal visit technique by
a veterinarian living in the area. The approximate number (19,000) of
cattle over six months old estimated to be owned by those interviewed
represents about 1% of the population in that province. The mortality
from all causes in the six- to 30-month age group was 9.2%; in the over
30-month age group it was 1.8%. The authors judge the schistosomiasis
mortality to be somewhat upwardly biased but the mortality due to all
causes (9.2%) is consistent with the few reports available.
202. McCauley E H, Ali A. Majid, Abdullah Tayeb. Economic evaluation
of the production impact of bovine schistosomiasis and vaccination
in the Sudan. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Volume 2, Issue 6,
September 1984, Pages 735-754.
This study was done to evaluate the estimated economic consequences of
the recent discovery that an irradiated Schistosoma bovis vaccine was
effective in reducing mortality and intensity of infection in cattle after
field exposure to S. bovis in the White Nile province. The benefits and
costs were hypothesized to occur over a 5-year period starting after the
vaccine had been further developed to optimal commercial usefulness.
The potential benefits of vaccination are from the avoidance of mortality
and growth delay losses caused by S. bovis infection and were based on
an owner survey conducted in 1981. These benefits were discounted
from the time of their potential marketing opportunity to the first year of
a vaccination program at 15% per annum and were valued on a basis of
1982 prices for live cattle exported to Egypt and Saudi Arabia.
Variations in benefits stem from degree of infection probability,
mortality and morbidity estimates and percent of animals vaccinated.
113

Since clinical schistosomiasis (gorag sunken-eyed appearance) and


associated production losses occur almost exclusively in 6- to 30-monthold cattle, and there is evidence for long-term immunity, vaccinations
would be given to cattle in this age-specific group or younger once in
their lifetime. The principal variation in vaccination program costs, also
valued at 1982 prices, is from vaccine production costs; $0.50 or $4.00
per dose. A vaccine efficacy of 70%, observed in a previously reported
field trial, was used in these calculations. Present value benefitcost (b
c) ratios were estimated for the central, western and southern areas for
high- and low-level effects of S. bovis impact on production and the
vaccination program, cost and effectiveness. In an area (central
provinces) of high infection probability (90%), high percentage of
animals vaccinated (90%), high mortality (7.1%), and low vaccine
production costs, the bc ratio was 12.7. In contrast, a bc ratio of 0.7
was estimated for an area (southern provinces) assuming low infection
probability (50%), low percent of animals vaccinated (50%), lower
mortality (3.55%) and high vaccine production costs. Potential returns
from increased future milk and calf production and from faster herd
build-up with younger females were not included in these benefit
calculations. These results indicate that under most conditions further
development of the vaccine and cost-effective vaccine production
techniques would yield very favorable returns from improved livestock
production efficiency in the Sudan. Export prices were assumed to not
vary significantly with increased supply of export-quality cattle resulting
from the estimated production losses avoided by vaccination against
schistosomiasis.
203. McCauley EH, Majid AA, Tayeb A, Bushara HO. Clinical diagnosis
of schistosomiasis in Sudanese cattle. Trop Anim Health Prod. 1983
Aug;15(3):129-36.
This study was done in the White Nile Province to characterise the
history and signs of naturally occurring Schistosoma bovis infection in
cattle (Gorag). Necropsy and laboratory examinations were performed
on 10 animals six to 30 months of age which were in poor condition.
They were selected because of a history suggestive of schistosomiasis.
All the animals showed some degree of S. bovis infection; eight had a
moderate or heavy degree of infection. Also all had liver damage due to
either past or active Fasciola gigantica infection. Although concurrent
infection with these two trematodes is common an owner who diagnoses
Gorag is most likely referring to the syndrome caused by S. bovis as
being the major cause of the poor performance observed. Fasciolicide
114

treatment may eliminate active fascioliasis as the principal damaging


agent. Also differentiating signs of haemorrhagic diarrhoea, severely
sunken eyed appearance and only moderate inappetence are common in
animals with acute schistosomiasis.
204. McGarry JW, Ortiz PL, Hodgkinson JE, Goreish I, Williams DJ.
(2007). PCR-based differentiation of Fasciola species (Trematoda:
Fasciolidae), using primers based on RAPD-derived sequences. Ann
Trop Med Parasitol. 2007 Jul;101(5):415-21.
The zoonotic liver flukes Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica co-exist in
parts of Africa and Asia. The two species have similar life-cycles but
different transmission characteristics. Although the identification of
adult Fasciola to species level is traditionally based on differences in size
and shape, recent studies have demonstrated this method to be
unreliable. Species of Fasciola can be distinguished by staining and
comparing the morpho-anatomy of the gut and ovaries or by iso-enzyme
analysis but such approaches are time-consuming and require specialist
skills. Two primer sets, based on RAPD-derived sequences from English
F. hepatica and Ghanaian F. gigantica, can now be used, in two separate
PCR, to distinguish F. hepatica from F. gigantica. When the PCR were
used to investigate 10 flukes (five from the U.K. and five from Peru)
morpho-anatomically identified as F. hepatica and 10 (five from Ghana
and five from Sudan) morpho-anatomically identified as F. gigantica, all
20 flukes were correctly identified to species level. The PCR were
validated using 175 flukes collected, over a 12-year period, from
different countries and both cattle and sheep.
205. Misk El Yemen Abdel Atti Abdalla El Makki (2000). Sensitivity and
Specificity of Three Onchocerca volvulus Cloned Antigens in the
Diagnosis of Onchocerciasis. M.V.Sc. University of Khartoum.
Human Onchocerciasis is endemic in three geographic regions in the
Sudan and is presented with variable clinical reactions. The current
diagnosis of onchocerciasis is based on demonstration of live
microfilariae in skin snips in addition to clinical signs and history of
living in an endemic region. Different serological diagnostic trials using
crude soluble antigen of Onchocerca volvulus have shown variable
degrees of cross-reaction with other nematodes co-endemic in the same
area. In this study, sensitivity and specificity of three O. volvulus
recombinant antigens (RAL-2, Mwt.57, Calreticulin, Mwt. 87, PDI
(protein disulphide isomerase), Mwt. 95) were determined using ELISA
techniques. Eighty serum samples of onchocerciasis patients, 20 nonendemic normal controls and 42 samples of patients of other endemic
115

diseases including leishmaniasis, malaria, tuberculosis and


schistosomiasis were tested. RAL-2 detected the highest IgG response,
with sensitivity of 83.75% and specificity of 91.66%. PDI sensitivity was
20% and its specificity was 91.66%, while Calreticulin showed
sensitivity of 37.5% and specificity of 73.30%. The level of IgG3
subclass was not significantly different in patients and controls, while
IgG4 was significantly higher in the patients. The sensitivity of RAL-2
for IgG4 was 90% with a specificity of 100%. For PDI, sensitivity was
25% and specificity of 100%, while Calreticulin had a sensitivity of 75%
and specificity of 100%. Low levels of circulating IgE to RAL-2 antigen
were detected. For all antigens, there was no significant correlation
between IgG, IgG subclasses or IgE with gender, age, microflarial load
or presence of nodules.
206. Mohamed AA. And Khitma H El Malik (2000). The epidemiology of
cystic echinococcosis in Nyala, Southern Darfur Sate, Sudan. Sudan
Journal of Veterinary Research, 16: 49-53. Data on prevalence of
Echinococcus granulosus in stray dogs and hydatid cysts in camels and
cattle in Nyala area were collected and evaluated. Out of 26 stray dogs
necropsied, 26.92% showed Echinococcus infection. A survey of 205
camels and 763 cattle slaughtered at Nyala slaughterhouse during 19961997 revealed an overall infection rate of 79.51% and 6.42 respectively.
The biological sate, size of the cyst, the predilection sites on the body,
the volume of hydatid fluid and the number of protoscolices the cyst
contained were investigated. The lung was the favorite predilection site
for the cysts in camels (73.5%) followed by the liver (18.17%) then the
spleen (8.33%), while in cattle, liver was the predilection site(58.73%)
followed by the lung (41.27%). Fertility rates of hydatid cysts were
42.59% and 26.92% in camels and cattle respectively.
207. Mohamed Alamin Ibrahim Hamid Ibrahim (2013). Pathological and
Haematological Changes due to Lung Lesions of Camels (Camelus
dromedarius) in Tamboul Abattoir, Sudan.M.Sc. University of
Khartoum.
This investigation was carried out in Tamboul abattoir during January to
June 2011 to find out the causes of condemnation of the lungs of
slaughtered camels and to study the lesions which they produce as well
as the effects of these lesions on the erythrocytic and leucocytic blood
indices of affected animals. One hundred condemned camel lungs were
grossly and microscopically examined. Blood samples for the
determination of the blood indices were randomly collected from the
external jugular vein of 27 camels selected from the camels from which
116

tissue samples were taken. Twenty three of the examined samples were
taken from the camels which showed pulmonary lesions and four
samples were taken from those which did not show detectable
pulmonary lesions. The causes which led to lungs condemnation were:
pneumonia (41%), infection with hydatid cysts (19 %), emphysema
(11%), congestion (9%), fibrosis (6%), aspirated blood (3%), oedema
(3%), adhesions (3%), abscesses (2%), calcification (2%) and necrosis
(1%). The histopathological sections showed bronchopneumonia,
interstitial pneumonia, fibrinous pneumonia, necrotic pneumonia,
hydatid cysts, emphysema, congestion, fibrosis, aspiration of blood,
oedema, adhesions, abscesses and calcification. Analysis of the results of
blood examination indicated insignificant changes in the erythrocytic
indices of camels with pulmonary lesions compared with those camels
with normal lungs. The total leucocytes counts were significantly higher
in the camels that had lung lesions compared with those without lung
lesions. There were no significant differences between the counts of
neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes and monocytes of the
two camel groups. The neutrophils and lymphocytes counts, however,
were relatively higher in the camels with lung lesions. The results
showed that pneumonia and hydatidosis were the main causes of
condemnation of camel lungs in Tamboul abattoir . Hence the impact of
consumption of raw camel lungs in some food preparations on public
health as well as the role of camels in the epidemiology of hydatidosis in
the area warrants close investigations.
208. Mohamed Alwathig Ahmed Hassan Elnaeem (2006). Incidence of
Parasitic Infestation of Cattle in Kuku Dairy Herds, Khartoum
State, Sudan. MVSc. University of Khartoum.
This was an investigation of blood and internal parasites in different
seasons (dry cool, dry hot and wet hot seasons) in dairy herds in Kuku
area of Khartoum State. The result showed that there was a high
prevalence of blood parasites in the dry cool season (46%) compared to
dry hot and wet hot seasons with a percentage of 14.74% and 5.68%,
respectively. While the presence of internal parasite, was found to be less
than blood parasites (15%, 8.42% and 11.36 for dry cool, dry hot and
wet hot seasons, respectively). The prevalence of Theileria spp. infection
was high in the dry cool and the dry hot season (39% and 14.74,
respectively). While Babesia spp. infection was only recorded in the dry
cool season (6%). Prevalence of Schistosoma spp. infection was high in
the dry hot season (5.26%), while high prevalence of Fasciola spp.
infection and Coccidia spp. infection were (7% and 6%) both recorded in
117

the dry cool season. A positive correlation (`7;2=48.483, P<0.01) was


found between season and presence of blood parasite. In contrast
presence of internal parasites was not associated with season (`7; 2=
2.058, P<0.05). Tick infestation was found statistically significant (`7;2=
20.583, P<0.01) with respect to presence of blood parasites. However
application of Odds Ratio indicated that tick infestation could be a risk
factor (OR=3.586) for presence of blood parasites. Also the age was
found statistically significant (`7; 2= 6.211, P< 0.05) but did not reach a
level of risk factor. Packed cell volume (PCV) was found to be strongly
associated with both the presence of blood and internal parasites (`7;2=
9.679 and 6.573, respectively. Odds ratio revealed that the PCV can
reach the level of risk factor for both occurrences of blood and internal
parasites (OR= 1.717 and 3.582, respectively).
209. Mohamed AS., and Atta Elmanan AM (2003). The gastro-intestinal
parasites of some domestic animal species in Damazin District, Blue
Nile State, Sudan. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Research, 18:99-103.
Sixteen genera of nematodes, three of trematodes, two of cestodes and
six of protozoa were found to parasitize domestic animals in Damazin.
Strongyloides, Haemonchus and Eimeria spp. were highly prevalent in
cattle, sheep and, with exception of strongyloides spp., in goats, while in
equines, unidentified flagellated protozoa were most common, along
with strongylus species. The least occurrence of parasites was observed
in camels.
210. Mohamed Baha Eldin Ahmed (1986). Hydatidosis/Echinococcosis in
the Sudan with Emphasis on the Epidemiology Experimental
Transmission and Histopathology. Ph.D. , University of Khartoum.
Various epidemiological parameters of hydatidosis/echinococcosis in the
Sudan were investigated. High prevalence of hydatid cysts were found in
camels (43.9%) and less so in cattle (3.89%), sheep (12.9%) and goats
(4.4%) The role of sheep and goats in the cycle of the disease was
excluded as all the cysts encountered (except 2 fertile cysts found in
sheep) were calcified) or under calcification. The size and stage of the
cysts in camels and cattle were investigated; in both of them cysts as
large as 9.5 cm. were recovered. Fertility rate of cysts in camels and
cattle was 37.3% and 29.9%, respectively. The prevalence of the adult
parasite Echinococcus granulosus was investigated in Tambool area
(Central Eastern Sudan) where slaughtered camels showed high hydatid
cyst rate (45.4%). High rate of E. granulosus infection in dogs (51%)
coincided with high rate of cyst recovery from camels. Experimental
transmission of infection through feeding viable cysts from camels and
118

cattle to dogs and cats was attempted. The infection was established in
dogs with variable number of adult worms recovered at the end of the
experiment. Cats were refractory to experimental infection, hence their
role in maintaining the cycle of the parasite be excluded. The efficacy of
serological tests as means of detection of infection in camels was
investigated.
Both
indirect
haemagglutination
(IHA)
and
immunoelectrophoresis (IEP) showed very low detection of antibodies in
camel sera. Although IEP was relatively more specific than IHA, yet the
occurrence of false positives and false negatives diminished their
efficiency in diagnosing hydrated cysts infection in camels. However,
the high specificity rate reported for IEP (88%) could be of great use
when detecting relapse after surgery in humans. The reaction of animal
tissues against the hydatid cyst was in the form of cellular infiltration of
lymphocytes and plasma cells. Eosinophilia was not observed.
Hyalinization focal necrosis and calcification occurred in the connective
tissue capsule of old sterile cysts. The connective tissue was dense and
diffuse in fertile cysts. Oedema, atelactasis and emphysema were
observed in infected lungs. Atrophy of liver tissue around the capsule
and the hyperplasia of the bile ducts were also observed In the spleen,
extensive haemorrhages were seen in the trabeculi and in their inner
fibrous layer.
211. Mohamed E Hamid., Fadia Y Ali., and Adam D Abakar
(2000).Haematological and blood chemical changes in donkeys
naturally infected with Onchocerca cervicalis and Strongylus spp.,
Sudan Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Vol.
39: 111-115. Selected haematological and blood chemical parameters
were investigated in donkeys naturally infected with Onchocerca
cervcalis in Nyala area, western Sudan. The results were compared with
non-infected controls and with donkeys infected with gastrointestinal
nematodes notably Strongylus spp. And with donkeys harbouring both
infections. A significant drop in haemoglobin level (8.32.3) and in
Paced Cell Volume (PCV) (25.8 6.4) was noticed among donkeys
infected with Onchocerca spp. Infection, was noticed among donkeys
with the concurrent parasitic infection and among those with Strongylus
spp. Infections. Marked increase (p<0.001) in eosinophils count occurred
in donkeys with the three types of infections. A significant decrease in
total protein and glucose levels, (p<0.001) was noticed among
Onchocerca spp. Infection and Strongylus spp. infections, however the
effect induced by concurrent infection was profound.
119

212. Mohamed El Amir Sid Ahmed.(1995). Some Studies on Liver and


Gastrointestinal Parasites of Cattle in Atbara Northern State.
M.V.Sc. University of Khartoum.
Cattle were surveyed for detection of gastrointestinal and liver helminth
parasites in Atbara. Out of 500 faecal samples collected from the
slaughter house, 122 (24.4%) harboured helminth eggs belonging to 5
genera: Strongyle (18%), Fasciola gigantica (7.4%), Strongyloides
papillosus (0.2%), Schistosoma bovis (0.2%) and Trichuris ovis (0.2%)
The majority of the infections were single (22.8%) with few multiple
infections (1.6%). Percentage of infection among various breeds was in
this order: Baggara (87.1%), Kenana (42.9%), Gash (24.0%) and Butana
(17.1 %). There was no sex preference. These findings illustrated clearly
that helminth parasites of gastrointestinal tract are quite prevalent in this
area. The results also illustrated that out of 4322 bovine livers, 109
(2.5%) carried parasitic infections with the following incidence: 2.4%
Fasciola gigantica. 1.5% Schistosoma bovis, 0.1% Dicrocoelium hospes,
0.3% Cysticercus bovis and 0.05% hydatid cysts. It was found that
35.8% of the livers harboured one genus only, 56.9% had two genera and
7.3% had three genera. Such infections led to condemnation of livers
equivalent to 381.513 kilograms. A separate trial was made to examine
the development of T. hydatigena in cats. Out of 5 cats, infected with
cysticerci, only one (20%) showed two cestodes in its small intestine.
213. Mohamed Fadl Ahmed Fadl. (1988). Gastro-intestinal parasites of
the camel in Butana area of the central region of the Sudan. M.V.Sc.,
University of Khartoum.
This work was carried out in Butana area of the Central Region of the
Sudan, to study the prevalence of naturally occurring gastrointestinal
nematodes of the camel (Camelus dromedarius) and to investigate some
epidemiological aspects which might influence their prevalence. The
study involved examination of 429 female camels, originating from
Butana and Kassala areas. Faecal samples (for egg counts and cultures)
collection, body measurements (to estimate the approximate body
weights) and autopsies (for adult worms identification) were carried out.
The peak of egg counts reached its maximum value during the rainy
season coinciding with that of rainfall. Identification of the infective
larval stages indicated that Trichostrongylus spp. were the most
prevalent nematode parasites followed by Haemonchus spp. and
Impalaia spp. Oesophagostomum spp. and Strongyloides spp. were the
least prevalent nematode in the study areas. Nine genera of
gastrointestinal parasites were detected; these were Haemonchus
120

longistipes, Trichostrongylus probolurus, Trichostrongylus spp.,


Impalaia tuberculata, Cooperia pectinata, Strongyloides spp.,
Oesophagostomum columbianum, Trichuris globulosa, Moniezia spp.,
Eimeria cameli and other Eimeria spp. It is to be indicated that O.
columbianum and C. pectinata were reported for the first time in camels
in the Sudan. The study also showed the influence of the habitat (Butana
area and Kassala area) and the type of feeding (browsing or grazing) on
the degree of infestation with nematodes. The study, also, paved the way
for further investigations on the self-cure mechanism and inhibition of
development of parasitic fauna which might occur in camels. It has also
been found that there was a negative correlation between the body
weights and egg counts of infected camels from Butana area.
214. Mohamed Sadig Saleem (1993). Some Aspects of the Biology,
Epidemiology, Pathology and Diagnosis of Haemonchus longistipes
Infection in Camels and Goats. M.V.Sc. University of Khartoum.
In a one year autopsy survey, 57% of camels (Camelus dromedarius) of
mid-Eastern Sudan were found infected with Haemonchus longistipes.
The infection showed a biphasic profile during the year. Thus, adult
worms were many during the rainy season (July-September) and were
more abundant in August. For the rest of the year, the adult worm burden
was light during the warm and dry period (October-February) and was
virtually nil during the hot and dry period (March-May). The worm
exhibited arrested development of the fourth stage larvae in the abomasal
tissue. This histotropic phase followed an inverse pattern of abundance
to that of the adult stage as the larvae were found in large numbers
within the abomasal tissue during the dry period, reaching a maximum in
March and were few during the rainy season. H. longistipes infection
caused haemorrhagic abomasitis, excessive mucus production, erosion of
mucosa with hyperplasia of the inflammatory cells. Invariably,
extraneous sand was present in the abomasae of infected camels
especially during the rainy season. These lesions were reflected clinically
as anaemia and emaciation. The lesions were more pronounced during
the rainy season and associated largely with the presence of adult and
pre-adult worms. During the dry period, pathological changes were
milder and were grossly of a healing appearance but with intense
eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration associated with the histotropic
larvae. It was possible to establish H. longistipes infection in Nubian
goats. Parasitological findings indicate that Nubian goats are not
completely permissive to H. longistipes when judged by the proportion
of infective larvae that got established (2-15%), the prepatent period (48
121

DPI), fecundity (diminished and stunted) and adult worm recovery


(reduced). It seems reasonable, therefore, to conclude that permissive to
pre-adult stages of H. longistipes but they provide less hospitable
microenvironment for adult stages to flourish and reproduce. According
to lack of a tool to pinpoint especially of the parasite (Hypbiosed in
seasons, Ag ELISA was conducted to diagnose cameline haemonchosis
in the field with application in large scale epidemiological studies
provided that the antigen/antisera components of the are selected to be
more specific. Ag ELISA pointed out the occurrence of infection during
the period January - August when the adult worm burden was minimal.
The OD values started to decline from August, synchronously reduced
number of inhibited larval stages, after which the OD values started to
increase towards the end of the year. Moreover, Ag ELISA allowed an
easy survey of a large number of pastoral camels an exercise that would
have been rather tedious to undertake by the routine parasitological
technique.
215. Mohamed, I. M., Ahmed, G.A.; Siham E.Suliman.; Iman A.M. and
Abdalla, M.A.Endoparasites in Cattle in Gedarif State, Sudan. The
Sudan J. Vet. Res. (2013), 28: A survey of helminth parasites of cattle
was conducted in Gedarif State. The number of animals infected was 108
out of 160. Nematode parasites recovered were 28.7% from the total
infected parasites; trematodes, cestodes and protozoan parasites were
7.3%, 1.9% and 62.0%, respectively. Common parasites which were
found to infect, these animals were Oesphagestomum radiatum,
Chabertia ovina, Ascaris spp, Trichostraongylus spp and Eimeria spp.
An effective deworming schedule should be adopted to control parasitic
infections.
216. Mohammed OB, Hussein HS, Elowni EE. (1988). The ant,
Pachycondyla sennaarensis (Mayr) as an intermediate host for the
poultry cestode, Raillietina tetragona (Molin). Vet Res
Commun.;12(4-5):325-7.
The role of several species of ants as intermediate hosts for poultry
cestodes in the Sudan was investigated by a search for cysticercoids in
specimens from poultry houses in various localities in the country.
Pachycondyla sennaarensis, Messor galla and Acantholepis sp. were the
only species collected from the areas surveyed. All these ants were
examined for cysticercoids of poultry tapeworms but only P.
sennaarensis was found to carry cysticercoids, all of which were
identical to those of the poultry cestode, Raillietina tetragona. This
tapeworm was recovered from all chicks fed the cysticercoids obtained
122

from P. sennaarensis. R. tetragona cysticercoids were present in 63.3%


of the P. sennaarensis sampled with 1-40 cysticercoids per ant, which is
the heaviest recorded infestation of an ant species with these
cysticeroids.
217. Morghan M.M., and Saad A M. (1999). The prevalence and
pathology of Naturally Occurring Feline Gastrointestinal Helminths
in Khartoum State. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Science and
Animal Husbandry vol 38 (1&2): 56- 63.
Eighty stray cats of both sexes and different ages (6months -4 years)
were examined for the occurrence and prevalence of gastrointestinal
helminthes and associated pathological lesions in naturally occurring
were described.The results revealed that seven parasites were recovered.
They included cestodes, trematodes, nematodes and acanthocephalan.
The cestodes diagnosed were Joyeuxiella kofend, Diplopylidium
genettae, D. momoophroides and Diplydium caninum. Nematodes
identified were Physalopetra praeputialis and Toxocara cati. Alaria spp.
was the only trematode obtained where as Onicola canis was the
acanthocephalan recovered. Four types of infections were found in this
study, single, double, triple and tetra infections. The pathological lesions
were described in cats that harboured single parasite species i e single
infection. These parasites were Diplopylidium spp., Physalopetra spp.
and Toxocara spp. The macroscopic change of Diplopylidium and
Joyeuxiella spp, which inhabit the small intestine, were characterized by
mild catarrhal enteritis and mucus exudate. The microscopic lesions
included desquamation of mucous membrane, increase of goblet cell
number and mucinous degeneration of mucosal glands. The gross lesions
of Physalopetra infection, which inhabits the stomach, were manifested
by haemorrhage and erosion. The microscopic changes included
destruction of mucous membranes, disappearance of mucosal glands,
which were replaced by inflammatory cells.
218. Muna Mahmoud Mohamed Salih (1997). Parasitic and
Histopathological Studies on Some Inland Fish Species at Khashm el
Girba Reservoir. M.Sc. University of Khartoum.
The present study represented the first systematic approach to evaluate
the health status of some economically important fish species in Khash
El Girba reservoir. Five fresh water fish species: Oreochromis niloticus,
Labeo niloticus, Synodontis schall, Clarias lazera and Alestes baremose
were collected at selected sites at Khashm El Girba Reservoir, and
systematically studied during the various seasons of the year. The
objective was to monitor the health status of these fish species, and to
123

record the presence and effects of helminth parasites. The presumably


normal morphology of some vital organs including the gills, liver,
intestines and kidneys pertinent to these fish species were grossly and
histologically examined for comparison. However, some histological
variations between healthy species were reported in the liver tissues. The
histopathological investigations based on the assessment of the presence
and effects of adults and larval stages of helminth parasites in different
organs of the five fish species. The incidence rate of presence of
metacercarial cysts in organs such as hepatopancreas and kidneys was
taken as measurement to reflect the magnitude of ill effects caused by
some of digenian parasites on fish. Macro- and microscopic
examinations revealed two genera of digenetic trematode metacercariae
associated with O. niloticus. These were identified previously by Khalil
(1971) as Clinostomum tilapiae and Euclinostomum heterostomum.
None was recorded in other fish species. The periodical examination of
the selected fish species revealed presence of other helminth parasites.
Four nematode genera were reported in most of the species of fish. These
were adult Procamallnus spp., two types of larval Amplicaecum spp.,
Contracaecum spp. and Porrocaecum spp. (larvae). In addition, five
unidentified larval nematodes were also reported in different fish species.
Acanthocephalus parasites were found in only Labeo niloticus. Other
fish species were free from these parasites. The prevalence rate, density
of infection, morphometric of parasite, organ affected and pathogenicity
were studied in more detail with respect to seasonality. However, O.
niloticus and S. schall were found to be the most fish species exhibiting
parasitic infestation and histopathological changes. The least fish
affected was Alestes baremose.
219. Musa El Nur Beshir (1993). A Study on the Protective Activities of
the Enzyme Glutathione S-Transferase and the Glycoprotein
Keyhole Limpt Hemocyanin Against Schistosomiasis bovis in Calves
M.V.Sc. University of Khartoum.
Three experiments were conducted, in the first experiment the enzyme
Glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the glycoprotein Keyhole Limpet
Hemocyanin (KLH) were used as vaccines against bovine
schistosomiasis. In the first experiment, 20 Zebu calves were divided
into two equal groups, A and B. Group A calves were vaccinated with
0.195 mg GST/animal and boosted with the same dose two weeks later.
One week after the booster dose, the calves were reboosted with 1 mg
GST/calf. A week after the last dose, all animals in group A, the
experimental group, and in group B, the control group, were challenged
124

percutaneously with 15,000 Schistosoma bovis cercaria each. Sera and


faecal samples were collected at weekly intervals to study the antibody
titres and faecal egg counts up to the 11th week post challenge. All
animals were perfused for their worm count and tissue egg densities in
the liver, small and large intestines. In the second experiment 40 calves
were divided into for groups. Group A and B were vaccinated with GST,
group C with KLH while group D calves were kept as challenge control.
Group A calves were vaccinated with two doses of 0.24 mg GST/animal
at two weeks interval and a third dose of 0.96 mg GST/animal two
weeks later. Calves in group B were given only two doses of 0.24 mg
GST/animal at 15 weeks interval while group C calves were vaccinated
with two doses of I mg KLH/animal in one week interval. Then, all
animals in the four groups were challenged with 10,000 S. bovis
cercariae each. Sera and faecal samples were collected at weekly
intervals for antibody detection and faecal egg counts. Twelve weeks
post challenge all animals were perfused for worm recovery and tissue
egg densities. The antibody titres in the GST vaccinated groups in both
experiments remained significantly high a week after the first dose of
vaccination till the end of the experiments indicating the good antigenic
property of GST which induced a long duration of immunity. In the
KLH-vaccinated group, the antibody titre after reaching its peak 3 weeks
post challenge, suddenly declined to about the same level as that of the
challenge control group. This may be due to the short duration of the
existed shared epitopes on the developing schistosomula and these
epitopes were only recognized in the acute stage serum but not in the
chronic stage serum due to the insufficient antibodies to such epitopes in
the chronic stage serum. The results obtained from both experiments
showed that there were highly significant reductions in faecal egg
counts, egg per gram of faeces/worm in all the vaccinated calves
compared to the non-vaccinated controls. This indicates the antifecundity
effect of these antigens. The number of worms recovered from the
vaccinated and non-vaccinated calves was approximately the same in all
groups indicating that these vaccines have no killing effect on the
migrating schistosomula of adult worms. In the third experiment, adult
worm antigen and cercarial antigen were separated by SDS-PAGE,
electrotransferred onto nitrocellulose paper and immunoblotted with sera
from GST-vaccinated and non-vaccinated calves. Only sera from the
GST-vaccinated calves gave positive reaction with both antigens with
the band of 26 KDa.
125

220. Mustafa MB, Khalil LF, Bianco AE (1985). Adult worms of a


'Dipetalonema' sp. from the dermis of cattle in the Sudan. J
Helminthol. ;59(4):361-2.
No abstract.
221. Nadia Ahmed Ali Mohamed 2010. Experimental Hydatidosis In The
Sudan: Transmission And Natural Infection. Ph.D theses, U of K.
The work presented in this thesis addressed four main aspects of studies
dealing with experimental infections leading to the recovery of adult
Echinococcus granulosus worms in the intestines of infected puppies, invitro studies involving the nature and biology of isolated protoscolices
and intact cysts obtained from the lungs of infected camels and the
biological studies of hydatid cysts. Furthermore recorded incident of
hydatid cysts in the intermediate hosts were collected Oral experimental
infection of puppies with hydatid cysts obtained from infected camels
using isolated protoscolices, revealed adult Echinococcus granulosus.
The worms were recovered from the small intestines. Higher numbers of
worms were obtained in infections from lung hydatid cysts as compared
with lower numbers obtained from liver cysts. More worms were
collected from the upper parts of the intestines than the lower parts.
Experimental feeding of puppies with hydatid cysts obtained from
infected cattle, using isolated protoscolices, was not established. No
worms were found in the intestines of dogs. However, modification of
the infected procedure was used by feeding whole cysts obtained form
the lungs and the livers of infected cattle resulted in the establishment of
infection. Throughout the experimental work, the infection is established
by the detection of eggs of Echinococcus granulosus worms in the faeces
of the experimental puppies. Thus the Prepatent period, as evidenced by
the time of the first appearance of eggs in the faeces of experimental
puppies, ranged between 31-55 days. In- vitro studies were performed by
observing the viability of isolated protoscolices or intact cysts placed in
normal saline at room temperature and then in the fridge. At room
temperature, 40% of the protoscolices remained active and viable for 4
days. Complete death occurred after 6 days; while 70% of those cysts
placed in the fridge remained viable for 5 days and death occurred after 7
days. Death of all protoscolices occurred after 17 days, when intact
protoscolices inside hydatid cysts were placed in the fridge. These were
followed by in vivo studies, to examine the infectivity of storage viable
protoscolices experimentally in puppies, which yield a successful
transmission. Samples of hydatid cysts were collected from slaughtered
camels, cattle and sheep in different abattoirs of Khartoum State. No
126

cysts from goats were recovered. The size of cysts, volume of cystic
fluid and number of the protoscolices were recorded. Hydatid cysts from
camels measured each 9.5 cm. for the maximum length of diameter and
1.3 for the minimum. The total volume of fluid, which was aspirated
from the cyst, was 6 to 150 milliliters. Hydatid cysts from cattle were
0.5-10cm. The maximum volume of the fluid inside the cyst was 60
milliliters. The size of the hydatid cyst obtained from sheep ranged
between 0.9 cm. to 3.0 cm. but the fluid was mostly too little to be
measured. The biological status of the cysts was evaluated visually and
microscopically as fertile, sterile, caseated, or calcified. Out of 149 cysts
from camels, 96.4% were found to be fertile. As for cattle, out of 26
hydatid cysts examined only 23.1% were fertile. In case of sheep,
hydatid cysts 91.7% were sterile. Official records obtained showed the
presence of hydatid cysts in slaughtered camels, cattle, sheep and goats
in Khartoum state during the period 1995-2008. The highest infection
with the cysts occurred in camels followed by cattle and the lowest was
found in sheep; however, goats showed no infection. Information sources
regarding human hydatidosis showed, sixteen cases of patients, as
intermediate hosts, were infected in Khartoum state during the period
2000- 2009. The maximum size of the diameter of the cyst was 12 cm.
and the minimum size was 2 cm. The ages of the patients involved,
ranged between 6 and 55 years old.
222. Nadia Ahmed Ali Mohamed. (1995). Helminth parasites of chickens
in the Sudan, with special reference to Raillietina tetragona
infections. M.V.Sc, theses., U. of K.
This study was carried out to identify the species of helminths found in
local and foreign breeds of chickens, their prevalence and intensity in
relation to chicken breeds and their geographic distribution in different
localities in the Sudan. The survey was followed by experimental
infection of Raillietina tetragona cysticercoids in chickens of different
age-groups. Seven species of cestodes were found in the viscera of the
local and foreign breeds of chickens in the five localities. These were
Raillietina tetragona, R. echinobothrida, R. cesticillus, Cotugnia
digonopora, Choanotaenia infundibulum, Amoebotaenia sphenoides and
Hymenolepis carioca. Five species of nematodes were recovered,
namely, Gongylonema ingluvicola, Acuaria spiralis, Tetrameres
americana, Ascaridia galli and Subulura brumpti. No trematodes were
found in the viscera examined. Out of 425 viscera, 379 (89.18%)
harboured one or more species of helminth parasites. The prevalence of
helminth infection at the five localities was 103 (71.03%) in Khartoum,
127

60 (100%) in El Gedaref, 81 (100%) in Medani, 105 (100%) in Nyala


and 30 (88.24%) in El Obeid. One or more species of cestode parasites
were found in 320 (75.29%) viscera in the five areas. Of these,
67(47.21%) were in Khartoum, 59 (98.3%) in El Gedaref, 73 (90.1%) in
Medani, 96 (91.4%) in Nyala and 25 (73.53%) in El Obeid. However,
one or more species of nematode parasites were also found in 323(76%)
viscera. Of these viscera 71 (49%) were in Khartoum, 58 (96.7%) in El
Gedaref, 72 (88.8%) in Wad Medani, 97 (92.4%) in Nyala and 25 (73.5
%) in EI Obeid. From the total viscera examined in the five localities,
infections with two species were the superlative (75.86%) while
infection with six species was the minimum one (3.45%). Subulura
brumpti and Choanotaenia infundibulum represented the highest
prevalence of infections in the total viscera examined (66.35% and
50.82%, respectively). Gongylonema ingluvicola and Acuaria spiralis
were only confined to local breeds of chickens (33.88% and 3.53%,
respectively). The prevalence of Ascaridia galli was higher in foreign
breeds of chickens than in the local breed. An experimental study was
made on the infectivity of 100 cysticercoidi of R. tetragona in chickens
of different age groups together with the pathogenic effect of this worm
on the infected chickens. The prepatent period of R. tetragona ranged
between 9 and 20 days with a mean of 14.13 days. The mean infectivity
of R. tetragona larvae (cysticercoids) in Bovan chickens among the total
age groups examined was 27.22 days. It was 35.45 days in the chickens
infected in 24 days old, 34.8 in 35 days old, 24 in 57 days old and 12.4 in
113 15 days old. It was 33 in 58 days old local chickens. The average
rate of growth of R. tetragona was low in the youngest group of infected
chickens then it seemed to cope with the infectivity of cysticercoids in
the same age group. R. tetragona was distributed all along the length of
the intestine in the older age groups of the experimentally infected
chickens than in the younger age groups. The haematological findings
observed were a decrease in haemoglobin values, low packed cell
volume, reduced red blood cell counts, increase in neutrophil, eosinophil
and basophils. A preliminary study was tried to preserve of viable R.
tetragona cysticercoids in the laboratory. It was found that at 4 - 10oC
the cysticercoids, in the suspected ants, can keep their 100% viability for
48 hours when preserved in normal saline and in chickens plasma. In
other solutions at 4 - 10oC and 0oC the viability of both bare
cysticercoids and suspected ants decreased.
223. Najat Abdalla Mohamed Ahmed Sowar (2009). Investigation of
Parasites of Working Donkeys. M.V.Sc. University of Khartoum.
128

