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Engineering

DSEAR Technical
Training Course
May 2010

HFL Risk Services Ltd.


Andrew Fowler
Graham Lott

Group Organigram

Risk Organigram

HFL Risk Services Ltd.


Specialising in the development of regulatory
submissions, risk assessments and the development
and implementation of health, safety and
environmental management systems across a wide
and diverse range of businesses:
COMAH Safety Reports
DSEAR Compliance
IPPC Applications
RBI Strategies
PSM (AIMS)

HFL Risk Services Ltd.


HAC and Assessment of Ignition Sources
Fire and Explosion Modelling
Air Dispersion Modelling
OBRA
SMS
Human Factors

Training Programme
Course Content

Day One Morning:


General Appreciation

What are the Dangerous Substances and


Explosive Atmospheres Regulations 2002
(DSEAR)?
What is a dangerous substance?
What is an explosive atmosphere?
What are the main requirements of DSEAR?
How do they affect Vertellus?

Day One Afternoon:


Technical Detail
Hazardous Area Classification
Electrical, Instrument and Mechanical Schedules
Basis of Safety (High level) - Preventive and
Protective Measures
Fire Strategy
Safety Management Systems (high level)
Followed by a written test

Day Two Morning:


Hazardous Area Classification Workshop
Workshops on HAC, Selection of suitable equipment
and pitfalls and criticality of procurement
DSEAR Appreciation Test

Day Two Afternoon:


Mechanical Ignition Risk Assessment
Completion of a MIRA for two equipment items in the
Representative Set

WHAT IS DSEAR?
ATEX (ATmosphres EXplosibles)
Two different EU Directives
ATEX 137 Workplace Directive (duties of end
users of equipment)
ATEX 95 Equipment Directive (duties of
manufacturers of equipment)

WHAT IS DSEAR?
The Dangerous Substances and Explosive
Atmospheres Regulations 2002 implement ATEX
137 in the UK
The Equipment and Protective Systems Intended for
Use in Potentially Explosive Atmospheres
Regulations 1996 (EPS) implement ATEX 95
This course is concerned with both sets of
Regulations. DSEAR is enforced by HSE and EPS
by the Department for Business, Enterprise &
Regulatory Reform (BERR)

Connection Between ATEX 137


and ATEX 95

DSEAR Dial

What is a Dangerous Substance?


Explained in DSEAR classified as explosive,
oxidising, flammable, highly or extremely flammable
Includes substances or mixtures that could cause
harm to people from fires or explosions
Examples - LPG, paints, varnishes, solvents
Dusts which, when mixed with air, could cause an
explosive atmosphere

Triangle of Fire

Fires and Explosions - Examples


Bradford City Football Ground Fire (56 fatalities)
Example of
Flash Fire i.e. rapidly moving flame front
Poor Housekeeping
Ineffective Means of Escape

Bradford City Football Ground 1985

Fire (White Spirit)

Dust Explosions

Dust Explosions

Thermite Reaction
Add Film Clip

BLEVE
Show BLEVE Train LEAVE IN FOR THE MOMENT;
SHOW ANY FILM CLIPS FOR BLEVE & VCE.

Flammable Substances
Flammable liquids have a flash point of 55C or
below
Flash point is the lowest temperature at which a
liquid gives off enough vapour to form an ignitable
mixture with air
Flash point should not be confused with auto-ignition
temperature
Vapours have flammable limits in air, e.g., for
methanol the lower flammable limit is 5.2% and the
higher limit 44%
Flammable limits change with temperature, pressure
and the presence of inerting agents

Explosive Atmospheres
An accumulation of gas, mist , dust or vapour, mixed
with air, which has the potential to catch fire or
explode

HAZID Matrix

Flammability Relationships

Effect of Temperature on Lower Limits


of Flammability

Effect of Pressure on Flammability

Minimum Ignition Energy


Lowest amount of energy required for ignition
Major variable, dependent on:
- Temperature
- % of combustible in combustant
- type of compound

Minimum Ignition Energy

DSEAR Approved Codes of Practice


ACoPs and Guidance published by HSE
Unloading Petrol from Road Tankers (L133)
Design of Plant, Equipment and Workplaces (L134)
Storage of Dangerous Substances (L135)
Control and Mitigation Measures (L136)
Safe Maintenance, Repair and Cleaning Procedures
(L137)
Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmospheres
Regulations (L138)

Published Guidance

DSEAR Road Map

Main Requirements of DSEAR


Duty to carry out a risk assessment of any work
activities involving dangerous substances
Measures to eliminate or reduce risks as far as is
reasonably practicable
Provide equipment and procedures to deal with
accidents and emergencies
Provide information and training
Classify places where explosive atmospheres may
occur

Equipment Protective Systems


Equipment used in hazardous areas must not
present an ignition risk
Need to consider both electrical and mechanical
aspects

How Does DSEAR Affect Vertellus?


