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# HK01- CIVIL ENGINEERING PROGRAMME

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SABAH

COURSE
KA20602 ANALYSIS BERANGKA

TITLE
EXPLANATION ON MAXIMUM DEFLECTION ONLY ACTING ON THE FIXED END
OF A CANTILEVER BEAM
PREPARED FOR
DR.HARIMI DJAMILLA

PREPARED BY
ELDREN JAMEE
FARAHAYNI YAHYA
LLOYD EDMUND
MOHAMED FARIHAN MAIL
MOHD ASYRAF ISMAIL

BK13110098
BK13110111
BK13160574
BK13160569
BK13160580

## Title : EXPLANATION ON MAXIMUM DEFLECTION ONLY ACTING ON

THE FIXED END OF A CANTILEVER BEAM
Background

## What is a cantilever beam? Why does its maximum deflection only

happens on the fixed end of the beam? A cantilever is a rigid structural
element, where a beam is anchored at only one end to a support from which
it is protruding. When subjected to a structural load, the cantilever carries
the load to the support where it is forced against by a moment and shear
stress. Cantilevers are widely found in a construction, notability in cantilever
bridges and balconies. In cantilever bridges the cantilevers are usually built
as pairs, with each cantilever used to support one end of a central section.
The deflection of a uniform distributed load cantilever beam with its elastic
curve equation computed as
2

y=

x w0 2
(x 4 Lx+ 6 L2 )
24 EI

## Thus, cantilever beams are important and it is important to measure the

elastic curve of the beam since it will be involved in many construction such
as bridges and more.

Methodology
The advantages of a cantilever beam are; a) does not require a support
on the opposite side. b) creates a negative bending moment, which can help
to counter a positive bending moment create elsewhere. While the
disadvantages of a cantilever beam are; a) large deflections, b) generally
results in larger moments and c) have a backspan causing an uplift of the far
support.
For the superposition method, a cantilever beam with it being
computed as
x2 w 0 2
y=
(x 4 Lx+ 6 L2 )
24 EI
While for the Golden Section method, a search algorithm for finding a
minimum on an interval of XL and XU .Also uses the golden ratio = 1.618,to
determine the interior points of X 1 and X2 by using the golden ratio, one of
the interior points can be re-used in the next iteration.
d=( -1 ) ( Xu - Xl )
X1 = Xl + d
X2 = Xu - d
Methods
Various methods were used to calculate the result of the elastic curve
of the cantilever beam. These various method were necessary to determine
the point of the maximum deflection on the overhang beam. Three methods
were used which were superposition method, Golden Section( calculating
manually) and Golden Section ( using MATLAB). All these results were then
used to prove the theory of whether the maximum deflection will occur on
the fixed end or not.

b)
Abstract
The main objective is prove whether the elastic curve of a cantilever
beam is at the end of the fixed end of the overhang beam or not. By using
the method of Golden Section method through manually calculation and
MATLAB program and the superposition method, which all methods in the
end gave a slightly different answer. The results by three methods shows
that the elastic curve of the cantilever beam were the same. Thus, as a
conclusion of these methods proven that in the case of a cantilever beam,
the maximum deflection will only happen at the fixed end of the overhang
beam.
Objectives
To determine the elastic curve of a deflected cantilever beam. To
determine which method was better, the superposition method or Golden
Section method. Both method were used to evaluated for both correctness
and creativity of the deflected cantilever beam.
Introduction
What is an elastic curve? It is the deflection of a beam or shaft must be
often be limited in order to provide integrity and stability of a stability of a
structure or machine, and prevent the cracking of any attached brittle
materials such as concrete or glass. Furthermore, code restrictions often
require these members not vibrate or deflect severely in order to safety
points on a beam or shaft must be determined if one is to analyse those that
are statically indeterminate.