This study was conducted in Khartoum State on apparently healthy


donkeys used as draft animals. It involved one hundred donkeys. Thirty
five blood and feacal samples were taken from Omderman,35 from
Khartoum North and 30 from Khartoum , the samples of faecal material
were examined for worms load and faecal cultures were studied. Blood
samples were taken for parasitic examination and were injected into mice
as laboratory animals to find out the possibility of the presence of blood
parasites. The results of fecal culture showed the existence of different
kinds and degrees of infection with nematodes in Omdurman, Khartoum
North and Khartoum. The Nematodes rates were found to be 65.5%,
60.8% and 56.6% in each locality respectively. Nematodes involved
were Srongylus spp and Trichonema spp, worm eggs were found in great
numbers. The blood samples did not disclose any blood parasites. When
the samples were Injected into the mice and examined for a month no
blood parasites were detected. Donkeys examined for parasite worms
showed heavy parasite burden but with no blood parasites. When
examined for ticks the donkeys were found clean of ticks. The reason
could be that the donkeys owners injected their animals with Ivermectin
regularly.
224. Nurelhuda IE, Elowni EE, Hassan T (1989). Anticestodal action of
oxfendazole on Raillietina tetragona in experimentally infected
chickens. Br Vet J.; 145(5):458-61. Oxfendazole was tested against
Raillietina tetragona in experimentally infected chickens using single
oral doses of 20, 10, 7.5, 5, and 2.5 mg/kg body weight. The minimal
dose of the drug which produced 100% efficacy against immature worms
was 10 mg/kg whereas the same effect on the mature parasite was
obtained with 7.5 mg/kg. Doses lower than these significantly reduce
worm burdens. The compound appears to be safe for chickens and a dose
of 20 mg/kg (twice the recommended dose) produced no untoward
clinical reactions.
225. Nurelhuda IE, Elowni EE, Hassan T. (1989). Anthelmintic activity of
praziquantel on Raillietina tetragona in chickens. Parasitol
Res.;75(8):655-6.
Praziquantel was tested against mature (17-day-old) and immature (7day-old) Raillietina tetragona in experimentally infected chickens using
single oral doses of 10, 7.5, 5, or 2.5 mg/kg body wt. The compound
showed potent anticestodal activity, with 100% efficacy at 10, 7.5, and 5
mg/kg against immature worms and an efficacy of 100% 97.1%, and
95% against mature worms when given at 10, 5, and 2.5 mg/kg,
respectively. Residual worms surviving drug treatment had less biomass
129

than the controls. Praziquantel appears to be well tolerated by chickens,


and treated birds showed no clinical reactions at any of the doses tested.
226. Ohood Abd El Salam Salim (2002). Parasites of Chicken in Kassala
Town. M.Sc University of Khartoum.
During this study an extensive parasitological survey was caried out to
identify the species of parasites found in local and foreign breeds of
chicken from Kassala town and their distribution in two different
environments Alsawagy and the Backyard rearing system. The following
endoparasites were identified: Blood smears revealed the presence of
Plasmodium galliinaceum (5%) in Hisex only. Nine species of Eimeria
spp. were observed in the faecal samples: E. tenella (36.2%); E. praecox
(11.6%); E. maxima (3.7); E. acervulina (13.6%); E. necatrix (4.1); E.
mitis (12.6%); E. mivati (4.9%); E. brunetti (4.7%); E. hagani (8.8%).
Histological section of brain revealed no protozoan (Toxoplasma)
infection. Nine species of helminth were found in the gut of the local and
foreign breeds of chickens. Of these seven were cestodes namely:
Raillietina tetragona (35.2%); Cotugnia digonopora (20.2%);
Hymenolepis carioca (18.8%); Choanotaenia infundibulum (13.2%);
Raillietina echinobothrida (10.0%); R. cesticillus (4.4%); Cotugnia spp
(1.3%). Only two species of nematodes were recovered, namely:
Ascaridia galli (75.9) and Subulura brumpti (27.4%). No trematodes
were found in the examined viscera. 434 viscera and 135 faecal samples
were examined from local and foreign type of chicken, 324 (56.9%)
were found to harbour one or more species of parasites. The overall
prevalence rate of parasitic infection in Elsawagi was 165(56.3%) and in
Backyard rearing system was 164 (57.3%), the difference was
statistically non significant (p> 0.05). One or more species of cestodes
parasites were found in 193(59.6%) of fowls, this was distributed as
such: 65(20.1 %) of local breeds and 128(39.5%) of foreign breeds.
Similarly one or two species of nematode parasites were found in 184
(56.8%) with a distribution of 29(9%) in local and 155(47.8%) in foreign
breeds. One or more species of protozoa namely: Coccidia spp.
64(19.7%), 5(20%) Plasmodium gallin were found. One or more species
of external parasites namely: Argus persicus and Menopon gallinae.
were also found. This study is the first documentation of parasites of
foreign breeds of fowls in Kassala town. All previous studies were done
on local breeds.
227. Omer RA, Daugschies A, Romig T. Cystic echinococcosis in Sudan
and South Sudan: research history of a neglected zoonosis. Berl
Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2011 Nov-Dec;124(11-12):521-7.
130

Cystic echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease affecting mainly various


species of livestock and humans. This study aims at highlighting the
course of research on cystic echinococcosis in different animals and
humans in Sudan (including the recently independent state of South
Sudan) since the disease was first reported in 1908. Recent data about
the genetic identification of the parasite in the countries in both humans
and animals and its importance for future control programs is discussed.
228. Omer RA, Dinkel A, Romig T, Mackenstedt U, Elnahas AA,
Aradaib IE, Ahmed ME, Elmalik KH, Adam A.A molecular survey
of cystic echinococcosis in Sudan. Vet Parasitol. 2010 May 11;169(34):340-6.
A survey of cystic echinococcosis in livestock was conducted from May
2001 to July 2003 in central, western and southern Sudan. Hydatid cysts
were present in 59% (466/779) of camels, 6% (299/4893) of cattle, 11%
(1180/10,422) of sheep and 2% (106/5565) of goats, with little variation
among different geographical areas. 532 of these cysts were examined by
PCR and could be overwhelmingly (98.7%) allocated to Echinococcus
canadensis G6/7 (all of 215 cysts from camels, 112 of 114 cysts from
cattle, 134 of 138 cysts from sheep, and all of 65 cysts from goats); the
genotype G6 was identified by sequencing 13 of these isolates. Only 2
cysts from cattle belonged to Echinococcus ortleppi. The mean number
of cysts per infected animal was much higher in camels (5.1) than in the
other species (1.0-1.3), and cyst fertility was higher in camels and cattle
(74% and 77%) than in goats and sheep (31% and 19%). Fertile cysts
from five human patients from hospitals in Khartoum and Juba belonged
to E. canadensis (G6). This study confirms the predominance of the
'camel strain' in Sudan and the infectivity of this strain for humans. This
is the first genetic characterization of human CE in Sudan.
229. Osama Badri Mohamed (1987). Studies on The potential
Intermediate Hosts of Chicken Cestodes in the Sudan. M.V.Sc.
University of Khartoum.
This work was undertaken to determine the identity of the intermediate
hosts responsible for the transmission of poultry tapeworms in the
Sudan. Various localities in the Sudan that included Khartoum, Elgezira,
Kordofan, Kassala and Red Sea provinces were surveyed. Several
species of ants, beetles, earthworms and flies were collected during.
Only ants and beetles were found positive for larval tapeworm
infections. Three species of ants (Messor galla, Acantholepis spp. and
Pachycondyla sennaarensis) were examined and only P. sennaarensis
was found positive to the infection. A total number of 694 ants belonging
131

to the species P. sennaarensis were examined out of which 439 (63.3%)


were found to harbour mature cysticercoids. These cysticercoids were
identified as those belonging to the poultry tapeworm Raillietina
tetragona. This report is considered to be the first record for this ant as an
intermediate host for the tapeworm R. tetragona. Three species of beetles
(Alphitobius diaperinus, Mesostena angustata and Tribolium castaneum)
were dealt with. Only A. diaperinus was found positive to cysticercoid
infection. Cysticercoids obtained from the beetle A. diaperinus were
shown to belong to the tapeworms Choanotaenia infundibulum and
Hymenolepis spp. Cysticercoids belonging to different species of
tapeworms recovered from the beetle A. diaperinus were found to vary
according to the locality surveyed. Cysticercoids of C. infundibulum and
Hymenolepis were obtained from Khartoum and Port Sudan,
respectively. A total number of 1702 beetles (A. diaperinus) were
examined out of which 162 (9.5%) were found to harbour tapeworm
cysticercoids. Cysticercoids of the poultry tapeworm R. tetragona
obtained from P, sennaarensis ants were found infective for susceptible
chicks. Infectivity of these cysticercoids ranged from 27.27 to 45.8%
depending on the procedure by which they were administered. R.
tetragona cysticercoids were found to be affected by temperature. High
temperature (29C and 37C) accelerated the evagination process of the
cysticercoid while low temperature (4C) was found to have a lethal
effect on the infective cysticercoids. Mature R. tetragona tapeworms
were obtained (from experimentally infected chicks) 10 days post infection. Prepatent period of R. tetragon was found to range from 13.5
to 18.5 days. Morphological characters of the tapeworm R. tetragona
studied during this work agreed with the previous description of other
authors except for variations in the length of the worm and the number of
eggs/ egg capsule in the gravid segment.
230. Osama Hassan Omer (1988). Immunity to Schistosoma bovis in vivo
and in vitro Investigations. M.V.Sc. University of Khartoum.
In the course of this study 4 experiments were carried out, 2 in vivo and
another 2 in vitro. In the first experiment normal, 4th, 8th and 12th week
post infection immune sera from Schistosoma bovis experimentally
infected donors were injected intraperitoneally into 4 groups of calves
which had been exposed 4 weeks earlier to 20000 S. bovis cercariae
percutaneously. The results showed that there was a reduction in faecal
and tissue egg counts and numbers of worms recovered in calves injected
with immune sera. The potency of sera used in a descending order was
12th, 8th and 4th. Since the reductions in faecal and tissue egg counts
132

were much higher than those of worm recovery in group D, and to a


lesser extent in group C, one can conclude that the 12th and 8th week
post infection immune sera caused suppression of worm fecundity. The
results of this experiment provided a further evidence for the role of
antibodies in suppression of worm fecundity. In the 2nd experiment two
groups of calves were injected with either adult worm antigen (AWA) or
whole egg antigen (WEA) emulsified in Freund's adjuvant. These two
groups together with another non-immunized group were challenged
percutaneously 28 weeks after the first immunization with 20000
cercariae. The results obtained showed that there was a marked increase
in numbers of worms recovered from the vaccinated animals. The results
also showed significant differences between the crude antigen vaccinated
calves and the controls in terms of their faecal egg excretion/worm pair
and tissue egg density/worm pair. However, better results were obtained
with AWA than WEA. In the 3rd experiment skin transformed S. bovis
schistosomula were subjected to killing by complement or complementmediated antibody. Two dilutions were used 1:1 and 1:3. The results
obtained showed that newly transformed schistosomula of S. bovis could
be killed in vitro when incubated with fresh normal or fresh immune
serum for 18 hours. Dilution of antibody or complement resulted in
decrease in percentage killing. Killing with antibody plus complement
was much higher than that obtained from complement alone. In the last
experiment the capacity of bovine leukocytes partially enriched in
neutrophils to damage skin transformed schistosomula coated with
antibody and/or complement has been studied. Schistosomular killing is
only achieved with leukocytes and fresh immune serum or fresh normal
serum. In the presence of heat-inactivated immune serum no killing was
observed.
231. Osman, A.Y. Ibtisam, A.G; G.S. Gasmir; E.I., ELsayed; K.A., El
Sinary and M.Z., Sulumian. (1990). Levafas against some gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in the Sudan. Sudan Journal of
Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Vol. 29(2):1-10.
Eight naturally parasitized were used to study the anthelmintic efficacy
of Levafas against acquired gastro- intestinal nematodes of sheep in the
Sudan. Four sheep were given Levafas at a dosage level of 7.5mg/Kg
body weight. The remaining four served as the untreated control. There
is 100% reduction in the numbers of eggs and worm encountered in the
treated group 96 hours post- treatment. The drug did not seem to have
any effect on either Moniezia expansa or coccidial occysts. No harmful
effects were noticed in treated sheep. It is conculudd that Levafas at a
133

dose rate of 7.5mg/Kg body weight is highly effective against acquired


gastro- intestinal nematode of sheep under Sudan condition.
232. Osman, Mukhtar Osman (2002). Sero-epidemiological Studies on
Camel Hydatidosis. M.V.Sc, theses., U. of K.
The present study was designed to study the epidemiology of hydatid
disease in camels in the area of Tambool, Butalla Province, Sudan. Also
to evaluate the potentiality of some immunological techniques in the
diagnosis of echinococcosis in both the intermediate and definitive host.
The survey of camel hydatidosis was conducted through meal inspection
of slaughtered camels at Tambool slaughterhouse. Results of the survey
revealed that 70 camels (56.5%) out of 124 examined were found
positive for hydatidosis, of these infected 39 (55.7%) were in the lungs,
I5(21.4%) in the liver, 14 (20%) with liver and lung infections ,and 2
(2.8%) in the spleen. The prevalence of hydatid disease was higher
among aged camels, 74% of camels above 10 years were found infected.
The fertility rates of cysts from different organs was 45% for cysts from
the lungs, 20% for cysts from the liver and the only two cyst encountered
in the spleen were found sterile. The sensitivity and specificity of the
indirect haemagglutination test was tested by application of the test on
112 camel sera confirmed positive or negative at post mortem). The
hydatid cyst fluid was used as a source of antigen and two methods were
used in the preparation of the hydatid cyst fluid antigen, the crude
antigen and the purified atntigen. Approximately 82.8% (58/70) and 80%
(56/70) sensitivity rates were obtained when the crude and purified
antigen were used. In relation to the location of the cyst in the body the
IHA test sensitivity was 74.3% for camels with Iung infections, while for
those with liver infections the sensitivity was 80%. The use of purified
antigen reduced the false positive results from 10 (23.8%) to 2 (4.8%)
and completely eliminated the cross reactions with other parasitic
infections. The coproantigen ELISA for the detection of adult worm
antigen in the feces of dogs was used for the first time in the Sudan in
this study. The sensitivity of coproantigen ELISA was found to be 100%
when compared with the necropsy results of 18 dogs samples. In
addition, no cross-reactions were observed when 4 dog infected with
Taenia hydatigena were tested using coproantigen E LISA. From the 44
fecal samples collected directly from domestic dogs 21were found
positive of E.granulosus with coproantigen detection. The overall
prevalence of E.granulosus in dogs at Tambool area was 56.8%(29/62).
When 230 human sera samples from Tambool area were tested for
E.granulosus antibodies using the IHA and ELISA tests, no positive case
134

was observed. The high prevalence rate of hydatidosis in camels reported


in this study and the high fertility rate of cysts from camels indicate that
the camel is all important host in the cycle of the disease. AIso the high
prevalence reported in dogs is an indication of hazard to human in this
area. The results suggested that the use of hydatidosis with the IHA test
and corproantigen ELISA in the diagnosis of canine echinococcosis
could be used successfully in epidemiological surveys of echinococcosis
in Sudan.
233. Osman, Mukhtar Osman (2011)., Studies on the Epidemiology,
Immunology and chemotherapy of Fasciola gigantica in the White
Nile State, Sudan. Ph.D theses.,The Sudan Academy of Sciences,
Sudan.
The present study was designed to study the epidemiology of Fasciola
gigantica in cattle in the area of Rabak, White Nile State, Sudan, and to
evaluate the potentiality of some immunological techniques in the
diagnosis of fasciolosis in cattle. Moreover, it was aimed to study the
efficacy of Triclabendazol and Oxyclozanide in the treatment of
naturally infected cattle with F. gigantica. For these purposes, a cross
sectional survey was conducted during the period from January to
December 2008, during which a total of 661 cattle from slaughterhouse,
696 at livestock farms and household and 822 cattle at Rabak veterinary
hospital were examined. The samples were subjected to fecal sample
examination using sedimentation method. The result revealed that 41%
(271/661) of the slaughtered animals, 31.6% (220/696) at livestock farms
and household cattle and 30.9% (254/822) at veterinary hospital were
infected with F. gigantica. Overall infection rate was 34.2% (745/2179).
According to the season, the overall highest incidence of the year in
cattle was recorded during winter (36.1%), and summer (34%), while the
lowest (31.8%) prevalence was recorded during autumn. The occurrence
of fasciolosis was more frequently recorded in adult cattle (37.7%) than
in younger cattle less than 2 years old (16.8%). It was also noticed that
prevalence was higher in cattle at slaughterhouse (41%) followed by
livestock farms and household cattle (31.6%), while the lowest
prevalence was recorded in veterinary hospital cattle (30.9%). The
second aim of the study was to validate an indirect and sandwich ELISA
tests based on two different antigens for the detection of antibodies
against F. gigantica infection in cattle. For this purpose, a total of 224
cattle were examined at post mortem, one hundred and thirty of these
cattle were found infected with F. gigantica and 94 were negative. For
the validation assay, the positive reference sera consisted of these 130
135

positive samples at PM and the negative reference sera were the 94


negative samples. The first indirect ELISA was based on saposine like
protein recombinant antigen (SAP). The results indicated that 111out of
130 reference positive were positive with the saposine like protein
antigen (SAP) giving a sensitivity of 85% (111/130), while the number
of negative samples at postmortem that react negative in the ELISA test
were 81 with a specificity of 86%. The second ELISA was based on
excecretory and secretory antigen. The results indicated that 104out of
130 reference positive were positive with the excecretory and secretory
antigen giving a sensitivity of 80%, while the number of negative
samples at postmortem that react negative in the ELISA test were 50
with a specificity of 53%. The sandwich ELISA was based on
coproantigen detection using two monoclonal antibodies, biotinylated
and non-biotinylated. One hundred and nineteen fecal samples from the
130 cattle positive for F. gigantica at postmortem, had coproantigens
detected by the capture ELISA, indicating a sensitivity of 91%
(119/130). The specificity of the coproantigen ELISA assay was 86%
(81/94). The third aim of the study was to test the efficacy of
Triclabendazol and Oxyclozanide in the treatment of naturally infected
cattle with F. gigantica. For this purpose, a total of 9 calves naturally
infected with F. gigantica aged between one to two years old were
purchased from Rabak market. The infection was confirmed by
sedimentation test. The animals were divided into three groups, three
animals each, group one was treated with Triclabendazol at dose rate of
12 mg/kg, and group two treated with Oxyclozanide at dose rate of 12
mg/kg and the third group was left untreated as a control group. Samples
were taken from animals at weekly interval, including blood and serum
samples in addition to fecal samples. The samples were subjected to
heamatological and biochemical tests. The animals were slaughtered 8
weeks after treatment and the efficacy of the drugs was assessed
according to worm burden reduction. The reduction of worm in the
Triclabendazol treated group was 100%, while in the Oxyclozanide
treated group was 80%. It was concluded that, the prevalence of
Fasciolosis in White Nile State was high and the animal owners
underestimated the importance of the disease. It was observed that a
higher prevalence of fasciolosis occurred during winter, followed by
summer, while it was lowest during autumn. The statistical comparison
between rFgSAP, FgES, and MAb ELISA results revealed that the best
sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values were
achieved with the Coproantigen MAb ELISA. With regard to drug
136

efficacy, it was concluded that Triclabendazole at a dose rate of l2 mg/


kg proved to be highly effective against F. gigantica and the efficacy of
the Oxyclozanide was 80%, indicated that the parasite began to develop
some sort of resistance to the drug. Because both tests, the coproantigen
detection and the FgrSAP2-ELISA, demonstrate current fasciolosis, it
was suggested their application in epidemiological surveys focused to
establish the prevalence of this economically important parasitic
infection. The results of this study also suggested that control of
fasciolosis in cattle in riverbank villages of White Nile could be achieved
with a single dose of Triclabendazole given when cattle are moved to the
riverbank in September, as this drug is effective against immature and
mature flukes, or in September and again in November if treatment is
only effective against adult stages.
234. Osman, O. M and Ibtisam A. Goraish. (2011). Evaluation of a
Recombinant Saposin like Fasciola gigantica Protein in a Diagnostic
Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay. The Sudan Journal of
Veterinary Research. 26: 1-6.
The Saposin -like recombinant protein from Fasciola gigantica was used
as antigen in ELISA for the detection of F. gigantica antibodies in
naturally infected cattle in the Sudan. When compared with the results of
Excecretory Secretory (ES) antigens and Sedimentation tests, the SAP-2
antigen gave a sensitivity of 85% (111/130) by the ELISA test, and
specificity of 86%. Using the ES antigen, the sensitivity was 80%
(104/130) and the specificity was 53% (50/94). On the other hand, the
sensitivity and specificity of the Sedimentation test was 75% and 100%,
respectively. The FgrSAP-2 proved to be more suitable and useful tool
for the diagnosis of fasciolosis than the FgES and Sedimentation tests.
235. Osman, O. M. and Abdalla, H. S (2013). Prevalence of Echinococcus
granulosus in Stray Dogs and Hydatidosis in Camels In Tambool
Area, Gazira State, Sudan. The Sudan J. Vet. Res. 28: 27-31.
An epidemiological survey of Echinococcus granulosus was conducted
in Tambool area, east Gezira State, Sudan, through meat inspection of
slaughtered camels at slaughterhouse and examination of stray dogs
facces. Results of the survey revealed that 70 camels (56.5%) out of 124
examined were found positive. 29 out of 62 (46.8%) faecal samples
collected directly from the dogs were found positive to E. granulosus
when coproantigen ELISA was used. The high prevalence rate of
hydatidosis in camels reported in this study and the high fertility rate of
cysts from camels indicate that the camel is an important host in the
137

