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Doc. N: MAN.

2 ENG
Rev.00
data: 29.06.2009

S.p.A.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
FRP TANKS - USE ABOVE GROUND

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INDEX
1. OBJECT ....................................................................................................................................................................... 2
2. RANGE OF TANKS ............................................................................................................................................... 3
3. DESIGN....................................................................................................................................................................... 3
3.1 DESIGN PARAMETERS ..................................................................................................................................... 3
3.2 STABILITY CALCULATION ............................................................................................................................. 4
3.3 FITTINGS.............................................................................................................................................................. 4
3.4 BOTTOMS ............................................................................................................................................................ 6
3.5 SYSTEM TO SUPPORT FRP TANKS ................................................................................................................ 7
3.6 PROPERTY OF LAMINATE ............................................................................................................................. 10
4. RAW MATERIALS .................................................................................................................................................. 11
4.1 RESINS................................................................................................................................................................ 11
4.2 FIBRE GLASS .................................................................................................................................................... 11
4.3 ADDITIVES ........................................................................................................................................................ 12
5. MANUFACTURING PROCEDURES ..................................................................................................................... 12
5.1 PREPARATION OF RESINS ............................................................................................................................. 12
5.2 CONSTRUCTION OF STANDARD CYLINDRICAL LINERS ....................................................................... 12
5.3 CONSTRUCTION OF HEADS / ENDS............................................................................................................. 13
5.4 ASSEMBLY ........................................................................................................................................................ 13
5.5 FILAMENT WINDING ...................................................................................................................................... 14
5.6 MARKING AND INSTALLATION OF FITTINGS .......................................................................................... 14
5.7 FINISHING ......................................................................................................................................................... 15
5.8 POST- CURE....................................................................................................................................................... 15
5.9 GALVANIZING METAL PARTS ..................................................................................................................... 16
5.10 PAINTING OF METAL PARTS ...................................................................................................................... 17
6. CHECKS AND TEST-RUNS ................................................................................................................................... 17
6.1 CLASSIFICATION OF VISIBLE DEFECTS AND ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA ............................................ 17
6.2 TOLERANCE...................................................................................................................................................... 23
6.3 TEST EQUIPMENT AND INSTRUMENTS ..................................................................................................... 26
7. PREPARATION FOR SHIPPPING ...................................................................................................................... 26
8. TECHNICAL AND TEST- RUN DOCUMENTATION .......................................................................................... 27
9. GARANTEES............................................................................................................................................................ 28
9.1
9.2

TECHNICAL GUARANTEES (SKILLS) ...................................................................................................... 28


COMMERCIAL GUARANTEES .................................................................................................................. 28

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Page 1 of 27

T.S.FRP tanks above

1. OBJECT
These specifications define the minimum requisites adopted by SELIP in the design,
manufacturing, inspection, checking, testing and preparation for shipping of atmospheric
tanks in fibre glass (FRP).
SELIP operates in accordance with internal procedures, conforming to the
UNI EN ISO 9001:2008 norm.
Procedure N

TITLE

PRG/4.2.1

Procedure to manage documentation of the Quality Assurance System

PRG/4.2.2

Procedure to manage Q.A.S. registration.

PRG/5.5 7.2

Procedure to manage internal and external communication

PRG/5.6

Procedure for re-examination by the management

PRG/6.2

Procedure to manage human resources

PRG/7.2

Procedure to manage offers and orders and examine customer orders

PRG/7.3

Procedure for product design and development

PRG/7.4

Procedure to assess suppliers and for purchase orders

PRG/7.5.1

Procedure for product manufacturing

PRG/7.5.2

Procedure for customer service

PRG/7.5.3

Procedure to manage the warehouse

PRG/7.5.4

Machinery and facilities maintenance

PRG/7.6

Procedure to calibrate and maintain instruments

PRG/8.2

Procedure for the Q.A.S. internal audit

PRG/8.3

Procedure to manage non-conformities and complaints

PRG/8.5.1

Procedure to test customer satisfaction

PRG/8.5.2

Procedure to manage precautionary and corrective actions

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T.S.FRP tanks above

2. RANGE OF TANKS
SELIPs standard production consists of (for details see tank data sheet PT01) :

Vertical flat bottom tanks type FP

Vertical dished bottoms tanks on FRP legs type CP

Vertical dished bottoms tanks on steel legs type AN

Horizontal tanks on FRP saddles type CT

Horizontal tanks without saddles type SS

Horizontal underground tanks type CTI

Tapered bottom silos (60 and 90) type FC

Vertical tanks with integrated basin type SV

Standard internal diameters for capacities from 1 to 200m,are :


1000 / 1200 / 1500 / 1800 / 2000 / 2200 / 2500 / 3000 / 3500 / 4000mm.

3. DESIGN
Design is according to the European norm EN 13121-3 of 2008 (GRP Tanks and
Vessels for Use Above Ground).
Safety Factor minimum acceptable for design : K=4.
On demand, also other International norm are acceptable :

ASTM ;

API 12P ;

ASME RTP-1 ;

AD Merkblatt N1

Previous European norms (BS 4994, AFNOR, ) have been replaced by EN 13121.
3.1 DESIGN PARAMETERS
Standard parameters adopted for the design :

Specific weight of the product contained : 1.3 kg/dm3 ;

Design pressure

: atmospheric / liquid head

Design temperature

: 60C.

Wind action

: according to D.M. dated 16/01/1996

Earthquake action

: according to the norm - Ref Zone 2

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Page 3 of 27

T.S.FRP tanks above

TANKS MUST BE DIRECTLY CONNECTED TO THE ATMOSPHERE VIA A


SUITABLY SIZED FREE VENT
3.2 STABILITY CALCULATION
SELIP is responsible for checking the stability of the tank in the phases of installation,
hydraulic testing and use.
Inspection is carried out on the basis of the project data and in line with that reported in
the EN 13121-3 European norms.
The inner chemically resistant layer (liner) is not taken into consideration in the structure
calculation.
Main phases of the inspection:

Calculation of the Safety Factor K according to :


1. Technology applied,
2. Type of resin and design temperature,
3. Life expectancy of the tank,
4. Danger index of the product contained.

Calculation of the allowable stress (this depends on K and the mechanical


characteristics of the layering in FRP).

Inspection of the thicknesses of the tank.

Inspection of the deformations, always to be kept lower than the allowable value.

Inspection of the condition of implosion (buckling effect) according to the design


under-pressure and the axial loads.

Inspection of the anchorage to the base on the basis of the calculated actions of
earthquake

and

wind.

These

actions

must

never

be

considered

contemporaneously.
3.3 FITTINGS

Nozzles and manhole must be of the integral type, i.e. continuity of the
reinforcing fibres from the flat face to the pipe both in the liner and mechanical
reinforcement, obtainable exclusively via manual lamination over a mould.
GATES AND/OR MANHOLES COMPOSED OF FLANGES ASSEMBLED
SEPARATELY FROM THE TUBE ARE NOT ADMISSIBLE

The flanges are fixed and feature a flat face ;

The drilling is in accordance with the UNI EN 1092-1 European norms. The
flange holes are staggered with respect to the main axes.

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Page 4 of 27

T.S.FRP tanks above

The flange projects 100mm up to DN400, and 150mm over DN400.

The flanged attachments and the welding to the body of the tank are suitable for
supporting the external loads (forces and moments) reported in the following
table.

FLANGE DIMENSIONS
UNI EN 1092-1

NUMBER

DIAMETER

BOLTS
DIAMETER

FLANGE
DIAMETER

CENTER

NUMBER

DIAMETER

BOLTS
DIAMETER

FLANGE
DIAMETER

CENTER

NUMBER

DIAMETER

BOLTS
DIAMETER

HOLES

CENTER

PN 16

HOLES

FLANGE
DIAMETER

PN 10

mm

PN 6
HOLES

INCHES

DN

1/2"
3/4"
1"
1"1/4
1"1/2
2"
2"1/2
3"
4"
5"
6"
8"
10"
12"
14"
16"
18"
20"
24"

15
20
25
32
40
50
65
80
100
125
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600

80
90
100
120
130
140
160
190
210
240
265
320
375
440
490
540
595
645
755

55
65
75
90
100
110
130
150
170
200
225
280
335
395
445
495
550
600
705

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
8
8
8
12
12
12
16
16
20
20

11
11
11
14
14
14
14
18
18
18
18
18
18
22
22
22
22
22
26

10
10
10
12
12
12
12
16
16
16
16
16
16
20
20
20
20
20
24

95
105
115
140
150
165
185
200
220
250
285
340
395
445
505
565
615
670
780

65
75
85
100
110
125
145
160
180
210
240
295
350
400
460
515
565
620
725

4
4
4
4
4
4
4/8
8
8
8
8
8
12
12
16
16
20
20
20

14
14
14
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
22
22
22
22
22
26
26
26
30

12
12
12
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
20
20
20
20
20
24
24
24
27

95
105
115
140
150
165
185
200
220
250
285
340
405
460
520
580
640
715
840

65
75
85
100
110
125
145
160
180
210
240
295
355
410
470
525
585
650
770

4
4
4
4
4
4
8
8
8
8
8
12
12
12
16
16
20
20
20

14
14
14
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
22
22
26
26
26
30
30
33
36

12
12
12
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
20
20
24
24
24
27
27
30
33

ADMISSIBLE LOADS
DN

Fx (N)

Fy (N)

Fz (N)

Mx ( Nm)

My ( Nm)

Mz ( Nm)

50

300

300

300

30

30

30

80

600

600

600

60

60

60

100

1000

1000

1000

100

100

100

150

1500

1500

1500

150

150

150

200

2500

2500

2500

250

250

250

250

3000

3000

3000

300

300

300

300

3000

3000

3000

300

300

300

350

3000

3000

3000

300

300

300

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T.S.FRP tanks above

Standard bolts are in galvanized carbon steel, 8.8 class .

Standard gaskets are 3mm thick EPDM.

3.4 BOTTOMS
SELIP tanks can be produced according to three bottom profiles:
flat bottom, dished bottom and conical bottom.
The bottoms must be obtained from a mould.
BOTTOMS PRODUCED IN SECTIONS / TAPERED ARE NOT ADMISSIBLE
BOTTOMS JOINED TO THE CYLINDER WITH BEAKER SYSTEM ARE NOT ADMISSIBLE

Flat Bottom: used exclusively for atmospheric tanks (only hydrostatic load).

THE RADIUS r OF THE


JOINT BETWEEN BOTTOM
AND CYLINDER MUST
ALWAYS BE 50mm

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Page 6 of 27

T.S.FRP tanks above

Dished Bottom: used either as a the top or bottom of a tank. Used for both
atmospheric and pressure tanks (vessels). The bottom of the tank must be
supported by feet in FRP, a metal frame or a skirt in FRP. The geometry
corresponds to a semi-elliptical head, with a ratio of height H to diameter D > 0.2
; radius R of the cover = 0.8 x D ; radius r of the knuckle = 0.154 x D.

Conical Bottom: typically used in vertical silos and decanters as a tank bottom.
The opening angle of the cone must be at 60 or 90.

3.5 SYSTEM TO SUPPORT FRP TANKS


SELIP tanks can be supported through:

FRP legs, hand lay-up lamination manufacturing, for dished bottom heads

Steel support for dished bottom and conical heads


STARTING FROM CAPACITY OF 15m COMPLETE STEEL RING IS
RECOMMENDED

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Page 7 of 27

T.S.FRP tanks above

FRP SKIRT

Used prevalently for silos where the presence of ferrous materials prone to rust
needs to be avoided.

FRP saddles for horizontal tanks.. Manufactured hand lay-up on steel moulds.
The arc for contact between saddle and tank is 120. The saddles are arranged
symmetrically with respect to the centre-line of the plating. The distance between
saddles vary from 1,000 to 1,500mm.

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Page 8 of 27

T.S.FRP tanks above

Steel saddles, used for large capacity horizontal tanks. The arc of contact
between saddle and tank ranges from 120 to 180

Concrete saddles produced on site. Arc of contact 180.

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Page 9 of 27

T.S.FRP tanks above

3.6 PROPERTY OF LAMINATE


Laminates must be periodically tested to verify the mechanical properties, as envisaged
by the EN 13121-3 norms used by SELIP.
In particular, as a minimum there must be an inspection of:
1. Max strength ;
2. Module of elasticity ;
3. Elongation at break.
The minimum values acceptable are :
Technology
applied

Glass fibre used


CSM 450
(Chopped Strand Mat 450 gr/m)
CSM + WR500
(Mat450g/m+WovenRoving500 g/m)

KNITTED BIAXIAL (950 gr/m)


Spray Up Roving
Direct Roving 2400 / 4800 tex for
Filament Winding

Spec_Tec_Tank_ENG_Rev00.doc
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Tensile
strenght
N/mm

Module of
elasticity
N/mm

Hand lay
up
Hand lay
up
Hand lay
up

80

7500

130

9500

180

10500

Spray up

80

7500

F.W.

320

22000

Page 10 of 27

T.S.FRP tanks above

4. RAW MATERIALS
The raw materials used by SELIP come exclusively from European and North American
suppliers.
The suppliers of the raw materials must possess a minimum of 40 years experience in
the production of the component.
SELIP is responsible for the choice of raw materials in order to guarantee the suitability
of the tank to contain the product / fluid contractually defined in relation to the design
conditions.
The raw materials used in the production cycle are essentially :

Resins

Glass fibre

Additives

4.1 RESINS
Chemically-resistant resins must not contain charges or pigments.
Thixotropic agents are not generally admissible and are severely prohibited in the
chemically-resistant layer (liner).
Protection against light and UV rays must be obtained through the use of an external
gelcoat (top coat).
The resins used in the construction of the chemically-resistant inner layer must have the
following minimum properties :

Elongation at break

3% according to ASTM D638

HDT

90C in accordance with ISO 75

Family

Novolacca, Vinylester, Bisphenolic, Isophtalic

4.2 FIBRE GLASS


The glass fibres to be used are :

C-glass: for the construction of the liner ;

E-glass: for the construction of the back liner and reinforcements.

The glass fibres are supplied in the form of :

Surface veil: based on C-glass with fibres arranged randomly. Basis weight of 30
gr/m2 used in the first layer of the liner ;

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Page 11 of 27

T.S.FRP tanks above

Mat (CSM): based on E-glass with cut fibres arranged randomly. Basis weight of
375 / 450 / 600 gr/m2 used in manual lamination or winding ;

Roving for winding 2400 / 4800 tex: continuous threads of E-glass - are used in
winding systems of the cylindrical part of the tank (Filament winding).