## The elastic curve represents the centerline deflection of a beam or a

shaft. Its shape can be determined using the moment diagram. Positive
moments cause the elastic curve to be concave upwards and negative
moments cause it to be concave downwards. The radius of a curvature at
any point is determined from
1
p

M
EI

## While for method of superposition is used to determined if the deflection or

slope at a point on a member subjected to a combination of loadings.
Cantilever beam is a beam supported on only one end. The beam
transfers the load to support where it has manage the moment of force and
shear stress. A moment of force is a force to twist or rotate an object while
the shear stress is a stress which is applied parallel to the face of a material.
nothing more, the cantilever beam bears a specific weight on its open end as
a result of to support on its enclosed end, also in addition to not breakdown
due to shear stress applied on the cantilever beam. It is often used in Civil
Engineering buildings and its constructions allows for overhanging structures
without external bracing or support pillars. Cantilevers can be also used with
trusses or slabs. These cantilever design is famous in many kinds of
architectural design and other kinds of engineering, where it is used in terms
like end load, intermediate load and end moment to find out how mush a
cantilever will hold.
How does the executing a mathematical program for the numerical
method is useful for Civil Engineering problems? The MATLAB is a very
intuitive and easy to implement in any programming language which is the
bisection method. The bisection method can be easily adapted for optimizing
1- dimensional functions with a slight but intuitive modification. Now, this

bisection method with the golden ratio that results in a faster computation
for dealing with many Civil Engineering problems.

Theory
By using the method of superposition where it enables us to
determined the deflection or slope at a point on a member subjected to a
combination of loadings where in this report, we used a cantilever beam with
it being subjected to a uniformly distributed loading which is computed as
x2 w 0 2
y=
(x 4 Lx+ 6 L2 )
24 EI

## Only to determine the elastic curve point of the maximum deflection,

but for this case, since it is a cantilever beam, therefore the elastic curve of
the maximum deflection acting is on the fixed end of the beam where the x
is equal to zero.
As for the Golden Section method, a search algorithm for finding a
minimum on an interval of XL and XU .Also uses the golden ratio = 1.618,to
determine the interior points of X 1 and X2 by using the golden ratio, one of
the interior points can be re-used in the next iteration.
d=( -1 ) ( Xu - Xl )
X1 = Xl + d
X2 = Xu - d

## However, there are conditions to follow up when doing the Golden

Section which is if the value of f(X 1) is smaller than f(X2), then X2 becomes
the new lower limit and X1 becomes the new X2. While vice versa, if the value
of f(X1) is larger than f(X2), then X1 becomes the new upper limit and X 2
becomes the new X1. In either case, only one new interior point is needed
and the function is only evaluated one more time.
Although are absolute errors in the Golden Section since the interior
points
( X1 , X2 ) are symmetrical, thus using the normalisation computed as
Error Criterion
a = (( 2- ) x ( | Xu - Xl |) / Xopt ) x 100%
Results

research.

## Golden Section method (Calculating without using any program)

The deflection of a uniform distributed load cantilever beam with its elastic
curve equation computed as
x2 w 0 2
y=
(x 4 Lx+ 6 L2 )
24 EI

Given that L=8 m, E=200 GPa, I=300 x 10-6 m4, and w0=10 kN/m, determine
the point of maximum deflection using the golden-section search until the
approximate error falls below Es=1% with initial guesses of xl=0 and xu=L.

i
1.000
0
2.000
0
3.000
0
4.000
0
5.000
0
6.000
0
7.000
0
8.000
0
9.000
0

Xl
0.000
0
3.055
7
4.944
3
6.111
4
6.832
8
7.278
7
7.554
3
7.724
4
7.830
0

f(Xl)
0.002
7
0.002
1
0.001
7
0.001
6
0.001
5
0.001
4
0.001
4
0.001
4
0.001
4

X2
3.055
7
4.944
3
6.111
4
6.832
8
7.278
7
7.554
3
7.724
4
7.830
0
7.894
4

f(X2)
0.002
1
0.001
7
0.001
6
0.001
5
0.001
4
0.001
4
0.001
4
0.001
4
0.001
4

X1
4.944
3
6.111
4
6.832
8
7.278
7
7.554
3
7.724
4
7.830
0
7.894
4
7.935
6

f(X1)
0.001
7
0.001
6
0.001
5
0.001
4
0.001
4
0.001
4
0.001
4
0.001
4
0.001
3

Xu
8.000
0
8.000
0
8.000
0
8.000
0
8.000
0
8.000
0
8.000
0
8.000
0
8.000
0

f(Xu)
0.001
3
0.001
3
0.001
3
0.001
3
0.001
3
0.001
3
0.001
3
0.001
3
0.001
3

D
4.944
0
3.055
7
1.888
5
1.167
3
0.721
5
0.445
7
0.275
6
0.170
0
0.105
6

Xopt
4.944
3
6.111
4
6.832
8
7.278
7
7.554
3
7.724
4
7.830
0
7.894
4
7.935
6

Note that the current maximum is highlighted for every iteration. After nine
iteration, the point maximum deflection occurs at x=7.9356 m with a

