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A composition as a problem V: proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Music Theory,

Tallinn, September 28-30, 2006, ed. M Khumal; Tallinn : Eesti Muusikaakadeemia, 2008.

DRAMATIC EXPRESSION AND FORM IN MOZARTS SONATA


K. 282, FIRST MOVEMENT
Martin Kutnowski
St. Thomas University, Fredericton (Canada)
Interplay between dramatic expression and form is how Charles Rosen refers to the
intimate connection that Mozart achieved between the formal requirements of the
Classical era, on the one hand, and the expressive demands inherent to musical drama, on
the other. In The Classical Style, Rosen discusses numerous cases where Mozart embeds
drama into the musical form. My reference to Rosen is perhaps fitting; in this paper I
attempt to trace the operatic elements inherent to the first movement of Mozarts Sonata
in Eb major, K. 282. Ill argue that understanding the dramatic substance of the
movement allows the listener and the performer to better appreciate its unique
structural and expressive qualities.
As in most classical sonatas, and most other instrumental works by Mozart, this
Adagio does not explicitly refer to any theatrical or programmatic content. If anything, if
present at all, the operatic components would have to be decoded. To do so, Ill look into
the melodic articulation, phrase structure, voice leading, and tonal rhythm of the
movement; this step-by-step analysis will gradually uncover a strong topical allusion to
the established operatic formula consisting of a recitativo followed by an aria. As my
analysis progresses, I will compare the surface and structural features found in the
Adagio with those found in Elviras recitativo In Quali Eccesi, from Don Giovanni. It is
my hope that the analysis of the structure, plus the comparison with this particular
recitativo, will make my case persuasive enough, to at least suggest that the movement
has metaphorical connections with opera.
Example 1 consists of a harmonic reduction of the exposition. Although the
movement is in sonata form, the exposition is unusual in that the tempo is Adagio, a
marking more usual for the second movement of a sonata, rather than the first. The first
theme, bars 18, is indeed felt as Adagio, but the second theme, bars 915, gives the
impression of a faster tempo twice as fast, in fact because of the more active melodic
figuration in the surface, subdivided in sixteenths and thirty-seconds, which suggests a
beat falling in eight notes rather than in quarter notes. Although the long-range harmonic
structure is conventional the first theme is in Eb and the second in its dominant, Bb
major the thematic design is most unusual in that the antecedent of the first theme (bars
14) is omitted in the recapitulation, which starts at bar 22 at a point analogous to bar 4
(bars 48 are both a consequent and a bridge); the antecedent, modified, only returns in
the coda, which comprises the last three bars of the movement.1
1

It is possible, however, to consider the movement as binary in thematic design, but ternary in
terms of its harmonic structure. The segment comprising bars 1621 could be considered both the
recapitulation of the first theme (in terms of motivic design) and the development of a ternary
sonata form (in terms of its harmonic structure).

A composition as a problem V: proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Music Theory,


Tallinn, September 28-30, 2006, ed. M Khumal; Tallinn : Eesti Muusikaakadeemia, 2008.

