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The directional derivative of a function f is a more general derivative compared with the partial

derivatives of the function. It gives the slope of the tangent line to the surface along a certain

direction from a point (x, y).

Two-Variable Case

Definition. Let f be a function of x and y. The directional derivative of f at any point (x, y) along

the direction of a unit vector ~u = hu1 , u2 i is defined by

f (x + hu1 , y + hu2 ) f (x, y)

,

h0

h

if this limit exists.

Example: 2(a).

Remarks:

3+3

S : z = f (x, y) and the vertical plane passing through P (x0 , y0 , f (x0 , y0 )) along the direction

of the vector ~u. [ insert diagram ]

2. If ~u = i = h1, 0i, then D~u f (x0 , y0 ) = fx (x0 , y0 ).

3. If ~u = j = h0, 1i, then D~u f (x0 , y0 ) = fy (x0 , y0 ).

~ is the vector defined by

Definition. Let f be a function of x and y. The gradient of f , denoted f

~ (x, y) = hfx (x, y), fy (x, y)i

f

Example: 2(b). h2, 6i

Theorem. If f is a differentiable function of x and y, then f has a directional derivative along any

unit vector ~u and

~ (x0 , y0 ) ~u

D~u f (x0 , y0 ) = f

Proof. From the definition,

f (x0 + hu1 , y0 + hu2 ) f (x0 , y0 )

h0

h

g(h) g(0)

= lim

h0

h

0

= g (0)

D~u f (x0 , y0 ) =

lim

where ~u = hu1 , u2 i and g(h) = f (x0 + hu1 , y0 + hu2 ). According to the general chain rule,

f dx f dy

+

x dh y dh

= fx (x, y)u1 + fy (x, y)u2

g 0 (h) =

~ (x0 , y0 ) ~u

= f

Examples: 2(c).

~

1. The maximum rate of change of f at a point (x, y) is f

(x, y) and this is attained along

~ (x, y).

f

1

~

2. The minimum rate of change of f at a point (x, y) is
f

(x, y)
and this is attained along

~ (x, y).

f

~ (x, y) and ~u. Then

Proof. Let ~u be a unit vector and let be the angle between f

~ (x, y) ~u

D~u f (x, y) = f

~

=
f

(x, y)
k~uk cos

~

=
f

(x, y)
cos

Thus, D~u f (x, y) is maximum when cos = 1 and attains its minimum value when cos = 1.

Remark: If f is a function of x, y and z, and ~u = hu1 , u2 , u3 i is a unit vector, then

~ (x, y, z) = hfx (x, y, z), fy (x, y, z), fz (x, y, z)i

1. f

~ (x, y, z) ~u

2. D~u f (x, y, z) = f

3z

3z

2 2 1

Examples: 12. 4; 14.

,

, 3 ln(x + y) ; 15(a). 8/189; 15(b) , ,

x+y x+y

3 3 3

Homework

I, 6, 9, 16.

We already know how to find an equation for the tangent plane to the surface described by the

equation z = f (x, y). In this section, we are going to generalize the concept of the tangent plane to

cases where the equation of the surface is defined implicitly, i.e., F (x, y, z) = 0 or F (x, y, z) = k (for

some constant k). We can also extend this discussion to finding equations of tangent lines to curves

in 2D defined implicitly (F (x, y) = k for some constant k).

Theorem. Let S be a surface whose equation can be written in the form F (x, y, z) = k, where k is

~ (x0 , y0 , z0 ).

a constant. A normal vector to the tangent plane to S at a point P (x0 , y0 , z0 ) is F

~

~ 0 ) = hx0 , y0 , z0 i.

Proof. Let R(t)

= hx(t), y(t), z(t)i be any curve on S through point P such that R(t

Then for any t,

F (x(t), y(t), z(t)) = k.

Differentiating both sides with respect to t,

Fx (x(t), y(t), z(t)) x0 (t) + Fy (x(t), y(t), z(t)) y 0 (t) + Fz (x(t), y(t), z(t)) z 0 (t) = 0

~ (x(t), y(t), z(t)) R

~ 0 (t) = 0. In particular, F

~ (x0 , y0 , z0 ) R

~ 0 (t0 ) = 0, and hence

or equivalently, F

0

~

~

F (x0 , y0 , z0 ) R (t0 ).

~ 0 (t0 ) is a vector tangent to the curve R

~ at the point P , and the curve was arbitrarily

Since R

~

chosen, then F (x0 , y0 , z0 ) is a normal vector to the tangent plane to S at P .

Example: 4. tangent plane x = 2, normal line ht + 2, 2, 1i

Remarks:

1. To find tangent line to the curve of intersection of two surfaces,

2

(b) Get the normal vectors to each surface at the given point.

(c) Find a vector perpendicular to the two normal vectors (the cross product).

(d) Find equations of the line given a point and a direction vector.

2. To show that two surfaces are tangent to each other,

(a) Check if the given point is common to both surfaces!

(b) Get the normal vectors to each surface at the given point.

(c) Parallel normal vectors and a common point implies that the two surfaces are tangent

(since they share a common tangent plane).

Examples: 5.

x3

y+3

z2

=

=

; 6. N1 = 4i and N2 = 2i

10

14

3

If C is a curve whose equation can be written in the form F (x, y) = k (where k is a constant), then

~ (x0 , y0 ).

a normal vector to the tangent line to C at a point P (x0 , y0 ) is F

Example: 9. x + 4y 9 = 0

Summary

To summarize the difference between the uses of the gradient of a function, take note of the following:

1. If the function is defined explicitly (either z = f (x, y) or w = f (x, y, z)), the gradient of f

gives the direction where the value of the function increases at the fastest rate.

2. If a curve (2D case) or a surface (3D case) is defined implicitly (either F (x, y) = 0 or

F (x, y, z) = 0), then the gradient of F is a vector that is normal to the curve or surface.

Homework

II, 2, 7, 8.

In the one-variable case, we can use the derivative of a function to find the extrema of that function.

Our aim now is to find its counterpart when we have functions involving several variables.

Definition of Extrema

Definition. A function f of x and y is said to have a

1. relative/local maximum at a point (x0 , y0 ) if f (x0 , y0 ) f (x, y),

2. relative/local minimum at a point (x0 , y0 ) if f (x0 , y0 ) f (x, y),

for all points (x, y) on some disk centered at (x0 , y0 ). Moreover, if (1) holds for all (x, y) in the

domain of f , then f is said to have an absolute maximum at (x0 , y0 ). If (2) holds for all (x, y) in

the domain of f , then f is said to have an absolute minimum at (x0 , y0 ).

p

Examples: f (x, y) = 1 x2 y 2 ; g(x, y) = x2 + y 2

Remark: The extrema of the function f may or may not exist. (relative: saddle point, absolute:

infinite function values)

Definition. A function z = f (x, y) has a saddle point at (x0 , y0 ) if there are two distinct vertical

planes through this point such that the trace of the surface in one of the planes has a relative

maximum at (x0 , y0 ) and the trace in the other has a relative minimum at (x0 , y0 ).

Example: f (x, y) = x2 y 2

Theorem. If f has a relative extremum at (x0 , y0 ) and the first-order partial derivatives of f exist

at (x0 , y0 ), then fx (x0 , y0 ) = 0 and fy (x0 , y0 ) = 0.

Proof. Refer to TC7, p. 1038.

p

Examples: f (x, y) = 1 x2 y 2 ; g(x, y) = x2 + y 2

Definition. Let f be a function of x and y. A point (x0 , y0 ) is called a critical point of f if any of

the following holds:

1. fx (x0 , y0 ) = 0 and fy (x0 , y0 ) = 0,

2. fx (x0 , y0 ) or fy (x0 , y0 ) does not exist.

At a critical point, a function may have a relative maximum, relative minimum, or neither.

p

Examples: f (x, y) = 1 x2 y 2 ; g(x, y) = x2 + y 2 ; h(x, y) = x2 y 2

Theorem. (Second Derivative Test) Let f be a function of x and y. Suppose that the second-order

partial derivatives of f are continuous on a disk centered at a critical point (x0 , y0 ). Let

D(x0 , y0 ) = fxx (x0 , y0 )fyy (x0 , y0 ) (fxy (x0 , y0 ))2

1. If D(x0 , y0 ) > 0 and fxx (x0 , y0 ) > 0, then f has a relative minimum at (x0 , y0 ).

2. If D(x0 , y0 ) > 0 and fxx (x0 , y0 ) < 0, then f has a relative maximum at (x0 , y0 ).

3. If D(x0 , y0 ) < 0, then f has a saddle point at (x0 , y0 ).

4. If D(x0 , y0 ) = 0, no conclusion can be made.

Remark: If fxy (x0 , y0 ) = fyx (x0 , y0 ), then D(x0 , y0 ) is equal to the Hessian (or discriminant) of

f , i.e. the value of the determinant

fxx (x0 , y0 ) fxy (x0 , y0 )

fyx (x0 , y0 ) fyy (x0 , y0 ) .

p

Examples: f (x, y) = 1 x2 y 2 ; g(x, y) = x2 + y 2 ; h(x, y) = x2 y 2

Examples: 1(b). (0, 0) is a saddle point, (1, 1) is a relative maximum; 1(c). (0, 1) is a

relative minimum, (2/3, 1/3) is a saddle point, (1, 1/2) is a saddle point

4

Definition. Let D be a region in two-dimensional space.

1. The point (x0 , y0 ) is an interior point of D if we can find a disk centered at (x0 , y0 ) such that

all points in that disk also belong in D.

2. The point (x0 , y0 ) is an exterior point of D if that point does not belong in D, and we can

find a disk centered at (x0 , y0 ) such that all points in that disk do not belong in D.

3. The point (x0 , y0 ) is said to be a boundary point of D if every disk centered at (x0 , y0 ) contains

points in D and points not in D.

4. D is said to be closed if it contains all its boundary points.

5. D is said to be bounded if it is a subregion of a closed disk.

Theorem. (Extreme Value Theorem) Let f be a function of x and y. If f is continuous on a closed

and bounded region D, then f has an absolute maximum and an absolute minimum on D.

Remark: To find the absolute extrema of f on a closed and bounded region D,

1. find all critical points of f lying in the interior of D,

2. find all boundary points at which the absolute extrema may occur, and

3. evaluate f at all points obtained in (1) and (2), and at the intersection points of the boundaries

of D. The largest among these values is the absolute maximum value of f on D while the

least is the absolute minimum value of f on D.

Example: 2(b). critical points are (2, 1) (absolute min value -7),

0),

(2, 0), (4, 1), (5/4, 5/4), (0,

max

value

24);

2(d).

critical

points

are

,

(absolute

max

value

2),

,

0

,

2

2

2

0, 2 , 2 , , , 2 , (0, 0) (absolute min value 0), (, 0) (absolute min value 0), (0, ) (absolute

min value 0), (, ) (absolute min value 0); 2(c). critical points are (0, 1) (absolute min value -2),

(1, 1), (1, 1), (0, 0), (0, 2) (absolute max value 2)

Theorem. If a function of two variables has an absolute extremum at an interior point of its

domain, then this extremum occurs at a critical point.

Remark: This theorem is used to determine whether a relative extremum is actually an absolute

extremum. However, it requires the knowledge of the existence of the absolute extremum in the first

place.

Remark: This method is applied in finding the formula for the regression line. (Refer to TC7, p.

1045.)

Homework

III, 1(g), 2(e), 5

Lagrange Multipliers

This method is used whenever you are finding the absolute extrema of the function f subject to

restrictions or constraints p

to the domain of f .

Example: f (x, y) = 25 x2 y 2 , where x + y = 2. The answer is 23, when (x, y) = (1, 1).

One Constraint

Theorem. Suppose f and g are functions of x and y with continuous first-order partial derivatives.

~

If f has a relative extremum at a point (x0 , y0 ) subject to the constraint g(x, y) = 0 and g(x

0 , y0 ) 6=

~0, then there exists a constant such that

~ (x0 , y0 ) + g(x

~

f

0.

0 , y0 ) = ~

(1)

~ (x0 , y0 ) = ~0, then (1) holds for = 0. If f

~ (x0 , y0 ) 6= ~0, we have to show that

Proof. If f

~

~

g(x0 , y0 ) is parallel to f (x0 , y0 ).

~

~ 0 (t) 6= ~0. (This can

Write the constraint g(x, y) = 0 in vector form: R(t)

= h(t), (t)i, where R

be done because g has continuous first-order partial derivatives.) Find the corresponding t0 so that

~ 0 ) = hx0 , y0 i.

R(t

Let (t) = f ((t), (t)). Since f has a relative extremum at (x0 , y0 ), then 0 (t0 ) = 0. But by

the general chain rule,

f dx f dy

+

x dt

y dt

~

~ 0 (t)

= f (x, y) R

~ (x0 , y0 ) R

~ 0 (t0 ) = 0

0 (t0 ) = f

0 (t) =

~ 0 (t0 ) is perpendicular to f

~ (x0 , y0 ). But R

~ 0 (t0 ) is a tangent vector to the curve

This implies that R

~

~

C defined by g(x, y) = 0 at (x0 , y0 ), while g(x

0 , y0 ) is a normal vector to C. Thus, f (x0 , y0 ) is

~

parallel to g(x0 , y0 ).

Remark: (Method of Lagrange Multipliers) To find the absolute extrema of the function f subject

to the constraint g = 0,

1. If f is a function of x and y, solve for all points (x, y) (and corresponding ) satisfying the

equations:

fx (x, y) + gx (x, y) = 0

fy (x, y) + gy (x, y) = 0

g(x, y) = 0

(constraint)

If f is a function of x, y and z, solve for all points (x, y, z) (and corresponding ) satisfying

the equations:

fx (x, y, z) + gx (x, y, z) = 0

fy (x, y, z) + gy (x, y, z) = 0

fz (x, y, z) + gz (x, y, z) = 0

g(x, y, z) = 0

(constraint)

2. Evaluate f at all points obtained in (1). The greatest value of f is the absolute maximum value

of f while the least value of f is the absolute minimum value of f subject to the constraint.

Examples: 2(b).

critical points

are (1/ 2, 0) (absolute max), (1/ 2, 0) (absolute min),

(0, 1), (0, 1), (1/3, 7/3), (1/3, 7/3); 4. x = y = 2, z = 1 (Hint: there are 3 different

expressions for xyz)

Several Constraints

Remark: If there are two or more constraints, we need one Lagrange multiplier for each constraint.

For instance, if we want to find the extrema of f (x, y, z) so that g(x, y, z) = 0 and h(x, y, z) = 0,

then we have to solve for all points (x, y, z) and corresponding and so that

fx (x, y, z) + gx (x, y, z) + hx (x, y, z) = 0

fy (x, y, z) + gy (x, y, z) + hy (x, y, z) = 0

fz (x, y, z) + gz (x, y, z) + hz (x, y, z) = 0

g(x, y, z) = 0

(constraint)

h(x, y, z) = 0

(constraint)

Example:

10. The critical points (1, 2, 1) and (1, 2, 1) will give rise to the absolute

maximum value of 3. The critical points (1, 2, 1) and (1, 2, 1) will give rise to the absolute

minimum value of 1. There are no other critical points.

Homework

IV, 2(c), 2(d)

Parametric Surfaces

Using parametric equations, it is possible to generate more complicated surfaces compared with

using only the rectangular coordinates. The idea is similar to defining curves parametrically.

Definition of Terms

~

Definition. Suppose that R(u,

v) = hx(u, v), y(u, v), z(u, v)i is a vector-valued function defined on

a region D on the uv-plane. The set of all points (x, y, z) such that

x = x(u, v)

(2)

y = y(u, v)

z = z(u, v)

as (u, v) varies throughout D is called a parametric surface S and (2) are called parametric equations

of S.

Remark: One can think of a parametric surface as a union of an infinite number of parametric

curves. If one variable is fixed, say v = v0 , a curve is generated by the parametric equations. These

curves are collected by considering all the possible values of v. The same is true if u = u0 is fixed.

~

Definition. Let S be a parametric surface defined by R(u,

v).

~ 0 , v) defines a curve on S called a

1. If u is held constant, say u = u0 , and v varies, then R(u

constant u-curve.

~

2. If v is held constant, say v = v0 , and u varies, then R(u,

v0 ) defines a curve on S called a

constant v-curve.

Examples: 1(a). both are parabolas; 1(b). constant u-curves are circles, constant v-curves

are intersections of two parabolic cylinders; 1(c). both are semicircles

Remarks:

1. To sketch the graph of a parametric surface, it helps if the Cartesian equation is known.

2. For more complicated parametric equations, a graphing utility can be used.

p

p

2(i). x2 + y 2 = 9, where z [2, 4]

Remark: Given a surface described in Cartesian form, it is possible to find several representations

in parametric form.