cycle of the disease. Also the high prevalence reported in dogs is an


indication of hazard to human in this area.
236. Osman, O.M., H.S. Abdalla., A.M. Elhussein and A.M. Majid (2007).
The use of indirect Haemaglutination (IHA) Test in serodiagnosis of
camel hydatidosis, Sudan Journal of Veterinary Sciences and
Animal Husbandary, Vol 46 (1&2) 19-27.
The indirect haemaglutination test (IHAT) was evaluated for the
diagnosis of hydatid disease in camels, The results of (IHA) test was
compared to that of postmortem examination in slaughtered camels, the
sensitivity of the test was found to be 82.8% and 80% when crude and
partially purified hydatid cyst fluid were used as antigens. Sensitivity
was found to be 80%, 74.4% and 50% in sera from animals with liver,
lungs and spleen cysts respectively. There was no effect of fertility and
sterility of cysts on the test.
237. Osman,O.M and Ibtisam A.Goraish (2013). The efficacy of
Triclabendazole, and Oxyclozanide against natural Fasciola
gigantica infection in cattle. The Sudan J. Vet. Res, 28: 56-62.
Triclabendazol and Oxyclozanide were tested for the treatment of
naturally infected cattle with F.gigantica, a total of 9 calves naturally
infected with F.gigantica aged between two to three years old were used
in this experiment. The animals were divided into three groups, three
animals each, group one was treated with Triclabendazol at dose rate of
12 mg/kg, and group two treated with Oxyclozanide at dose rate of 12
mg/kg, and the third group was left untreated as a control group.
Haemoglobin concentration and PCV were measured, and fecal samples
were collected foregg count per gram of feces at weekly interval. The
animals were slaughtered 8 weeks after treatment and the efficacy of the
drugs was assessed according to worm burden reduction. The reduction
of worm in the Triclabendazol treated group was 100%, while in the
Oxyclozanide treated group was 80%.
238. Rihab Ali Omer Abdalla Hamid (2006). Epidemiological and
Biomolecular Studies on Echinococcus granulosus in Sudan, Ph.D,
University of Khartoum.
This study represents an epidemiological and biomolecular study about
Echinococcus spp. and hydatid disease in definitive and intermediate
hosts including humans in Sudan. In this study, a survey of cystic
echinococcosis was conducted during the period from May 2001 to July
2003 in different parts of the Sudan. The prevalence rates in camels,
cattle, sheep and goats examined in different states of the Sudan was
found to be 59.8% (466/779), 6.1% (299/4893), 11.3% (1180/10422) and
138

1.9% (106/5565) respectively. The encountered number of cysts was


2387 in camels, 333 in cattle, 1514 in sheep and 108 in goats. Fertility
rates were found to be 73.7%, 77%, 19% and 31.5% in camel, cattle,
sheep and goat respectively. The favorite site for cysts in camels was the
lung (1627/2387). The liver was found to be the preferred site in cattle
(206/333) whereas the peritoneum was the predilection site in sheep
(1242/1514) and goats (53/108). Strain characterization of the E.
granulosus complex in human and livestock population was described
for the first time by using polymerase chain reaction amplification and
sequencing technology. Even though we were able to detect E. ortleppi
and sheep strain (G1) in some samples, camel strain (G6) appears to be
the predominant strain causing cystic echinococcosis in humans and
animals in Sudan. 533 of a total of 542 of all isolates were characterized
as belonging to this strain. In this study, the sheep strain of E.granulosus
was reported for the first time in Sudan in two samples of human origin
and five samples of sheep origin. Secondly, 42 dogs shot as a part of the
rabies control program in Tamboul and Rofa, central Sudan, were
autopsied and their intestinal contents were examined for the presence of
Echinococcus worms. Faecal samples were taken for coprodiagnosis.
Worm burden in positive dogs was determined using dilution method
and the harvested worms were characterized using G5/6/7 and G1 PCRs.
From the 42 euthanized dogs, 12 (28.5) were harboring E.granulosus
worms The worm burden was 22-80*103 in the positive dogs. All the
DNA samples extracted from the worm suspension were characterized as
camel (G6) strain of E.granulosus. 83.3% (10/12) of the DNA extracted
from the faecal samples collected from the 12 dogs which were found to
be positive at necropsy were also found positive with copro PCR and the
strain was characterized as camel (G6) strain of E.granulosus. Two
samples were considered inconclusive as there was no signal in the
inhibition test. 93.3% (28/30) copro DNA samples from the 30 samples
collected from the dogs which were reported negative at necropsy were
also negative using copro-diagnostic PCR. The other two samples were
positive and characterized as sheep (G1) strain of E.granulosus. This
copro PCR method was used for the first time in such a survey.
Disregarding the inhibited samples, the overall sensitivity of the test was
found to be 100%. For the purpose of this study, hydatid cysts were
obtained from the lungs of naturally infected camels (Camelus
dromedarius) in Tamboul slaughterhouse in central Sudan. Viable
protoscolices were collected from these cysts and used for experimental
infection of dogs at different doses. Ten dogs were divided into two
139

groups (A and B) of five dogs each. Dogs in group A received a dose of


4=620;103 protoscolices each whereas dogs in group B received a dose
of 8=620;103.protoscolices each. Fecal samples were examined for
patent infection during the study period. Dogs were necropsied at 45 dpi
(group A) and 54 dpi (group B). No eggs were detected in fecal samples
from group A throughout the experimental period (45 days). However,
eggs were first demonstrated in faeces 52 dpi in group B. The
experimental animals in both groups did not show any adverse clinical
signs during the experimental study. Echinococcus granulosus worms
were recovered from both groups at the time of necropsy. Molecular
characterization of the adult worms was made possible using the
polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based detection assay. The worms
were identified as G6 (camel) strain of E. granulosus. It was found that
the prepatency period in dogs after experimental infection with
protoscolices of camel origin is longer than the reported for other strains
of E.granulosus. These are the first data on prepatency periods of the
camel strain G6 in dogs confirmed by molecular characterization.
239. Rogia Osman Elhassan. Experimental Haemonchus contotus
infection in Three Sudanese Sheep Breeds. M.V.Sc., University of
Khartoum.
This study was designed to provide information on the breed differences
of Sudanese sheep in resistance to Haemonchus contortus infection.
Forty five lambs of Hamari, Watish and Garag breeds were used for this
study; 15 Iambs of each breed. Lambs were 4 to 5 months old. They
were kept for an adaptation period of one month and were fed with
sorghum stalks and concentrated feeds. During this period, they were
given two doses of antihilmintics, antibiotics, and anticoccidial drugs to
assure their freedom from any infection. Each breed was divided into
three groups of 5 lambs each. One group was dosed with 1000 third
larval stage (L3) of H. contortus, the second was inoculated with 15000
L3 and the third was left as uninfected , control. Then the animals were
monitored twice a week for different parameters (egg counts, PCV, 11b,
RBCs, WBCs count, differential WBCs, total protein, albumin, globulin,
liveweight gain). The infected lambs were slaughtered twelve weeks
after infection to assess the numbers of adults and of the inhibited worms
in the abomasi. The results revealed that infected animals showed
decreased of haematological values and liveweights gain than the control
animals. The prepatent period of H. contortu. infection was 16 days.
Animals dosed with 1000 LJshowed subclinical forms of haemonchosis
as they remained with good appetite and nonnal conjuctival and oral
140

mucous membranes in the three different breeds. On the other hand,


Hamari and Watish lambs dosed with 15000 LJ became inappetant,
unthri fly, and had paler mucous membranes at 21 days post infection
followed by diarrhoea and bottle jaw. Three lambs of Hamari and one
lamb of Watish died. However, the Garag breed showed subclinical fonn
of haemonchosis with absence of diarrhea and bottle jaw. Lambs
infected with 1000 LJ showed slight decrease than control Iambs in Hb
concentration, PCV values, BCs count, total serum proteins albumin,
globulin and liveweight gain. No significant statistical differences were
encountered between different breeds in the mentioned parameters, egg
counts and worn1S recovery. However, Iambs infected with 15000 L3
ibited more pronounced alteration in haematological and parasitological
ameter than those infected with 1000 LJ. Those variations were
supported the significant statistical differences between breeds in egg
counts, worm overy, Hb concentration, PCV values, RBCs count, total
serum proteins, umin and globulin values. Other parameters,
(eosinophils, lymphocytes, trophils percentage and liveweight gains)
didn't show significant statistical differences. The findings indicated
clear differences between the three Sudanese sheep breeds in response to
high dose (15000 L3) of H. con tort us infection. Those were
demonstrated by the Hamari Iambs being the least resistance to infection,
Watish has an intermediate resistance whereas Garag Iambs were highly
resistant.
240. Saad A M., M.F. Hussein, J.D. Dargie, M.G. Taylor. (1984). The
pathogenesis of experimental Schistosoma bovis infections in
Sudanese sheep and goats. J. Comp. Path. 94: 371-385.
The pathogenic effects of experimental Schistosoma bovis infection in
Sudanese sheep and goats were investigated by a variety of clinical,
parasitological, physiological and histopathological techniques;
uninfected animals of each species were used as controls. Infected
animals of both species lost or failed to gain weight and developed
haemorrhagic
diarrhoea,
inappetence,
marked
anaemia,
hypoalbuminaemia, hyperglobulinaemia, hyperproteinaemia and
eosinophilia. These changes first became noticeable around the time of
onset of oviposition and their severity was generally related to faecal egg
counts. Red cell breakdown and albumin catabolism were much higher
in infected than in control animals of the same species, and it was
concluded that these changes were due to haemorrhage resulting from
the extrusion of large numbers of eggs through the intestinal mucosa.
Although all the animals were infected with the same number of
141

cercariae, both the number of worms reaching maturity and the tissue
egg counts tended to be higher in sheep than in goats. On the other hand,
goats had significantly higher faecal egg counts than sheep and it is
suggested that this was the reason for the generally more severe disease
in the former species.
241. Saad A. M., and M. F. Hussein (1984). Observations on the
infectivity and fecundity of a Sudanese isolate of Schistosoma bovis
in albino mice. J. of Helminthol, 58(3) 267-270.
A Sudanese isolate of Schistosoma bovis from experimentally infected
sheep was found to be highly pathogenic to albino mice. Eggs were first
found in the livers 42 days after exposure. The distribution of eggs in the
liver and small and large intestines changed little during the course of
infection. Results arc compared with others using an Iranian isolate of S.
bovis, which causes only a mild infection, and S. mattheci.
242. Saad A.M., M.F. Hussein, H.O. Bushara, J.D. Dargie, M.G. Taylor
(1984) . Erythrokinetics and albumin metabolism in primary
experimental Schistosoma bovis infections in Zebu calves. J. Comp.
Path 94: 249-262.
Red cell kinetics and albumin metabolism were studied in calves
infected with either 100 or 200 Schistosoma bovis cercariae per kg body
weight, by the use of 59Fe-labelled transferrin, 51Cr-labelled
erythrocytes and 125I-labelled albumin; a third group of worm-free
animals acted as controls. The anaemia which developed in the infected
calves was shown to be due basically to an accelerated rate of red cell
loss from the circulation, and became evident around the seventh week
of infection, increased in severity during the following two months, and
subsequently subsided. In view of its close similarity to the pattern of
faecal egg excretion, it was concluded that haemorrhage into the
intestine caused by the exit of eggs was the principal aetiological factor:
haemolysis was excluded by the absence of both splenomegaly and
hyperferraemia. Erythropoiesis was also accelerated in infected animals,
but could not keep pace with the rate of red cell breakdown to which the
animals were concurrently subjected. Haemodilution was involved, but
not to a significant extent. The hypoalbuminaemia associated with
infection was caused by an increased rate of albumin catabolism, and a
plasma volume expansion, and was accompanied by marked depletion of
all albumin pools, but particularly the extravascular pool. The pattern of
albumin catabolism closely followed that of red cell loss, suggesting that
passage of plasma as whole blood into the intestine was the basic cause
of hypoalbuminaemia. Red cell losses and albumin hypercatabolism
142

243.

244.

245.

246.

247.

were more severe in the more heavily infected group, and although both
subsided as egg counts fell, they remained evident even 1 year after
infection. This may partly explain the failure of infected animals to
regain the weight lost during earlier stages of disease.
Saad AM, Hussein MF (1984). Observations on the infectivity and
fecundity of a Sudanese isolate of Schistosoma bovis in albino mice.
J. Helminthol. 58(3):267-70.
A Sudanese isolate of Schistosoma bovis from experimentally infected
sheep was found to be highly pathogenic to albino mice. Eggs were first
found in the livers 42 days after exposure. The distribution of eggs in the
liver and small and large intestines changed little during the course of
infection. Results are compared with others using an Iranian isolate of S.
bovis, which causes only a mild infection, and S. mattheei.
Saad AM; Abdel Majid, BY; and Aradaib, IE (1996). Immunization
of calves with adult worm antigens of Schistosoma bovis. Sudan
Journal of Veterinary Research, 14: 73-77.
No abstract.
Saad MB (1983). A note on the presence of Echinococcus granulosus
in 3 dogs in Tabool area. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Research Vol
4:
No abstract.
Saad MB, Hassan AK (1989). Indirect haemagglutination (IHA) and
immunoelectrophoresis in the diagnosis of hydatidosis in Sudanese
camels. Rev Elev Med Vet Pays Trop.;42(1):41-4.
The efficiency of indirect haemagglutination (IHA) and
immunoelectrophoresis (IEP) as means of detection of cystic hydatid
infection in camels was investigated. Both IHA and IEP showed very
low detection rates of antibody in camel sera. The IEP showed 84 p. 100
specificity and 36 p. 100 sensitivity while the IHA showed 69 p. 100
specificity and 43 p. 100 sensitivity. These results are discussed.
Saad MB, Magzoub M (1986). Echinococcus granulosus infection in
dogs in Tambool, Sudan. J Helminthol. ;60(4):299-300.
In the Tambool area (Central eastern Sudan) a survey was made of the
infection rate of Echinococcus granulosus in dogs. From the total of 49
dogs shot by the police authority, 25 (51%) had E. granulosus in their
intestines. The range of worm recovery was 7 to 28,400. These high
infection and recovery rates could be explained by the rate of infection in
the intermediate host (camel) slaughtered in the area.

143

248. Saad MB, Magzoub M, (1988). Experimental transmission of


hydatid infection from camels and cattle to dogs. Ann Trop Med
Parasitol.; 82(4):363-5.
Experimental transmission of hydatid infection was attempted by feeding
viable cysts from camels and cattle to dogs. The infection was
established in dogs with variable numbers of adult worms being
recovered at the end of the experiment. Cats were entirely refractory to
experimental infections.
249. Saad MB, Zien Eldin EA, Tag El Din MH (1983). Some observations
on the prevalence and pathology of hydatidosis in Sudanese camels
(Camelus dromedarius). Rev Elev Med Vet Pays Trop.; 36(4):35963.
Hydatid cyst were revealed (45.4%) of 141 camels slaughtered
atTampool in the North Eastern part of the Sudan. The cysts were found
in the lung, liver and spleen. The number and size of the cyst varied in
different organs. The gross and histological aspects of the disease in
camels were found to be generally similar to those described for other
animals with some variations reported.
250. Saad MB., Aisha A El Sadig and Ali M Shammat (1989).
Hydatidosis in camels in El Obeid (Kordofan Region). Sudan
Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Vol. 28 (2):
46.
Fourty two camels (67.74%) out of 62 were found infected with hydatid
cysts. Of these infected, 83% were in the lungs, 12% in the livers, 4% in
the spleen, and 1% in the kidney.
251. Saad MB., Aisha A El Sadig., and Ali M Shammat (1989). Helminth
parasites of the local breed of poultry in (Kordofan Region). Sudan
Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Vol. 28 (2):
54.
The short communication reported on the presence of Raillietina
tetragona, Subulura brumpti, Tetrameres americana, Gongylonema
ingulvicola, and Acuaria spiralis in the local breed of poultry in
(Kordofan Region).
252. Saad MB., and Abdalla HS (1996). Check list of the parasite of
wildlife in Sudan during the period (1975-1990). Sudan Journal of
Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry vol. 35 (1&2): 130- 133.
The data shown by authors was collected from the records of helminthes
of wild animals in Sudan during this period.

