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Original Title: Reflectionless Filters with Arbitrary Transfer Functions

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Functions

Mohammad Khalaj-Amirhosseini and Arefeh Khalaj-Amirhosseini

AbstractIn this paper, a configuration is introduced as a reflectionless filter which can have an arbitrary transfer function. The

proposed configuration consists of two suitable complementary circuits. A methodology and some formulas are obtained to

design exactly the proposed configuration. Some examples are instanced to verify the efficiency of the introduced idea to make

reflectionless filters.

Index TermsReflectionless Filters, Matched Filters, Passive Filters, Filter Design.

1 INTRODUCTION

circuits. Usually, filters are based on reflecting undesired frequencies. However, in some applications

such as mixers and high gain amplifiers, it is better to

absorb rather than reflect undesired frequencies. On this

basis, reflectionless, absorptive or all-frequency matched

filters could be useful and even necessary. A conventional

approach to design a reflectionless filter is using directional couplers or circulators along with conventional

filters [1]. However, these types of devices are narrowband and difficult to integrate within a compact multichip module. Recently, an idea has been introduced on

the basis of connecting two symmetric filters to each other

[2-3]. An important drawback of this idea is that the values of the elements of two symmetric filters are determined to create the duality condition not to create the

desired transfer function [2-3]. Hence, although the resultant filters are reflectionless but they have an imposed

transfer function rather than arbitrary one. In this paper,

another idea is proposed to design reflectionless filters

which have arbitrary transfer functions. This idea is based

on connecting two suitable complementary circuits to

each other. This idea is inspired by [4] in which multiplexers are designed by connecting some complementary

filters to each other. Here, a methodology and some rigorous formulas are obtained to design two complementary circuits of the proposed reflectionless filters.

to the resistive load Z0 and a lossy one-port circuit connected to the input port of the lossless one, in parallel.

The lossless circuit should have a singly-loaded transfer function equal to H (s ) V out (s) 2H (s ) A (s ) , in

T

V in (s)

B (s )

which A(s) and B(s) are known polynomials. Also, the

lossy circuit must be complementary of the lossless circuit

so that Y c (s ) Y (s ) Z 01 , where Y(s) is the input admittance of the lossless circuit and Yc(s) is the admittance of

the lossy circuit.

Z0

Vs

+

Y c(s)

V

(RLC) in

Zin(s)=Z0

+

Lossless (LC)

H(s)

Fig. 1 depicts the proposed configuration as a reflectionless filter terminated to resistor Z0 whose total transfer

function is H (s ) V out (s) 1 A (s ) while its input reflecT

V s (s) 2 B (s )

tion coefficient is zero, i.e. Zin=Z0. This configuration consists of two circuits; a lossless two-port circuit connected

Z0

Y(s)

3 DESIGN METHODOLOGY

Since the two-port circuit is assumed lossless, the following equation would be hold from equality of its input and

output powers, i.e. V in2 Re Y ( j ) V in2 | H ( j ) |2 / Z 0 .

Re Y ( j ) | H ( j ) |2 H ( j )H ( j )

Vout

(1)

D (s )

tance of the lossless circuit and we have to find its numerator and denominator, C(s) and D(s).

It is known that the real part of any function versus

frequency , is equal to its even part versus laplace parameter s, when s = j. Therefore, according to (1), the

normalized admittance, Y (s ) , would have an even part,

M Y (s ) which is equal to H (s )H (s ) . Therefore,

University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran.

A. Khalaj-Amirhosseini is with School of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran.

2016 JOT

www.journaloftelecommunications.co.uk

2

M Y (s )

M C (s )M D (s) N C (s )N D (s)

A (s )A (s )

H (s )H (s )

D (s )D (s )

B (s )B (s )

(2)

where MX(s) and NX(s) are respectively the even and odd

parts of the corresponding polynomials C(s) or D(s).

According to (2), we will have the following equations

to find the unknown polynomials C(s) and D(s) for Y (s ) .