Example 1. Mozart, K. 282, I, Exposition, bars 115: harmonic reduction

Another element that is unusual for the first theme of a sonata is the instability of the
initial tonic harmony. Not even the first bar of the piece goes by before a new harmonic
area that of the dominant is briefly touched upon. In fact, all the eight bars of the first
theme feature a flexible harmonic rhythm with frequent but very brief visits one could
say hints, really of other key areas: from Eb major to Bb major, to F minor, back to Eb
major, Eb minor, Bb minor, until the arrival to F major, the dominant of V, in bar 8. By
contrast, the second theme, bars 915, is largely diatonic and clearly grounded in B
major; the accompaniment, starting on bar 9, resembles a typical orchestral texture, with
repeated chords in the strings and woodwinds. The one harmonic sophistication of the
second theme is the deceptive cadence in bar 13, which makes the listener feel, if only for
a split second, that the exposition could end there. Instead, the cadence is delayed two
more bars through an internal expansion, building up more tension along the way.
In Musical Meaning in Beethoven: Markedness, Correlation, and Interpretation,
Robert Hatten finds that the dialectic opposition between stylistic topics within a
movement may generate metaphor.2 My working hypothesis here is that the particular
contrasting pathos of these two themes evokes the pairing recitativo plus aria found in
operas of this period.
Some of the immediate elements that suggest the operatic allusion are the features
described above, namely, the instability of the harmony in the first theme, paired with a
slow tempo and a flexible figuration. These parameters could speak perhaps of
psychological disorientation, alluding to the kind of emotional distress that a character
such as Donna Elvira experiences when she gets in touch with her deep feelings towards
Don Giovanni. Another association with vocal music can be partly confirmed with a
quick glance at the initial bars of the sonata, where the exquisite melodic articulation in
short segments in bars 14 (right hand), together with sigh-like rests in bars 47, can be
metaphorically understood as the separate words of a person singing in a recitativo style.3
In the first theme, bars 18, the phrase structure also contains interesting irregularities:
these eight bars are organised not as two units of four bars each, but, thanks to a phrase
overlap, four plus five; bar 4 is both the last bar of the antecedent and the first bar of the
consequent-bridge. Phrase overlaps propel the motion forward, obliterating the
punctuation between phrases. In this case, the overlap is a cosmetic device that allows the
listener to perceive the first theme as a solid unit, rather than as a conglomerate of two
separate ideas.
On a deeper level, the contrapuntal structure and harmonic rhythm of the first theme
project a significant emotional conflict, providing perhaps further evidence of the
2

Foreword to Robert S. Hatten, Musical Meaning in Beethoven: Markedness, Correlation, and


Interpretation (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994): x.
3
The prosodic aspect of this melody has also been noted in Robert O. Gjerdingen, Courtly
Behaviors, Music Perception 13/3 (1996): 365382.

A composition as a problem V: proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Music Theory,


Tallinn, September 28-30, 2006, ed. M Khumal; Tallinn : Eesti Muusikaakadeemia, 2008.

operatic subtext. This conflict is shown in Example 2a, which focuses on the two phrases
that comprise the first theme, antecedent and consequent, bars 18. Notice that bar 4 is
written twice, which is a way to express its dual function, both as the ending of the
antecedent, and as the beginning of the consequent. This reduction allows one to see that
the bass of bars 14 features essentially a scale starting and ending in scale degree 1,
harmonised with a tenth in the upper voice, but distorted through suspensions: the two
voices are occasionally out of phase with one another, and there are also less structurally
significant but significant, nonetheless disruptions in the surface rhythm. The
suspensions suggest a basic pace that is altered, as if the main character has lost his or her
emotional centre.4
Example 2a. Mozart, K. 282, I, bars 18: contrapuntal structure
Tonal rhythm is further complicated in bars 48: the harmonic rhythm suddenly slows
down while the figuration of the accompaniment, in the left hand, speeds up. This second
portion of the first theme has a comparatively simpler contrapuntal structure: suspensions
still exist but they happen less frequently, every four beats. This more relaxed harmonic
treatment, slower and steadier, featuring one chord per bar, is balanced with a more
active pianistic texture in the left hand instead of quarter notes, the left hand is now in
motion, featuring sixteenths. Bars 48 are also complementary to bars 14 in that the
bass, ascending in whole notes, attempts to balance the initial descending motion.
Starting on the low Eb, it seems poised to regain the tenor Eb of the beginning. This
hypothetical ascent ultimately not realised in the actual score is shown in Example
2b. This never-fulfilled ascent is of course shattered by the sudden G in bar 6, which
besides reversing once again the melodic direction, hints at the parallel minor mode. Is
the change of direction in the bass, from ascent into descent, a metaphor for a change of
mind? Is the quick visit to the minor mode a premonitory shudder?
Example 2b. Mozart, K. 282, I, bars 48: failed contrapuntal ascent
An examination of the harmonic rhythm of the exposition provides additional insights
about the potential allusion created by the contrast by between the two themes. As shown
in Example 3, in bars 14, the harmonic rhythm is irregular, featuring chords lasting
eighth notes, quarter notes, half notes, and even a whole note at the end of the antecedent.
Bars 49, on the other hand, are much more regular, featuring either one chord per bar in
bars 4, 5, and 8, or two chords per bar in bars 6 and 7. The graph helps us also see a
hidden parallelism between the consequent of the first theme and the second theme.
Starting on bar 4, each bar is given a dynamic marking that contradicts the written meter,
suggesting a half-note displacement of the metrical accent. It happens in each bar, except
bar 6. In this case, the exception is very effective and coherent, in terms of enhancing
4

The expression basic pace is used in Channan Willner, Sequential expansion and Handelian
phrase rhythm, in Schenker Studies 2, ed. Carl Schachter and Hedi Siegel (Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1999): 192221.