2

Examples: 3(a). x = u, y = v, z = 4 u2 v 2 ; 3(b). x = r cos

, y = r sin , z = 4 r ;

4(a). Split into twohemispheres, with upper part x = u, y = v, z = 1 u2 v 2 and lower part

x = u, y = v, z = 1 u2 v 2 ; 4(b). x = sin cos , y = sin sin , z = cos ; 7. P (x, y, z) any

point on the plane, P~0 P is on the plane, which is computed by ~r(u, v) ~r0 . also, P~0 P is a linear

combination of u and v. so, ~r(u, v) = ~r0 + u~a + v~b; 8. x = a sin cos , y = a sin sin , z = a cos ;

9. x = 3 cos u, y = v, z = 3 sin u; 10(c). x = u, y = 1 u, z = v

~

Remark: Because R(u,

v) is a vector-valued function involving two independent variables, we can

define it partial derivatives.

~

Definition. Let S be a parametric surface defined by R(u,

v) = hx(u, v), y(u, v), z(u, v)i.

~ with respect to u is defined as R

~ u (u, v) = hxu (u, v), yu (u, v), zu (u, v)i.

1. The partial derivative of R

~ with respect to v is defined as R

~ v (u, v) = hxv (u, v), yv (u, v), zv (u, v)i.

2. The partial derivative of R

Example: 12(a). ~ru (u, v) = h1, 0, 2ui and ~rv (u, v) = h0, 1, 2vi

Surface of Revolution

Let f (x) 0 and S be the surface obtained by revolving the curve y = f (x), a x b, about the

x-axis. Let be the angle of rotation. [ insert diagram ] Then S has parametric equations

x = x

y = f (x) cos

z = f (x) sin

Similarly, if S is obtained by revolving y = f (z) along the z-axis, then S has parametric equations

x = f (z) sin

y = f (z) cos

z=z

If S is obtained by revolving x = f (y) about the y-axis, then S has parametric equations

x = f (y) cos

y=y

z = f (y) sin

Examples: 11(a). x = x, y = cos /x, z = sin /x; 11(e). x = 2y sin , y = y, z = 2y cos ;

11(f). x = z 3/2 sin , y = z 3/2 cos , z = z

~

Let S be the parametric surface defined by a vector function R(u,

v) = hx(u, v), y(u, v), z(u, v)i and

~ 0 , v0 ) = hx0 , y0 , z0 i.

let P0 (x0 , y0 , z0 ) be the point on S where u = u0 and v v0 , that is, R(u

~ u (u0 , v0 ) 6= ~0, then R

~ u (u0 , v0 ) is a tangent vector to the constant u-curve at P0 . Similarly, if

If R

~

~

~

Rv (u0 , v0 ) 6= 0, then Rv (u0 , v0 ) is a tangent vector to the constant v-curve at P0 . Thus, a normal

~ to the parametric surface S at (u0 , v0 ) is given by

vector N

~ =R

~ u (u0 , v0 ) R

~ v (u0 , v0 ).

N

~

~u R

~ v 6= ~0 at a point on the

Definition. If a parametric surface S is the graph of R(u,

v), and if R

surface, then the principal unit normal vector to the surface at that point is denoted by ~n(u, v) and

is defined as

~ u (u, v) R

~ v (u, v)

R

.

~n(u, v) =

~

~ v (u, v)

Ru (u, v) R

Examples: 13. x + y +Dz 1 = 0;

14(b).

E u = 1 and v = 2, so 2x + y 4z + 6 = 0; 14(f). u = 0

2

6

2

and v = 0, so x = 0; 16(d). 2 , 4 , 4

Double Integrals

The motivation behind studying double integrals is to find the volume of a solid region in the

three-dimensional coordinate system.

Suppose R = [a, b] [c, d] is a rectangular region on the xy-plane, and let f be a function of x

and y such that:

1. f is continuous on R, and

2. f (x, y) 0 for all (x, y) R.

We want to find the volume V of the solid bounded above by z = f (x, y), below by the xy-plane

and whose top view is the rectangle R. To do this, we follow the following steps:

1. Partition R into subrectangles by dividing [a, b] into m subintervals [a, x1 ], [x1 , x2 ], , [xm1 , b],

each of length xi , i = 1, , m and [c, d] into n subintervals [c, y1 ], [y1 , y2 ], , [yn1 , b], each

of length yj , j = 1, , n.

2. Let Rij = [xi1 , xi ] [yj1 , yj ] and let Aij = xi yj .

3. Take an arbitrary point (x?i , yj? ) in each Rij and construct regular prisms with bases Rij

and height f (x?i , yj? ), for i = 1, , m, j = 1, , n. The volume of each prism is Vij =

f (x?i , yj? )Aij .

4. A good approximation of the volume of the solid is V

m X

n

X

i=1 j=1

V = lim

kk0

m X

n

X

i=1 j=1

Definition. Let f be a function of x and y and R = [a, b] [c, d]. The double integral of f over R

is defined by

ZZ

m X

n

X

f (x, y) dA = lim

f (x?i , yj? )Aij ,

kk0

i=1 j=1

The limit definition is rarely used in evaluating double integrals. The following theorem is a

useful tool to evaluate them.

Theorem. (Fubinis Theorem) If f is continuous on a rectangular region R = [a, b] [c, d], then

Z dZ

ZZ

f (x, y) dA =

R

Z bZ

f (x, y) dx dy =

f (x, y) dy dx.

a

The condition stated in Fubinis theorem that f is continuous on R can be relaxed to functions which

are continuous on every subregion of R, meaning the function f can have a jump discontinuity on

a curve. (Similar to the principle of improper integrals.)

10

Definition. Let f be a function of x and y that is continuous on a closed and bounded region R

on the xy-plane. Consider a rectangular region D = [a, b] [c, d] enclosing R and define a function

F by

(

f (x, y), (x, y) R

F (x, y) =

0,

(x, y) D\R

The double integral of f over R is defined by

ZZ

ZZ

F (x, y) dA

f (x, y) dA =

D

There are two possible methods to evaluate the double integral, depending on the region of

integration R.

1. R is bounded by y = g1 (x), y = g2 (x), x = a and x = b.

If D = [a, b] [c, d] is a rectangular region enclosing R, we can write the interval [c, d] as

[c, g1 (x)] [g1 (x), g2 (x)] [g2 (x), d] for any value of x in the domain of g1 and g2 . Therefore,

Z bZ

ZZ

f (x, y) dA =

F (x, y) dy dx

a

Z bZ

g1 (x)

Z bZ

g2 (x)

F (x, y) dy dx +

a

F (x, y) dy dx +

Z bZ

Z bZ

g1 (x)

F (x, y) dy dx

a

g2 (x)

g2 (x)

f (x, y) dy dx

a

g1 (x)

If D = [a, b] [c, d] is a rectangular region enclosing R, we can write the interval [a, b] as

[a, h1 (y)] [h1 (y), h2 (y)] [h2 (y), b] for any value of y in the domain of h1 and h2 . Therefore,

Z dZ

ZZ

f (x, y) dA =

F (x, y) dx dy

c

Z dZ

h1 (y)

Z dZ

h2 (y)

F (x, y) dx dy +

c

Z dZ

Z dZ

F (x, y) dx dy +

c

h1 (y)

F (x, y) dx dy

c

h2 (y)

h2 (y)

f (x, y) dx dy

c

h1 (y)

Remark: Sometimes, it is easier to evaluate the integral if the order of integration is changed.

Example: 2(d). e 1

ZZ

1. If c is a constant, then

ZZ

cf (x, y) dA = c

ZZ

ZZ

(f (x, y) g(x, y)) dA =

2.

f (x, y) dA.

ZZ

f (x, y) dA

g(x, y) dA

R

ZZ

ZZ

3. If R = R1 R2 such that R1 and R2 do not overlap, then

f (x, y) dA =

R

ZZ

f (x, y) dA

R2

11

f (x, y) dA +

R1

on the Zclosed

region R and furthermore f (x, y) g(x, y) for all

ZZ

Z

(x, y) R, then

f (x, y) dA

g(x, y) dA

R

5. Let f be integrable on a closed region R, and suppose that m and M are two numbers such

that mZ Z f (x, y) M for all (x, y) R. Then if A is the measure of the area of R,

f (x, y) dA M A.

mA

R

Recall that any point (x, y) in the Cartesian plane has a corresponding representation (r, ) in polar

coordinates. However, the polar representation is not unique. If we impose the restriction r 0 and

[0, 2], we have a one-to-one correspondence between the rectangular and polar coordinates of

a point.

A simple polar region in polar coordinates is enclosed by two rays from the pole, = and

= , with < , and two continuous polar curves r = r1 () and r = r2 () such that r1 () and

r2 () are nonnegative on [, ]. A special case is called a polar rectangle, which is enclosed by two

rays = and = , and two circles r = a and r = b.

To evaluate the double integral, we do the following steps:

1. Divide [a, b] into m subintervals [ri1 , ri ], each of length ri , and divide [, ] into n subintevals, each of length j . The circles r = ri and the rays = j will divide the region into

smaller polar rectangles Rij . The center of each polar rectangle Rij has polar coordinates

(ri? , j? ), where ri? = 21 (ri1 + ri ) and j? = 12 (j1 + j ).

2. The area of a polar rectangle Rij is equal to the difference of the areas of two sectors, both

with central angle j , and whose radii are ri1 and ri . So,

Aij

1 2

1 2

ri j ri1

j

2

2

1 2

2

ri ri1

j

=

2

1

=

(ri + ri1 )(ri ri1 )j

2

= ri? ri j .

ZZ

r2 ()

f (r cos , r sin ) r dr d.

f (x, y) dA =

R

r1 ()

Remark: Sometimes it is easier to evaluate the double integral in polar coordinates.

Example: 1(b). 9/2

12

Volume of a Solid

Let f be a function of x and y such that f (x, y) 0 for all (x, y) in a closed and bounded region R

in the xy-plane. The volume V of the solid under the surface z = f (x, y), above the xy-plane and

whose top view is R, is given by

ZZ

V =

f (x, y) dA.

R

In general, if f (x, y) can be positive or negative on region R, the double integral will give the

value of the signed volume of the solid,

ZZ

f (x, y) dA = (volume above xy-plane) (volume below xy-plane)

R

The area A of a closed and bounded region R in the xy-plane is given by

ZZ

dA.

A=

R

Proof. Consider the solid bounded below by the xy-plane, above by z = 1, and whose top view is

R. Then,

ZZ

V =

dA

R

= A.

A lamina is a very thin plate (thickness is negligible). Suppose a lamina is in the shape of a region

R and has density function (mass per unit area) (x, y). Then

ZZ

mass of the lamina = M =

(x, y) dA

R

The moment of mass about an axis measures the tendency of a lamina to rotate about the axis.

Therefore,

ZZ

moment of mass about the x- axis = Mx =

y(x, y) dA

R

and

ZZ

moment of mass about the y- axis = My =

x(x, y) dA

R

The center of mass of the lamina is the point (x, y), where

RR

x(x, y) dA

My

R

x=

= RR

M

(x, y) dA

R

and

RR

y=

y(x, y) dA

Mx

= RRR

M

(x, y) dA

R

13

~

Suppose a surface is described by a vector equation R(u,

v) = hx(u, v), y(u, v), z(u, v)i, where (u, v)

D. The area S of the surface is given by

Z Z D

E

~

~ v (u, v)

S=

Ru (u, v) R

dA.

D

Theorem. Suppose a surface is defined by a Cartesian equation of the form z = f (x, y). The area

S of the portion of the surface whose projection onto the xy-plane is the region R is given by

ZZ q

S=

(fx (x, y))2 + (fy (x, y))2 + 1 dA.

R

~

R(x,

y) = hx, y, f (x, y)i .

So,

~ x (x, y) = h1, 0, fx (x, y)i

R

and R

Therefore,

~ x (x, y) R

~ y (x, y) = hfx (x, y), fy (x, y), 1i .

R

Hence,

ZZ

~

~

S =

Rx (x, y) Ry (x, y)
dA

ZRZ q

=

(fx (x, y))2 + (fy (x, y))2 + 1 dA.

R

The moment of inertia I is a measurement of the laminas tendency to resist a change in rotational

motion. A particle of mass m kilograms whose perpendicular distance from an axis is r meters has

a moment of inertia equal to mr2 kilogram-meters squared. If a lamina occupies the region R on

the Cartesian plane and (x, y) is the density function of the lamina, then

ZZ

Ix =

y 2 (x, y) dA,

R

where Ix is the moment of inertia of the lamina about the x-axis, and

ZZ

Iy =

x2 (x, y) dA,

R

The sum of the moments of inertia Ix and Iy of a lamina is called the polar moment of inertia,

denoted by I0 , and it represents the moment of inertia of the lamina about the origin or the z-axis.

ZZ

I0 =

x2 + y 2 (x, y) dA

R

The radius of gyration of a lamina about an axis L is the distance from L at which the mass of

the lamina can be concentrated without affecting the moment of inertia of the lamina about L. If

I is the measure of the moment of inertia about an axis L of a lamina and M is the measure of the

total mass of the lamina, then the radius of gyration of the lamina about L has measure r, where

I

r2 =

M

14

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