Roving for cut and spray 2400 tex: cut threads of E-glass - used as mechanical
reinforcement of the tank and bottoms (contact moulding).

Mat and Biaxials : these are fabrics based on E-glass used for mechanical
reinforcement manual layering or for winding.

4.3 ADDITIVES
Only in the chemically-resistant layer can accelerators and catalysers be used.
In particular cases, in the mechanical layer, additives can be used that help to confer
particular characteristics to the tank (electrical conductivity, self-extinguishing).
The choice must be made by the SELIP technical office.

5. MANUFACTURING PROCEDURES
5.1 PREPARATION OF RESINS
Before being sent to production departments the resins must be tested daily to verify the
gel time and for perfect polymerization
Gel timer equipment is used.

5.2 CONSTRUCTION OF STANDARD CYLINDRICAL LINERS


The chemically-resistant inner liner must have a minimum thickness of 2.5mm.
This consists of no.1 veil of C-glass impregnated with a minimum resin content equal to
85%, followed by no.2 MAT375/450 gr/m impregnated with about 66% resin.

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Page 12 of 27

T.S.FRP tanks above

The layer corresponding to 2 MAT375/450 can be obtained with spray-up technology.


The construction of the liner must be done over a mould coated in detaching agent of the
Mylar type.
In small tanks, of up to 10m, the mechanical reinforcement of the cylinder takes place
directly on the mould without the subsequent winding operation.
5.3 CONSTRUCTION OF HEADS / ENDS
The chemically-resistant inner liner must have a minimum thickness of 2.5mm.
This consists of no.1 veil of C-glass impregnated with a minimum resin content equal to
85%, followed by a layer produced using spray-up technology.

The resistant mechanical layer is produced through layering by cut and spray (spray-up)
alternating with manual lamination (hand lay-up) with MAT and chopped strand mat.
5.4 ASSEMBLY
The cylinder, which the top must form an integral part of, is welded to the bottom by
manual lamination.
The liner must be re-established and the external mechanical reinforcement must be
made.
This phase is propedeutic, in the case of tanks with a capacity greater than 10m, to the
winding operation. During assembly the lifting attachments are positioned, in AISI304,
which will be used to hoist the tank vertical.
THE WELDING OF THE BOTTOM TO A CYLINDER WOUND PREVIOUSLY
IS NOT ADVISED

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Page 13 of 27

T.S.FRP tanks above

5.5 FILAMENT WINDING


The external mechanical reinforcement of tanks with a capacity greater than 10m must be
carried out by a numerical control winding machine. The materials used are:

resin with elevated mechanical properties;

continuous glass roving type E with basis weight 2400 or 4800 tex.

The layering (number of circumference reinforcements, crisscross reinforcements, and the


type of roving and resin) is decided by SELIPs technical office.

THE USE OF CRISSCROSS


REINFORCEMENT IS OBLIGATORY
THE INITIAL PART OF THE HEADS MUST BE WOUND
TOGETHER WITH THE CYLINDER TO GUARANTEE
IT REMAINING FIXED IN THE EVENT OF HEAVY CONDITIONS
THE WINDING MACHINE MUST HAVE A MOBILE RACK SUPPORT FOR THE
ROVING BOBBINS, TO ALLOW CORRECT TENSION FOR THE ROVING
5.6 MARKING AND INSTALLATION OF FITTINGS
The tracing and drilling of the tank are done manually or using a robot.
The accessories (fittings), which must be positioned on the tank, can be in FRP, metal or in
another plastic material. They are fixed by welding (FRP lamination), adhesives or via
mechanical systems. In particular, nozzles, manholes and everything which comes into
contact with the product, wherever this is aggressive, must be manually laminated internally
and externally using glass fibre and anticorrosive resins.
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T.S.FRP tanks above

STAFF ASSIGNED TO THE LAMINATION OF THE FITTINGS


IS QUALIFIED BY THE TV
5.7 FINISHING
An FRP tank must have an external layer applied to protect it from atmospheric agents
and UV rays.
This protective layer is produced by spraying on an Isophtalic-based gelcoat containing
additives to protect against UV rays.
The thickness of this gelcoat must not be less than 0.3mm and must in any case be
sufficient to completely cover all the fibres emerging from the mechanically-resistant
layer.
5.8 POST- CURE
An FRP tank must undergo a thermal post-hardening treatment using hot air.
This treatment, which must be carried out with controlled temperature and duration, has the
aim of perfecting the polymerization of the resin, guaranteeing the very best chemical and
mechanical performance of the product.
Recommended timings and temperatures are summarized in the following table:
Type of Resins
Iso/Orto
Bisfenolic
Vinylester

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Temperature (C.)
70 (-3/+5)
70 (-3/+5)
80 (-3/+5)
70 (-3/+5)
80 (-3/+5)

Page 15 of 27

Duration (Hours)
6 (-1/+2)
10 (-1/+2)
6 (-1/+2)
12 (-1/+2)
8 (-1/+2)

T.S.FRP tanks above

The oven must feature a regulatory system temperature recorder.


5.9 GALVANIZING METAL PARTS
Below We report the Selip standard as regards the procedures and cycles of hot
galvanizing applicable to metallic surfaces, with particular reference to: support rings and
frames for silos and tanks, ladders and walkways and all the fittings supplied to finish off the
tank.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PHASES
The work and testing phases comply with the EN ISO 1461 European norm:
1. DEGREASING in appropriate solutions at a temperature of 50/60C
2. PICKLING in Hydrochloric Acid solution (HCl)
3. WASHING in running water
4. FLUXING in an aqueous solution of Ammonium Chloride (2NH4Cl) and Zinc Chloride
(ZnCl)
5. PREHEATING in a drying oven at a temperature of 100/120C
6. GALVANIZING by immersion in a bath of melted zinc at a controlled temperature of
440/450C
7. COOLING naturally in air.
Table of Coating Thicknesses (EN ISO 1461)
Articles and Thicknesses

Coating

Steel 6.0mm

85m

3.0mm Steel < 6.0mm

70m

1.5mm Steel < 3.0mm

55m

Spec_Tec_Tank_ENG_Rev00.doc
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Minimum Average Thickness of

Page 16 of 27

T.S.FRP tanks above

5.10 PAINTING OF METAL PARTS


Below we report the standard adopted by SELIP.
The work and testing phases conform to the main European norms:
1. PREPARATION
- SANDING at SA 2.5 grade according to the standard SIS 055900.
- CLEANING with a dry compressed air jet.
2. APPLICATION OF THE PRIMER
- No.1 coat of Inorganic Zinc, thickness = 70m.
3. APPLICATION OF THE INTERMEDIATE LAYER and FINISHING
- No.2 coats of Polyurethane Varnish in powder, thickness = (50 + 50) m.
N.B. :

- Total thickness = 170m


- RAL colour to be defined on request of customer

6. CHECKS AND TEST-RUNS


SELIP, a company certified in accordance with the ISO 9001 quality system, guarantees
respect for the following minimum requisites relating to:

Visual inspections and acceptance criteria ;

Dimensional inspections according to construction tolerances ;

Various final test-runs and related certification ;

Check on raw materials and related certification.

In the following table, the references to the norms applied:


ASTM D2563

Visual defects and acceptance criteria

EN 10204

Raw material certification

EN ISO 13920 : 2000

General tolerances

6.1 CLASSIFICATION OF VISIBLE DEFECTS AND ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA


Below are described and illustrated the most common visible defects met in articles made
from FRP. Every part of the article must be visually inspected to verify its suitability and
establish a conclusive acceptance. The visible defects are classified by type and level of
acceptability as shown in Table 1 below.
The level or levels of acceptability are indicated in the relevant test-run documents and, in
some cases may be indicated on the articles drawing.
The levels of acceptability taken into consideration in the final test-run on the article are thr
Level 2 for liner and Level 3 for the mechanical reinforcement .
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Page 17 of 27

T.S.FRP tanks above

TABLE 1
Type of
Defect
Open air
bubbles in the
Liner
Air bubbles in
the Laminate

Foreign body in
the Laminate
Delamination of
the Stratification
Delamination
due to mech.
work
Glass fibres
protruding
(exterior)
Glass fibres
protruding
(interior)
Scorching of the
Lamination of
Flanged
Attachments
Inadequately
impregnated
areas
Transverse
Fractures

Surface cracks
(spiders web)
Unprotected cut
surfaces
(internal)
Surface
irregularity
Internal runs
External runs
Transverse
Cracks

Definition of
Defect
Open air bubbles, present on the
surface of the Liner that will come
into contact with the product
Areas with air bubbles enclosed by
the Laminate, of a generally
spherical shape and of varying
dimensions
Foreign bodies enclosed by the
Laminate of the article

Ref.
fig. n
1

Level 1
None

None

None

Separation of the layers of fibreglass of the Laminate


Circumscribed separation of the
Laminate of the layers di fibre-glass
due to mechanical operations
Areas where the fibres have not been
impregnated, and are sticking out of
the exterior surface
Areas where the fibres have not been
impregnated, and are sticking out of
the interior surface
Obvious effect due to an exothermic
reaction leading to changes in
colour,
deformation
and
decomposition of the Laminate
Areas of the Laminate where the
fibre-glass is inadequately
impregnated
Fracture in the stratification visible
also from the other side that extends
through the entire thickness of the
Laminate
Superficial craquelure of the resin
that does not involve the entire
thickness of the Laminate
Cut surfaces inside the article of
pure
resin,
which
present
unprotected fibre-glass
Presence on the surface of the article
of craters, protuberances (lumps of
resin) and knots of glass roving
Presence of obvious runs of resin on
the surface inside the article
Presence of obvious runs of resin
and/or protective Gel-Coat
Cracking that involves the entire
thickness of the laminate, due to
extraction from the mould when not
perfectly polymerised.