144

253. Saad, M. B., & Magzoub, M. (1989). Hydatidosis in Sheep and Goats
in the Sudan. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal
Husbandry.28 (1):33-37.
Examination of 1576 sheep and 159 goats for the presence of hydatid
cysts in slaughterhouse in different regions of the Sudan, revealed an
overall infection rate of 12.9% and 4.4% in sheep and goats respectively,
size, number and stage of cysts encountered were also shown.
254. Saad, M. B., & Magzoub, M. (1989). Hydatidosis in Camels and
Cattle in the Sudan. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Science and
Animal Husbandry.28(1): 27-32.
Out of 1169 cattle and 191 camels examined, 45(3.84%) and
93(48.69%) respectively wer found to harbor hydatid cysts. Fertility rate
of cysts were found to be high in camels (42.4%) and exceptionally high
in catle (29%). The lung was found to be a favourite site for cysts in
camels. The liver was found to be a preferable site for cysts in cattle. The
important role of camels and cattle in the cycle of the parasite is
elucidate.
255. Saad, M. B., Zein El Abdin, E. A. (1983). The survival rate of
protoscolices from hydatid fluid kept at constant temperatures.
Sudan Journal of Veterinary Research. 4: 157.
In this study protoscoleces collected from camel hydatid cyst were tested
for survival in differnent tempratures and time intervals, 83.45% of
protoscolices were alive after 5 days/storage at 4c. At 50c only 18%of
the protoscolices survived after 4h storage.
256. Saad, MB (1983). Hydatidosis in camels in Gedarif (Eastern Region).
Sudan Journal of Veterinary Research Vol 4:156.
No abstract available.
257. Saadia Ahmed Younis (1984). Studies on Resistance to Fascicla
gigantica in Cattle. Ph.D. University of Khartoum.
A review of literature on the immunology of fascioliasis was followed by
a series of experiments' described to study various methods of
stimulating resistance against the disease, with main emphasis on
stimulation by irradiated larvae. A single dose of 3 krad or 20 krads
gamma-irradiated Fasciola gigantica metacercariae was used to sensitize
calves against homologues challenge. In both cases resistance was
reflected in considerable decrease in the number of established worms
from the challenge infection and in marked reduction in the size of
individual worms as compared with a control group. However,
protection was more marked in the group sensitized with 20 krads
irradiated cysts of F. gigantica. Mean values of serum enzymes Sorbitol
145

dehydrogenate (SDH), Glutamate dehydrogenate (GDR) and gamma glut


amyl transferees (-GT) showed lower peaks in the sensitized group
compared witch the c astral group. These enzymes are known to be good
indicators of hepatic damage. High eosinphil counts were recorded
during the early weeks of the sensitizing infection as well as decline
immediately after challenge indicating strong antigenic stimulation.
Increase in serum globulin concentration started late during the
sensitization period but persisted until the time of challenge. On the
other hand calves sensitized with irradiated F. gigantica cysts for only 4
weeks instead of 8 were not protected against homolagous chal1ange.
Calves primarily infected with F. gigantic and S. bovis for a period of 8
weeks showed some resistance to subsequent challenge with F. gigantic
a. This was shown by reduced worm burden of the challenge infection. It
was also observed that schistosomes of the primary infection similarly
affected as at the end of an 18 weeks period no eggs were detected and
the worms were still residing in the liver sinusoids. Results of another
experiment involving heterogonous resistance showed that calves
sensitized with irradiated S. bovis for a period of 9 months could not
resist a sub- sequent challenge with F. gigantica. This was indicated by
worm recovery and liver pathology. The protective effect of immune
bovine serum on calves which were challenged with F. gigantic at the
time of transfer was also investigated. There was a reduction of 30% in
the number of flukes recovered from calves which received immune
serum compared with the controls which received normal serum. The
last part of the study was a comparison between the protective effect of
irradiated and non-irradiated cysts of F. gigantic a as reflected by results
of a challenge infection with the homologous species. It was concluded
that highly irradiated cysts of F. gigantica are more immunogenic than
normal cysts. The thesis ends with a general discussion for all the results
and suggestions for future investigations were outlined.
258. Salah M Kheir and Kheir HSM, (1981). Gastrointestinal nematodes
of equines in Southern Darfur region of the Sudan. Sudan Journal of
Veterinary Research Vol. 3:53-57 .
In a field survey rectal faecal samples from horses and donkeys in Nyala
town and in the nomadic areas of Darfur region, were examined for the
presense of helminth eggs. Five nematode species were encountered in
donkeys and horses: Strongylus sp. Oxyuris sp. Strongyloides sp.
Parascaris sp., and Trichuris sp. The incidence of infection with one
species (74.9%) was found higher than that of two species (19.8%) or
three species (4.8%). The overall incidence of infetio with nematode
146

parasites was found higher in town animals (58%) than in animals kept
in nomadic areas (22%).
259. Salma Ali Ragab (1990). Susceptibility of Bulinus truncatus Snails
and Mice to Various Concentrations of Balanites aegyptiaca and
Trigonella foenum graecum Saponins. M.V.Sc. University of
Khartoum.
The experiments described in this thesis were carried out to study some
biological aspects of Bulinus truncatus snails and to evaluate the
molluscicidal activity of the saponins extracted from the fruit of
Balanites aegyptiaca (Higlig tree) and from the seeds of Trigonella
foenum graecum (Hilba) against these snails. The toxic effects on mice
of B. aegyptiaca fruit and saponins were examined. The results showed
that the hatchability rate increased following a rise in temperature (3033C) and that the snails fed on lettuce grew faster and reached maturity
earlier than those fed on Vicia faba. Infection of B. truncatus with
miracidia of Schistosoma bovis resulted in a decrease in the growth rate
of snails maintained on lettuce or V. faba. Water change had no effect on
the egg-laying capacity of B. truncatus. The prepatent period of B.
truncatus and B. umblicatus to emerge infective S. bovis cercariae was
prolonged when temperature was low (25.5-28C) and it was shortened
when the temperature was high (30-33C). Aqueous concentrations of B.
aegyptiaca and T. foenum graecum saponins at 500, 250, 50, 25, 15 and
5 ppm were used for testing the molluscicidal activity against B.
truncatus snails obtained from the White and Blue Nile regions and
allotted to three age groups. LD100 was recorded 18 hours after
exposure to B. aegyptiaca saponin and 108 hours post-exposure to T.
foenum graecus saponin at 500 and 250 ppm. Mortality was high (80%)
when aqueous solutions of B. aegyptiaca saponins were used at 50 ppm
and was low (10-45%) when aqueous solutions of T. foenum graecum
saponin were used at 25 and 50 ppm. Neither B. aegyptiaca nor T.
foenum graecum saponin at 15 and 5 ppm had lethal effects on B.
truncatus snails. Eggs of S. bovis did not hatch when aqueous
concentrations of B. aegyptiaca saponin at 10,000 ppm were used. All
aqueous concentrations of B. aegyptiaca saponin which were toxic to
snails were found to induce lethal effects on miracidia and cerceriae of S.
bovis within 2-110 minutes of exposure. The mortality rates and
pathological changes in albino mice fed with various levels of dietary B.
aegyptiaca fruit or given saponins by oral or intraperitoneal routes were
studied. Lesions in mice consuming 20% B. aegyptiaca were more
severe than in those fed 5 or 1% B. aegyptiaca. The lesions comprised
147

fatty change and/or necrosis of the centrilobular hepatocytes and of the


cells of the renal convoluted tubules, catarrhal enteritis, splenic
haemosiderosis, infiltration of lymphocytes between the cardiac muscle
fibres and congestion of the blood vessels or the heart. In mice given B.
aegyptiaca saponins in drinking water at 500, 250 and 50 ppm for 5
consecutive days every month for two months or in those receiving B.
aegyptiaca saponins at 240 and 120 mg/kg/day by the intraperitoneal
route, the abortifacient effect and lesions were similar to those observed
in animals fed with B. aegyptiaca fruit. The significance of the results
was discussed.
260. Sara Ali Ibrahim (2010). Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Nematodes
in Donkeys in North Kordofan State. M. V. Sc., University of
Khartoum.
This work was undertaken to study and identify prevalence of different
gastrointestinal parasites affecting donkeys in North Kordofan State. The
number of animals examined was composed of 1005 donkeys of
different age groups, different breeds (Darawi, local breed; Refawi,
introduced breed). Samples were collected from four different localities
in the State (Bara; Sheikan; Um Rwaba and Abuzabad) during the period
from August 2006 to July 2007. A total of 1005 feacal samples, for egg
counting and faecal cultures, were collected from 6 areas in the four
localities. In addition, 15 donkeys were euthanized at Elobied veterinary
Hospital for worm collection and identification. Faecal examination
revealed a high prevalence rates of 74 % strongyles infection, 0.2 %
Parascaris equorum, 0.1 % tape worms and 1% Eimeria spp. Beside
those, the larvae of Gastrophyilus spp. were also detected in 1 %. Based
on faecal cultures, Strongylus vulgaris and larvae of sub family
Cyathostominae were the predominant at 85.5 %prevalence rate while
Strongylus edentatus was detected at a rate of 1% throughout the study
period. The study revealed no significant variation in monthly and
seasonal prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites. However, a distinct
monthly and seasonal variation in egg counts was evident reading, peak
during the rainy season coinciding with the maximum rainfall and
relative humidity. Moreover, significantly high egg counts occurred in
Darawi (local breed) compared to Refawi (introduced breed) and females
in relation to males. No significant differences were found regarding egg
counts to locality and age. The examination of gastrointestinal tracts
revealed presence of thirteen species of nematode parasites (of these 9
are new records in Sudan) and two species of the bot flies. The detected
parasites were: Strongylus vulgaris, Strongylus edentatus, (Cylicocyclus
148

gyalocephaloides; Cylicocyclus asini; Cylicocyclus triramosus;


Cylicocyclus adersi; Cyathostomum alveatum; Cyathostomum
montgomeryi;
Cyathostomum
catinatum;
Coronocyclus
spp;
Cylicostephanus asymetricus) new records, Parascaris equorum, Setaria
equina and the larvae of Gastrophilus nasalis and Gastrophyilus
intestinalis.
261. Sawsan Hassan Taha (1995). Efficacy of Mebendazole and
Moxidectin against experimental haemonchosis. M. V. Sc.,
University of Khartoum.
The present investigations of the efficacy of mebendazole and
moxidectin against experimental Haemonchus contortus in Desert lambs
were carried out. The development of the signs and lesions in the tissues
and organs of lambs orally infected with 3000 of 3rd-stage larvae of H.
contortus was studied. Dullness, soft faeces and mild anaemia were the
main features of experimental haemonchosis in lambs. The major lesions
were abomasitis and erosions on the abomasal mucosa, catarrhal
duodenitis with severe infiltration of the Lamina propria with
lymphocytes, hepatic fatty change, degeneration of the cells of renal
convoluted tubules. Lesions were well correlated with serobiochemical,
haematological and parasitological findings. The anthelmintic activity of
mebendazole and moxidectin was investigated in experimental
haemonchosis in lambs which were each infected with a single dose of
3000 of 3rd-stage H. contortus larvae. Both moxidectin in single doses of
0.2 and 1 mg/kg and mebendazole in single oral dose of 15 mg/kg were
100% effective against H. contortus infection without outward features
of drug toxicity. Successful therapy was associated with complete
absence of adult H. contortus worms in the abomasum at necropsy and
disappearance of abomasal and duodenal lesions and H. contortus eggs
in the faeces. These findings were accompanied by increases in Hb, PCV
and RBC values, lack of AST release in serum and return of serum total
protein and albumin concentration to normal.
262. Sayda Ahmed Omer Mohamed (2012). Prevalence of Fascioliasis of
cattle, goats and sheep in three localities of South Darfur State,
Sudan. M.Sc. University of Khartoum.
This study was carried out in three localities (Eldiain, Bahr Alarab and
Abu Gabra) of South Darfur State during the period June August
(2011), to determine the prevalence rate of Fascioliasis distribution in
cattle, sheep and goats liver in slaughter houses. Abattoir of the above
localities were surved, it covered 1,589 carcases of cattle, 4,372 of goats
and 306 of sheep slaughtered in the abatoir of the three localitites so as
149

to determine the presence of Fasciola gigantica and to determine the


consequent pathological liver changes due to the disease. The infection
rates were 5.66% in cattle and 0.57% in goats. No infection was
observed in sheep. The infection caused observable pathological changes
in liver such as colour changes, enlargement, fibrous tissue formation in
certain cases, decrease in liver size and wrinkling in liver surface. Livers
with chronic infection were incised and there were extensive fibrosis and
thickening in gall bladder passages which made them protrude obove the
liver surface. This study indicated that the level of infection in the
animals in general and in cattle in particular varies from each locality to
another and cattle suffer most. The highest infection rate of the disease
was in cattle in Abu Gabra loacality and was 14.3%. The study showed
that Fasciolosis is endemic in the eastern part of South Darfur state.
263. Sayid ASA., and Mohamed BA, (1998). Prevalence and treatment of
Toxocaris leonine in naturally infected carnivores in old Khartoum
zoo. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Research, 15: 31-38.
Toxocaris leonine eggs (mean length 83 micron; mean width 75 micron)
were detected in the faeces of nine (32.1%) out of twenty eight
carnivores (Families: Felidae, Canidae, and Viverridae) kept at
Khartoum zoo during 1991-1992. Infected animals showed signs of
diarrhea alternated with constipation, rough coat and sometimes focal or
generalized alopecia. Adult worms (male mean length 7 cm, female
mean length 10 cm) were detected in the faeces of infected animals,
while the larval stages (mean length 8.3 mm.) were detected in the water
troughs in the cages where infected animals were kept. Treatment
programmes were adopted using Thiabendazole, Piperazine
dihydrochloride and Ivermectin and proved to be successful. Cleaning
and disinfection of infected cages and the use of direct flaming of the
cages was found essential for preventing reinfection with this parasite.
264. Seri H. I. , T. Hassan , M. M. Salih and A.D. Abakar (2004). A
Survey of Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Donkeys (Equus asinus) in
Khartoum State, Sudan. Journal of Animal and Veterinary
Advances. Vol 3 (11): 736-739.
In a field survey 1200 donkeys from Khartoum State during a complete
year (one hundred animals per month) were examined parasitically for
the presence of helminthes parasites by assessment of faecal eggs and
culture identification of larvae. Generally 70.1% of the examined
animals harbored a parasitical infection. Six nematode genera were
encountered in donkeys, among them Dictyocaulus arnfieldi (70.5%)
reported for the first time in Sudanese donkeys. Strongylus sp. (35.8%),
150

265.

266.

267.

268.

Cyathosyomes (36.7%), Parascaris equorum (10.7%), Trichostrongylus


axei (12%), and Strongyloide westeri (3.4%). The incidence of infection
with one species (53.2%) was found higher than that of mixed infection
(46.7%). According to severity of infection, 58.6% of the infected
animals showed mild infection, while 21.9% and 19.5% of them showed
moderate and severe infection, respectively. In the current study, cold
season encouraged higher incidence of gastrointestinal nematodes
(72.5%), more so than hot (69.3%) and rainy seasons (68.5%). Other
results obtained, showed that hot season revealed higher mean EPG
count (1198.7? 558.3) ranging from 100 to 17700, followed by the rainy
season with mean epg (961.21 & 120.3) ranging from 100-13500, and
cold season with mean epg (888.6? 297.5) ranging from 100 13300.
Sheiba H. A. Babiker, 1977. A note on bovine cysticercosis in the
Sudan, Proceedings of the 8th veterinary conference, Sudan, p 68-82.
No abstract available.
Sheiba H.A.
Babiker, El.S.A. Zein Eldin. (1987). Preliminary
observations on vaccination against bovine cysticercosis in the
Sudan, Veterinary Parasitology, 24, (3&4):297300.
Four Zebu calves, 11.5 years old, were vaccinated subcutaneously with
hatched ova of Taenia saginata. The immunity elicited protected the
animals from subsequent oral infection with this cestode as manifested
by the early degeneration of the metacestodes and failure to attain
maturity in three of four animals. Three viable cysts were found in the
fourth calf compared to more than 300 specimens in non-vaccinated
controls.
Shommein AM., and Osman AM. (1987). Diseases of camels in the
Sudan. Rev. sci. tech. Off. int. Epiz., 6 (2), 481-486.
The most important diseases reported in the Sudan are trypanosomiasis
and helminthoses. Sarcoptic mange and tick infestation also occur. Since
there has been relatively little research on diseases other than
trypanosomiasis, the creation of a camel research institute is proposed.
Siddig AM., and El Hussein AM (1998). Gastro-intestinal helminth
of the camel (camelus dromedarius) in Eddamer Province, Nahr El
Neel State, Sudan. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Research, 15: 39-42.
Forty-one gastrointestinal tracts of camels were searched at Atbara
slaughterhouse for presence of helminth parasites. Faecal samples taken
antemortem from 33 individuals of these animals were also examined.
The results showed that 85.4% of the camels examined harboured five
helminth parasites of these, 80% were found infected with Moniezia
expansa, 45.7% with Haemonchus longistipes, 25.7% with Strongyloides
151

papillosus, 20% with Avitellina spp and 8.6% with Stiliezia spp. The
results revealed that 34.3% harboured a single infection, 51.4% double
infection and 14.3% triple infection. Faecal examination results showed
the occurrence of helminth ova in 12 cases (36.5%).
269. Sijoud Fadl Elmoula Ahmed Alhassan (2013). Prevalence of
Intestinal Cestodes in Camels (Camelus dromedarius) at Tumbool
Slaughterhouse. MVSc, Sudan Academy for Sciences. This study was
conducted during December 2008 to November 2009 to determine the
prevalence, classification and identification of small intestinal cestodes
in camels in Butana area, Central Sudan. Intestinal content samples (215)
were taken immediately after camel slaughtered at slaughter house.
Measurements were taken (length and width of worms) from collected
adult worm, examined macro and microscopically for the identifications.
The results revealed that 69.3% of the total investigated camels were
infected with the intestinal cestodes. The infection percentage of camels
located in Butana, Kassala, Saied and western Sudan were 70%, 73.7%,
70% and 64% respectively. Among the worm burden of 1180 small
intestinal cestodes, seven species were detected; M.expansa, M. benedi,
Avitellina spp, Stilesia spp Thysansona actinoide, thyzanesia girdi and
Mesocestoides. spp. The study observed that the mean worm burden per
animal in Butana, Kassala, Saied and western Sudan were 6-7, 9-10, 15
and 7 respectively. Moreover, the results indicated that, the infection
percentage among the age group ranged from 11-15 years was 68.8%
with worm burden mean of 11per head. While, among the age group
ranged from 6-10 years recorded 70.8% with the worm burden mean of 6
per head. The age group ranged from 1-5 years recorded the lowest
percentage of infection 67.8% with the worm burden of 8 per head.
Infection of camels during all seasons does not record any statistically
differences. However, samples collected during winter recorded
comparatively high infection with worm in the small intestine 81% with
the worm burden mean of 7 per head, followed by autumn 69.6% with
worm burden mean of 1-9 per head, while in summer recorded low
infection percentage 61% with worm burden mean of 7-8 per head. The
results indicated that the infection rate of animals by one species of the
cestodes 63.3% was more than that infected by two 29.5% or three 7.3%
species. To my knowledge, this is the first survey that detected the
prevalence of Mesocestoides. spp, Thysansona actinoide and thyzanesia
girdi in the small intestine of camels in Butana area, Central Sudan.