Flammable liquids - e.g., toluene, methanol, acetone,
acetonitrile
Flammable gases - natural gas, ammonia, hydrogen,
propane
Flammable dusts - DCDPS, topanol, diphenyl
sulphone

Hazardous Area Classification

HAC - Zoning
Available Guidance
Institute of Petroleum Model Code of Safe Practice,
Part 15 - Area Classification Code for Installations
Handling Flammable Materials
BSEN 60079-10-1: 2009: Classification of Areas Explosive gas atmospheres

Hazardous Area Concept

Zone Definition

Zone 1 Primary Release

Zone 2 Secondary Release

Influence of Ventilation on Zone Type

Equipment Classification
Category 1 for Zone 0/20
A very high level of protection that offers protection
even against rare incidents
Category 2 for Zone 1/21
High level of protection for equipment faults which
normally have to be taken into account
Category 3 for Zone 2/22
Normal level of protection during normal operation

EPS Equipment Plate

Protection Concepts - Electrical


Method of Protection

Code letter

Oil immersion

Pressurisation

Powder filling

Flameproof

Increased safety

Intrinsic safety

ia or ib

Non-incendive

Encapsulation

Special

Protection Concepts Non Electrical


Method of protection

Code letter

Flow restricting enclosure

fr

Flameproof enclosure

Constructional safety

Pressurised equipment

Liquid immersion

Inherent safety

Ingress Protection (IPxx)


Solids

Liquids

No protection

No protection

Protection against solid objects up to 50mm

Protected against vertically falling drops of water

Protection against solid objects up to 12mm

Protected against water spray up to 15 from


vertical

Protection against solid objects up to 2.5mm

Protected against water spray up to 60 from


vertical

Protection against solid objects up to 1mm

Protected from water sprays from all directions

Protected against dusts (no harmful deposits)

Protected from water jets from all directions

Totally protected against dust

Protected from strong water jets from all


directions (offshore)

Protected from immersion 0.15 to 1.0m

Protected against long immersion under


pressure

EPS Gas Grouping


Gas Group

Representative Gas

CENELEC

(Comit Europen de Normalisation


lectrotechnique) EN 50 014, IEC

I (mining)

Methane

IIA

Propane

IIB

Ethylene

IIC

Hydrogen

EPS Temperature Classification


Temperature Class (T Class)

Maximum Surface
Temperature (C)

T1

450

T2

300

T3

200

T4

135

T5

100

T6

85

Asset Register
HAND ROUND AN EXAMPLE REGISTER AND
SCHEDULE
An asset register should be set up
An inspection schedule should be set up in line with
this
The schedules show criteria for apparatus,
installation and environment that need to be checked
Criteria include satisfactory condition of enclosure,
no obvious damage to cables and satisfactory
insulation resistance

Basis of Safety High Level


NICK TO LOOK ON WEB FOR INFO THEN ASK
ANDY
For each plant area where there is a potential for flammable
atmospheres a Basis of Safety must be identified. This may
be Explosion Protection (e.g. by relief panels) or Explosion
Prevention (e.g. elimination of ignition sources or avoidance
of flammable atmospheres). Where explosion protection is
required, means of isolation are required to prevent
propagation.

Basis of Safety Hard Measures


Include the triangle of fire NEED TO IMPORT A
DIAGRAM

Basis of Safety Hard Measures


Exclude oxygen, fuel and/or sources of ignition
Must consider all potential ignition sources - flames,
sparks, static discharge, friction, chemical reaction not just electrical
Protection concepts - mechanical & electrical,
intrinsically safe equipment
Ensure flash points of flammable materials are not
exceeded
Inerting - need to define the limiting oxygen
concentrations that support combustion

Basis of Safety Hard Measures


Control of electrostatic ignition sources
Earthing of all metal items
Antistatic/conductive flooring
Use of antistatic materials, including shoes and
gloves
Maximum solvent transfer velocity (e.g., <1m.s-1)

Basis of Safety Hard Measures


Other controls
- Control of Substances Hazardous to Health
(COSHH) considerations should ensure releases of
solvent into the workplace do not occur
- Integrity of vessels proven by pressure/vessel testing

Basis of Safety Soft Measures


Inherent Safety - avoid flammable materials if options
are available
Inventory Reduction
Safe Maintenance Procedures
Permit to Work System

Fire Strategy
Discuss with Neil more info needed

Safety Management System


Duty to use a suitable Safety Management System to
ensure that an adequate level of explosion safety is
maintained
Training
Operating Instructions
Permit to Work Systems
Management of Change
Risk Assessments
Control of Contractors
Emergency procedures.
Ex signage.

MIRA Overview

MIRA Normal Operation

MIRA Failure Condition

MIRA Report

Questions / Comments?