A composition as a problem V: proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Music Theory,


Tallinn, September 28-30, 2006, ed. M Khumal; Tallinn : Eesti Muusikaakadeemia, 2008.

the intensity of expression because it underlines the unexpected switch to the parallel
minor mode.
In bar 8, the score does not specifically ask for any dynamic marking, but I assigned p
and f markings for each half of the bar (indicated between parentheses) based on the
triple appoggiatura in beat 3, which lends its force to the realm of meter (although, since
this is a displaced accent, perhaps I should call it shadow meter.).

Example 3. Mozart, K. 282, I, harmonic rhythm

The harmonic rhythm of the development and recapitulation also exhibits interesting
features. As shown in Example 4, the development features a logical rhythmic
progression, starting with long values, which get progressively shorter towards the
retransition, and that then become stable on V, just before the abbreviated recapitulation.
In terms of metrical structure, the development starts by recalling the mid-bar accent, or
shadow accent, by means of the melodic shape a quick examination of the score will
reveal the octave leap towards the high B, on bar 16. By the time we arrive at bar 18,
however, the situation has been corrected, so to speak, and bars 1821 strongly reaffirm
the written meter. The square-ness of the meter at this point is all the more useful to
enhance the new accentual disruption, conveniently located at the beginning of the
recapitulation, in bar 22. In my graph, I call this moment one of dynamic reversal, and
show it with an upwards arrow on the downbeat of the bar. The accentual reversal at bar
22 is made explicit through dynamic markings; the displaced accent remains consistent
for the whole of the consequent of the first theme, creating thus a shadow meter, up to bar
26, which is analogous to bar 8. Because now there is no incursion into the parallel minor
mode, the p marking in the mid-bar accent has disappeared the sudden p marking of bar
6 would have corresponded to a mid-bar p marking in bar 24.
Example 4. Mozart, K. 282, I, Development and recapitulation: harmonic rhythm

In the second theme, starting on bar 27, we see features almost identical to those of
the exposition, with a strong downbeat in bar 27, in the accompaniment, but the strong
suggestion of a mid-bar downbeat in the melody, one half note later. An important
enhancement of the recapitulation is the change in registers that happens in bars 28, 29,
31, and 32. This mobility within the registral space can be considered part of the
orchestration of the piece, but also, a less neutral interpretation would be perhaps to think
of an alternation between two different vocal tessituras, alto and soprano.
The coda, bars 3436, finally restates the missing antecedent of the first theme. Note
the pp in the downbeat of the last bar of the piece, matched with a rest in the left hand.
This feature creates a kind of negative accent, a sudden vacuum, so to speak, that is
contrasted with the triple appoggiatura on the final tonic chord, again, in the second half

A composition as a problem V: proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Music Theory,


Tallinn, September 28-30, 2006, ed. M Khumal; Tallinn : Eesti Muusikaakadeemia, 2008.

of the bar. This contrast between the two metrical possibilities of the bar nicely sums up
the different nuances of accentual conflict present throughout the movement.
In all, the presence of a mid-bar downbeat is important, because we can interpret it as
one more proof of operatic allusion. The shadow meter I just described is analogous to
what Wolfgang Osthoff calls double downbeat, when discussing the music of Verdi.
Osthoff singles out one of Gildas arias, in Rigoletto, where the accompaniment and the
voice have their own, separate hypermetric and grouping strands, at times one bar away
from one another.5 It would then not be farfetched to think of the accentual ambiguity
present at the beginning of the second theme, bars 9 or 27, as instances that, precisely
through this ambiguity, allude to opera. I have another short example, also from Mozart,
which illustrates this possibility.
In Example 5, I transcribe the initial phrase from the Catalog Aria, from Don
Giovanni, sung by Leporello. In this aria, the orchestra has a definite hyper-downbeat in
the tonic. It cannot be considered just an introduction because it has its own motivic and
melodic life, separate from the melody itself. This example focuses on the initial gesture
of what Wye Jamison Allanbrook calls the choreography of a chase, which consists of a
rising D-major arpeggio alternatively presented in the upper and lower strings.6 After the
downbeat in the bass, the upper strings present first the arpeggio in the high register,
immediately answered in the bass register with cellos and double-basses. I propose that
it would be very unnatural to hear the high arpeggio as an echo of the low arpeggio.
Evidently, the low strings represent Don Giovanni, while the high strings represent the
girls hes chasing. It would be illogical to visualise Don Giovanni running and then the
girls: In a chase, it is the prey what one sees first, and then the predator, coming after.
Incidentally, it would be possible to conduct the second theme of our sonata at a
somehow similar speed than the first portion of the Catalog Aria provided that we
consider the eighth note as the primary beat. Example 6 shows both arias, aligned
vertically.
Example 5. Catalog Aria

Example 6. Metric Comparison

I would like to propose a brief digression to look into another segment of the same
opera, to see if a connection in pathos and musical structure can be found between the
recitativo and the first theme of the Eb-major sonata. In the recitativo In quali eccesi
5

Wolfgang Osthoff, The Musical Characterization of Gilda, Verdi. Bolletino dell' Istituto di
studi verdiani, 3/8 (1973): 12756.
6
Wye Jamison Allanbrook characterises the choreography suggested by the orchestra as
something like the eternal and circular pursuit of male and female a conceit suggested first by
the rhythmic motive tossed continually from upper register to lower and back again [...] See Wye
Jamison Allanbrook, Rhythmic Gesture in Mozart: Le Nozze di Figaro & Don Giovanni (Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 1983): 2412.

A composition as a problem V: proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Music Theory,


Tallinn, September 28-30, 2006, ed. M Khumal; Tallinn : Eesti Muusikaakadeemia, 2008.

(Example 7), which precedes the aria Mi tradi quellalma ingrata, Donna Elvira laments
her fate; she has been betrayed by Don Giovanni, and left alone in the streets:
Recitativo

Recitative
In what excesses, O Heavens,
In what horrible, terrible crimes
The wretch has involved himself!
Ah no! The wrath of Heaven cannot delay,
Justice is upon him.
I already sense the fatal bolt
that is falling on his head!
I see the mortal abyss open!
Unhappy Elvira! what a conflict of feelings
is born in your breast!
Why these sighs?
and these pains?

In quali eccessi, o Numi,


in quai misfatti orribili, tremendi
avvolto il sciagurato!
Ah no! non puote tardar i'ira del cielo,
la giustizia tardar.
Sentir gi parmi lafatale saetta,
che gli piomba sul capo!
Aperto veggio il baratro mortal!
Misera Elvira! che contrasto d'affetti,
in sen ti nasce!
Perch questi sospiri?
e queste ambascie?
Aria

Aria

Mi trad, quell' alma ingrata,


Infelice, o Dio, mi fa.
Ma tradita e abbandonata,
Provo ancor per lui piet.
Quando sento il mio tormento,
Di vendetta il cor favella,
Ma se guardo il suo cimento,
Palpitando il cor mi va.

That ungrateful soul betrayed me,


O God, he made me suffer so much!
But, though betrayed and abandoned,
I still know pity for him.
When I feel my dreadful anguish,
My heart cries out for vengeance,
But when I see the danger hes in,
[I worry about him] My heart starts beating.

Example 7. In quali eccesi (excerpt)


As shown in the excerpt, Elvira starts by saying how much she hates Don Giovanni
and how much she looks forward to the day when he will be punished. Towards the end
of the recitativo, however, as she thinks out loud, she comes to the realisation that she
still has feelings for him, that she fears for his life, and that, ultimately, she would be
more than willing to forgive him if only he would take her back. Note the line that starts
Misera Elvira. It is at this point where the emotional shift happens; Elvira gets in touch
with her inner feelings and realises that she still loves the Don.
The piano reduction and word-painting analysis shown in Example 7 are entirely
mine, but I must acknowledge here the many things I learned about this opera during the

A composition as a problem V: proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Music Theory,


Tallinn, September 28-30, 2006, ed. M Khumal; Tallinn : Eesti Muusikaakadeemia, 2008.

seminar given by Carl Schachter at the Graduate Center in 1997. In many ways, this
reduction is simply a modest extension of professor Schachters work. There are two
segments in this recitativo, highly contrasting in musical expression. The first, full of
anger, uses strong dynamics and a stern figuration in the lower strings, which move in
unison. Word painting is pervasive. The unison of the beginning speaks of Elvira being
clear about her hate for Don Giovanni. Other explicit representations include the fast
descending scales in the violins, representing thunderbolts, the gentle articulations, which
could be perceived as Elviras sighs, and the chromatic appoggiaturas in the strings,
which would be an indication of the intensity of her feelings. Incidentally, all the
appoggiaturas, chromatic or not, together with their resolution by stepwise descent,
mimic the most natural accentuation of Italian verse, that is having accent on the
penultimate syllable, or verso piano: Madamina, il catalogo e questo, or perche queste
sospiri.
The second portion of the recitativo starts with the orchestral phrase shortly before the
line Misera Elvira. Here, the music features an emotional switch, from anger to
compassion, painted with changes in the dynamics, articulations, harmony, orchestration,
and rhythm. This, the switch itself, is to me the most fascinating moment of the
recitativo: after saying how much she would like Don Giovanni to die, Elvira has a
moment to calm down and reflect. She falls silent, the musical space only filled with the
orchestra. In bars 2431, the harmony moves from the key of D minor towards the key of
C minor, and the resolution into the tonic is delayed by extending its dominant. There is
even a 43 suspension in the top voice, a further delay.
These delays paint Elviras resistance to see the truth and connect to her inner
feelings. Eventually, the resolution into C minor marks the precise moment when Elvira
admits to herself that she loves Don Giovanni. From then on, its all love, compassion,
and longing until the end of the recitativo, which then leads into the aria Mi tradi
quellalma ingrata. My point here is perhaps moot, but I want to make it explicit: Mozart
is modifying the harmonic rhythm, expanding the weight of V, with a specific expressive
goal in mind. Incidentally, one could also point out that the aria does go into the parallel
minor mode, a key as dramatic as Eb minor, just like our sonata.
I hope that my brief reference to In Quali Eccesi helps to boost my case. In the first
movement of the Eb sonata, we find the implication of different tempi between the two
themes, as if dividing the exposition of the sonata into recitative and aria. In the musical
surface, and beyond the coincidence of key, we find the soprano-like register of the right
hand and its elaborate two-note articulations, perhaps representing the articulations of
speech-like, Italian vocal music. Along these lines, melodic rests and chromatic
appoggiaturas could be, as in the case of Donna Elviras, interpreted as sighs. On a
subtler level, the unusually chromatic harmony may express the intensity of the
characters emotions, while the irregular rhythm of the contrapuntal progression may be a
metaphor representing an unstable emotional pace, crowned with a quick visit to the
minor mode in bar 7, as if hinting at tragedy. In the middleground, harmonic rhythm and
meter may be also confirming the embedded topical allusion.
As explained by Charles Rosen, operatic gestures are a common subtext in Mozarts
music; this is a subliminal feature that can often be found in his symphonies and chamber

A composition as a problem V: proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Music Theory,


Tallinn, September 28-30, 2006, ed. M Khumal; Tallinn : Eesti Muusikaakadeemia, 2008.

music, but most especially in his piano sonatas.7 Broadly speaking, eighteenth-century
connections between music and other artistic forms can be traced to an overall
preoccupation with expression; in Classic Music: Expression, Form, and Style, Leonard
Ratner explains how, in the eighteenth century, hidden meanings were often encapsulated
in conventional musical gestures, or topics, creating musical allusion.8 In Rhythmic
Gesture in Mozart, Wye Jamison Allanbrook bridges the distance between structure and
expression.9 Robert Hatten points out that hermeneutic interpretations which he calls
leaps of faith must find potential meanings: [...] on the basis of any available
evidence, from any relevant source, and at any level or organisation [...]10 The listener
making the hypotheses must, however, be stylistically competent, conversant on the
expressive conventions of the style. But this aspect the historical, contextual distance
between the eighteenth-century composer and the modern listener makes hermeneutic
interpretations challenging and inherently ambiguous.
One can never be completely sure if the melody of the first theme in this sonata
represents the melody of a soprano character suffering the consequences of failed love,
like Donna Elviras. Musical interpretation can only go as far as the interpretation of a
metaphor. While hearing the first theme, however, and if I close my eyes, I dont find it
too difficult to picture a passionate lady pleading for an impossible love. I hear her
hesitation, her anxiety, her hope. In the second theme, I also hear a conventional aria, a
more formulaic moment where she this hypothetical prima donna sings, accompanied
by the orchestra. As the remaining sections of the movement continue development,
recapitulation, and coda the two topical ingredients are integrated within the sonata
template. To be sure, the result is an atypical Allegro sonata, one with its own obvious
idiosyncrasies. In the end, drama and structure, as they are presented in this piece, are
both justified and coherent in their own terms, while also validated by one another.
Mozart creates in this movement a truly perfect interplay between dramatic expression
and abstract form.

Rosen uses this expression while discussing the operatic qualities of Mozarts Concerto K. 271.
See: Charles Rosen, The Classical Style: Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven (New York: Norton, 1997):
213.
8
Leonard G. Ratner, Classic Music: Expression, Form, and Style (New York: Schirmer Books,
1980): 1.
9
Wye Jamison Allanbrook, Op. cit.: 2.
10
Robert S. Hatten, Op. cit.: 2.

Example 1
Mozart K. 282, I Movement, Exposition, mm. 1-15
Harmonic Reduction
E

E :

E :
B :

f :

Half-Cadence
5

B :

7
6
4

8
5

7
6
4

8
5

4
3

8
6
4

4
3

7
5

deceptive, "failed" cadence

PAC

lead in

13

return to Eb Major

8
6
4

7
5

Example 2
Mozart K. 282, I movement, mm. 1-8
Contrapuntal Structure

measure 4
(fourth measure of the group)

8ve Descent
delay

delay

delay

delay

Overlap: measure 4 is reinterpreted


as the first measure of the next group

"hint" of e minor

7
6
4

8
5

7
6
4

8
5

Example 2b
Mozart K. 282, I movement, mm. 4-8
"Failed" Contrapuntal Ascent
etc.

not by Mozart...
4

Example 3
Mozart K. 282, I Movement, Harmonic Rhythm

First Theme: Antecedent

Half Cadence

First Theme: Consequent-Bridge

(!)

(dynamics implied)

Second Theme

the accentual displacement


changes its pace

(!)

deceptive cadence
(failed conclusion of the Exposition)

PAC

13

lead in

return to Eb Major

Example 4
Mozart K. 282, I Movement, Development and Recapitulation
Harmonic Rhythm
Development
16 high melodic point
(implicit accent)

Retransition

dynamics and metrical structure


are in mutual agreement

Recapitulation: Elided First Theme

22
dynamic reversal!

Half Cadence

(!)

(dynamics implied)

Second Theme

the accentual displacement


changes its pace

27
melody

(!)

model (implied accents correspond to the melody)


deceptive cadence
(failed closing)

PAC
modified
lead in

31

A kind of negative accent,


emphasized with the eighth
rest in the LH
Return of the triple appoggiature

Coda: The Missing Portion of the First Theme


34

(presumably)

in the second half of the measure

Example 5
Catalog Aria
2?

1?
Leporello
Ma - da - mi - na,

il ca - ta - lo - go e ques - to

running girls

Orchestra

etc.

the predator chasing

Example 6
Metric Comparison

1?

2?

Example 7
In quali eccesi (excerpt)
that falls upon his head

To feel already the deadly bolt

Sen - tir

gi par mi la fa - ta - le sa - e

ta,

che

gli piom

- ba sul

ca - po,

fast descending scale: thunderbolt

I see the mortal abyss opening...

a - per - to veg - gio

C minor

D minor

harmonic transition = emotional transition (while Elvira is silent)

Dm :

C Min :

4
2

il

ba - ra - tro

mor - tal...

Poor Elvira, what a conflict of emotions / is born in your bosom!

Mi - se - ra El vi ra,

che con tra - sto d'af fet ti

in sen ti na - sce

4
3

feminine cadence

(avoidance of an overlap)
Cadence in C minor = Elvira's realization

why these sighs?


(sighs)
Per

- ch

que

- sti

articulation and appoggiaturas "paint" Elvira's feelings


34

and this anguish?


pi - ri,
e

que - ste am - ba - scie?

to E Major

sos -