None

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LEVELS OF ACCEPTABILITY
Level 2
Level 3
None
None

N 6 Bubbles
maximum dimension 5
mm, on a surface
examined of 0.5 m
Maximum n 4 with
maximum dimension
of 3 mm
None

N 12 Bubbles
maximum dimension
10 mm, on a surface
examined of 1 m
Maximum n 6 with
maximum dimension
of 5 mm
None

None

Maximum dimension
admissible = 15 mm

Maximum dimension
admissible = 30 mm

None

None

Maximum n 4 areas
Maximum n 2 areas
with maximum area of with maximum area of
0.1 m
0.04 m
None
None

None

None

10

None

11

None

12

None

13

None

14

None

None

Maximum n 4 areas
with maximum
dimension of 20 mm
None

Maximum n 8 areas
with maximum
dimension of 50 mm
None

None on cylinder and


base; top Max w.=35
mm
None

On cylinder and base


Max w.=10 mm ; top
Max w.=70 mm
None

None

Maximum n 5 areas
with maximum
dimension of 10 mm.
None

Maximum n 10 areas
with maximum
dimension of 15 mm.
None

15

None

Maximum n 5 areas.

Maximum n 10 areas.

16

None

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None

None

T.S.FRP tanks above

REPRESENTATION OF VISIBLE DEFECTS


Fig. 1 Open air bubbles in the Liner

Repair procedure
Grind the surface with the air bubbles including a surrounding
area of about 50mm using abrasive tools. Carefully clean the
ground area and carry out the repair as follows:
apply to the ground area, using a brush, a layer of catalysed
resin followed by a layer of glass Mat type E of 300/450
g/m;
impregnate the layer of Mat with resin and roll to eliminate any
air present;
apply a layer of glass Surfacing type C of 30 g/m
impregnated with resin;
with the resin still wet, apply to the repair a layer of detaching
film (e.g. Mylar);
allow to harden (about 2 hours) and remove the detaching
film.

Fig. 2 Air bubbles in the Laminate

Repair procedure
Grind the surface with the air bubbles including a surrounding
area of about 30mm using abrasive tools. Carefully clean the
ground area and carry out the repair as follows:
apply to the ground area, using a brush, a layer of catalysed
resin followed by a layer of glass Mat type E of 300/450
g/m;
impregnate the layer of Mat with resin and roll to eliminate any
air present;
apply a layer of glass Surfacing type C of 30 g/m
impregnated with resin;
with the resin still wet, apply to the repair a layer of detaching
film (e.g. Mylar);
allow to harden (about 2 hours) and remove the detaching
film.

Fig. 3 Foreign bodies in the Laminate

Repair procedure
Grind the area with the foreign bodies, including a surrounding
area of about 30mm using abrasive tools. Carefully clean the
ground area and carry out the repair as follows:
apply to the ground area, using a brush, a layer of catalysed
resin followed by a layer of glass Mat type E of 300/450 g/m
impregnated with resin. Roll to eliminate any air present;
with the resin still wet, apply to the repair a layer of detaching
film (e.g. Mylar);
allow to harden (about 2 hours) and remove the detaching
film.
In the event of heavy grinding (4-5 mm) the repair must be done
in two phases.

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Fig. 4 Delamination of the Stratification

Repair procedure
A repair of delamination of the stratification of limited dimensions
(about 250mm in diameter) is carried out by injecting some
catalysed resin under vacuum between the delaminated layers.
Proceed as follows:
make 2 holes opposite each other of 6-8 mm, as near as
possible to the perimeter of the delamination;
insert a vacuum tube into one hole and start to suck out the air
inject catalysed resin into the other hole using a syringe until
the delamination is completely filled;
allow the resin to harden for about 2 hours.

Repair procedure

Fig. 5 Delamination due to mechanical work

Remove the delaminated areas including a surrounding area of


about 10mm using abrasive tools. Carefully clean the ground
area and carry out the repair as follows:
apply to the ground area, using a brush, a layer of catalysed
resin followed by one or more layers of glass Mat type E of
300/450 g/m;
impregnate the layer of Mat with resin and roll to eliminate any
air present;
apply a layer of glass Surfacing type C of 30 g/m
impregnated with resin;
with the resin still wet, apply to the repair a layer of detaching
film (e.g. Mylar);
allow to harden (about 2 hours) and remove the detaching
film.

Fig. 6 Glass fibres protruding (exterior)

Repair procedure
Remove the fibres protruding from the stratification, using
abrasive tools. Carefully clean the ground area and where
necessary apply a layer of gel-coat or paraffined resin (for
exterior finishing).

Fig. 7 Glass fibres protruding (interior)

Repair procedure
Remove the fibres protruding from the stratification, including a
surrounding area of about 20mm using abrasive tools. Carefully
clean the ground area and use a brush to apply a layer of
paraffined resin (for internal finishing).