Ea
61.80
85
30.90
49
17.08
34
9.911
7
5.902
2
3.567
1
2.174
4
1.333
6
0.818
3

## function value of 0.001340824. Since this is a cantilever, the point maximum

deflection should occur at x=0, which in this case, was only off by 0.0644m
to achieving 0 m at the fixed end.
Superposition method
Displacement

w (x) =

p x2 (6 L2 4 xL+x 2)
24 EI

wmax = w (L) =

Slope

p L4
8 EI

= - 0.0000853 m

(x) =

px (3 L 3 xL+ x )
6 EI

max = (L) =

pL
6 EI

## Moment and Maximum Bending Stress

M(x) =

1
p ( Lx)
2

L p
2

MMax = M (0) =

Max = |MMax |

C
I

=|

= 320 N.m

L2 p
2 Z |= 8.53 MPa

Shear

V (x) = -p (L - x)
VMax = -pL = -80 N
Thus, can be concluded that the elastic curve of the cantilever beam as
shown as above. Also proven that the maximum deflection occurs at x=0m
which is at the end of the fixed cantilever beam. Maximum deflection of the
beam is 320 N.m and maximum shear stress is 80 N.

## Golden Section( Using MATLAB )

The deflection of a uniform distributed load cantilever beam with its elastic
curve equation computed as
x2 w 0 2
2
y=
(x 4 Lx+ 6 L )
24 EI

Given that L=8 m, E=200 GPa, I=300 x 10-6 m4, and w0=10 kN/m, determine
the point of maximum deflection using the golden-section search until the
approximate error falls below Es=1% with initial guesses of xl=0 and xu=L.
A file saved as fivedottwenty.m which the file contents is written as below;
%FIVEDOTTWENTY max deflection clear;
l= 8;
e= 200000000000;
i= 0.0003;
w= 10000;
syms x;

## y= @ (x) (((x^2)*w)/(24*e*i))* ((x^2)-(4*l*x)+ (6*(l^2)));

dydx= @ (x) (((x^3)*w)/(6*e*i))- (((x^2)*l*w)/(2*e*i)) + (((l^2)*x)/(2*e*i));
bisec (dydx,0,80,320,0.0000853);
maxDeflection = y( bisec(dydx,0,80,320,0.0000853));

We then introduced the function of bisec to allow the program to run the
mathematical problem. The two files needs to be in a different tab to allow
the program to recognize the function of bisec( which is also known as the
bisection method). The file which is saved as bisec.m and the contents of the
file is written as;
function ANS = bisec (f, x_l, x_u, iter, error)
for i=1 : iter
x_r(i) = (x_1 + x_u)/2;
if((f(x_1)*f(x_r(i))) < 0)
x_u = x_r(i);
elseif ( (f(x_l)*f(x_r(i))) > 0)
x_l = x_r(1);
elseif ((f(x_l)*f(x_r(i))) ==0)
break;
end

## if ((i>1) && (abs((x_r(i)-x_r(i-1))/x_r(i)) * 100) <error)

break;
end
end
ANS = x_r (end);
end

Thus, the final answer we got from the program is the elastic curve of 8m of
where the point of the maximum deflection is acting on which is also in the

fixed end of the beam. This has proven that in a cantilever case, the
maximum deflection will act only in the fixed end of the beam.
Conclusion
By using the program which is MATLAB to execute the Golden Section
method, it enables us to get the answer way must faster than doing the
Golden Section method manually. Doing the Golden Section method
manually also takes up much time since we needed to do nine iteration and
the chances that we can get an error during calculation of this cantilever
beam is higher than doing it using MATLAB. Even so that using MATLAB
makes it easier to calculate the Golden Search method, the program needs
the person to be expert at using the programs language since it is almost the
same as using a C++ program. If the person is not familiar with the program
language, the person will have a hard time executing any Civil Engineering
problems in the future. But in the end, using MATLAB decrease the time
require to finish any engineering problems even if the problems seems
impossible. Thus, it is concluded that using MATLAB to solve any engineering
problems is much better since it uses less time and there will not be any
error occurrence. Also, the maximum deflection on a cantilever beam will
occur at the fixed end of the beam.
References
1) Hibbeler, R.C. (2011). Structural Analysis: Eight Edition in S.I Unit. Jurong,
Singapore; Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
2) Hibbeler, R.C. (2013). Mechanics of Materials: Ninth Edition Jurong,
Singapore; Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd