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Domain, Range, and Period of the three main trigonometric functions:

1. sin(x)
Domain: R = (, )
Range: [1, 1]
Period: 2
2. cos(x)
Domain: R
Range: [1, 1]
Period: 2
3. tan(x)
Domain: {x|x 6=

+ k, k = ..., 1, 0, 1, ...} = {x|x 6= ..., 3


, 2 , 2 , 3
, ...}
2
2

Range: R
Period:
Domain, Range, and Definition of the three main inverse trigonometric functions:
1. sin1 (x)
Domain: [1, 1]
Range: [ 2 , 2 ]
Definition: = sin1 (x) means sin() = x when 1 x 1 and

2. cos1 (x)
Domain: [1, 1]
Range: [0, ]
Definition: = cos1 (x) means cos() = x when 1 x 1 and 0
3. tan1 (x)
Domain: R
Range: ( 2 , 2 )
Definition: = tan1 (x) means tan() = x when

<<

I. sin(sin1 (x)) = x when 1 x 1.


II. sin1 (sin(x)) = x when 2 x 2 .
Good I
sin(sin1 (1/2)) = 1/2, since 1 1/2 1
Bad I
sin(sin1 (1.8)) = undefined, since 1.8 < 1
Good II: is in the right quadrant, and written correctly
 

sin1 (sin ) = , since


5
5
2
5
2
Bad II: is in the right quadrant, but written incorrectly
 
9
1
)=?
sin (sin
5
Now 9
is not between 2 and 2 , but it is in the right quadrant, namely quadrant
5
IV . To find the correct angle, simply add or subtract 2 from the angle given until
you get an angle
in the range of sin1 (x). In this case, 9
2 = 5 , so
5

) = 5 .
sin1 (sin 9
5
Worse II: is in the wrong quadrant


sin (sin


6
)=?
5

Here is actually in the wrong quadrant, so we need to flip it across the y axis and
find the associated angle in the right quadrant. You
 canjust look at the picture and
6

1
see that 5 is the correct angle, so sin (sin 5 ) = 5 .

I. cos(cos1 (x)) = x when 1 x 1.


II. cos1 (cos(x)) = x when 0 x .
Good I
cos(cos1 (1/3)) = 1/3, since 1 1/3 1
Bad I

cos(cos1 ( 3)) = undefined, since 1 < 3

Good II: is in the right quadrant, and written correctly


 
4
4
4
1
)=
, since 0

cos (cos
5
5
5
Bad II: is in the right quadrant, but written incorrectly


6
1
cos (cos
)=?
5
Now 6
is not between 0 and , but it is in the right quadrant, namely quadrant
5
II. To find the correct angle, simply add or subtract 2 from the angle given until
+ 2 = 4
, so
you get an angle
in the range of cos1 (x). In this case, 6
5
5

6
4
1
cos (cos 5 ) = 5 .
Worse II: is in the wrong quadrant


cos (cos


6
)=?
5

Here is actually in the wrong quadrant, so we need to flip it across the x axis and
find the associated angle in the right quadrant. You can just look at the picture and
see that 4
is the correct angle, so cos1 (cos 6
) = 4
.
5
5
5

I. tan(tan1 (x)) = x when < x < .


II. tan1 (tan(x)) = x when 2 < x < 2 .
Good I
tan(tan1 (1000)) = 1000, since < 1000 <
Bad I
THERE IS NO BAD I FOR INVERSE TANGENT. Case I always works!
NOTE: Now there are some serious discrepancies between Sin, Cos, and Tan. The way to
think of this is that even if is not in the range of tan1 (x), it is always in the right
quadrant. So there is only Good II and Bad II, no Worse II. That means the only thing
that can go wrong is that the angle was not written correctly.
Good II: is written correctly
 

tan1 (tan ) = , since < <


5
5
2
5
2
Bad II: is written incorrectly


tan (tan


6
)=?
5

Now 6
is not between 2 and 2 , so just like with the Bad II for Sin and Cos, I add
5
or subtract the period until I get an angle that is in the range of tan1 (x). For Sin
and Cos, I add or subtract 2 because that is their period. For Tan, I add or subtract
= 5 , so tan1 (tan 6
) = 5 .
, the period of tan(x). Here 6
5
5
Worse II: is in the wrong quadrant
THERE IS NO WORSE II FOR INVERSE TANGENT. Only Good II and Bad II.