152

270. Sirag B Sirag (1983). Pathology of Schistosomiasis and Fasciolaisis


in domestic animals: A review. Sudan Journal of Veterinary
Research, Vol 4:129-131.
No abstract.
271. Slepnev NK., Eisa AM., and Saad MB, (1976). Prepatent period of
Echinococcus granulosus in dogs in Sudan. Journal of Veterinary
Science and Animal Husbandry, Vol 17(1):12-15.
The development of E. granulosus to the adult stage in experimentally
infected puppies in Sudan takes from 46-52 days. The clinical
manifestations are directly correlated with the number of worms that are
able to establish themselves and develop to maturity in the alimentary
tract of the infected dogs. For effective control of Echinococcosis the
authors recommended that deworming of dogs should be berformed
regularly once every 45 days.
272. Somia Abbas Khidir Abbas (2009). Helminth and Blood Parasites of
the Local Breeds of Chickens in Khartoum State Sudan. M. Sc.
University of Khartoum.
This study was conducted in the local breeds of poultry in the three
towns of Khartoum State (Myou market) in Khartoum, (Omdurman
market) in Omdurman and (Elhag yousif market) in Bahrey were served.
The main objective of this study to undergo a survey on helminthes and
blood parasites of local breeds of poultry in Khartoum State. A total of
samples were a hundred and one of viscera of chickens were examined
for helminthes parasites. Sixty blood smears Giemsa stained were
examined for blood parasites. Results revealed two species of cestodes
infected the local breed of chicken in Khartoum State these are
Choanotaenia infundbulum and Railitina tetragona. Choanotaenia
infundbulum had a high prevalence (66.1) in Myou market in Khartoum
locality followed by Omdurman market in Omdurman (63.3%) and
(Elhag yousif market) in Bahrey (52.3%). The total mean prevalence of
Choanotaenia infundbulum was 59.4%. Raillietina tetragona was
recorded in high prevalence in Myou market in Khartoum (14%)
followed by Omdurman (6.7%) and Elhag yousif market in Bahrey
(4.5%). The total mean prevalence of R. tetragona was (7.9%) in
Khartoum State. Cestode worms recorded in a high prevalence in Myou
market in Khartoum (81.4%), followed by Omdurman market in
Omdurman (70%) and Elhag yousif market in Babrey (56.8%). The total
mean prevalence of cestodes was (67.3%) in Khartoum State table 2 Fig
1. The results revealed two species of nematodes infected local breeds of
chicken in Khartoum State were Ascaridia galli was only found in (Elhag
153

yousif market) in Bahrey (4%). The total mean prevalence of A. galli


was (20%).Subulura brumpti was recorded in high prevalence in (Myou
market) in Khartoum (59%) followed by Elhag yousif market in Bahrey
(43.2%) and Omdurman market in Omdurman (20%). The total mean
prevalence of S. brumpti was (40.6%).Nematode worms was recorded in
high prevalence in Myou market (59%) in Khartoum, followed by Elhag
yousif market in Bahrey (47%) and Omdurman market in Omdurman
(20%). The total mean prevalence of nematodes was (42.6%) table 3 Fig
2. The results revealed that there was mixed infection (two species of
helminth worms) in the viscera of the local breeds of chicken in
Khartoum State were Railietina tetragona with Choanotenia
infundibulum recorded in low prevalence in Elhag yousif market in
Bahrey locality (2.3%). R. tetragona with C. infundibulum was not
recorded in other study area. Subulura brumpti with Choanotenia
infundibulum recorded in high prevalence in Myou market in Khartoum
locality (33.3%) followed by Elhagyousif market in Bahrey locality
(22.7%) and Omdurman market in Omdurman (13.3 %).Subulura
brumpti with Raillietina tetragon were recorded (3.7%) prevalent rate in
Myou market in Khartoum locality, (2.3%) in Elhag yousif market in
Babrey locality and (3.3%) in Omdurman market in Omdurman locality.
However, the highest prevalence of mixed infection was (22.77%) of
Subulura brumpti with Choanotaenia infundibulum in Khartoum State.
Plasmodium spp reported in high prevalence in Omdurman market in
Omdurman (35%). While in Bahrey and Khartoum both registered
(20%). The total mean prevalence of plasmodium spp was (25%) in
Khartoum State .
273. Suhair Sayed Mohamed (2013). Prevalence, Health and Economical
Impacts of Liver Diseases in Slaughtered Cattle and Sheep during
2009 at Alkadroo Abattoir, Sudan. Journal of Applied and
Industrial Sciences, 2013, 1(3): 6-11.
This is a retrospective study aimed to investigate the different
pathological conditions reported in livers of slaughtered cattle and sheep
leading to their total condemnation at abattoir (A.A.), North Khartoum.
From the available records, data of four years period (2009-2012) were
obtained and Most of the slaughtered cattle were brought from Ethiopia
and sheep from Elgadarief state in east Sudan. Both cattle and sheep
suffered
from
fascioliaisis(FA),liver
cirrhosis(LC)
,liver
abscess(LA),calcification(LCa),hydated cyst(HC) ,fatty change (FG) and
ictrus(IC). The prevalence of FA, LC, LA, LCa, HC,FG and IC in cattle
was 91%, 1.76%,2.80%,2.26%,1.05%,0.03% and 0.40 %respectively
154

,while in sheep it was 0.19%,3.39%, 77.75%,11.38%,3.45% 0.83% and


3.07% respectively.The incidence of FA and LC were significantly
higher in cattle compared to sheep and that of LA and LCa ,FG and IC
were significantly higher in sheep compared to cattle . In cattle, FA
prevalence was mostly higher during winter compared to summer and
autumn. It is concluded that records from sare very important monitors
for animals prevailing diseases and their control plan. Liver is one of the
important organs found to be affected by different pathogens which are
of much concern to human, public health authorities and economists.
274. Suliman MZ, HAG S.M. Kheir and EL Khawad S. EL Badawi.
(1987). The Effect of temperature and pH- value on growth,
hatching and mortality rate of Lymnea natalensis under laboratory
conditions. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 35, 150-153.
The temperatures between 24-27 oC are the most suitable for survival of
several species of snails (Lymnea natalensis and Biopharlaria pfeifferi).
It was found that the temperature was very harmful to some species of
snails at 10oC and at 35 oC and higher. The rate of increase in size was
highly decreased when the temperature was low and slightly decreased
when it was high. This observation revealed that the temperature has an
obvious effect on growth of the young snails. Hatchability of snails was
0% at 10oC and 35.5 0C and was very high (99.9%) at 24-27 oC. It was
observed that the pH-values of high acidity and high alkalinity are
harmful to snail eggs and may delay or prevent healing. It was seen that
the temperature and pH value have a great effect on growth, hatching
and mortality of Lymnea natalensis under laboratory conditions.
275. Taylor M. G., E. R. Jamesa, Q. Bicklea, M. F. Husseina, B. J.
Andrewsa, A. R. Dobinsona1 and G. S. Nelsona (1979).
Immunization of sheep against Schistosoma bovis using an irradiated
schistosomular vaccine. Journal of Helminthology, 53 (1): 1-5.
S. bovis is an economically important parasite of cattle and possibly of
sheep and other domestic stock in many African and Mediterranean
countries. Control of this infection by chemotherapy and mollusciciding
is impractical and this has stimulated interest in vaccination. Previous
work in sheep with the Central and South African species S. mattheei has
led to the development of an effective vaccine which incorporates
irradiated schistosomula produced by artificial transformation of
cercariae. In the present experiments a similar S. bovis vaccine has been
used in sheep. Fifteen 5 month old Border Leicester Suffolk crossbred
wethers were divided into three groups, two were vaccinated with either
10000 or 20000 6 krad irradiated S. bovis schistosomula, and the third
155

kept as unvaccinated controls. All sheep were challenged with 6700


normal S. bovis cercariae. Worm recoveries and tissue egg counts at
necropsy showed that vaccination with 10000 irradiated schistosomula
produced a reduction of 71% in the mean worm burden resulting from
challenge of the controls and the mean densities of eggs in the tissues
were reduced by 7582%. Immunization with 20000 irradiated
schistosomula was not more effective. Histopathological observations
showed that both groups of vaccinated sheep had much milder lesions in
the intestines than the non-vaccinated controls. There was also a clear
reduction in the severity of liver lesions in 4 of the 5 sheep given the
lower dose of irradiated schistosomula but the livers of sheep vaccinated
with 20000 irradiated schistosomula had severe and widespread lesions
due mainly to a massive accumulation of eosinophils and other
inflammatory cells around the vessels.
276. Taylor MG, James ER, Nelson GS, Bickle Q, Dunne DW, Dobinson
AR, Dargie JD, Berry CI, Hussein MF. (1977). Modification of the
pathogenicity of Schistosoma mattheei for sheep by passage of the
parasite in hamsters. J Helminthol.;51(4):337-45.
Border Leicester X Suffolk sheep infected with a strain of S. mattheei
maintained in hamsters do not develop the same pathological changes as
Romney Marsh sheep infected with the same strain of parasite before
hamster passage. To determine the cause of this reduced pathogenicity,
five Romney Marsh sheep were each infected with 10 000 cercariae of
the hamster-passaged parasite and five with 10 000 cercariae of a S.
mattheei strain from Onderstepoort, South Africa, passaged exclusively
through sheep. Striking pathological and parasitological differences were
found between the two strains. Infection with the "sheep" strain was
lethal, whereas infection with the "hamster" strain produced little
evidence of clinical disease. By 13 weeks post-infection the mean body
weight of the sheep infected with the sheep strain had declined by 15%
compared with both the uninfected controls and the sheep infected with
the hamster strain, and the mean PCV was lowered to 20% in the sheep
strain infected animals. Egg production began at seven weeks with the
sheep strain, faecal counts rising to more than 300 e.p.g., whereas only
two of the sheep infected with the hamster strain passed eggs in the
faeces (at nine weeks) and the maximum egg count was 50 e.p.g. Twice
as many adult worms of the sheep strain were recovered, and, although
the number of eggs found in the tissues "per worm pair" was not
significantly different, overall egg production was higher for the sheep
strain; also more of the sheep strain eggs were deposited in the intestines.
156

Similar parasite differences were seen in a supplementary study in mice


and it seemed that "attenuation" of the parasite had occurred, presumably
due to its maintenance in hamsters. Histopathological observations and
faecal egg counts both indicated an inability of hamster strain eggs to
penetrate the intestinal lumen; this was probably important in reducing
the pathogenicity of the hamster strain.
277. Taylor, MG., and Bickle QD, (1980). Progress in the development of
radiation-attenuated vaccines for schistosomiasis. International
Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Biology, 7(2): 97-103.
Many species of experimental animals develop partial resistance to
reinfection with schistosomes as a result of chronic infection with
normal parasites. Because of the impossibility of carrying out controlled
experiments on man, it is not certain whether humans can do likewise,
although epidemiological evidence is consistent with this. Comparative
data on cattle schistosomiasis in an enzootic area in the Sudan show that,
as in human schistosomiasis, age-specific prevalence and intensity of
infection as judged by faecal egg counting are lower in older than in
younger age groups. In this case it has been shown that this is due to the
development of acquired resistance, by challenging putatively resistant
cattle, together with age-matched controls from a schistosome-free area.
Unlike dead antigen mixtures, live, radiation-attenuated schistosome
cercariae can stimulate high levels of long-lived resistance to cercarial
challenges in rodents, primates and domestic animals, and this clearly
suggests a way of developing a vaccine, if the practical problems of
administration and safety can be solved. Some progress in this direction
has now been made. Irradiated cercariae can be quickly and artificially
transformed into schistosomula-like organisms which are injectable and
capable of stimulating resistance. Unlike cercariae, they can also be
cryopreserved alive in liquid nitrogen. Irradiated larvae are still capable
of inducing resistance even when exposed to more than ten times the
minimum irradiation dose needed to sterilize them. Such highlyirradiated parasites are very short-lived and do not appear to cause severe
lesions. The potential practical value of irradiated schistosomiasis
vaccines was evaluated in domestic animals. Sheep and cattle vaccinated
with irradiated S. mattheei or S. bovis schistosomula showed clinical
benefit compared with non-vaccinated controls, under laboratory
conditions. Recently a field trial of a S. bovis vaccine has been carried
out in Sudanese cattle and good levels of protection were obtained under
field conditions. Attempts to develop a similar vaccine for use against S.
mansoni or S. japonicum are at the moment less promising and it is
157

likely that an adjuvant will be necessary. Immunization experiments


using rodents are proving to be excellent models for studying the
mechanisms of resistance.
278. Um El Alim Abakar Idris. (1980). Studies on Chemotherapy of
Experimental Haemonchosis in Goats. MVSc. University of
Khartoum.
Development of signs and lesions in the tissues and organs of Nubian
goats orally infected with 200 to 1000 3rd larval stage of Haemonchus
contortus was studied. Inappetence, soft faeces, dullness, rough coat and
anaemia were the main signs of experimental haenmonchosis in goats.
The major pathological changes were abomasitis and erosions in the
abomasal mucosa, catarrhal enteritis, fatty change and necrosis of
scattered hepatocytes, focal degeneration of the cells of the renal tubules,
hydropericardium, hydroperitoneum and serous atrophy of the cardiac
fat. Increase levels in activity of GOT and in concentrations of ammonia,
potassium and creatinine and a decrease in total protein were detected in
the serum. Viability of H. contortus eggs tested and faecal egg counts of
goats and of adult worms in their abomasae were recorded. The
anthelmintic activity of stronmisole, nematol and the powdered shoots of
Artemisia herba-abla were investigated in experimental haemonochosis
in Nubian goats which were infected with single doses of 200 to 1000 H.
contortus larvae. Goats were treated with single doses of 3.5, 7 and 15
ml of nematol and the clinical and pathological changes associated with
successful therapy of H. contortus were described. Although posttreatment faecal egg counts were negative in some of the treated goats,
post- mortem examinations showed that A. herba-alba at doses of 2.5
and 10 g was not completely effective against H. contortus. Stronmisole,
at single doses of 40 and 80 mg/ kg was effective in eliminating H.
contortus in goats but retreatment in 3 weeks was found to be necessary
for the most effective therapy. Stronmisole at single or repeated doses of
240 mg/ kg was toxic to goats and caused widespread haemorrhages,
sanguineous fluid in the peritoneal cavity, hepato-cellular necrosis and
degeneration of the cells of the renal convoluted tubules. These changes
were accompanied by an increase in the activity of GOT and in
concentration of ammonia, urea and potassium and decrease in the level
of total protein in the serum.
279. Wafaa Mohamed Kheir (1994). Studies on the Influence of
Schistosomiasis and Praziquantel on Hepatic Drug Metabolism in
Rabbits. M.V.Sc. University of Khartoum. The present study aimed at
investigation on the effect of infection of rabbits with Schistosoma bovis
158

and praziquantel on the hepatic activities of some drug metabolizing


enzymes. Healthy locally bred rabbits were experimentally infected with
600 cercariae of S. bovis by the dermal route to study the effect of
experimental schistosomiasis on the activities of aminopyrine Ndemethylase, aniline 4-hydroxylase and UDP-glucuronyltransferase
enzymes. The experimental infection was confirmed histologically, by
detection of S. bovis eggs in the faeces and by measuring the activities of
the plasma enzymes, sorbitol dehydrogenase (SD), glutamate
dehydrogenase (GD) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) during the
course of the disease. The activities of aminopyrine N-demethylase and
UDP-glucuronyltransferase significantly decreased by 6, 9 and 13 weeks
post infection, while the activity of aniline 4-hydroxylase significantly
increased by 9, 13 and 16 weeks post infection. Praziquantel when given
orally at the dose rate of 40 mg/kg B.wt resulted in a significant increase
in the activities of aminopyrine N-demethylase and aniline 4hydroxylase in infected animals given the drug 8 and 11 weeks post
infection and were respectively killed one and two weeks later. The
effect of oral administration of praziquantel at different doses on the
drug metabolizing enzyme activities and the lethal dose of praziquantel
were also investigated in healthy rabbits. The pathological changes
resulting from drug toxicity were histologically assessed by total plasma
protein concentration and by measurement of the activities of plasma
enzymes. No significant changes were obtained after praziquantel
administration at dose levels of 40 mg/kg B.wt and 800 mg/kg B.wt,
whereas 1600 mg/kg B.wt and 2000 mg/kg B.wt of praziquantel resulted
in a significant decrease in the activities of the three drug metabolizing
enzymes under investigation. All rabbits which received praziquantel at
the dose rate of 2000 mg/kg B.wt died 10-20 hours following
praziquantel administration. Oral administration of dieldrin, a known
inducer of drug metabolizing enzymes activity at a dose rate of 2.5
mg/kg B.wt produced no pathological changes in the tissues of treated
animals and resulted in the induction of the hepatic activities of the drug
metabolizing enzymes aminopyrine N-demethylase and aniline 4hydroxylase. The induction of these enzymes might have protected
rabbits from the lethal effect of praziquantel when given at the dose rate
of 2000 mg/kg B.wt ten days following dieldrin pretreatment.
280. Waleed Sayed Koko Mohamed (1999). Natural and Experimental
Fasciola gigantica Infection in Goats and its Control with Medicinal
Plants. M.V.Sc. University of Khartoum. A total of287 goats at
Ubushar in the northern parts of Gazira State were faecally and
159

serologically sampled for the presence of Fasciola spp. 36 (12.5%) goats


were positive for F. gigantica in their faeces. This prevalence was 15%
in winter and 9.9% in summer. It was 14.6% in inner irrigated villages
and 8.7% in road villages. It was 16.2% in adult goats, 12% in young
goats and 1.9% in kids. 302 goats were also sampled from White Nile
area around Kosti town. 78 (25.8%) goats had F. gigantica eggs. This
prevalence was 26.1% in winter and 25.5% in summer. It was 56.9% in
riverside villages, 11.7% in villages which use different types of
irrigation systems and 0.8% in villages away from the river and canals.
714 goats were examined at monthly intervals in Kosti slaughter house
for the presence of F. gigantica worms. 65 were found infected with
prevalence of 9.1%. This prevalence was very high in December (14.5%)
and started to gradually decrease until July (5.2%) followed by gradual
increase. ELISA was used to determine antifasciola antibodies in
naturally infected goats. Goats found negative for antibodies in the
Gazira were 59 (25.5%) and in White Nile 107 (35.4%). Experimental
caprine fascioliasis was established by using 100 metacercariae/goat.
Infected goats were used to evaluate therapeutics efficacy of Albizia
anthelmintica bark water extract and Balanites aegyptiaca fruit mesocarp
water extract at a dose of 9 g/kg B.wt. orally for each plant compared
with 20 mg/kg B.wt. of albendazole orally administered. The efficacy
was found 95.5%, 93.2% and 97.7%, respectively. The classical signs of
chronic caprine fascioliasis included anaemia, hypoproteinaemia,
hypoalbuminaemia, hyperoesinophilia, enlarged liver with distended bile
ducts and gall bladder and showed numerous fibrous tissues associated
damage in the hepatocytes. The antifasciola antibodies were evaluated by
using ELISA. The antibodies titres elevated from the end of the second
week of the infection and progressed until the end of the experiment. In
the last part of this study eight of Sudanese medicinal plants which
proved to be active against Schistosoma spp. snails, were screened for
their molluscicidal activity against Lymnaea natalensis. Two of them
Albizia anthelmintica bark water extract and Ximenia americana leaves
water extracts were the most potent and revealed activity at
concentration of 100 ppm.
281. Woodruff AW, Salih SY, de Savigny D, Baya EI, Shah AI, Dafalla
AA. (1981).Toxocariasis in the Sudan. Ann Trop Med Parasitol.
1981 Oct;75(5):559-61.
No abstract.
282. Yagi AI; Younis SA; Haroun EM; Gameel AA; Bushara HO; Taylor
MG. (1986). Studies on heterologous resistance between Schistosoma
160

bovis and Fasciola gigantica in Sudanese cattle. J Helminthol.