D (s ) B (s ) M B (s ) N B (s)

M C (s )M B (s) N C (s )N B (s) A (s )A (s )

(3)

(4)

the following function.

Y c (s ) 1 Y (s )

E (s ) B (s ) C (s )

B (s )

B (s )

(5)

According to (1) and (5), the real part of the normalized complementary admittance versus frequency would

be as follows.

(6)

Re Y c ( j ) 1 Re Y ( j ) 1 | H ( j ) |2

must be Positive Real (PR) functions [5-6]. It means that

the real part of both of them must be nonnegative at all

frequencies. With reference to (1) and (6), this condition

will be met if the arbitrary transfer function H(s) has the

following limitation.

(7)

0 | H ( j ) |2 1; [0, )

The easy condition (7) beside that A(s) and B(s) have zeros only in the right hand side of s-plane (they are Absolute Hurwitz [5]), guarantee the realizability of both admittances Y (s ) and Y c (s ) . Also, it is possible to realize

more than one circuit for these two realizable admittances. So, the resultant circuits may be not unique.

0.491

. The normalized ads 3 0.988s 2 1.238s 0.491

mittances are obtained from the proposed methodology

H (s )

and

s 3 0.988s 2 1.238s 0.491

s 3 0.326s 2 0.584s

. Fig. 4 shows the realY c (s ) 3

s 0.988s 2 1.238s 0.491

ised circuits for these admittances. The lossy circuit is

realized by Brune's method [6] and can be realized by

other methods such as Bott-Doffin's [6] one. Fig. 5 shows

the voltages at input and output ports of the lossless circuit versus frequency obtained by HSPICE simulator,

assuming Vs=1.0 V and applying a frequency scaling kf

=106/2. It is seen that the input voltage is constant and

equal to 0.5Vs which means Zin=Z0 or the input reflection

is zero.

as

Y (s )

order

n=3,

whose

transfer

function

is

15

and has a group delay equal to

H (s ) 3

s 6s 2 15s 15

Tg = 1 sec. . The normalized admittances are obtained

from

the

proposed

methodology

as

3

2

1 18s 2 108s 225 and

1 15s 72s 117s .

Y (s )

Y c (s )

15 s 3 6s 2 15s 15

15 s 3 6s 2 15s 15

0.667 F

1.5 H

2F

0.5 H

1.33 F

0.75 H

a

b

Fig. 2 Realized circuits for Example 1, assuming Z0=1 . a) Lossless

circuit b) Lossy circuit.

To validate the aforementioned methodology and its design formulas, four examples are given.

Example 1: Consider a normalized lowpass butterworth

filter of order n=3, whose transfer function is

H (s )

1

3

s 2s 2s 1

Y (s )

3

2

1 2s 2 4s 3

and Y c (s ) 1 3s 4s 2s .

3 s 3 2s 2 2s 1

3 s 3 2s 2 2s 1

Fig. 3 shows the voltages at input and output ports of the

lossless circuit versus frequency obtained by HSPICE

simulator, assuming Vs=1.0 V and applying a frequency

scaling kf =106/2. It is seen that the input voltage is constant and equal to 0.5Vs which means Zin=Z0 or the input

reflection is zero.

Example 2: Consider a normalized lowpass chebyshev

filter of order n=3, whose transfer function is

Fig. 3 The voltages at input and output ports of the lossless circuit of

Example 1, versus frequency, assuming Vs=1.0 V and kf =106/2.

1.189 F 3.95 H

1.511 H

1.01 H

3.07 H

5.08 H

1.653

1.335 F

0.338 F

a

b

Fig. 4 Realized circuits for Example 2, assuming Z0=1 . a) Lossless

circuit b) Lossy circuit.

3

5 SOME POINTS

Fig. 5 The voltages at input and output ports of the lossless circuit of

Example 2, versus frequency, assuming Vs=1.0 V and kf =106/2.

