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CHAPTER

5
Worked Example
High Current Measurements

A bar-type current transformer which has 1 turn on its primary and


160 turns on its secondary is to be used with a standard range of
ammeters that have an internal resistance of 0.2s. The ammeter is
required to give a full scale deflection when the primary current is 800
Amps. Calculate the maximum secondary current and secondary
voltage across the ammeter.

Electrical Measurements (BEF 23903)

Contents

Introduction
Types of AC current transformer
Equivalent circuit and phasor diagram
Errors in current transformers
Clamp meter
DC current transformer
Rogowski coil

Electrical Measurements (BEF 23903)

Introduction

For the measurements of large currents in D.C circuit use lowrange ammeters with suitable shunts resistance.
For measuring high voltage low range voltmeters are used with
high resistance connected in series.
This method neither convenient or nor practical for high A.C
current and voltage instruments.
Therefore, Instrument transformers are employed in conjunction
with standard low-range A.C instruments.
The purpose is to reduce the line current or supply voltage to a
value small enough to be easily measured with meters of
moderate size and capacity.
In other words, they are used for extending the range of A.C
ammeters and voltmeters.

Electrical Measurements (BEF 23903)

Instrument Transformers
Types of Instrument Transformer:
Current Transformer (CT) : Used for the measurement of current.
Potential Transformer (P.T) : Used for the measurement of
voltage.

Wiring diagram for CT and PT

Electrical Measurements (BEF 23903)

Current Transformer (CT)

The primary of CT consists of a few turns of thick cross-section


connected in series with the high current line.
Commonly, the primary is just one turn formed (line conductor
through the
secondary
Worked
Examplewinding).
The secondary
winding
consists
ofhas
a large
number
A bar-type
current transformer
which
1 turn on
its primary of
and turns of
160 turns on its secondary is to be used with a standard range of
fine wire designed
for either 5 A or 1 A rating.
ammeters that have an internal resistance of 0.2s. The ammeter is
to give a full scale deflection when the primary current is 800
The CT hasrequired
the
secondary
effectively short-circuited through the
Amps. Calculate the maximum secondary current and secondary
voltage across
the ammeter.
low impedance
of the
ammeter.

Electrical Measurements (BEF 23903)

Basic construction of current transformer (CT)

Electrical Measurements (BEF 23903)

Current Transformer (CT)


The main tasks of a current transformer are:
To transform currents from a usually high value to a value easy to
handle for measuring instruments.
To insulate the metering circuit from the primary high voltage
system.
To provide possibilities of standardizing the measuring
instruments to a few rated currents.

Electrical Measurements (BEF 23903)

CTs in switchboard in electrical substation

Electrical Measurements (BEF 23903)

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CT 220 KV

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Various construction of current transformer used at


power substation
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Advantages of Current Transformer

The measuring instruments can be placed for away from the high
voltage side by connecting long wires to the current transformer.
This ensures the safety of instruments as well as the operator.
A current transformer can be used to extend the range of current
measuring instruments like ammeters (more than 100 A).
The power loss in current transformers is very small as compared
to power loss due to the resistance of shunts.
Very high voltages and amperes can be measured with full safety
to the operator.

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Equivalent Circuit of CT

Basic construction of current transformer (CT)

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Equivalent Circuit of CT

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Equivalent Circuit of CT
Ip

Rp

Xp

Is

Rs

Np:Ns

Xs

Is

Io
Ie
Vp

Re

Im

Xm Ep

Es

ZL = RL + jX L

Vs

Ideal
CT

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Simplified Equivalent Circuit of CT


Is

Ip

Rs

Np:Ns

Is

Io
Ie
Vp

Re

Im
Xm

Ep

Es

ZL = RL + jX L

Vs

Ideal
CT

Simplified Equivalent Circuit for CT

The primary internal voltage drop does not affect the exciting current
and the errors. Therefore the primary internal impedance is not
indicated in the diagram.
The leakage reactance is negligible where continuous ring cores and
uniformly distributed secondary windings are concerned.
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Equivalent Circuit Of CT Referred To The Secondary Side

Ip

Is
Io
Ie

Es

Re

Im
Xe

Vs

ZL = RL + jX L

Note: Rs has been assumed negligible here.

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Phasor Diagram of CT

Is-Secondary Current

Ip

-Ep

Es - Secondary induced emf

KTIs

Ip - primary Current

Ie

Ep - primary induced emf


Io

Im

KT - turns ratio = numbers of secondary

turns/number of primary turns


Io - Excitation Current

Im - magnetizing component of Io
Iw - core loss component of Io
Is

Es

m - main flux.

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Current Transformer Ratios


1. Turns ratio (K t )- This is the ratio of the turns of the transformer
windings.

Ns
Kt
Np

where
Ns = No. of turns in secondary winding
Np = No. of turns in primary winding

2. Transformation ratio (Actual) -This is the ratio of primary


winding current (Ip) to the secondary winding current (Is) of the
transformer;

K act

Ip
Is
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Current Transformer Ratios


3. Nominal ratio ( K nom )- This is the ratio of the rated primary
winding current (Ip(rated)) to the rated secondary winding
current (Is(rated)) of the transformer.

K nom

I p (rated )

K nom K t

I s (rated )

I p (rated )
I s (rated )

Ns
Np

4. Ratio correction factor (R.C.F.) - This is equal to the


transformation ratio divided by nominal ratio.
K act
R.C.F
K nom
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EMF & flux in transformer


1.
2.
3.

In a transformer, source of alternating current is applied to the primary


winding.
Due to this, the current in the primary winding (called as magnetizing
current) produces alternating flux, in the core of transformer.
This alternating flux gets linked with the secondary winding, and
because of the phenomenon of mutual induction an emf, E gets
induced in the secondary winding.