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Fig. 8 Scorching (delamination) of the lamination of


Flanged Attachments

Repair procedure
Remove the delaminated areas including a surrounding area of
about 20mm using abrasive tools. Carefully clean the ground
area and carry out the repair as follows:
apply to the ground area, using a brush, a layer of catalysed
resin followed by one or more layers of glass Mat type E of
300/450 g/m;
impregnate the layer of Mat with resin and roll to eliminate any
air present;
allow to harden for about two hours.
In the event of deep delamination (4-5mm) the repair must be
done in two phases

Fig. 9 Inadequately impregnated areas

Repair procedure
Grind the inadequately impregnated surface, including a
surrounding area of about 50mm using abrasive tools. Carefully
clean the ground area and carry out the repair as follows:
apply to the ground area, using a brush, a layer of catalysed
resin followed by one or more layers of glass Mat type E of
300/450 g/m;
impregnate the layer of Mat with resin and roll to eliminate any
air present;
allow to harden for about two hours.
In the event of deep delamination (4-5mm) the repair must be
done in two phases.

Fig. 10 Transverse Fractures

Repair procedure
The repair of transverse fractures is carried out in two distinct phases, i.e.:
a repair of the Liner followed by the exterior.
Grind the fractures in the Liner including a surrounding area of about
50mm using abrasive tools. Carefully clean the ground area and carry out
the repair as follows:
apply to the ground area, using a brush, a layer of catalysed resin
followed by one or more layers of glass Mat type E of 300/450 g/m;
impregnate the layer of Mat with resin and roll to eliminate any air
present;
apply a layer of glass Surfacing type C of 30 g/m impregnated with
resin;
with the resin still wet, apply to the repair a layer of detaching film (e.g.
Mylar);
allow to harden (about 2 hours) and remove the detaching film.
Grind the fractures in the exterior layer as above, carefully clean the
ground area and carry out the repair as above by applying layers of 450
g/m Mat to reach the thickness removed. Allow to harden for about 2
hours and clean the laminated areas with abrasive tools.

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T.S.FRP tanks above

Fig. 11 Surface cracks (spiders web)

Repair procedure
Grind the area with the surface cracks, including a surrounding
area of about 30mm using abrasive tools. Carefully clean the
ground area and carry out the repair as follows:
apply to the ground area, using a brush, a layer of catalysed
resin followed by one or more layers of glass Mat type E of
300/450 g/m. Impregnate the layer of Mat with resin and roll
to eliminate any air present;
apply a layer of glass Surfacing type C of 30 g/m
impregnated with resin;
with the resin still wet, apply to the repair a layer of detaching
film (e.g. Mylar);
Allow to harden (about 2 hours) and remove the detaching film.
In the event of deep delamination (4-5mm) the repair must be
done in two phases.

Fig. 12 Unprotected cut surfaces

Repair procedure
Sand down the cut and/or ground surfaces using abrasive paper.
Carefully clean the sanded areas and use a brush to apply a
layer of paraffined resin.

Fig. 13 Surface irregularity

Repair procedure
Remove the surface irregularity - usually to be found on the
outside of stratification - including a surrounding area of about
50mm using abrasive tools. Carefully clean the ground area and
where necessary use a brush to apply a layer of paraffined resin
(for external finishing).

Fig. 14 Internal runs

Repair procedure
Remove the runs of resin from the inside of the stratification,
including a surrounding area of about 20mm using abrasive tools.
Carefully clean the ground area and use a brush to apply a layer
of paraffined resin (for internal finishing).

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T.S.FRP tanks above

Fig. 15 External runs

Repair procedure
Remove the runs of gel-coat from the outside of the stratification,
including a surrounding area of about 20mm using abrasive tools.
Carefully clean the ground area and use a brush (or a spray) to
apply a layer of gel-coat (for external finishing).

Fig. 16 Transverse Cracks

Repair procedure
The repair of transverse cracks is carried out in two distinct
phases, i.e.: a repair of the Liner followed by the exterior.
Grind the cracks in the Liner including a surrounding area of
about 50mm using abrasive tools. Carefully clean the ground
area and carry out the repair as follows:
apply to the ground area, using a brush, a layer of catalysed
resin followed by one or more layers of glass Mat type E of
300/450 g/m;
impregnate the layer of Mat with resin and roll to eliminate any
air present;
apply a layer of glass Surfacing type C of 30 g/m
impregnated with resin;
with the resin still wet, apply to the repair a layer of detaching
film (e.g. Mylar);
allow to harden (about 2 hours) and remove the detaching
film.
Grind the cracks in the exterior layer as above, carefully clean the
ground area and carry out the repair as above by applying layers
of 450 g/m Mat to reach the thickness removed. Allow to harden
for about 2 hours and clean the laminated areas with abrasive
tools.