0.52 F

0.833 H

0.167 H

0.48 F

1.383 H 0.048 F

2.84

highpass, and specially bandpass or bandstop transfer

functions, we had better realize a reflectionless filter with

a proper lowpass transfer function, at first, and then use

the well-known filter transformations [5] to change its

elements. This is because the degree of bandpass and

bandstop filters are twice their equivalent lowpass filters.

Furthermore, it is provable that the complementary

circuit for filters of butterworth transfer uitfunction, H(s),

is exactly a lossless filter terminated to Z0 of butterworth

transfer function 1-H(s). This property can be verified in

example 1. This property is useful for designing high frequency microstrip bandpass filters [4], whose complementary circuit will be a bandstop filter.

4.59

a

b

Fig. 6 Realized circuits for Example 3, assuming Z0=1 . a) Lossless

circuit b) Lossy circuit.

1H

1F

1H

1F

1

a

b

Fig. 8 Realized circuits for Example 4, assuming Z0=1 . a) Lossless circuit b) Lossy circuit.

6 CONCLUSION

Fig. 7 The group delay and voltages at input and output ports of the

lossless circuit of Example 3, versus frequency, assuming Vs=1.0 V

and kT =250 10-9.

which could have an arbitrary transfer function while it is

matched in all frequencies. A methodology and some rigorous formulas are obtained to design two complementary circuits of the proposed reflectionless filters. Some

examples are instanced to verify the efficiency of the introduced idea to make reflectionless filters. It was seen

that any transfer function whose magnitude is less than

one at all frequencies is realizable as a reflectionless filter.

REFERENCES

Fig. 6 shows the realised circuits for these admittances.

Fig. 7 shows the group delay as well as the voltages at

input and output ports of the lossless circuit versus frequency obtained by HSPICE simulator, assuming Vs=1.0

V and applying a time scaling kT =250 10-9 or equivalently Tg = 250 nsec. . It is seen that the input voltage is constant and equal to 0.5Vs (the small existing variation is

related to finite precision of the elements values) which

means Zin=Z0 or the input reflection is zero.

Example 4: Consider a very simple bandpass filter of des

gree 2, whose transfer function is H (s )

. The

2

s s 1

normalized admittances are obtained from the proposed

2

s

methodology as Y (s )

and Y c (s ) s 1 .

s 2 s 1

s 2 s 1

Fig. 8 shows the realised circuits for these admittances.

This bandpass filter could be realized if the lowpass filter

with transfer function of degree 1, H (s ) 1 , is realized

s 1

at first and then the transformation s (s 2 1) / s is used.

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

Proc. IRE, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 10181024, Aug. 1956.

M. Morgan and T. Boyd, "Theoretical and experimental study

of a new class of reflectionless filter," IEEE Trans. Microwave

Theory Tech., vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 1214-1221, May 2011.

M. Morgan and T. Boyd, Reflectionless Filter Structures, IEEE

Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 63, no. 4,

pp. 1263-1271, April 2015.

G. Matthaei, L. Young, and E. Jones, Microwave Filters, Impedance Matching Networks, and Coupling Structures. Norwood, MA:

Artech House, 1980.

Harry Y-F. Lam, Analog and digital filters: design and realization,

Prentice-Hall Inc., 1979.

M. E. V. Valkenburg, Introduction to modern network synthesis,

John Wiley & Sons, 1967.

M. Khalaj-Amirhosseini was born in Tehran, Iran in 1969. He received his B.Sc., M.Sc and Ph.D. degrees from Iran University of

Science and Technology (IUST) in 1992, 1994 and 1998 respectively, all in Electrical Engineering. He is currently a Full Professor at

College of Electrical Engineering of IUST. His scientific fields of interest are electromagnetic, microwaves and antennas.

A. Khalaj-Amirhosseini was born in Tehran, Iran in 1995. She is

currently is studying to get B.Sc. Degree from Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST) in Electrical Engineering.

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