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CDMA in Operation

Practice
Theory
CDMA Networks
Cell Site Components
Network Components CDMA Standards
CDMA Performance
Call Processing Voice
Power Control Data
Operation IS-95 A/B
Administration IS-2000 (1X/3X)
Maintenance HDR

CDMA in Operation

Cell Site Components


Controller/Facility Interface
Channel Card/Modem
Baseband Radio
Amplifier
Filter
Antenna Interface

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CDMA in Operation
Network Components
BS
Public Switched Telephone Network
Mobile Switching Center/VoCoders
M
Executive Cellular Processor
BSC S
Subscriber Data Base
Home/Visitor Location Register
BSC BS
Operational Data Bases
ECP
Base Station Controller BS
Base Station MSC
Mobile Station BSC
PSTN BS

CDMA in Operation
CDMA Performance
Performance/Interference Limited (Primarily Uplink)
Compare to AMPS/TDMA - Channel Limited
Replace 42 30KHz Channels with 1.25MHz Channel
(With 7X Reuse, 6 AMPS Radios/Cell or 2/Sector)
1X Frequency Reuse - Differentiate by PN Offset
Rake Receiver to handle multi-pathing
Encode 18-24 Voice Channels/Carrier
Each Channel Encoded by Unique Walsh Code
Voice Coding Reduces Number of Bits Sent
Voice Activity Factor (near 50%) Increases Capacity
Soft Handoff Improves Voice Quality Near Cell Borders

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CDMA in Operation
CDMA Performance - Power Control
Downlink - All Channels Fade Equally
Uplink - Near Mobiles Must Transmit at Lower power
than Distant Ones to Balance Link
Lockout of Rogue Mobiles
Round Trip Delay can also interfere with Bit Alignment

BS

M M
S S

CDMA Standards - IS95


Network Layer
Overhead Channels and Messages
Call Processing and Voice Channel Assignment
Power and Overload Control Control
Mobile Station Lockout, etc.

Data Link Layer


20ms Data Frames
Acknowledgement and Error Recovery

Physical Layer
Transmission of Raw Data Bits
Encoding, Modulation, etc.

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CDMA in Operation - IS95
Air Interface Channels
Pilot Channel Call Processing
Sync Channel Acquisition/Registration
Paging Channel(s)
Call Origination
Access Channel(s)
Call Termination
Voice Channels
Hand Off (Soft, Semi-, Hard)

Power Control
Balance Power Level on Uplink
Cell Instructs Mobile to Adjust Power
Up or Down based on FER
Overload Control Adjusts Overall Level

CDMA in Operation
System Acquisition
Mobile Reads Pilot For Timing
Sync Channel Message Gives Paging Carrier List
Mobile Hashes to Paging Channel and Retunes
Mobile Registers on Access Channel, Enters Idle State
Mobile Monitors Paging Channel until:
Idle Handoff
Page Received
Origination Message
Voice Channel Assigned on Call Origination/Termination
Call Disconnect or Drop, Mobile Rehashes and Returns to Idle

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CDMA in Operation
Soft Handoff
Acquire Second Pilot (Up to 6)
Voice Channel Assigned on Secondary Cell/Sector
Uses Same Vocoder/Frame Handler
Select Best on Each Packet
Primary Transfer as Primary Signal Weakens
Softer Handoff between Sectors of a Cell - Share Modem
and Backhaul Facility

M M
S S
Soft Softer
BS BS BS

CDMA in Operation
Operation, Administration & Maintenance
(OA&M)
Provisioning (Subscribers, Equipment)
Billing and Accounting
Service Measurement
Status Display and Technician Interface
Fault Isolation and Recovery (Automated and Manual)
RF Optimization and Testing
Growth and Upgrade Procedures

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CDMA 2000
Defines 3G Evolution from IS-95A/B
RIT 2000 Framework covers 1.25-15MHz Carriers
Initial Standard for 3G-1X Published 1999
First Revision (Rev A) Just Approved
Production Systems Announced for Mid 2001
Further Capabilities Proposed
HDR (High Data Rate)
1Xtreme
Standard for 3G-3X Under Development
More to Come

CDMA 2000

IS-95 Compatibility
Pilot, Sync, Page, Access Channel
Voice -> Fundamental Channel 2G or 3G
Dual Mode Mobiles/Channel Cards

New Voice Capabilities


Quick Page Channel Extends Mobile Battery Life
50-100% Capacity Increase Due To:
Reverse Pilot Channel
Faster Power Control
Orthogonal Transmit Diversity

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CDMA Wireless Data Evolution
Wireless Data Applications
Initially Simple IP Interface BS
Mobile IP Standard Under Development
Short Messages (Enhanced Pager)
Special Web Applications (Low Bandwidth) BSC
Weather/Newsbriefs
Travel Reservations
Full Web/e-mail Access (Road Warrior)
BSC BS
ISP (without MSC)
ECP BS
IWF MSC
IP Router BSC
PSTN BS

CDMA 2000 Data Implementation


Fundamental Channel
9.6 Kb bi-directional BS
Data and Signaling
Used to Request Burst as Needed
Supplemental Channel BSC
Uni-directional Variable Size
Forward Burst From Primary Only
Reverse on all SHO Legs BSC BS
ECP
BS
IWF MSC
IP Router BSC
PSTN BS

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CDMA Wireless Data Evolution
Data Call Scenario
Normal System Acquisition and Fundamental Channel Assignment
Data Transmission in either direction at 9.6Kb
Data Backlog (Mobile or IWF) Initiates Burst Request
Burst May be granted at 19.2, 38.4, 76.8, 153.6 (Fixed Duration)
Data Stream (Burst Direction) goes to Supplemental
Messaging and Idle on Fundamental in Burst Direction
Fundamental Still Active In Other Direction
Burst Terminates and Data Stream Returns to Fundamental at 9.6
No Data for 10 Seconds, Call Goes Dormant

CDMA Wireless Data Evolution


IS-95A - Voice Only
IS-95B - Fundamental Channel for Circuit Data at 9.6 Kb
Cell Operation Same as Voice Circuit
IP Network Interface (bypass Vocoder)
IS-2000 1X to 144Kb
Supplemental Channels - 1 Way Short Duration
Use Variable Length Walsh Codes
Dormancy to Ensure Cell Resource Utilization
HDR to 2Mb
Downlink use TDM on full width carrier to achieve High Rates
Pilot and Page in Reserved Time Slots
Uplink like IS-2000 1X, plus reports momentary burst capability
IS-2000 1Xtreme - to 5Mb?
IS-2000 3X to ?