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EMF & flux in transformer

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EMF & flux in transformer

Flux developed in
core,

Induced emf at
primary winding, E1

Induced emf at
secondary winding, E2
N1

N2

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Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday's greatest contribution to physics was to show


that an electric potential, v or , is generated by a coil of wire
when the magnetic flux, B, enclosed by it changes.

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Example 1

A bar-type current transformer which has 1 turn on its primary


and 160 turns on its secondary is to be used with a standard
range of ammeters that have an internal resistance of 0.2 .
The ammeter is required to give a full-scale deflection when the
Worked Example
primary current
is 800 A.
bar-type current transformer which has 1 turn on its primary and
Calculate A160
turns on its secondary is to be used with a standard range of
ammeters that
have an internal
resistance of 0.2s. The ammeter is
i. the maximum
secondary
current
required to give a full scale deflection when the primary current is 800
Amps. Calculate
the maximum
secondary
current and secondary
ii. The secondary
voltage
across
the ammeter.
voltage across the ammeter.

Electrical Measurements (BEF 23903)

[Answer: 5 A, 1 V]

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Example 2

A current transformer has a rating of 50 VA, 400 A/5 A, 36 kV, 50


Hz. It is connected into an a.c. line having a line-to-neutral
voltage of 14.4 kV.
The ammeters, relays and connecting wires on the secondary
side possess a total impedance (burden) of 1.2 . If the
transmission line current is 280 A.
Calculate:
i. The secondary current
ii. The voltage across the secondary terminals
iii. The voltage drop across the primary.
[Answer: 3.5 A; 4.2 V; 52.5 mV]

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Exercise

A toroidal transformer has a ratio of 1000 A/5 A. The line


conductor carries a current of 600 A.
i.

Calculate the voltage across the secondary winding of the


the ammeter has an impedance of 0.15 .
ii. Calculate the voltage drop the transformer produces on the
line conductor
iii. If the primary is looped four times through the toroidal
opening, calculate the new current ratio.

[Answer: 0.45 V; 2.24 mV; 250 A/5 A]


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Example 3
An application requires a 20:5 CT ratio, but only a 50:5 CT is available.
Given that the number of primary turns (Np) is 3.
Determine the number of secondary turns that need to be added so
that a 20:5 actual ratio will be obtained.

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Errors in Current Transformers

In practice, the value of transformation ratio (actual ratio) is not


equal to the turns ratio.
Due to the magnetizing and loss components of the exciting
current, the secondary wingding load and its power factor.
This introduces considerable errors into currents measurements.
Two type of errors due to the use of CT:
Type of Error
1. Ratio error (Current and
Turns)

Due to actual ratio being different from the


turns ratio.

2. Phase angle error

Donated by phase different between primary


and secondary which is different from 180.

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Ip

Rp

Xp

Is

Rs

Np:Ns

Xs

Is

Io

Ie
Vp

Re

Im

Xm Ep

Es

Vs

ZL = RL + jX
L

Ideal
CT

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Ratio Error

Not all the primary current passes through the secondary circuit.
Part of it is consumed by the core, which means that the primary
current is not reproduced exactly.
The relation between the currents in this case will be:
Ns
'
Is
I s I o KT I s I o
Np
Percentage ratio error:

K nom K act

100%
K act

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Current Error

Current error is an error that arises when the current value of the
actual transformation ratio is not equal to rated transformation
ratio.
Current Error %

I s ' I p
Ip

100%

K nom I s I p
Ip

100%

Knom = nominal transformation ratio


Ip = actual primary current
Is = actual secondary current

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Phase Angle Error

For a ideal current transformer the angle between the primary


and reversed secondary current vector is zero.
But for an actual current transformer there is always a difference
in phase between two due to the fact that primary current has to
supply the component of the exiting current.
The angle between the secondary current phasor reversed (Is)
and the primary current (Ip) is termed as Phase Angle Error; that
is,

I s' I p

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Example 4
The primary winding of a 1000/5A, 50 Hz current transformer has a
single turn. Its secondary burden consists of a non-inductive
impedance of 1.4 .
If the iron loss in the core is 1.4 W at full load and magnetizing mmf is
80 AT. Calculate the maximum flux in the core.

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How to Reduce Errors in Current Transformer

In current transformer design, the core characteristics must be


carefully selected because excitation current Io essentially
subtracts from the metered current and affects the ratio and
phase angle of the output current.
The higher the exciting current or core loss the larger the error.

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How to Reduce Errors in Current Transformer

1. Use a core of high permeability, low hysteresis loss magnetic


materials, and large cross section.
Cold rolled grain oriented (CRGO) silicon steel
Hot rolled grain oriented (HRGO) silicon steel

Nickel Iron alloys

2. Keeping the rated burden to the nearer value of the actual


burden.
3. Ensuring minimum length of flux path and increasing cross
sectional area of the core, minimizing joint of the core.
4. Reduce the secondary internal impedance.

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Types of Current Transformers

Bar Type CT

Window Type CT

Bushing Type CT

Wound Type CT
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Outdoor CTs

A CT for operation on a 110 kV grid

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Clamp Meter

A clamp meter is an electrical tester that combines a basic digital


multimeter with a current sensor.
A common form of current sensor comprises a split ring made of
ferrite or soft iron and hinged at one to form a pair of jaws that
can be opened to clamp around the conductor whose current is
to be measured.
The conductor around which it is clamped forms the other
winding.
This allows properties of the electric current in the conductor to
be measured without having to make physical contact with it, or
to disconnect it for insertion through the probe.

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Types of Current Clamp


Current Clamp with

Current Clamp with

Current Output

Voltage Output

Clamps that provide a


voltage output
incorporate a current-tovoltage converter

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Digital Current Clamp

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