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I.1 Background of the Study
Teaching and learning cannot be separate, because they are two processes
that relate each other. Teaching is a process of transferring knowledge to someone,
and learning is a process of getting knowledge from someone.
Brown (2000:7) states that:
Learning is acquiring or getting of knowledge of a subject or skill by
study, experience, or instruction. A more specialized definition might read
as follows. Learning is relatively permanent change in behavioral
tendency and is the result of reinforced practice. (Kimble &
Garmezy,1963:133). Similarly, teaching which is implied in the first
definition of learning, may defined as showing or helping someone to
learn how to do something, giving instruction, guiding in the study of
something, providing with knowledge, causing to know or understand..
Teaching cannot be defined apart from learning, enabling the learner to
learn, setting the conditions for learning
English as a foreign language in Indonesia is teach from elementary school
to the highest one like university. The goal of this teaching is not only to enable
the students to understand the target language, but also to enable then to use the
language in oral and written activities. Hence, if the students want to master
English well, they have to master four basic language skills; listening, speaking,
reading and writing. Besides the four language skills, the students need to have a
capability of grammar.

According to Leech et. al (2000:4) grammar is a mechanism for putting

words together, but we have said little about sound and meaning. We can think of
grammar as being central part of language which relates sound and meaning. The
meaning of a message conveyed by language has to be converted into words put
together according to grammatical rules, and these words are then convey by
sound. It means that the grammatical aspect becomes one of the essential
requirements for people or students to communicate their message clearly and
The language which is produced may become more accurate and
meaningful when they communicate in grammatical sentences. Lack of
knowledge especially about construction of sentences, for example; the incorrect
use of verbs and tenses is the main deficiency of the students. Most of them find
themselves incapable of expressing their think in English and that is why the
leaning of grammar becomes as boring subject for them. When students learn
English, they try to avoid the grammar because it is confusing and difficult to
understand. For some students who have lack knowledge in grammar, of course
they will get confuse.
Kardimin (2007:155) states that English has three time divisions they are
past, present, and future. Absolutely, the verb in English in influenced with the
time. So the verb is relate with the time. One of the tenses that express action that
happens at the past is simple past tense. It is use to tell something that happen in
the past. In reality, many students are not able to use the simple past tense. There

are some difficulties in learning the simple past tense for the students. First, they
have lack of knowledge of regular and irregular verbs. Second, they do not
memorize the form of regular and irregular verbs. Third, they are still confuse to
use simple past tense. Many of them are still make grammatical error and mistake
when they use of simple past tense.
The difficulties of students in using simple past tense are caused by many
factors from internal and external of the language learner. Internally, the
difficulties of using simple past tense by the students caused by motivation in
leaning, interest and etc. Externally, it concludes method, technique or media use
by teacher in language learning activity. By using suitable method, technique or
media, the teacher hopes that students will enjoy their learning activities.
Chalim (2010:2) say that one of the best ways of teaching grammar
structure is using game. Recently, not only in the Kinder Garden, fun and effective
learning is hope can be apply in English learning process for Junior High School
and Senior High School.
According to Wright, et. al. (2005:1) games can help the students to revise
language they learn. Games also help the teacher to create contexts in which the
language is useful and meaningful.
One of the kinds of games learning is matching games. According to Lie
(2008:28) match method is developed by Lorna Curran, matching game is one of
methods in cooperative study. Cooperative study is based on the philosophy of

homo homini socius, that is the philosophy which emphasizes a human being as a
social creature.
Based on the definition above matching game is a game using flash card
that consists of two kind of cards that is question card (card 1) and answer card
(card 2), The students have to match the answer card to the students in question
card based on the changing verb and tenses. In the activity of finding the correct
partner, it will shows the individual accountability where by each student is
responsible for finding the correct answer, so that the researcher interest will do a
research about the effectiveness of using matching games technique to improve
students ability in irregular verbs of simple past tense.
I.2 Statement of the Problem
The research problem is formulize as this: How is the effectiveness of
using matching game to improve students understanding on irregular verb of
simple past tense at the 2nd grade students of SMA N 2 Tondano?
I.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to find out the effectiveness of using matching
game to improve students understanding on irregular verb of simple past tense at
the 2nd grade students of SMA N 2 Tondano.
I.4 Significance of the Study
The researcher hopes this research will used by teacher
1. To make students interest in learning and will make them to study
hard and mastery grammar well
2. Teacher can use as alternative to solving the problem in English
language learning especially in teaching tenses
I.5 Definition of Key Term

1. Matching games is one of the cooperative study is base on the

philosophy of homo homini socius, that is the philosophy which
emphasizes a human being as a social creature. Lie (2008:28)
2. Simple past tense indicates definite time terminating in the past,
whether a time word is given or not. Actually simple past tense is
a tense that it is used to express an event, action or activity
happens, begins and ends in the past. Frank (1972:73).


The Definition of the Matching Games

Since learning grammar or structure is difficult and sometimes is boring

for the students, teachers have to find the effective way to help students in

learning second language. So the other alternative technique of teaching

English structure is game. The followings are the definition of games
according by some experts.

Harmer (2001:51-52) states that one element necessary for

successful teaching and learning in class is engaging. Engaging is
the point of a teaching sequence where teachers try to arouse
the students interest. Thus involving their emotion, activities
and materials which frequently engage students include: games
(depending on age and type), music discussions (when handled
challengingly), stimulation pictures, dramatic stories, amusing
anecdotes etc.
Murcia et al (1999:53-54) games are fun, and nearly
everyone would agree that if learning can be made enjoyable,
then students will learn more. It is not always realized that
adolescents and adults enjoy games as much as children and if
the purpose of game is explained to them, do not feel that it is
childish or out of place to participate in a game in the language
classroom. In addition, this is not to say that language is not
practiced in ESL game. On the contrary each game, by it. Nature
will focus on one or more aspects of English: say, a grammar
point, a vocabulary area, or a communication skill. Teacher may
expect their students to be concerned not only with object of

game but also with the correctness of their language, at least in

those aspects, which the game is intended to practice. In this
way, a game can be the logical followed-up after students have
been given explanation and drill on a particular point; game is







manipulation communication scale than most other language

classroom activities.
Hadfield (2004:7) the inclusion of games as an integral part
of any language syllabus provides an opportunity for intensive
language practice, offers a context in which language is used
meaningfully and as means to an end, and acts as diagnostic tool
for the teacher, highlighting areas of difficulty. Last, but certainly
not least, although the above discussion has tended to focus on
methodological consideration, one of the most important reasons
for using games is simply that they are immensely enjoyable for
both teacher and student
Agoestyowaty (2007:13) says that using of games in a
learning environment will not only change the dynamic of the
class, but it will also rejuvenate students and help the brain to
learn more effectively. The brain is a muscle just like any other. It
needs to be worked out, tested and put into competitive
situations. The more exciting and interactive a teacher can make

the learning environment, the more a teacher tries to introduce

games and activities, the more a teacher change shapes and
manipulates both the language and environment, the better the
circumstance for learners. Games allow students to work cooperatively, compete with each other, strategize, think in a
different way, compare and share knowledge, learn from others,
learn from mistakes, work in a less stressful and more productive
environment, and allow people to have fun.
Based on the definitions above, the researcher conclude
that one element necessary for successful teaching and learning
in class is engage; an example of engage is a game. There are
two kinds of game; they are competitive game and Co-operative
games. Games can be an integral part of any language syllabus.
Game is used as a method and technique in teaching English. In
communicative language teaching, game is one example of task








Furthermore, game is a teaching device, which is good for

practicing grammar points. Game is an activity with rules, a goal,
and an element of fun. Game can make the teaching learning
process fun and enjoyable because it creates fun and enjoyable
but in disciplined atmosphere. Game can stimulate students to
learn English better, particularly structure and grammar. Game

element creates a desire to communicate. Games can provide

attractive and instructionally effective frameworks for learning
activities; games are attractive because they are fun. One of the
most important reasons for using games is simple that they are
immensely enjoyable for both teachers and students.
Matching game is one of games which is used to help students learn their
lessons in English class easily. According to Lie (2008:28) match method is
developed by Lorna Curran, matching game is one of methods in cooperative
study. cooperative study is based on the philosophy of homo homini socius, that is
the philosophy which emphasizes a human being as a social creature.
According to Ibrahim in Tarmizi (2008) the cooperative learning is a
model of study, which helps the students to learn the content of the academic and
the social relationship. The character of cooperative learning is positive
independently to each other, personal responsibility, face to face communication
and evaluation of process of group.
Based on the definition above matching game is a game using flash card
that consists of two kind of cards that is question card (verb 1) and answer card
(verb 2), The students have to match the answer card to the students in question
card based on the changing verb and tenses, matching game build the positive
interdependence when students are working together in determining their partner.
They also care for their friends learning. In the activity of finding the correct
partner, it shows the individual accountability whereby each student is responsible

for finding the correct answer, so the researcher wants using this technique to
improve students ability in irregular simple past tense.

Definition of English Grammar

English grammar is a science that teaches about manner to speaks, read

and write and make with compose English sentence truly and good. According to
Cook (1980:2), grammar is a written description of the rules of language.
Gerot and Wignel (1995:2) grammar is a theory of language, of how
languages is put together and how it works. Thornbury (1999:13) say that
grammar is define as a description of the rules for forming sentences, including an
account of the meanings that these forms convey.
Grammar adds meanings that are not easily inferable from the immediate context.
The kinds of meanings realize by grammar are principally: Representational that
is, grammar enables us to use language to describe the world in term of how, when
and where things happen.
Based on the explanation above the meaning of message conveyed by
language has to be converted into words put together according to grammatical
rules, and these words are conveyed by sound. It is hoped that the rule of this
grammar helps the readers, listeners, and the viewers to catch the main means of
sentences or utterances that the writer or speaker produces. In short, grammar
means the basic signals by which a language transmits its meanings. So learning
grammar is a must when students are expect to acquire a language.
II.2.1 The Importance of Learning English Grammar

Knowing the meaning of grammar for the students will helps them to
understand why grammar is useful and important in language learning. It is
impossible to learn a language without learning the grammar because it tells for
the students or people how to use the language.
Grammar is important when someone wants to acquire English. Grammar
and language cant be separated, if writers or speakers want to speak in English,
they must know the grammar of English first.
According to Murcia and Freeman (1999:9) grammar is descriptive of
what English speakers do, it must reflect the variable performance of its users.
Kreidler (1998:4) says that if a language has no grammar, its speakers will never
be able to communicate with each other, and thus, they will never know each
other. The new utterances of sentences are usually produce by a speaker will have
different ideas or meanings to his hearers and readers or even they will not be
Consequently, if a language has no grammar, it will never be speak,
because people will be able to learn a language if the language has fix pattern or
regularities. If a language has no grammar, no systematic ordering of its words in
sentences, it can never be learning by a native speaker or by a foreigner.
It is clear that learning English grammar is needed in the English class.
However, there are a lot of theories of grammar or English grammar, there are not
inherently good or bad, right or wrong, true or false, since it is known as the

system of a language which is use to communicate to other people in the right

II.2.2 Definition of Simple Past Tense
According to Ali (2007:270), past tense is one of tenses that show events
in the last time, activity act, the change and/or activity that is done at the last time
in the simple form, and also known the time of event or the activity happened.
This research will use past tense as a sample of grammar, because it is will
representative enough to describe the grammar difficulties for students,
considering of its different basic structures with students first language.
1. Formula of simple past tense
a. Nominal
Subject (He IShe,
+ To be (Was) + noun/adjective/preposition/adverb
wasIt)a student
Subject (He She, It) + To be (Were) + noun/adjective/preposition/adverb
They were in the classroom
b. Verbal
Subject (I, You, We, They, He She, It) + V2
I worked here with you.
He taught English.
II.2.3 Definition of regular and Irregular Verbs
Since verbs change form to show the time of the action, there are two
kinds of verb in the simple past tense. There are: (1) Regular verb and (2)
Irregular verb. When Indonesian students face the simple past tense, they
sometimes make some errors in the changing verb, as in Indonesia there is no
changing verb because of the changing time.

1. Regular verb
According to Martinet and Thomson (1986:161) the form of
regular verb can be divided by; adding ed, add d only, spelling notes, add
change (y) by (i) before adding ed.
Clean - Cleaned
Close - Closed
Admit - Admitted
Carry - Carried
2. Irregular verbs
Frank (1972:61) says that if we want to use irregular verbs of a
tense, we must know the principal Parts of the verb itself. The first
principal part of a verb is the simple form of the verb. The second one is
the past form and the third one is the past participle. Sometimes all three
principal parts are different, sometimes the second and the third ones are
alike, sometimes the first and the third ones are alike, or event sometimes
all three principal parts are alike.




Began Begun




Become Became Become




Research Design
Research design that will use in this research is an experimental, namely a
true experimental research. The propose study is experimental in nature due to the
fact that it tries to verify whether there will be a cause-effect relationship between
the independent variables using matching games and conventional method and the
dependent variable, students knowledge on irregular verb of simple past tense
Independent Variable
Matching Games
Conventional Method

= Affect

Dependent Variable

Students Knowledge on
Irregular Verb

Seen in terms of the nature of the research question and the purpose of the
study, the present study classify as a true experimental research. The trueexperimental research refer to is the one using posttest only control group design,
as this diagram below:


(Gay, 1981)

R = Random
X = Experimental treatment
O = Observation (posttest)
Population and Sample
Population is the entire research subject. Arikunto (2006:130). The
population of this research is all of the 2 nd grade student SMA N 2 Tondano that
consists of 120 students
Sample is a part of population to be researched. Arikunto (2006:131).
Sample in this research are 70 students that will take randomly
Technique for Collection the Data
In collecting the data the researcher will use test. According to Purwanto
(2009:65) Test is an instrument to collect the data that gives response about the
question in the instrument, and the students have to show their ability. In this
research test will use to know students achievement in grammar especially their
knowledge irregular verb of simple past tense. Kind of test that will use in this
research is objective test.

Technique for analyze the Data
The data will analyze using statically analysis.
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