6.2 TOLERANCE
Selip products conform to that indicated in the EN 13920 norms as regards construction
tolerance.
In particular:

Linear Tolerance according to classes D and B of EN 13920

Angular Tolerance according to class D of EN 13920

See the following schematizations:

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6.3 TEST EQUIPMENT AND INSTRUMENTS


Instruments for testing must be tared and SIT certified
Checks on the thickness of the tank must be carried out with ultrasound instruments
tared immediately before the test on a representative sample of the type of laminate

7. PREPARATION FOR SHIPPPING


Fittings must be protected by flanged covers which avoid damaging the external face

The tank must be fixed to the trailer by using cloth bands and blocked by wooden wedges to stop
it from rolling or shifting
THE USE OF STEEL CABLES AND CHAINS IS FORBIDDEN

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T.S.FRP tanks above

8. TECHNICAL AND TEST- RUN DOCUMENTATION


Technical and test-run documentation can be supplied in Italian, English or German and
at the times and in the ways foreseen by the contract.
LIST OF DOCUMENTS

STANDARD

ON PAYMENT

ON REQUEST

CONSTRUCTION DRAWING PRODUCED BY AUTOCAD, FEATURING :

CONSTRUCTION DETAILS

TABLE OF FITTINGS

LIST OF MATERIALS

DESIGN AND WORKING CONDITION

INSTRUCTIONS FOR CONCRETE BASE


REPORT ON TANK CALCULATIONS WITH :

INSPECTION OF THEORETICAL THICKNESSES

CALCULATION OF TANK STABILITY UNDER CONDITIONS OF


PRESSURE, UNDER-PRESSURE, EXTERNAL LOADS

INSPECTION OF THE ANCHORAGE


LOADS ON THE BASE IN THE FOLLOWING CONDITIONS :

TANK IN USE

WIND

EARTHQUAKE

L
E
V
2
X

L
E
V
3
X

ON REQUEST

DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY

ON REQUEST

INSPECTION AND FINAL TEST-RUN PLAN / QIP SELIP

ON REQUEST

VISUAL / DIMENSIONAL TEST CERTIFICATE

WORK CHECKS VISUAL INSPECTION

DIMENSIONAL CHECK

ON PAYMENT

CERTIFICATE OF POLYMERIZATION / BARCOL TEST

ON REQUEST

MATERIAL CERTIFICATES

ON PAYMENT

HYDRAULIC TEST CERTIFICATES

ON PAYMENT

CALCINATION TEST CERTIFICATE (GLASS / RESIN RELATIONSHIP)

ON PAYMENT

GASCHROMATOGRAPHY TEST CERTIFICATE (STYROL RESIDUE)

ON REQUEST

RESULTS OF MECHANICAL TESTS ON SELIP LAMINATES

ON REQUEST

LAMINATOR / WELDER CERTIFICATES (TV OF MUNICH)

ON REQUEST

CERTIFICATION OF THE FACTORY (TV OF MUNICH)

STANDARD

ON PAYMENT

X
X

USERS AND MAINTENANCE MANUAL,WITH THE FOLLOWING SUBJECTS :

IDENTIFICATION DATA

GENERAL INFORMATION

TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS, TANK DENOMINATION,


PRODUCTS CONTAINED

TRANSPORT, UNLOADING, STORAGE, INSPECTION, MOVING

INSTALLATION, CHECK ON BASE, CONNECTION TO EXTERNAL


PIPES

USE OF TANK, OPERATOR POSITION, GUARANTEES

CLEANING AND MAINTENANCE, INTERNAL CHECKS, CLEANING


OF WORK AREAS

PERIODIC CHECKSI, GENERAL WARNINGS, ORDINARY


MAINTENANCE, EXTRAORDINARY MAINTENANCE

DISMANTLING AND DEMOLITION

SPARES
OTHER TESTS / TEST-RUNS

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L
E
V
1
X

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T.S.FRP tanks above

9. GARANTEES
The manufacturer must guarantee that he has the necessary skills and give the
commercial guarantees to supply the goods ordered, at least :
9.1

TECHNICAL GUARANTEES (SKILLS)

Quality system certificate for at least 10 years ;

TV-certified production facilities ;

TV-certified staff for the lamination of fittings ;

The presence of an internal technical office. The Technical Director shall be a registered
engineer ;

The presence of an internal office for quality assurance and control ;

An adequate department for customer assistance and service management ;

The possibility of handling orders and correspondence in Italian, English, German, and
French ;

9.2

Plants which conform to the safety norms in force


COMMERCIAL GUARANTEES

The supplier must be classified with rating A according to the Basilea 2 regulations ;

The minimum turnover of the supplier must be 7 million Euros ;

The minimum net assets of the supplier must be equal to 1.5 million Euros ;

The supplier must produce insurance policies with maximum coverage :

Product Policy

minimum 2,500,000 per mishap

Civil Responsibility Policy

minimum 3,000,000 per mishap

Transport Policy

minimum equal to the goods transported

The Product Policies must guarantee the product for a minimum of 24 months from the
date of delivery

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