60(1):55-9.
Using the local strains of Schistosoma bovis and Fasciola gigantica, it
was shown that Sudanese zebu calves with mature primary infections of
F. gigantica were highly resistant to challenge with S. bovis cercariae,
and vice versa. Liver enzyme tests showed that, in both cases, the
primary infections had caused some liver damage. Primary infection
with irradiated S. bovis cercariae, which did not cause significant liver
damage, did not protect significantly against challenge with F. gigantica.
283. Yagoub IA, El Badawi ES, Osman AY, and Keir HSM (1981).
Action of RUMIVERM against intestinal nematodes of sheep in the
Sudan. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Research Vol.3: 59-62.
Rumiverm (POLFA), was found to be highly effective in reducing egg
counts of some gastrointestinal nematodes, when administered to twelve
naturally parasitized Sudanese sheep as a single dose of 75 mg and
100mg/kg body weight. The dose of 75 mg gave a convenient result
within the first day following treatment. However, after four days of the
drug was 100% using both doses. No toxic effects were observed during
the trial thereafter. Trichuris ovis, Schistosoma bovis, Moniezia spp. and
Eimeria spp. were not affected by the drug.
284. Yagoub, IA., El Badawi ES., and Kheir HSM (1983). Effect of liver
fluke (Fasciola gigantica) infection on bodyweight gain, blood
haemoglubin concentration and packed cell volume in Sudanese
calves. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Research, 4: 81-88.
No abstract available.
285. Yaguob Adam Idris (1986). Some Aspects of Epidemiology of
Echinococcosis/ Hydatidosis in the Sudan. M.V.Sc. University of
Khartoum.
This study describes an investigation into the natural history and
morbidity of echinococcosis in its natural and intermediate hosts in the
Sudan. It also describes the results of experimental trials to infect various
hosts with the parasite. Two epidemiological parameters of
Echinococcus granulosus were investigated, one involved a field survey
and the other involved experimental infectivity trials in both intermediate
and final hosts. Field survey of E. granulosus conducted in Khartoum
Province involving two main aspects. The first aspect involved the
definitive hosts (dogs) and the second was conducted on the intermediate
hosts (sheep, goats, cattle and camels). The results indicted that
echinococcosis was perpetuating amongst both types of hosts, with
varying degrees of incidence in different localities of the province. In
161

dogs, 183 faeca1 and 2701 small intestine specimens were collected and
examined. It was shown that all faecal specimens were devoid from
taeniid eggs but some of the small intestines contained the adult tapeworm of E. granulosus. However, the overall percentage of incidence of
E. granulosus in the three towns was 17.51% with 11.49% in Khartoum,
20% in Khartoum North and 18.46% in Omdurman. In addition, a higher
percentage of incidence was found at the outskirts rather than in the
centers of threes three towns. A study of the contents and compartments
of hydatid cysts collected from livers and lungs of sheep, goats, cattle
and camels as well as from muscles of sheep was also made. However,
hydatidosis was shown to be very common among food animals in
Khartoum Province. It also showed that hydatid cysts assumed various
predilection sites and lodgments upon the animal carcasses, and also
assumed various morphological characteristics. These results also
revealed an interesting case of hydatidosis which was found in a camel
slaughtered at Omdurman National Abattoir. In this case, the tissues of
the lungs were nearly replaced by a mass of hydatid nodules, with the
presence of 136 cysts in one lobe. This indicated the danger and the
degree of potential hazard that could be induced by camel lungs
harboring hydatid cysts in the Sudan. Information was also provided as
to the viability, Sterility and fertility of the hydatid cysts and their
daughters and also to the criteria affecting viability and death of scolices.
Diameters (D) of the hydatid cysts were determined by using the formula
of Pi (`0;) law: Diameter = circumference \8; Where Pi (`0;) is a constant
representing the ratio of circumference to the diameter and it is equal to
3.14. In addition, the area of the balls, of the hydatid cysts were obtained
by applying the equation: X (D/2)2. Statistical calculations carried out
in this study can concentrated mainly on the number of worms, eggs,
solaces and diameters of the hydatid cysts. Experimental infectivity trials
were carried out in 74 dogs, 25 cats and 2 goats which were reared in
infection free conditions. Eight experiments were conducted in dogs
which were either fed protoscolices or eggs or kept in association with
infected dogs. In addition, one experiment in cats and another one in
goats involving feeding of E. granulosus eggs were also performed. The
results indicted that anal smears from experimental dogs and cats
revealed neither E. granulosus worm nor its eggs, but E. granulosus was
established in some individual puppies (78.26%) In addition, 33.33% of
infected puppies harboured over 1000 worms and the lowest number of
worms recovered was five. On the other hand, the range of the prepatent
periods in the experimentally infected puppies was found to be 45 53
162

days. Generally, observations showed that, there was a correlation


between the numbers of protoscolices administered and the number of
worms developed. Also, observations indicated that older puppies were
more susceptible to the echinococcal infection. On the other hand, the
role of age, sex and number of protoscolices given to the exponential
animals in relation to the development of worms was discussed.
Furthermore, the left-over scolices recovered from experimentally
infected puppies and those scolices obtained from the hydatid cysts
showed that those scolices would undergo some changes in vitro.
286. Yahya Musa Osman Abduelkareim (2012) Abattoir Survey on
Hydatidosis in Slaughtered Animals in Kabkabiya, Sarafumra and
El Sirif in North Darfur State in Sudan. M.Sc. University of
Khartoum.
The study was conducted from July 2011 to November 2011at
Kabkabiya, Sarafumra and Sereif abattoirs in Northern Darfur State to
determine the prevalence of hydatidosis in camels, cattle, sheep and
goats slaughtered for human consumption.950 carcasses of (200 camels;
200 cattle; 250 sheep and 250 goats) were examined at post mortem for
evidence of hydatid cyst lesions. The highest rate of infection was found
in camels 70cases (35%) followed by cattle 5cases (2.5%), sheep 2cases
(0.4%) and goats 1case (0.4%). Locations of the cyst lesions in the
examined animals showed that the lung was the most predominant site in
camels (67.14%) followed by liver in cattle, sheep and goats. The least
number of hydatid cyst lesions were observed in the spleen. The highest
cyst fertility rate was found in camels (45.58%) and cattle (40%). Cysts
in sheep and goats were sterile. There was a significant association (p <
0.001) between the species of animals and the infection rate. It was
shown that infection rates increased with age in camels. In camels, 11%
of the infected animals were aged between 05 years old whereas 30.8%
of the infected animals were 5-10 years old and 56.6% were 10-15 years
of age. An effort should be made to control the transmission of cystic
echinococcosis from slaughterhouses by safe disposal of infected offal.
Taking into consideration, the relation of incidence of hydatidosis, and
the age of the infected animal.
287. Yasmin Ibrahim Mahgoub Mohamed. (2005). Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of cattle slaughtered in Khartoum State. M.V.Sc.,
University of Khartoum.
This study was undertaken to assess the species prevalence of
gastrointestinal parasites in cattle reared in three different areas during
the period April 2002 to March 2003. The three sites to which cattle
163

belonged were: Western Sudan, White Nile State and Khartoum State.
Faecal samples were collected from the White Nile cattle at El-Sahafa
abattoir while samples from Western Sudan cattle were collected from
animals arriving at the same abattoir beside those in Koukou abattoir.
Samples from cattle raised in Khartoum State were collected from
various dairy farms. All gastrointestinal tracts were collected from ElSahafa abattoir. Faecal examination revealed a high prevalence of
strongylid/trichostrongylid eggs in the three areas. In most cases there
was mixed infections with oocysts of Eimeria spp. Other eggs
encountered were those of Fasciola gigantica, Schistosoma bovis,
Paramphistomum spp., Trichuris spp. and Moniezia spp. Based on faecal
cultures, Haemonchus spp. and Cooperia spp. were the most
predominant, followed by Trichostrongylus spp. and Oesophagostomum
spp. Strongyloides papillosus was sporadically encountered during the
whole study period. In this study Impalaia spp. was reported for the first
time in cattle in the Sudan. It was shown from the examination of
gastrointestinal tracts that nematodes were the predominant with highest
prevalence of Haemonchus contortus and Cooperia pectinata, followed
by Trichostrongylus axei and Oesophagostomum radiatum. Trichuris
was the least encountered species. Cooperia spp. was detected for the
first time in Sudan in the abomasum instead of its previous exclusive
presence in the small intestine. Regarding Oesophagostomum radiatum,
it has been observed that its nodules were apparent in so many animals.
Tapeworms were low in their prevalence represented by Moniezia spp.
and Avitellina spp. while light trematodes infection in cattle was due to
Paramphistomum spp. Mixed infections were more common than single
infection. A distinct seasonality in parasite prevalence was evident,
peaking during the wet season coinciding with the maximum rainfall and
with significant negative correlation with temperature (P<0.01) and
positive one with relative humidity (P<0.001). There was considerable
numbers of 4th stage larvae of Haemonchus contortus in cattle raised in
Khartoum during summer which may be hypobiotic larvae. The study
also demonstrated a great variation in geographic prevalence. This was
influenced by local climatic conditions, presence or absence of watering
points and differences in livestock management practices. It was
particularly evident in both Western Sudan and White Nile cattle. The
study revealed that infection with helminths was significantly negatively
correlated with age in Western Sudan cattle (P < 0.05) and White Nile
cattle (P < 0.01). Regarding infection with coccidia, it was significantly
negatively correlated with age in cattle raised in Khartoum (P<0.05).
164

288. Younis SA, Yagi AI, Haroun EM, Gameel AA, Taylor MG (1986).
Immunization of zebu calves against Fasciola gigantica, using
irradiated metacercariae. J. Helminthol.60(2):123-34.
The pathogenesis of unirradiated, 3 krad-irradiated and 20 kradirradiated metacercarial infections was compared in zebu calves studied
over a 10-week period. Calves exposed to 1000 unirradiated
metacercariae (mc) became hypoalbuminaemic, and showed elevated
serum concentrations of liver enzymes, whereas neither of the other
groups was significantly affected. At slaughter, a mean of 332 flukes was
recovered from the 0 krad group, while only 23% and 12% of this
number were recovered from the 3 krad and and 20 krad groups,
respectively. All the worms recovered from the 20 krad group were
stunted, and found in biliary ductules, but a mean of 13% of the flukes
recovered from the 3 krad group were large, and dwelling in main bileducts. Liver lesions typical of acute fascioliasis were present in the 0
krad group, but lesions in the other groups, and particularly the 20 krad
group, were far less severe. Judged on clinico-pathological criteria, a
single vaccination of calves with 1000 3 krad-irradiated mc induced
partial resistance to a challenge with 1000 normal mc eight weeks later,
but the reduction in worm recovery was not statistically significant.
There was less evidence of protection when two vaccinating doses of 3
krad mc were given within four weeks, with challenge at week 8, and a
single vaccination was ineffective against a challenge four weeks later.
However, when the irradiation dose was increased to 20 krad, a hgh level
of resistance (69% worm reduction) was induced by a single vaccination,
given eight weeks before challenge, and liver pathology was strikingly
reduced in the vaccinated animals.
289. Yousif Ahmed Mohamed Elamin (1988). The Effect of Experimental
Fasciola gigantica Infection on the Performance of Male Nubian
Goats. M.V.Sc. University of Khartoum.
The effect of experimental Fasciola gigantica infection on the clinical
health and performance was investigated in male Nubian goats. Eight (67 months old) bucks were infected with 200 F. gigantica metacercariae
and kept for 14 weeks for clinical observation and evaluation of feed lot
performance, feed digestibility and semen quality. Four uninfected bucks
of the same age and breed were also kept for the same period of time as
controls. Infected and control bucks were all slaughtered by the end of
the experiment (14 weeks) for assessment of carcass quality, liver
pathology, and worm recovery. Infected bucks developed noticeable
clinical changes 4 weeks post-infection. These included reduction in
165

appetite, weakness, dullness, palor of the visible mucous membrane and


reduced body weight gain. Diarrhoea was occasionally observed and
there was focal loss of fleece. F. gigantica eggs were detected in faeces
by the end of the 9th week and two animals died at the beginning of the
10th week. Adult F. gigantica flukes were recovered from the main bile
ducts and the liver was enlarged, congested and fibrotic. The liver
capsule was irregular and contained multiple foci of necrosis,
haemorrhage and elevated plaques. The main bile ducts were
considerably thickened and dilated. Histologically, the portal areas were
extremely enlarged and invaded by fibrous connective tissue
proliferations. The bile dusts were also thickened due to massive
periodical fibrosis, mononuclear cellular infiltration and hyperplasia of
the bile duct epithelium. The haematological changes in F. gigantica
infected goats were indicative of anaemia as reflected by progressive
reductions in haemoglobin concentrations and packed cell volume. The
plasma analysis showed marked reductions in total proteins and albumin
concentrations in F. gigantica infected goats. Changes in the feed lot
performance of F. gigantica infected goats were characterized by
significant reductions (P < 0.05) in the final body weight, average daily
gain and feed utilization efficiency. the digestible crude protein and the
apparent digestibility coefficient of the dry matter and crude protein were
significantly lower (P < 0.05) in infected animals compared with
controls. The results of semen examination in F. gigantica infected goats
showed reductions in the volume, density, mass activity, motility and
concentration of spermatozoa. The total sperm per ejaculate and the
number or percentage of live sperms were also lower in infected animals.
In addition, the morphological abnormalities of the sperms were much
higher in infected than in control animals. The histological examination
revealed variable degree of degenerative changes in the semeniferous
tubules of F. gigantica infected bucks, but no significant variations were
detected in the gross measurements of the testicles of infected and
control animals. Effect of F. gigantica infection on the carcass quality
was evident by significant reductions (P < 0.05) in the slaughter weight,
empty body weight and warm carcass weight. The shrinkage percentage
appeared to be greater for infected animals. The muscle/bone ratio was
significantly (P < 0.05) higher for controls. The moisture content
increased in infected animals, but the fat percentage in meat and the
omental and kidney fat was significantly higher in the controls. The
mean weight of the carcass cuts particularly the breast, rack, flank and
sirloin appeared to be greater in control animals. On the other hand, the
166

mean weight of offals including the lung and trachea, liver, pancreas,
empty stomach, intestine and kidney were significantly higher in
infected animals.
290. Yousif Mohamed Abdel Razig (1984). Studies on the Epidemiology
of Bovine Fascioliasis in Darfur Region. M. V. Sc., University of
Khartoum.
This thesis comprises some epizootiological and experimental studies on
bovine fascioliasis in Dnrfur region conducted in Gabel Marra and Bahr
El Arab areas. The first chapter is a general introduction about the
Sudan, its topography, climate, Animal resources, human population,
tribes and systems of animal husbandry practiced by livestock owners,
and the chapter ends with a background about various animal diseases
with emphasis on fascioliasis. In the second chapter, a literature review
on fascioliasis was given, covering various aspects with special reference
to the epizootiology of the disease. Chapter 3 comprises two parts. The
first part is information about the study area; its geographical location,
climate, topography, tribes, types of animals, centres of veterinary
services, etc. The end of this part shows the reasons for selection of this
area for conducting epizootiological studies. The second part comprises
general materials and methods used in the study. Chapters I to 6 deal
with the epizootiological studies. Chapter 7 deals with the experimental
studies and chapter 8 is a general discussion and conclusions, with
suggestions for further work. The epizootiological studies showed that
prevalence rate among cattle in the study area was inversely proportional
to the age of the animal because of the natural resistance as well as the
resistance acquired by old animals as a result of successive reinfections
in the field. The lower prevalence rate in calves is related to the systems
of calf husbandry. When this prevalence rate was compared with the rate
in the slaughterhouses in different localities correlation was found to
exist between the two. In both cases. prevalence rate increases with
higher altitudes. These rates in other parts of South Darfur Province
showed marked variations from one locality to another. Snail and tracer
calves surveys showed that snail populations and also infection rates of
snails follow a seasonal pattern, with peaks in the summer months,
particularly May and June. Therefore, it was expected that cercardial
shedding also occurred in the summer months, with the resultant onset of
the diseases in the rainy season. This was confirmed by the results
obtained from the tracer calves surveys. In Gebel Marra area, the water is
available in the "wadis" throughout the year, unlike the White Nile area
where the smaller Canals dry up in late summer. Hence the conditions in
167

G. Marra area are favourable for breeding of the snails the year round
with expected decrease in snail population in the rainy season because of
the swift current and flooding of the Wadis, and also in the winter season
because of the effect of cold weather. The results of the laboratory
investigations confirmed the epizootiologioal studies and also other
studies from different parts in and outside the Sudan. These included
pathological, biochemical and haematological changes in naturally
infected cattle. The pathological changes were mainly encountered in the
liver and associated lymph nodes. Some parts showed only congestion.
The livers showed change in colour and were enlarged. The hepatic
lymph rodes were also enlarged. Some livers were atrophied and
fibrosed with wrinkled liver capsules and others had nodules (advanced
stages). On cutting, thickening of bile ducts was noticed. Detailed
information was given in chapter 7. Serum analysis showed a slight
decrease in the total protein concentrations and increased activities of the
enzymes which were used in diagnosis of liver damage such as sorbitol
dehydrogenase and glutamate dehydrogenase. Haematological changes
showed a decrease in the RBC counts, an increase in WBC counts and
variable changes in other blood indices such as PCV, mean corpuscular
volume, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. The
differential counts showed also variable changes, decrease neutrophil,
lymphocyte and monocyte counts and increased eosinophil counts. Thus,
it is clear that fascioliasis is endemic in the Southern parts of Darfur
region especially in the western District of South Darfur Province where
the disease is locally known as "Um Dalilil.
291. Zakia, A Mohamed; Musa T Musa., Ali Y Osman and Abd El Malik
M Osman (1990). Cholangiocarcoma associated with Fascioliasis in
camel. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Research, 10: 57-61.
Cholangiocarcoma associated with Fasciola gigantica infection was
diagnosed in a liver of a camel slaughtered in an abattoir at Nyala,
Sudan. The histopathology of the intrahepatic neoplasm was described
and the aetiological relationship between the tumour and liver fluke
infection was discussed. Karib., A. A., and Hussein ., M. F, (1970).
Massive Cysticercus tenuicollis infection in a sheep. The Sudan Journal
of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry., Vol. 11(2), 77- 79. The
Authors reported on a massive infection of a sheep with Cysticercus
tenuicollis (98 cysts), involved the whole of the part of the peritoneum
surrounding the intestines. Evidence of inflammation was neither seen in
the intestines nor in the peritoneal membrane. They concluded that the
168

292-

293-

294-

295-

296-

adult cestodes Taenia hydatigena was correspondingly prevalent in the


dog and that some serious investigation was indicated.
Eisa, A. M., (1963). Normal worm burden of cattle in Upper Nile
Province. The Sudan Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal
Husbandry., Vol. 4(2), 63- 71.
Eisa, A. M., (1963). Neguvon against horse parasites. The Sudan
Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry., Vol. 4(1), 1724.
No abstract.
Eisa, A. M., and Ibrahim A. M. (1970). Nilverm and Fenozin against
gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in the Sudan. The Sudan
Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry., Vol. 11(2),
41- 54.
The authors tested the effect of the drugs on sheep infected with:
Moniezia expansa, Cooperia pectinate, Trichostrongylus coubriformis,
Strongyloides papillosus, Haemonchus contortus.
Ramadan., O. R., Magzoub, M., and Adam, S. I (1973)
Clincopathological effects in Sudanese goats following massive
natural infection with Coenurus gaigeri cysts. Tropical Animal
Health and Production., (5) 3: 196-199.
No abstract.
Mohammed Fadl Ahmed (1998). Gastrointestinal nematodes of
naturally infected camels in Butana plains of the Sudan:
Epidemiology and Pathology. Ph.D theses, University of Khartoum.
The study was carried out on 36 camels originating from the Butana area
at Gedarif slaughter house. Some aspects of the epidemiology,
distribution and pathology of gastrointestinal nematodes of the camel in
relation to seasons (summer, rainy and winter) were investigated. The
study revealed that: Peak of total worm burden of camel gastrointestinal
nematodes occurred during the rainy season (July to October) although
each parasite displayed its own seasonality with regard to the peaks of
infection within the host. Trichostrongylus probolurus showed its peaks
to occur during the rainy season but it displayed a different pattern of
seasonality within different portions of the small intestine ( Duodenum
and Jejunum). Haemoncus longistipes showed a peak of infection during
summer (March- June) and evidence of being prone to hypobiosis while
Trichostrongylus probolurus showed a limited propensity for
phenomenon. Impalaia tuberculate behaved more or less in a similar
pattern to Haemonchus longistipes although hypobiosis was found to be
very limited. The peak of Cooperia pectinata occurred during the rainy
169

297298-

299-

300-

season however, this parasite was generally detected in very low


numbers. It didnt show a marked seasonality within different portion of
the small intestine. In the large intestine Trichuris globulosa showed its
peak during the summer. Strongyloides papillosus showed presence in an
unusual habitat as it was mainly detected in the large intestine and in the
form of inhibited immature parasitic females. Distribution of nematodes
along the small intestine showed that higher densities of
Trichostrongylus probolurus were in the duodenum although the highest
counts were in the jejunum while Impalaia tuberculate and cooperia
pectinate were found to be concentrated in the jejunum.
Saleem, M.S. 1993. Haemonchus longistipes infection in camels and
goats. MVSc. Theses, University of Khartoum.
Karoum KO, Amin MA. 1985. Domestic and wild animals naturally
infected with Schistosoma mansoni in the Gezira Irrigated Scheme,
Sudan. J Trop Med Hyg. Apr;88(2):83-9.
Domestic and wild animals were examined for natural infection with
human schistosomiasis in Northern Gezira, Sudan. Postmortem
examination of animals in a number of slaughterhouses revealed no
infections in either sheep or goats but Schistosoma mansoni worms were
found in two of the 98 cattle examined. Nile rats (Arvicanthus niloticus)
were trapped and stray dogs were shot and examined for evidence of
schistosome infection. The infection rate in Nile rats was 4.9% (8/164)
and in dogs 27.3% (15/55) but whereas viable eggs were found in the
excreta and tissues of the rats no eggs could be found in dog faeces. In
the laboratory nine puppies were each exposed to 10 000 cercariae but
there was no evidence that the infection had taken. It is concluded that A.
niloticus, present in large numbers and often found in or near the canals,
may be involved in S. mansoni transmission and could act as reservoir
hosts, but that dogs are probably infected only in exceptional situations
and are unlikely to play a major role in S. mansoni transmission.
ElBihari, S, and Hussein, H.S. (1976). The distribution and
redescription of the microfilariae of Onchocerca armillata Railliet
and Henry, 1909. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal
Husbandry, 17: 77- 85.
Mazahir Mohammed Sheikh Idris, Pharmacopathological Studies of
Recent Anthelmintics against Haemonchosis in Goats.
The present work was carried out on experimentally induced caprine
haemonchosis to evaluate efficacy of a new drug Cydectin relative to
Ivermectin. It was intended also to study immunity status of the
challenged animals. The development of the signs and lesions in the
170

tissues and organs of goats orally infected with 2500-3000 3rd stage
larvae of Haemonchus contortus was studied. Emaciation, inappetence,
soft faeces, dullness, rough coat and prominent anaemia were observed.
The main pathological lesions were abomasitis petechial haemorrhages,
surface ulceration, hepatorenal fatty changes, hydropericardium and
hydroperitoneum. There was a decrease in red blood cells (RBCs) count,
haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, packed cell volume (PCV). The
differential cell count revealed eosinophilia and neutrophilia with
moderate increases in lymphocytes. Iron, calcium, sodium levels, total
protein and albumin were decreased. Faecal egg counts and numbers of
the adult worms in the abomasae of infected goats were recorded. The
results showed that Cydectin and Ivermectin at a single dose of 1
ml/50kg body weight caused improvement in the haematological and
biochemical parameters as well as clinical and pathological changes. The
results also showed complete absence of egg production and adult
worms. Studies were also conducted to evaluate immunity in Cydectin
challenged animals. The challenged animals developed immunity
compared to infected groups as the clinical signs became mild,
haematological and biochemical parameters became normal.
301- Abdelnabi, Ghada H.; Elowni, El Sayed E.; Abdalla, Hamid S (2014).
Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Helminths in Sheep from White Nile
State, Sudan. U of K Graduate college and Scientific Research. The
5th Annual Conference- Agricultural and Veterinary Research,
Conference Proceedings, Vol. (2.): 353-364.
This study was carried out during November 1997 to October 1998 to
determine the species and prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths from
White Nile State, which is a major sheep production area in the Sudan.
These sheep were slaughtered at Omdurman Central Abattoir and were
designated for export. A total of 507 faecal samples and 30
gastrointestinal tracts were collected at random and processed, using
microscopic coprological examination, faecal culture and postmortem
examination. Mixed helminth infections were found common in 93.3%
of gastrointestinal tracts examined. Nematode infections were the
commonest, reaching 90.0% of the examined animals. Trichostrongylus
colubriformis was the predominant nematode species with an infection
rate of 86.7% followed by Haemonchus contortus with a prevalence of
76.6%. Other identified nematode species were Cooperia pectinata,
Oesophagostomum columbianum, Strongyloide spapillosus, Trichuris
globulosa and Skrjabinema ovis with frequencies of 50%, 36.7%, 66.7%,
26.7% and 6.7%, respectively. Cestodes were recovered in 80% of the
171

gastrointestinal tracts. The identified species were Stilesia globipunctata,


Avitellina centripunctata, Moniezia expansa and Moniezia benedeni The
most prevalent cestode was S. globipunctata followed by A.
centripunctata with frequencies of 66.7% and 60.0%, respectively. The
study indicated that nematodes may be involved in causing significant
losses in sheep production in the Sudan. The results revealed
involvement of some potentially pathogenic forms such as T.
colubriformis and H. contortus. In this study, four helminth species are
reported for the first time in the White Nile State. These are Trichuris
globulosa, Skrjabinema ovis, Stilesia globipunctata and Avitellina
centripunctata.
302- Saadia, A., Husna, M. Elbashir, Ahmed, A.M., Elmansoury, Y.H,
Magid, A.E., Osman, A.Y. (2011). Post- treatment antibody
mediated cyto adherence and lymphocytes proliferation in
Onchocerca gutturosa infected zebu calves. Sudan Academy of
Sciences Journal, Vol.4.(1): 1-12.
The study was undertaken to assess and quantify the post-treatment
changes in cellular response in calves naturally infected with microfilaria
of Onchocerca gutturosa.

172

Subject index
Acuaria spiralis
Alaria spp.
Amoebotaenia sphenoides
Ancylostoma tubaeforme
Anoplocephala spp
Ascaridia galli
Ascaris suum
Avitellina spp
Avitellina centripunctata
Avitellina woodlandi
B. forskalii
B. globosus
B. pfeifferi
B. sudanica
B. ugandae
Bulinus truncatus
Ceneurus gaigeri
Chabertia ovina
Choanotaenia infundibulum
Cooperia pectinata
Cooperia pinctata
Cotugnia digonopora
Cotylophoron cotylophorum
Cyathostomes spp
Cysticercosis
Cysticercus bovis
Cysticercus tenuicollis
Dicrocoelium dendriticum
Dicrocoelium hospes
Dictyocaulus arnfieldi
Dictyocaulus viviparous
Dipetalonema spp
Diplopylidium genettae
Diplopylidium
monoophoroides
Diplopylidium sp

61, 74, 222, 251


183, 217
222
5, 49
5
7,128,222, 226, 272
180
71, 268, 269, 287
120, 121
195
173, 197, 192
173
173
173, 192
173, 192
6, 22, 173, 259
73, 124
99, 215
7, , 129, 130, 222, 226, 229, 272
121, 213, 287
50
7, 222, 226
192
10, 264
39, 46, 83, 84, 85, 125, 265
39,46, 71, 264, 266
72
122
212
264
195
220
12, 183, 217
12, 183, 217
49
173

Dipylidium caninum
Echinococcus canadensis
Echinococcus granulosus

Echinococcus ortleppi
Echinopardalis lerouxi
Fasciola gigantica

Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus
Gongylonema ingluvicola
Gongylonema pulchrum
Haemonchus contortus
Haemonchus longistipes
Haemonchus spp
Heterakis gallinae
Hydatidosis, Echinococcosis

Hydatigera
taeniaeformis
(multiceps)
Hymenolepis carioca
Impalaia spp
Impalaia tuberculata
Joyeuxiella kofend
Joyeuxiella sp
Lymnea natalensis
Mesocestoides spp
Moniezia spp
Moniezia benedeni
Moniezia expansa
Nematodirus spathiger
Nematodirus spp

183, 217, 62
17, 228
4,60, 78, 101, 102,195, 206, 221, 232,
235, 236, 238, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249,
250, 253, 254, 255, 256, 271
17, 60, 238
49
1, 2, 9, 14, 15, 16, 19, 20, 21, 25, 41, 71, 86, 88,
107, 108, 112, 119, 123, 131, 132, 133, 134,
136, 137, 138,139, 140, 152, 153, 160, 161, 162,
163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 177, 181, 192, 195,
204, 208, 212, 233, 234, 237, 257, 262, 280,
282, 284, 288, 289, 290, 291.
192, 197
61,74, 222, 251.
64
3,13, 26, 71, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117,
118, 121, 122, 239, 261, 278, 287.
31, 32, 33, 34, 50, 67, 78, 79, 106, 145,
184, 195, 213, 214, 268.
9, 24, 98, 111.
193
127, 221, 227, 228, 232, 235, 236, 238,
245, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 253, 254,
255, 256, 285, 286
49
7, 130, 222, 226, 229.
111, 195
50, 122, 213
12, 183, 217
49
44, 173, 192, 274
269
9, 26, 213, 287
121, 269
35, 71, 106, 121, 195, 268, 269.
184
9, 71, 195
174

Oesophagostomum
columbianum
Oesophagostomum radiatum
Oesophagostomum
venulosum
Oesophagostumum spp
Onchocerca armillata
Onchocerca cervicalis
Onchocerca gutturosa

26, 38, 50, 71, 122, 213


71, 215, 287
195
9, 82, 98
37, 40, 42, 45, 75, 77, 146, 194
81, 109, 110, 211
76, 90, 91, 92, 93, 141, 142, 143, 144,
154
87, 147, 148
110
141, 205
183, 217, 62
64
9, 71, 182, 287
192

Onchocerca raillieti
Onchocerca reticulate
Onchocerca volvulus
Oncicola canis
Oxyuris equi
Paramphistomum spp
Paramphistomum
microbothrium
Parapronema skrijabini
Parascaris equorum
Physaloptera canis
Physaloptera praeputialis
Pterygodermatites
Raillietina cesticillus
Raillietina echinobothrida
Raillietina sp.
Raillietina tetragona

184
5, 260, 264
62
12, 49, 183, 217
12
7, 103, 105, 129, 130, 222, 226
7, 222, 226
49
7, 61, 74, 104, 170, 174, 175, 216, 222,
224, 225, 226, 229, 251, 272

Schistosoma bovis

2, 6, 14, 16, 23, 27, 28, 29, 30, 47, 48,


51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 66,
70, 71, 88, 89, 100, 112, 126, 140, 149,
150, 151, 169, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191,
195, 200, 201, 212, 219, 230, 240, 241,
242, 243, 244, 282.
11, 47, 48, 135, 149
75
95, 120
196, 62

Schistosoma mansoni
Setaria labiatopapillosa
Skrjabinema ovis
Spirocerca lupi
175

Stilesia globipunctata
Stilesia hepatica
Stilezia vittata
Strongyloides papillosus
Strongyloides westeri
Strongyloides spp.
Strongylus spp.
Subulura brumpti
Taenia hydatigena
Tetrameres Americana
Thysanosoma actinioides
Thyzaniazia giardia
Toxascaris leonine
Toxocara canis
Toxocara cati
Trichonema spp.
Trichostrongylus axei
Trichostrongylus
colubriformis
Trichostrongylus probolurus
Trichostrongylus spp
Trichuris globulosa
Trichuris Trichuria
Trichuris ovis
Trichuris spp
Immunology, Vaccines and
Immunodiagnosis
Anthelmintic

120, 121
69
106
26, 35, 98, 122, 212, 268, 287
5, 264
26, 213, 258
5, 223, 258, 264
7, 61, 74, 193, 222, 226, 251, 272
36, 62
7, 61, 74, 222, 251
269
269
12
62
183, 217
64, 223
264, 287
121
67, 122, 213
9, 26, 35, 98, 213, 215, 287
50, 120, 121, 184, 195, 213
9
35, 71, 122, 212
26, 182, 258, 287
1, 88, 89, 112,126, 127, 135, 140, 149,
19, 21, 25, 26, 96, 104, 107, 108, 113,
118, 122, 142, 174, 237

176

Authors index
Author
A/Gadir H,
Abakar AD
Abbakar Adam
Abdalla HS
Abdalla, M. A
Abdel Nasir Ismail
Mohamed
Abdel Rahman, M.
B
Abu Samra MT
Abu sarra Hassan
Yaggob
Adam A. A
Adam SE
Adanan Ibrahim
Ahmed Abd El
Rahman Ismail
Ahmed El Tahir
Ahmed
Ahmed ME
Ahmed Sid Ahmed
El Sawi
Ali Abdel Razig Ali
Lutfi
Ali Babiker Osman
Ali BH
Ali EA
Amany
Abdallah
Mohammed
Amna E. Babiker
Anwor Magzoub
Aradaib I E
Arzoun I H
Atif E Abdelgadir
Atta El Mannan
AM

Abstract No
1, 123, 133
3, 109, 211, 264
4
38, 39, 120, 128, 172, 181, 182, 235, 236, 252
5
7
2, 8
21, 124, 125
9
10
11
12
13
15
17
18
19
20
21, 107, 108
22, 82
24
25
26
17, 27, 28, 29, 30, 169, 228, 244
31, 32, 33, 34, 145
43
35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 44, 45, 90, 146
177

Babiker HA
Bashir M
Bickle Q
Bol Kolock
Burger HJ
Bushara HO

Dargie JD
Dinkel A
Eisa AM
El Awad Mohamed
El Hassan
El
Gezuli
AY
(Osman AY)
El Hussein AM
EL Kheir Ibrahim
Dafalla
El Rawda Adam Ali
El Sadig A Zain El
Din
El Sammani SE
El Sanhouri AA
El Sayed Ishag El
Shafea
El Sinnary K
El-Badawi ES
Elbihari S
Elham
Abdalla
Ahmed
Elham
Elsayed
Kardman
Elmahdi IE
Elowni EE
Elsheikh HA
Fadia Yagoub Ali
Hamid

2, 46
47, 52
47, 48, 275, 277
49
51, 185
22, 27, 29, 41, 47, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57,
58, 88, 113, 114, 115, 126, 150, 155, 187, 189,
190, 203, 242, 282
51, 56, 59, 157, 187, 189, 240, 242, 276
60, 228
61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 68, 69, 71, 72, 74, 95, 96,
292, 293, 294
67
3, 8, 13, 14, 15, 64, 71, 72, 73, 95, 96, 142,
143, 144, 231, 283, 291
80, 236, 268
81
82
36, 83, 84, 85, 249, 255, 266
87, 147, 148
14, 88, 131, 134
89, 231
37, 90, 91, 92, 93, 143, 144, 146, 231
39, 61, 64, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 95, 96,
274, 283, 284
75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 299
97, 98, 99
100
60, 101, 102
103, 104, 105, 106, 120, 128, 216, 224, 225
107, 108
109, 110, 211
178

Fadl M
Fatima El Sammani
El Sheikh
Fayza A Omer
Galal El Tayeb
Osman Ali
Gameel AA
Ghada H. Abdel
Nabi
Gundi
Suliman
Gasmir
Hago, B.E.D
Hamid ME
Hamza Mohamed
Tola
Hanan A.M. Karar
Hanan Dafaalla
Haroun E M
Hassan T
Higazi TB
Husna M El Bashir
Hussein HS
Hussein MF

Ibrahim K
Ibtisam A Goraish
Idris A
Inas A E
Intisar A Badawi
Intisar Elfadil Saeed
Ishraga S Abdel
Hafiz,
Islim, MW

50, 94, 111, 213, 296


86, 112
113, 114, 115, 116, 142
118
1, 57, 86, 88, 106, 119, 131, 133, 134, 138,
282, 288
120, 121, 301
122, 231
124
125, 211, 207
127
128
129, 130
1, 21, 53, 86, 88, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136,
137, 138, 139, 140, 152, 153, 282, 288
21, 104, 224, 225
141
142, 143, 144
22, 32, 33, 37, 40, 42, 76, 77, 87, 90, 91, 93,
145, 146, 147, 148, 216
22, 31, 32, 33, 48, 51, 54, 55, 56, 57, 93, 136,
137, 145, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155,
156, 157, 187, 188, 189, 240, 241, 242, 243,
275, 276
158, 159, 176
160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 190,
191, 204, 231, 234, 237
168
171
172
173
174
175
179

Karib, EA
Karoum KO
Khalid Adam Ali
Musa
Kheir HSM
Khitma H Elmalik
Koko WS
Mackenstedt
Magzoub M
Mahmoud M
Majid AA

Malek EA
Marshall TF
Mazahir M Kheir
Mc Cauley EH,
McGarry JW,
Misk El Yemen
Abdel Atti
Mohamed AA
Mohamed Alwathig
Ahmed
Mohamed AS
Mohamed El Amir
Sid Ahmed
Mohamed
Sadig
Saleem
Mohamed IM
Mohammed OB,
Morghan M.M.,
Mukhtar MM
Muna
Mahmoud
Salih
Musa El Nur Beshir
Mustafa MB
Nadia Ahmed Ali
Mohamed

175, 177
298
178
179, 180, 274, 283, 284
29, 43, 47, 52, 53, 57, 58, 97, 98, 206
181, 182, 280
60, 228
11, 37, 42, 50, 101, 171, 184, 185, 247, 248,
253, 254
23, 25, 41, 43, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 113, 114,
115, 164, 165, 187, 188 189, 190, 191, 201,
202, 203, 236
192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200
51, 56, 187
300
201, 202, 203
164, 165, 204
205
206
208
209
212
214
215
216
183, 217
52, 141, 164, 165
218
219
220
221, 222
180

Najat
Abdalla
Mohamed
Nelson GS
Nurelhuda IE,
Ohood Abd El
Salam Salim
Omer RA,
Osama
Badri
Mohamed
Osama
Hassan
Omer
Osman O.M
Ramadan OR
Rogia
Osman
Elhassan.
Romig T
Saad A M
Saad MB
Saadia A
Saleem MS
Salah M Kheir
Salma Ali Ragab
Saida A Younis
Sara Ali Ibrahim
Sawsan
Hassan
Taha
Sayda Ahmed Omer
Sayid ASA.,
Seri H. I
Sheiba H. A.
Shommein AM
Siddig AM
Sijoud
Fadl
Elmoula
Sirag B Sirag
Slepnov NK
Somia
Abbas
Khidir Abbas

223
51, 187, 189, 275, 276
104, 170, 224, 225
226
158, 159, 227, 228, 238
229
230
232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237
295
239
60, 101, 159, 227, 228
51, 56, 66, 187, 217, 240, 241, 242, 243, 244
61, 64, 101, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251,
252, 253, 254, 255, 256
302
297
258
259
141, 142, 143, 144
260
261
262
263
10, 264
265, 266
267
268
269
270
68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 271
272
181

Suhair
Sayed
Mohamed
Suliman MZ
Taylor MG
Um El Alim Abakar
Idris.
Wafaa
Mohamed
Kheir
Woodruff AW,
Yagi AI,
Yagoub IA,
Yaguob Adam Idris
Yahya Musa Osman
Yasmin
Ibrahim
Mahgoub
Younis SA,
Yousif
Ahmed
Mohamed
Yousif Mohamed
Abdel Razig
Zakia, A Mohamed

273
231, 274
27, 48, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 157, 187,
188, 189, 240, 242, 275, 276, 277, 282, 288
278
279
281
16, 282, 288
283, 284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291

Contact the Author: osmanmukhtar10@hotmail.com

182